Keywords Abstract
Moeck, Martin, and Steven Selkowitz. "A Computer-Based Daylight Systems Design Tool ." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 261-279. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. Currently numbers like illuminance or glare index are used for the evaluation of daylight system designs. We propose to use photorealistic pictures in addition to numbers as a way to assess the quality of a design solution. This is necessary since numbers-based performance criteria, that are currently in use, are either not sufficient to evaluate performance, or they require expert knowledge for interpretation. The paper discusses the implications and ramifications of this approach.
Petrovic, Ivan. "A framework for cooperative activities of computer design agents." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 171-186. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. The paper presents a progress report on a project investigating the possible application of a framework for cooperative-activities of computer design agents in the conceptual phase of architectural design. A process leading to definition of the expected performances of design agents is desribed, and some possible applications illustrated. The framework includes not only the objective, but also, the “subjective” agents. It is expected that the framework would offer an insight into the intricacies of CAAD in an educational environment, and provide the exploration paths and an efficient production of alternative solutions in an office. 
Arumi-Noe, Francisco. "Algorithm for the Automatic Design of a Shading Device ." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 233-242. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. Given that there is a need to shade a window from the summer sun and also a need to expose it to the winter sun, this article describes an algorithm to design automatically a geometric construct that satisfies both requirements. The construct obtained represents the minimum solution to the simultaneous requirements. The window may be described by an arbitrary convex polygon and it may be oriented in any direction and it may be placed at any chosen latitude. The algorithm consists of two sequential steps: first to find a winter solar funnel surface, and the second to clip the surface subject to the summer shading conditions. The article introduces the design problem, illustrates the results through two examples, outlines the logic of the algorithm and includes the derivation of the mathematical relations required to implement the algorithm. This work is part of the MUSES project, which is a long term research effort to integrate Energy Consciousness with Computer Graphics in Architectural Design.
Glanville, Ranulph. "Architecture and Computing: a medium approach." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 20-May. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. In this paper, the argument is presented that the way in which computers are used in Architectural Design is based on and limited by our imaginings. Typically, computing is used as a tool to automate a process formerly carried out by a human rather than to expand our range of options. It is held that this is a very restricted way of using the computer and that architects and designers would be better served treating the computer as a medium, allowing it to act as a partner in design. Only then will the radical possibilities of computing become apparent, so that we may benefit from true interaction with them. Some specific limitations in our uses of computers are highlighted and ways that allow the computer to be more of an interacting partner are indicated, as are ways of exploring computing to extend the possibilities.
Bermudez, Julio, and Kevin King. "Architecture in Digital Space: Actual and Potential Markets." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 405-423. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. As both the skepticism and'hype'surrounding electronic environments vanish under the weight of ever increasing power, knowledge, and use of information technologies, the architectural profession must prepare for significant expansion of its professional services. To address the issue, this paper offers a survey of the professional services architects and designers do and may provide in digital space, and who the potential clients are. The survey was conducted by interviews with software developers, gaming companies, programmers, investigators, practicing architects, faculty, etc. It also included reviews of actual software products and literary research of conference proceedings, journals, books and newspapers (i.e. articles, classified ads, etc.). The actual and potential markets include gaming and entertainment developments, art installations, educational applications, and research. These markets provide architects the opportunity to participate in the design of 3D gaming environments, educational software, architecture for public experience and entertainment, data representation, cyberspace and virtual reality studies, and other digital services which will be required for this new world. We will demonstrate that although the rapidly growing digital market may be seen by some to be non-architectural and thus irrelevant to our profession, it actually represents great opportunities for growth and development. Digital environments will not replace the built environment as a major architectural market, but they will significantly complement it, thus strengthening the entire architectural profession.
Sinclair, Brian. "Architecture in the Environment: a Technology-Centered Model for Priomary, Secondary and Post-Secondary Educational Partnership ." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 357-370. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. Societal appreciation of architecture, the environment and the role of design & planning professionals should begin early in the educational stream. Working from this premise, a model was developed which relied on a combination of learning strategies: Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective. The projectis primary goal was to build knowledge of architecture and the environment in K-12 children, with particular emphasis on primary levels. More specifically, the ARCH was selected thematically as a strong architectonic element through which to promote a better connection with and responsibility for the environment. The educational experience comprised three sequential forms: visual history of the ARCH, physical construction using foam blocks, and finally “construction” in the computer using a multi-media interactive three-dimensionally focused program. Pedagogically the sequencing provided explanation and context, built awareness through making, and finally reinforced the lessons of the previous steps while highlighting the potential of information technology. To deliver the curriculum an installation was built at a local museum, with primary grade children arriving on field trips. Architecture faculty and students designed the curriculum and installation, including the computer modules. Secondary school students were trained, with the intention that they would in turn educate primary school students at the installation. In disseminating knowledge downwards through the various educational levels, awareness was promoted concerning the architects role, architectural elements, and the broader built environment. Using the ARCH as the theme, realization of the inter-connectedness of the environment was advanced. Through linking and learning, participants came to better understand the value of their individual contributions and the critical need for collaboration.
Nickerson, S., B. Thrale, and D. Whiting. "Automating the Drafting for As-Found Recording and Facility Management Surveys." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 315-332. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. Much of the time of a facility planner, restoration architect or heritage recorder is spent, on site analysing thebuilding and collecting data and measurements. These will be used later to create the reports and drawings that will provide the basis for the subsequent design but these notes and measurements are just the beginning of the long process of drafting the as-found situation. Errors are inevitable in this type of work but, typically they only come to light, back in the office where confirming a measurement may entail an extra trip to the site, and there are times that they only turn up when a contractor encounters problems on the job  A software tool, currently under development, addresses this problem by first helping to structure the note taking process so that more consistent data is collected, and then, automatically creating a 2D or 3D CAD model from the resulting database. This can be done on a laptop computer, before the recording team leaves the site so that the model can be compared with reality and faulty or missing measurements corrected. Furthermore, this combination of database and drawing is linked, allowing queries of the data from inside Autocad or the assembly of a specialized model based on a database query. Point collection techniques supported include traditional and not so traditional) hand measurement, total station surveying equipment and interfaces with other software such as rectification and photogrammetric packages. The applications envisioned include as found recording, facilities management data collection and the possibility of a totally data-driven GIS 
Ataman, Osman. "Building a Computer Aid for Teaching Architectural Design Concepts." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 187-208. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. Building an aid for teaching architectural design concepts is the process of elaborating topics, defining problems and suggesting to the students strategies for solving those problems. I believe students in Environment and Behavior (E&B) courses at Georgia Tech can benefit greatly from a computer based educational tool designed to provide them with experiences they currently do not possess. In particular, little time in the course (outside lectures) is devoted to applying concepts taught in the course to the studio projects. The tool I am proposing provides students with an opportunity to critique architectural environments (both simple examples and previous projects) using a single concept, “affordances”. This paper describes my current progress toward realizing the goal of designing a tool that will help the students to understand particular concepts and to integrate them into their designs. It is my claim that an integrative and interactive approach - creating a learning environment and making both the students and the environment mutually supportive- is fundamentally more powerful than traditional educational methods.
Hirschberg, Urs, and André Streilein. "CAAD Meets Digital Photogrammetry: Modeling "Weak Forms" for Computer Measurement ." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 299-313. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. The integration of state-of-the-art photogrammetric methods with the capabilities of CAAD has great potential for a variety of architectural applications. This paper describes the current status of an ongoing research project which aims to develop an easy to use tool for the photogrammetric generation of accurate, reliable and well structured 3D CAAD models of architectural objects. The project adresses the whole range of issues that arise from the digital image acquisition to the data processing, the data integration between photogrammetry and CAAD and the architectural structuring of the geometric data. While also giving a brief overview of the project, the paper concentrates on one central aspect of the system: a method to model what we will define as “weak formsi as the basis for qualitatively controlled computer measurement.
Kim, Inham. "Design Tools Integration in an Integrated Design Environment ." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 75-95. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. The design problem has a multi-disciplinary nature and the design itself evolves as solutions are attempted by the designer. To support inter-disciplinary communication of design concepts and decisions, the integration of relevant CAAD tools is essential. Based upon a large set of design criteria and all corresponding knowledge, with the help of computer aided design tools, the result could be highly effective and novel. The integration of CAAD tools should be performed on the basis of generating better solutions by enabling designers to manipulate and appraise various solutions quickly and with a minimum of effort. The proposed system provides the foundations for a seamless and continuous working environment for architects and building engineers through a data modelling module, an integrated data management framework and various design tools. In the environment, stand-alone design tools can be plugged-in in order to access information stored in central databases. The suggested data modelling module helps integrated CAAD systems represent and exchange domain dependent design information at a semantic level, such as exchanging components and features of a building rather than graphical primitives. The suggested data management framework supports the straight-forward mechanisms for controlling the data representation through the inter-connected modules and design tools. 
Kalay, Yehuda, and Carlo Sequin. "Designer-Client Collaboration in Architectural and Software Design." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 383-403. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. An upper-level undergraduate architectural design studio and a graduate computer science CAD course were paired to study client-designer interactions. The dual nature of these courses led to two sets of products: building designs compatible with the specifications of the clients, and prototype CAD tool to assist architects in the conceptual design phases. First, the computer scientists acted as clients to the architects, who designed a building for the computer science department. Once the computer science students had become familiar, through observation, with the architectural design process, they began developing tools for the architects'use. In that reversed-role, the architects became the clients of the computer scientists. For both parties this interaction provided an opportunity to experience the social aspects of the design process, in particular, the designer-client relationships, which most often are absent in traditional educational settings. This paper describes the objectives of this integrated pair of courses, the methods and processes used, and some of the results.
Bermudez, Julio. "Designing Architectural Experiences: Using Computers to Construct Temporal 3D Narratives." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 139-149. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. Computers are launching us into a representational revolution that fundamentally challenges the way we have hitherto conceived and practiced architecture. This paper will explore one of its fronts: the simulation of architectural experiences. Today's off-the-shelf softwares (e.g. 3D modelling, animations, multimedia) allow us for first time in history to depict and thus approach architectural design and criticism truly experientially. What is so appealing about this is the possibility of shifting our attention from the object to the experience of the object and in so doing reconceptualizing architectural design as the design of architectural experiences. Carrying forward such a phenomenological proposition requires us to know (1) how to work with non-traditional and'quasi-immersive'(or subject-centered) representational systems, and (2) how to construct temporal assemblages of experiential events that unfold not unlike'architectural stories'. As our discipline lacks enough knowledge on this area, importing models from other fields appears as an appropriate starting point. In this sense, the narrative arts (especially those involved with the temporal representation of audio-visual narratives) offer us the best insights. For example, principles of cinema and storytelling give us an excellent guidance for designing architectural experiences that have a structuring theme (parti), a plot (order), unfolding episodes (rhythm), and special events (details). Approaching architecture as a temporal 3D narrative does transform the design process and, consequently, its results. For instance, (1) phenomenological issues enter the decision making process in an equal footing to functional, technological, or compositional considerations, (2) orthographic representations become secondary sources of information, mostly used for later accurate dimensioning or geometrization, (3) multi-sensory qualities beyond sight are seriously considered (particularly sound, texture, and kinesthetic), etc.
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen. "Drawing Analogies: Finding Visual References by Sketching." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 35-52. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. In creative and conceptual designing, architects often look to books, magazines, and other collections of images to find forms they can adopt and adapt in designs. On line visual collections are becoming available but typically they are indexed only with descriptive key words. We argue that in addition to key word indexing, which supports retrieval of images based on design concepts or issues, a more directly visual, graphical reminding scheme based on sketches can help designers recall interesting references from various domains. We describe Drawing Analogies, a shape based reminding program that uses hand drawn sketches to index and query visual databases.
Gero, John S., and Han Jun. "Getting Computers to Read the Architectural Semantics of Drawings ." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 97-112. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. This paper presents an approach to the reading of the architectural semantics of drawings. Topological constraints on objects are used to represent various types of groups where the groups produce repeating patterns. A process model of visual rhythm discovery is developed. Discovery of visual rhythms in an architectural facade is demonstrated.
Roe, Sharon. "Investigations into the Production of Form." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 371-382. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. Computers have exploded into the world of the architect, yet architects have only begun to explore the role of computers in the creative process or the effects of particular applications on design projects. Likewise, educators are seeking methods for investigating the computer as a tool which may or may not effect the thing produced. Is it a tool for representation (copying), or a key player in the generation of ideas—a tool for the production of form? This paper describes the theoretical foundations and results of a series of exercises developed for beginning design students. In three investigations students consider: Algorithms (the fundamental logic of a computer application) using Building blocks (reductive entities that act as the origins of form) by Collaging and making assemblies (techniques for experimentation and exploration). The purpose of these exercises (called ABC exercises) is to explore the relationship between the computer as a tool and the production of form and type in architecture.
Herbert, Daniel. "Models, Scanners, Pencils, and CAD: Interactions Between Manual and Digital Media." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 21-34. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. This paper discusses new approaches to the relation between handmade and computer aided media in design. The discussion focuses on two advanced studio projects in which graduate student designers incorporated interactions between physical models, a digital scanner, handmade drawings, and the manipulation of images in the computer. These interactions provide a valuable supplement to traditional means -- both manual and digital -- for generating, developing, and representing architectural form. Features of the studentis work that other designers will find significant are its focus on multiple interactions, its setting within a realistic design process, and its use of low levels of computer technology. After describing details of the designeris media techniques, the paper discusses the practical and theoretical implications of the work.
Paranandi, Murali. "Roof Modeling Using Architectural Semantics Paradigm ." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 333-350. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. This paper presents an approach to developing the computer aided architectural design systems investigating architectural semantics paradigm and void modelling representation as a method. A prototypical system called FRED(Facile Roof Editor & Designer) was developed incorporating structural logic and characteristics of roof in its basic representation and its operational behaviour constrained by distinct attributes of a roof. Design of Hip, Pitch, Multi-level, and Flat roofs in Solid and Shell forms was made possible by extracting from an existing building or creating them as independent entities. The implementation successfully demonstrates that incorporating architectural semantics in the basic representation of a CAD system allows architects to create and test roof morphology fairly quickly, accurately, and fluidity for ideation.
Setiadarma, E., D. Noble, and K. Kensek. "Shading Mask: a Teaching Tool for Sun Shading Devices ." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 243-251. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. Sun shading devices, either as parts of a building or separately placed from a building facade, affect natural lighting and ventilation, solar gain, and overall building performance. The role of sun shading devices or solar radiation control systems is taught at every school of architecture. Yet, only a few architecture students, architects, and designers have applied them to reduce glare, control light intensity, radiation, and minimize cooling load on their projects. Using a well-designed computer program to teach, and re-teach when necessary, the use of sun shading devices is more understandable, clear, and interesting than reading a book on the same topic. Having a readily available tool would also encourage architects and designers to use the shading devices as a method of conserving energy and lowering operating cost in the buildings that they design. Visual Basic 3.0 was chosen as the development language for this Windows-based program. SHADING MASK uses Edward Mazria's rectangular sun path diagrams as a basis. The program explains basic theory of solar control, generates sun path diagrams, allows the design of overhead, side, and eggcrate shading devices, calculates solar angles and shading masks, and provides case studies of actual buildings.
Cotton, John. "Solid Modeling as a Tool for Constructing Solar Envelopes ." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 253-260. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. This paper presents a method for constructing solar envelopes in site planning using a 3D solid-modelling program as the tool. The solar envelope for a building site is a mechanism for ensuring that planning regulations on the solar access rights of other sites are observed. In this application, solid modelling offers the practical advantage of being a general-purpose tool having the capability to handle sets of site conditions that are quite complex. The paper reviews the concept of solar envelopes and demonstrates the method of application of solar-envelope construction to a site defined to avoid overly simplifying conditions. Techniques for displaying the constraints on building sections imposed by a solar envelope are presented as well.
Cook, Alan. "Stereopsis in the Design and Presentation of Architectural Works." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 113-137. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. This article presumes the primacy of spatial cognition in evaluating architectural designs and begins by describing key concepts involved in the perception of spatial form, focussing on parallax and stereoscopy. The ultimate emphasis is directed at presenting techniques which employ computers with modest hardware specifications and a basic three-dimensional modelling software application to produce sophisticated imaging tools. It is argued that these techniques are comparable to high end computer graphic products in their potentials for carrying information and in some ways are superior in their speed of generation and economies of dissemination. A camera analogy is considered in relation to controlling image variables. The ability to imply a temporal dimension is explored. An abbreviated summary of pertinent binocular techniques for viewing stereograms precedes a rationalization and initiation for using the cross-convergence technique. Ways to generate and view stereograms and other multiscopic views using 3-D computer models are described. Illustrations from sample projects show various levels of stereogram rendering including the theoretically 4-D wireframe stereogram. The translated perspective array autostereogram is presented as an economical and easily reproducible alternative to holography as well as being a substitute for stop action animation. 
Piccolotto, Moreno, and Olga Rio. "Structural Design Education with Computers ." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 285-298. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. In this paper, we discuss the importance of computer based simulation tools for the education of architects and civil engineers. We present our efforts to develop a program for the simulation of structures (CASDET). CASDET forms a microworld for planar structures. The program enables students to compose structures and to experiment interactively the effects of different geometry and load configurations. It tries to identify the proposed structure and controls its stability. Upon request of the student, it also processes displacements, internal forces (moments, shear forces etc.) and reaction forces on supports. The students can then visualise the desired information by interacting directly with the structure or member(s) of interest (see fig.1). We present different methods, with which students can visualise the results of their actions and discuss their implications in the educational context.
Week, David. "The Database Revisited: Beyond the Container Metaphor." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 53-70. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. The growth of international networks, and of international trade in general, has increased the opportunities for architects to work together over distance. In our practice at Pacific Architecture, weive been using first modems, and now the Internet, to connect co-workers at sites in Australia, Oregon, Scotland, and Papua New Guinea. Design collaboration has been primarily through the e-mail exchange of text and drawings. Weive also assessed other CMC tools. Products like Timbuktu and video-conferencing software allow for real-time collaboration, based on the metaphor of two (or more) people together at a table, able to see and hear each other, and to work together on the same document. Groupware make intragroup communication the basis for building a workgroupis knowledgebase. On recent projects, weive begun using database software as the basis for collaborative design communication. Weive taken as a model for data structure Christopher Alexanderis “pattern language” schema. Conversations about the design take the form of a collaborative construction of the language. Inputs into the database are constrained by the “pattern” format. The CAD drawings run in parallel, as an “expression” or “instance” of the language. So far, CAD and database do not have an integrated interface.  This paper describes our experience in these projects. It also outlines a set of design criteria for an integrated CAD/database environment economically and incrementally achievable within the constraints of currently available software. Formulating such criteria requires the reconceptualisation of notions of “databasei. This paper looks at these notions through philosophical and linguistic work on metaphor. In conclusion, the paper analyses the way in which we can use a reframed notion of database to create a useful collaborative communication environment, centred on the architectural drawing. 
Bhavnani, S., U. Flemming, D.E. Forsythe, J.H. Garrett, and D.S. Shaw. "Understanding and Assisting CAD Users in the Real World." In Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 209-227. ACADIA. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1995. In spite of the rapid increase in functionality and resources provided by CAD systems, productivity growth expected from their use has been difficult to achieve. Although many surveys describe this “productivity puzzle”, few studies have been conducted on actual CAD users to understand its causes. In an effort to understand this issue, the first author visited a federal architectural office and observed CAD users in their natural setting using ethnographic techniques developed by cultural anthropologists. This paper describes preliminary results obtained from the study. The study revealed that users had leveled-off in their learning and experimentation and were using the CAD system in sub-optimal ways. The authors argue that this sub-optimal usage occurs because users have limited ways to learn better or different ways of executing tasks. The authors propose that CAD systems should provide active assistance, that is, intervene spontaneously with advice, assistance, and relevant information while the user interacts with the system. They conclude with some issues revealed by the study that should be considered when developing such active assistance.