Keywords Abstract
Streich, Bernd. "3D-Scanning and 3D-Printing for Media Experimental Design Work in Architecture." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 183-190. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. Architects and designers use multiple media to explore and express design solutions. The physical model remains one of the most important media to represent the architectis work that cannot completely be substituted by computer graphics. The experimental use of various media is of major Importance for architects. Nevertheless, the author of this article is convinced that architects and designers will continue to make physical models. During the design process. however, the designer might wish to transfer the design idea into the computer. If he has already made a physical model, it will take him much time to recreate the same model on the screen by means of his CAD programs. This would be different if it were possible to digitize the existing physical model and then to continue designing on the computer. In this paper, the author describes some 3D-scanning methods based, on computer tomograms. Also the inverse combination of modelling and digitizing would be useful. So-called 3D-printing methods could help architects to transform their model on the screen into physical models during or at the end of the computer supported design process.  In this paper, the author will give a survey on how designers can use input and output devices to generate digital data from a physical model and - vice versa - to transform a digital design solution into a physical model. The reader will get an impression of both procedures from the examples given.
Fukai, Dennis. "A World of Data: an Animated Construction Information System as a Virtual Hypergraphic Environment." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 267-274. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. This paper describes research on an animated construction information system organized as a hypergraphic virtual environment. The user enters this environment to interact with the information it contains. A matrix of cubes sits as the gateway to an array of data chambers that give this information its virtual form. A mouse click on one of these cubes leads to a three-dimensional interface that is a simulation of the object to be constructed. Reflective-transparent panels surround the simulation and display two-dimensional projections of its pieces. These panels capture projections of slices through the pieces of the object represented by the simulation. Below the zero plane are slices of floor framing, foundation, excavation, utilities, and soil conditions. Above are ceilings, framing, and roofing. To the sides are finishes, wall framing, fixtures, and elevations. This immersive virtual environment extends as an array of data chambers partitioned by the suspended reflective-transparent panels. Pathways around these partitions lead to secondary chambers that contain sub-simulations of the plumbing, electrical, and HVAC  systems. Design-team members access these chambers to coordinate the document's development, review progress, and make changes to the information system. The result is a WORLD of data where graphic information defines both space and time. This breaks with the notion of a construction document as an object-of-exchange and suggests a new focus for the use of computers in the design and construction process.
Akin, Ömer, M. Cumming, M. Shealey, and Bige Tunçer. "An Electronic Design Assistance Tool for Case Based Representation of Designs." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 123-132. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. In precedent based design, solutions to problems are developed by drawing from an understanding of landmark designs. Many of the key design operations in this mode are similar to the functionalities present in case based reasoning systems: case matching, case adapting, and case representation. It is clear that a rich case base, encoding all major product types in a design domain would be the centerpiece of such an approach. EDAT (Electronic Design Assistance Tool) is intended to assist in precedent based design in the studio with the potential of expansion into the office setting. EDAT has been designed using object oriented system development methods. EDAT was used in a design studio at Carnegie Mellon University, during Spring 1996, and will be used in future studios, as well.
McCall, Raymond Joseph, and Erik Johnson. "Argumentative Agents as Catalysts of Collaboration in Design." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 155-163. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. Since the 1970's we have created hypertext systems supporting Rittel's argumentative approach to design. Our efforts aim at improving design by encouraging argumentative “ i.e.,  reasoned “ discourse during projects. Despite the intrinsically group-oriented character of the argumentative approach, all of our past prototypes were single-user systems. The project reported on here is the first in which we aim at supporting argumentation in group projects. To do this, we augmented our PHIDIAS hyperCAD system to shows how argumentative agents can initiate and sustain productive collaboration in design. These agents catalyze collaboration among designers working at different times and/or places by 1) detecting overlaps in the concerns of different participants in a design process, including conflict and support relationships, 2) notifying these people of these overlapping concerns, and 3) enabling asynchronous communication among these people to deal collaboratively with the overlaps. We call these agents argumentative because they represent different personal and professional viewpoints in design and because they promote argumentative discourse among designers about various issues. In addition to identifying and dealing with crucial problems of coordination and collaboration, argumentative agents enable the capture of important design rationale in the form of communication among project participants about these crucial problems.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, P. Mathew, V. Hartkopf, and V. Loftness. "Bi-directional Inference in Thermal Design." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 133-143. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. This paper demonstrates a computational bi-directional energy modelling approach for building design development. Conventional simulation tools may be labeled as mono-directional in that they require a more or Iess complete design definition in order to derive performance indicators. However, in certain circumstances, it may be desirable to reverse this process: a bi-directional (or “open“) inference mechanism would allow for the identification of those changes in the design variables that would accommodate a desired change in a performance indicator. The performance-to-design mapping process is an ambiguous one: the same performance (e.g. energy use of a building, temperature variations in a space) may be achieved by different design configurations (various wall and window dimensions/properties, building orientation/massing, etc.). As a result, the actual implementation of a bi-directional inference tool is a rather difficult task. The development described in this paper utilizes a preference-based approach that involves the formalization of various external or internal constraints and preferences (such as code and standard requirements, results of post-occupancy studies, individual priorities of designers and their clients, etc.) in terms of normalized numeric scales.  After a brief review of the underlying technology for the implementation of the inference engine, the paper demonstrates an actual design session using a bi-directional thermal simulation tool. Specifically, a use-scenario is described in which the designer explores the tradeoffs between various design variables (glazing area, glazing type, and floor mass) in view of the resulting energy performance of a typical residential building. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential and limitations of the bi-directional approach toward active convergence support for performance-oriented design development.
Davidson, James, and Dace Campbell. "Collaborative Design in Virtual Space - GreenSpace II: a Shared Environment for Architectural Design Review." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 165-179. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. Design reviews and discussions are fundamental to the process of design. The ability to digitally represent three dimensional space in real-time is a new and potentially persuasive method for reviewing and analyzing a design proposal. The development of real-time rendering engines and network protocols supporting distributed interaction makes possible the idea of a shared virtual environment for architectural collaboration. This paper presents a system which facilitates the review of an architectural design between multiple participants who are remotely distributed.
Fruchter, Renate. "Computer integrated architecture/engineering/construction project-centered learning environment." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 227-234. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. This paper describes an on-going effort, initiated at Stanford's Civil Engineering Department, to develop, implement, and test a new and innovative “Computer Integrated Architecture./Engineering/Construction” (A/E/C) course. The course takes a multi-site, cross- disciplinary, project-centered, team-oriented approach to teaching. The paper presents the motivation, methodology, computational infrastructure, and initial observations in the experimental A/E/C course. The course is sponsored by NSF Synthesis Coalition and is the result of the collaborative effort of faculty and researchers from Civil Engineering Department at Stanford University, and Architecture Department and Civil Engineering Department, at UC Berkeley. In this computer integrated A/EIC environment a new generation of architecture, engineering, construction students learns how to team up with other disciplines and the advantage of the emerging information technologies for collaborative work in order to design and build higher quality buildings faster.
Chase, Scott C.. "Design Modeling with Shape Algebras and Formal Logic." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 99-113. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. A new method of describing designs by combining the paradigms of shape algebras and predicate logic representations is presented. Representing shapes and spatial relations in logic provides a natural, intuitive method of developing complete computer systems for reasoning about designs. The advantages of shape algebra formalisms over more traditional representations of geometric objects are discussed. The method employed involves the definition of a large set of high level design relations from a small set of simple structures and spatial relations. Examples in architecture and geographic information systems are illustrated.
Martini, Kirk. "Digital Imaging and the Web in Teaching Structures: a Rigorous Visual Approach." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 215-225. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. The paper outlines a project to incorporate digital images and the world wide web in teaching introductory structural design in architecture. The objective of the project is to move beyond technology substitution, toward innovation by using digital imaging and the web to do things that are otherwise not possible. The discussion of digital imaging gives examples of image enhancement, annotation, and manipulation in illustrating structural concepts. The discussion of the web addresses web-based image archives for structural engineering, image-based modelling assignments, collective inductive learning, and collective review. 
Gross, Mark. "Elements that Follow Your Rules: Constraint Based CAD Layout." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 115-122. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. The paper reports on CKB (Construction Kit Builder) a prototype CAD program that designers can program with positioning and assembly rules for layout of building elements. The program's premise is that designing can be understood as a process of making and following rules for the selection, position, and dimension of built and space elements. CKB operates at two distinct levels of design: the technical system designer, who makes the rules, and the end designer, who lays out the material and space elements to make a design. CKB supports two kinds of rules with constraint based programming techniques: grid and zone based position rules, and assembly rules that position elements with respect to one another. The paper discusses the rationale for CKB and describes its implementation.
Anders, Peter. "Envisioning Cyberspace: the Design of On-Line Communities." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 55-67. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. The development of the World Wide Web into an active, visual social environment poses unique opportunities for the design professions. Multi-user Domains, social meeting places in cyberspace, are mostly text-based virtual realities which use spatial references to set the stage for social interaction. Over the past year design students at the New Jersey Institute of Technology School of Architecture have investigated several text-based domains. In the course of their work, they envisioned and graphically portrayed these environments as immersive virtual realities through the use of computer animation. Their studies addressed issues ranging from the nature of symbolic motion to social/political structures of these domains.
Ataman, Osman, and Bruce Lonnman. "Introduction to Concept and Form in Architecture: an Experimental Design Studio Using the Digital Media." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 9-Mar. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. This paper describes the use of digital media in a first year undergraduate architectural design studio. It attempts to address the importance of developing a design process that is redefined by the use of computing, integrating concept and perception. Furthermore, it describes the theoretical foundations and quasi-experiments of a series of exercises developed for beginning design students.
Kellett, Ronald. "Media matters: nodging digital media into a manual design process (And vice versa)." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 31-43. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. This paper reports on a media class offered during the 1995-96 academic year at the University of Oregon. This course, a renovation of an existing'manual'media offering targeted intermediate Ievel graduate and undergraduate students who, while relatively experienced design students, were relatively inexperienced users of digital media for design. This course maintained a pedagogical emphasis on design process, a point of view that media are powerful influences on design thinking, and an attitude toward experimentation (and reflection) in matters of media and design process. Among the experiments explored were fitting together digital with manual media, and using digital media to collaborate in an electronic workspace. The experience offers opportunity to consider how digital media might be more widely integrated with what remains a predominantly'manual'design process and media context for many architecture schools and practices.
Alsayyad, Nezar, Ame Elliott, and Yehuda Kalay. "Narrative Models: a Database Approach to Modeling Medieval Cairo." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 247-254. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. This paper explores the use of three-dimensional simulations to investigate transformations of urban form in medieval Cairo, and lessons about using computers to support historical visualization. Our first attempt to create a single extremely detailed model of Cairo proved unworkable. From this experience we developed a database approach to  organizing modelling projects of complex urban environments. The database consists of several complete models at different levels of abstraction. This approach has three advantages over the earlier one: the model is never viewed as incomplete, the framework supports both additive and subtractive chronological studies, and finally, the database is viewed as infinitely expandable. Using modelling software as a tool for inquiry into architectural history becomes more feasible with this new approach.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, P. Mathew, S. Lee, R. Brahme, S. Kumar, G. Liu, R Ries, and N.H. Wong. "On the Structure and Elements of SEMPER." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 71-84. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. This paper introduces the concept, structure, components, and application results of “SEMPER“, an active, multi-aspect computational tool for comprehensive simulation-based design assistance. Specifically, SEMPER seeks to meet the following requirements: a) a methodologically consistent (first- principles-based) performance modelling approach through the entire building design and engineering process, b) seamless and dynamic communication between the simulation models and an object- oriented space-based design environment using the structural homology of various domain representations, and c) “preference-based“ performance-to-design mapping technology (bidirectional inference). SEMPER involves the integrated computational modelling of heat transfer, air flow, HVAC system performance, thermal comfort, daylighting and electrical lighting, acoustics, and life-cycle assessment.
Knapp, Robert, and Raymond Joseph McCall. "PHIDIAS II - in Support of Collaborative Design." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 147-154. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. The World Wide Web in combination with Java and Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) create great opportunities for collaboration by distributed design teams. To take advantage of these opportunities, we have begun to create a version of the PHIDIAS hyperCAD system (McCall, Bennett and Johnson 1994) that will support communication and collaboration among designers over the Word Wide Web. PHIDIAS is an intelligent, hypermedia-based system for computer-aided design. Our strategy is to divide PHIDIAS into two parts: 1) a client-side user interface and 2) a server-side hyperCAD database engine. The client-side interface is being implemented using Java and VRML. Implementing the PHIDIAS front-end with Java enables program code distribution via the World Wide Web. VRML provides PHIDIAS with client-side computation and display of 3D graphics.
Goldman, Glenn. "Reconstructions, Remakes and Sequels: Architecture and Motion Pictures." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 21-Nov. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. Motion pictures can illustrate worlds that have never been. They may show fantastic depictions of the future or an interpretation of the past. In either case, they have the power to reach millions of people across cultures, generations, and educational backgrounds with visions of our environment that do not exist in our everyday world.  The study of imaginary worlds in this design studio case study is limited to motion pictures that postulate unique, or new environments rather than those films that faithfully attempt to document or reconstruct reality. In this sense, the movies used for study have a lineage traceable to Georges Melies “who came to film from illusionism and the “heater,” rather than to the reality of the Lumiere brothers who came from photography which ultimately would lead to “cinema-verite.”  Discussions, assignments and presentations in the studio are organized to provide students with an opportunity to gain a different awareness of architecture and use varying stimuli as source material for design. The study of architectural history, art, formal principles of design, visual perception, and media are required in order to complete the reconstructions and creations of proposed environments.  All student work throughout the entire semester is created with electronic media and the computer is used as an integral component of the studio enabling analysis and study, design, model creation, and animation. The available capabilities of computer graphics in the studio enables students to explore analytic and synthetic issues of design in motion pictures in a manner not readily available when restricted to traditional media. Through the use of digital media we have an opportunity to better understand the imaginary worlds for what they communicate and the ideas they contain, and therefore create an opportunity to modify our own concept of architecture.
Lewin, Jenniffer, and Mark Gross. "Resolving Archaeological Site Data with 3D Computer Modeling: the Case of Ceren." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 255-266. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. This paper reports on our experience working with a team of anthropologists to construct three- dimensional computer graphic models of Ceren, an archaeological site in western El Salvador, using inexpensive hardware and software. In constructing the model we discovered various ambiguities and inconsistencies in the raw site data and drawings we were provided. We resolved these problems by analysis and reinterpretation of the data, working closely with our archaeologist collaborator. What began as a simple exercise in rendering developed into a collaborative research effort to understand and interpret the source data. The process of computer modelling forced us to re-examine, analyze and interpret the information from the site.
Papamichael, Konstantinos, J L. Porta, H. Chauvet, D Collins, T Trzcinski, J Thorpe, and S Selkowitz. "The Building Design Advisor." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 85-97. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. The Building Design Advisor (BDA) is a software environment that supports the integrated use of multiple analysis and visualization tools throughout the building design process, from the initial, schematic design phases to the detailed specification of building components and systems. Based on a comprehensive design theory, the BDA uses an object-oriented representation of the building and its context, and acts as a data manager and process controller to allow building designers to benefit from the capabilities of multiple tools. The BDA provides a graphical user interface that consists of two main elements: the Building Browser and the Decision Desktop. The Browser allows building designers to quickly navigate through the multitude of descriptive and performance parameters addressed by the analysis and visualization tools linked to the BDA. Through the Browser the user can edit the values of input parameters and select any number of input and/or output parameters for display in the Decision Desktop. The Desktop allows building designers to compare multiple design alternatives with respect to any number of parameters addressed by the tools linked to the BDA. The BDA is implemented as a Windows-based application for personal computers. Its initial version is linked to a Schematic Graphic Editor (SGE), which allows designers to quickly and easily specify the geometric characteristics of building components and systems. For every object created in the SGE, the BDA supplies “smarti default values from a Prototypical Values Database (PVD) for all non-geometric parameters required as input to the analysis and visualization tools linked to the BDA. In addition to the SGE and the PVD, the initial version of the BDA is linked to a daylight analysis tool, an energy analysis tool, and a multimedia Case Studies Database (CSD). The next version of the BDA will be linked to additional tools, such as a photo-accurate rendering program and a cost analysis program. Future versions will address the whole building life-cycle and will be linked to construction, commissioning and building monitoring tools.
Batie, David. "The Incorporation of Construction History into Architectural History: the HISTCON Interactive Computer Program." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 235-243. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. Current teaching methods for architectural history seldom embrace building technology as an essential component of study. Accepting the premise that architectural history is a fundamental component to the overall architectural learning environment, it is argued that the study of construction history will further enhance student knowledge. This hypothesis created an opportunity to investigate how the study of construction history could be incorporated to strengthen present teaching methods. Strategies for teaching architectural history were analyzed  with the determination that an incorporation of educational instructional design applications using object-oriented programming and hypermedia provided the optimal solution. This evaluation led to the development of the HISTCON interactive, multimedia educational computer program. Used initially to teach 19th Century iron and steel construction history, the composition of the program provides the mechanism to test the significance of construction history in the study of architectural history. Future development of the program will provide a method to illustrate construction history throughout the history of architecture. The study of architectural history, using a construction oriented methodology, is shown to be positively correlated to increased understanding of architectural components relevant to architectural history and building construction.
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen. "The Right Tool at the Right Time - Drawing as an Interface to Knowledge Based Design Aids." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 191-199. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. Designers use different symbols and diagrams in their drawings to explore alternatives and to communicate with each other. Therefore, a useful design environment should attempt to infer the designer's intentions from the drawing and, based on this inference, suggest appropriate computational tools for the task at hand. For example, a layout bubble diagram might activate design cases with similar configurations. Scribbles of view lines on a floor plan might bring up a spatial analysis tool. This research aims to develop an integrated digital sketching environment to support early design activities. The paper proposes RT, an intelligent sketch environment that provides the designers with the right tools at the right time.
del Valle, Carmina. "Transformable, Folding Space." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 45-54. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. A group of architectural students in an advanced computer applications course were asked to design a folding or transformable personal space. They were to approach the design using two metaphors - Origami (or papiroflexia ) and Transformer robot toys - in a digital environment. These are familiar ideas evident in toys and furniture. Students found this way of thinking about architectural design foreign and unusual. The results were tentative, but insightful. New architectural forms emerged out of the plasticity, temporality, and speed of the digital medium. Origami and Transformer robots are more than toys. Through them, the Bauhaus notion of point transforms into line, line into plane, plane into solid can now be stretched to include space generated from motion. The argument for conceptualizing and developing the design within a digital environment was that the operations implied by Origami and Transformers, can be carefully studied in this context. Both processes, or types of objects, are best understood in teens of change in time and space. Digital media offers the dynamic capabilities needed to study distortions, step transformations & movement.
Donath, Dirk, and Holger Regenbrecht. "Using Virtual Reality Aided Design Techniques for Three-dimensional Architectural Sketching." In Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 199-212. ACADIA. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1996. With this paper we would like to introduce a system which supports the early phases of the architectural design process. The system consists of two main components: the software solution “voxDesign” and the physical environment “platform”. Our aims are: to formulate, develop, and evaluate an architectural design system through the use of VR (virtual reality) space. The exploration and development of design intentions is supplemented by a new method of three dimensional sketching. In the second part of this paper we will show how these components were used to train students in architecture and design at our university. Parts of this paper were published to the academic public at “Designing Digital Space”. (Regenbrecht 1996)