Keywords Abstract
Kalisperis, Loukas. "3D Visualization in Design Education." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 177-184. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. It has been said that “The beginning of architecture is empty space.” (Mitchell 1990) This statement typifies a design education philosophy in which the concepts of space and form are separated and defined respectively as the negative and positive of the physical world, a world where solid objects exist and void-the mere absence of substance-is a surrounding atmospheric emptiness. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, there has been an alternative concept of space as a continuum: that there is a continuously modified surface between the pressures of form and space in which the shape of the space in our lungs is directly connected to the shape of the space within which we exist. (Porter 1979). The nature of the task of representing architecture alters to reflect the state of architectural understanding at each period of time. The construction of architectural space and form represents a fundamental achievement of humans in their environment and has always involved effort and materials requiring careful planning, preparation, and forethought. In architecture there is a necessary conversion to that which is habitable, experiential, and functional from an abstraction in an entirely different medium. It is often an imperfect procedure that centers on the translation rather than the actual design. Design of the built environment is an art of distinctions within the continuum of space, for example: between solid and void, interior and exterior, light and dark, or warm and cold. It is concerned with the physical organization and articulation of space. The amount and shape of the void contained and generated by the building create the fabric and substance of the built environment. Architecture as a design discipline, therefore, can be considered as a creative expression of the coexistence of form and space on a human scale. As Frank Ching writes in Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, “These elements of form and space are the critical means of architecture. While the utilitarian concerns of function and use can be relatively short lived, and symbolic interpretations can vary from age to age, these primary elements of form and space comprise timeless and fundamental vocabulary of the architectural designer.” (1979)
Herbert, Daniel. "A Critical Analysis of Design Processes and Media: Applications for Computer-Aided Design." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 133-146. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. Architectural designers take part in two complex cultures: a parent culture that affects their overall view of the world, and an architectural subculture that orders the details of their work. With assistance from writings in contemporary philosophy, this paper analyzes aspects of both the parent culture and the subculture as they concern design processes and media. The analysis uncovers assumptions that normally assign such processes and media to a secondary role in which they to a secondary role in which they serve only as neutral and transparent skills. By constructing a set of alternative assumptions, the paper proposes a new, primary, role for design processes and media - a role that enables them to act as intentional and substantial generators of form. These alternative assumptions challenge deeply held beliefs, but examples show that when they are employed experimentally in computer-aided design, they reveal new possibilities unique to digital processes and media. 
Al-Sallal, Khaled, and Larry Degelman. "A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 39-49. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviours and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.
McCall, Raymond Joseph, Patrick Bennett, and Erik Johnson. "An Overview of the PHIDIAS II HyperCAD System." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 63-74. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. The PHIDIAS II HyperCAD system combines the functionality of CAD graphics, hypermedia, database management and knowledge-based computation in a single, highly integrated design environment. The CAD functionality includes both 3-D and 2-D vector graphics. The hypermedia includes support for text, raster images, video and sound. The database management enables persistent storage and interlinking of large collections of text, images, video, sound and vector graphics, i.e., thousands of vector graphic objects and drawings in a single database. Retrieval is provided both through use of “associative indexing” based on hyperlinks and through use of an advanced query language. The knowledge- based computation includes both inference and knowledgebased critiquing.  A highly unusual feature of PHIDIAS II is that it implements all of its functions using only hypermedia mechanisms. Complex vector graphic drawings and objects are represented as composite hypermedia nodes. Inference and critiquing are implemented through use of what are known as virtual structures [Halasz 1988], including virtual links and virtual nodes. These nodes and links are dynamic (computed) rather than static (constant). They are defined as expressions in the same language used for queries and are computed at display time. The implementation of different kinds of functions using a common set of mechanisms makes it easy to use them in combination, thus further augmenting the system's functionality.  PHIDIAS supports design by informing architects as they develop a solution's form. The idea is thus not to make the design process faster or cheaper but rather to improve the quality of the things designed. We believe that architects can create better buildings for their users if they have better information. This includes information about buildings of given types, user populations, historical and modern precedents, local site and climate conditions, the urban and natural context and its historical development, as well as local, state and federal regulations.
Tector, John, and Cecil Thornhill. "Architectural Courseware - a Network Based MuItimedia System for Design Education." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 147-150. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. Architectural Courseware is an interactive system which allows for the creative access of a courserelated multimedia database and the interactive manipulation of that database to enhance design education. This project began as a Teaching Initiative Project supported by the Division of Undergraduate Studies of North Carolina State University, Dr. James Anderson, Dean, and has evolved over two phases. Phase One produced an interactive prototype that explored the requirements and technology of multimedia as a support tool for undergraduate education, specifically for an architecture course in the School of Design, The History of Contemporary Architecture. Phase One was well received by various members of the North Carolina State University: faculty members, the Dean of the School of Design, the directors of the Library and the Computing Center, the Associate Provost for Academic Computing, The Provost, and the Dean of Undergraduate Studies. The Dean of Undergraduate Studies was encouraged by the Associate Provost for University Computing to contribute matching funds for the support of Phase Two of the project. Phase Two focused on a functional implementation of a module of the interactive prototype that could be used by students in the Fall'94 semester to test the effectiveness of the courseware concept. 
Choi, Jin. "ArchiWAIS: a Multimedia-Based Architectural Information System for Teaching and Learning Architectural History and Theory." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 161-169. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. Currently, there is a debate among architectural educators regarding the use of computers in the curricula. At present, computers are used for design purposes, and there is limited use in other areas of the curricula. This paper explores an instructional tool developed specifically for the teaching and learning of architectural history and theory, and since these courses are main components of any architectural curricula, using this tool can have a great impact on architectural education in general. The tool, called ArchiWAIS, is a multimedia-based architectural information system that utilizes emerging computer technologies such as multimedia, hypermedia, and telecommunications. As a multimedia system ArchiWAIS provides effective ways of handling various architectural media-text, images, architectural drawings and diagrams, three-dimensional models, animation and sound. ArchiWAIS as a distributed hypermedia system also provides multiple ways to search multimedia databases and browse through multimedia. ArchiWAIS is a WAIS (Wide-Area Information Server) client and has access to architectural databases specially constructed for this experimental project as well as general WAIS databases. ArchiWAIS is one of two subsystems of ArchiTOUR, an educational system currently under development. While ArchiWAIS searches and collects a variety of architectural information, HyperTOUR, the other subsystem of ArchiTOUR, can be used for presenting and learning a specific subject in architectural history and theory. A future extension of ArchiTOUR will be the integration of other curricula into the system, in essence, creating a common ground among architectural courses.
Terzidis, Constantinos, and Emmanuel-George Vakalo. "Computer-aided Extraction of Morphological Information from Architectural Drawings." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 77-86. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to design, implement, and test a computerbased system which allows its user to: (1) extract automatically the geometric, topological, and spatial structures of an architectural plan, (2) extract morphological information, such as axes of symmetry, hierarchical structure, proportions, and modularity from architectural plans, and (3) compare morphological information of classes of architectural plans. Computer vision and pattern recognition techniques are used.
Parsons, Peter. "Craft and Geometry in Architecture: an Experimental Design Studio Using the Computer." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 171-176. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. Craft is one of the main aspects of architecture that accounts for its strong corporeal presence. The Computer used as a geometry machine lacks such tectonics. The predominant means for bringing a sense of materiality to its geometric constructions is through rendering, and in this respect the computer is not significantly different from geometric drawing. One need only recall the beautifully rendered drawings of the Beaux-Arts for a comparison. With the rise of modern architecture such'paper'architecture was voraciously denounced in the cause of relating architectural production more closely with crafted production. Even now the interest in craft has persisted despite postmodern criticism. Therefore, a means for bringing a greater sense of craft to computer-aided design seems desirable. The architectural studio discussed in this paper was initiated partly for this purpose by intentionally confronting the computer's proclivity to move its users away from craft toward geometry, while at the same time taking advantage of its capabilities as a geometry machine. Craft can best be understood by practicing it. Consider, for example, the use of a chisel in woodwork. As one applies force with it, one can feel the resistance of the material. Carving with the grain feels differently than carving against or across it. Carving a piece of maple feels differently than carving a piece of pine. If one presses too hard on the chisel or does not hold it at the precise angle, there is a great risk of creating an unwanted gouge. Gradually with practice the tool feels as if it is an extension of the hand that holds it. it becomes an extension of the body. One can feel the physical qualities of the wood through it. Like a limb of the body its presence can become transparent and one can learn about what one feels through it. It can imprint a memory in the mind that comes to the brain, not through the eyes alone, but through the tactile senses. On the other hand it is tiring to use a chisel for an extended period of time. One's body begins to ache and, as the body tires, the risks of making an unwanted mistake increase. Furthermore, because a tool becomes wedded to the body, it is almost impossible to use more than one tool at a time unless they are being used in conjunction with one another as one might use two limbs of the body together. On a computer one can never'feel'an object, the image of which is on the screen, in the same manner that one can feel with a chisel the material upon which one is working. One becomes particularly aware of this when creating a 3D computer model of a hand tool. One wants to hold it, not just look at it. Thus the artifice of the object created by means of the computer becomes very apparent, because the'tool'has not yet taken on the qualities of a tool, although it has taken on the appearance of one.
Goldman, Glenn, and Michael Hoon. "Digital Design in Architecture: First Light, Then Motion, and Now Sound." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 27-38. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. If we restricted our idea of architecture to only the traditional and static description of visual space and form, we might not be considering significant characteristics of the places we are designing. If, however, we accepted even a limited definition, as stated by Le Corbusier, that “architecture is the masterly, correct, and magnificent play of masses brought together in lighti, we would at least be forced to consider the dimension of time as the ever-changing daylight modifies the way our creations are perceived. However, neither the built nor the natural environments are silent. Sound affects the way we feel about certain events and places, and in turn, places we create can modify or influence the way we hear sounds. As computers become more audio capable, we can expect changes in the ways that architects plan, design, and present their projects. Issues of both objective and nonobjective sound can become significant factors throughout the building delivery process. As the visual sophistication and acoustic expectations of society rise because of the ubiquitous power of electronic multimedia - as well as “cross-mediai applications (film, video, television, and scientific visualization) it is inevitable that the architectural design and presentation processes reflect these changes.
Anderson, Lee. "Film Theory and Architectural Design." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 219-227. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. This paper describes a 10 week, 3rd year architectural design studio, taught by the author, that explored the use of film and video techniques in the design process. The exploration was of (1) the potential of recently available personal computer software and hardware for image and video capture, manipulation and recording, and (2) the potential for application of video, informed by film theory, in the early stages of architectural design.
Clayton, Mark, J.C. Kunz, M.A. Fischer, and P. Teicholz. "First Drawings, Then Semantics." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 13-26. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. The Semantic Modelling Extension (SME) prototype implements a unique approach to integrated architectural CAD that places the drawing act first in the design process. After drawing a design idea using a computer graphic system, the designer interprets the design, providing semantic content to the graphic entities. An interpretation expresses the meaning of the design with respect to a particular issue, such as structural sufficiency, energy consumption, or requirements for egress, and provides reasoning to evaluate the design addressing that issue. A design may have many interpretations to express the multiple issues that are relevant in a design project. The designer may add or delete interpretations of the design as issues change during the course of the project. Underlying the SME prototype are the concepts of form, function and behaviour. In the prototype, evaluation of a design is done by deriving behaviour from the graphically represented forms and relating the behaviour to stated functions or requirements. The concepts of interpretations and form, function and behaviour together establish a virtual product model for design. In contrast to component based approaches to product modelling that tightly bind form representations to their behaviour and function, a virtual product model allows the designer to manipulate the relations among these three descriptors of a design, and thus manipulate the semantics of the design entities. By distinguishing between the act of proposing a design by drawing the conceived form and the act of assigning meaning to the form, the virtual product model approach supports both graphic thinking for design synthesis and symbolic reasoning for design evaluation. This paper presents a scenario of the use of the SME prototype in building design, provides an analysis of the design process and computational support described in the scenario, contrasts a virtual product model approach with a component-oriented product model approach, describes the software implementation of SME, and presents implications and conclusions regarding design process and technical integration.
Zimring, Craig, and Osman Ataman. "Incorporating Guidelines into a Case-Based Architectural Design Tool." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 87-101. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. This paper discusses an ongoing project called Archie, a collaboration between cognitive scientists and researchers in artificial intelligence and architecture, aimed at creating computer-based aids for conceptual design. Archie is a "case-based design aid" (CBDA): a tool that provides designers flexible access to evaluated examples of past experience that they can use in their own designs. Archie is a "clever" hypermedia database aimed at aiding conceptual design in architecture. It contains about 200 problems, responses, stories, and building descriptions derived from evaluations of six libraries and two courthouses. In this paper we provide a brief history and description of Archie and discuss some issues that have come into focus through developing and initially evaluating the system: how specific architectural case information can be organized, how users can be provided more general information about issues and building types, and how information can be indexed. In each of these we briefly discuss the current state of the system and propose some potential future directions.
Carrara, Gianfranco, Yehuda Kalay, and Gabriele Novembri. "Knowledge-Based Computational Support for Architectural Design." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 12-May. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. The process of architectural design aims to define a physical form that will achieve certain functional and behavioural objectives in a particular context. It comprises three distinct, but highly interrelated, operations: (1) Definition of the desired objectives, (2) production of alternative design solutions, (3) evaluation of the expected performances of the solutions and their comparison to the predefined objectives. Design can be viewed as a process of search for a solution that satisfies stated needs, while at the same time adapting the needs to the opportunities and limitations inherent in the emerging solution. // Computational techniques were developed to assist each one of the three operations, with varying degrees of success. We propose to integrate all three operations into one whole, by developing a computational model that will facilitate smooth transition from one operation to another. The role of computers in supporting this model will include providing a knowledge base of prototypical design objectives and solutions, storing project-specific design goals and solutions, and predicting their expected performances. This paper discusses the rationale and background for developing such a knowledge-based design system, and presents the parameters for implementing it as a computational tool to support architectural design. Examples from a prototype implementation serve to illustrate the discussion.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Lines, Relations, Drawing and Design." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 51-61. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. This paper introduces a computer-based graphic environment for design conceptualization, or more specifically, for shape delineation and dynamic drawing manipulation, based on construction (regulating) lines and their geometric based on construction (regulating) lines and their geometric relations. It also presents ReDRAW-a limited prototype of a relationsbased graphic system.
Chen, N., Thomas Kvan, J. Wojtowicz, D. Van Bakergem, T. Casaus, J. Davidson, J. Fargas, K. Hubbell, William Mitchell, T. Nagakura et al. "Place, Time and the virtual design studio." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 115-132. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. A design problem shared over the Internet raises issues of how digital media and group dynamics affect networked design collaborations. This paper describes how to conduct a long-distance studio and compares asynchronous and synchronous collaborative techniques. Digital methods are discussed in relationship to both the creative process and design communication. In schematic stages, less precise tools used asynchronously allow free exploration and creative misreadings, while in later stages, more direct real-time exchanges bring a project to resolution. For the final review, synchronous  video-conferencing with interactive graphics allow comparison of cross-cultural differences. Used effectively, these tools can electronically create a compelling sense of place. Ways to foster a strong virtual  community are discussed in an agenda for future virtual design. 
Kensek, Karen, and Douglas Noble. "Student Initiated Computer Explorations in the Design Studio." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 187-194. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. Many schools of architecture have been attempting to integrate computer applications into their curriculum. This paper will briefly discuss computer-aided design courses that are offered at USC, courses that are similar to those being offered at many universities, and then describe three exceptional cases where the student initiated the use of the computer in a way that was unexpected and different from the methods being taught. A result of conscious deliberation by the student, this experimentation resulted in unexpected discoveries by the instructors of the course. It is this digital serendipity that we wish to explore and discuss. Only occasionally do we hear much about these explorations in formal proceedings and conferences, but they are some of the most intriguing and interesting aspects of computer integration in design.
Coleman, Kim. "Synergism and Contingency: Design Collaboration with the Computer." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 209-217. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. The outcome of an architectural project is always contingent, dependent upon conditions or events that are not established at the outset. A university design studio does not easily replicate the state of flux which occurs as an architectural commission proceeds. In developing an architectural project, each new situation, whether it be a building code issue, an engineering issue, or a client reaction, must be viewed as an opportunity to further refine and develop the design rather than a hindrance to the outcome. In the design studio I describe in this paper, students test processes which attempt to take advantage of contingent conditions, opening up the design solutions to new possibilities. As a means to open up the design process to new possibilities, this studio introduces the computer as the primary tool for design exploration. Through the computer interface, the work speculates on the possibilities of synergism, defined as the actions of two or more substances or organisms to achieve an effect of which each is individually incapable.'Three synergetic conditions are explored: that between the designer and the computer, that between the designer with computer and designers of previous works of art or architecture, and that between two or more designers working together with the computer. The lack of a predictable result, one that may be obvious or superficial, is a positive byproduct of the synergetic and contingent circumstances under which the designs are developed.
Smulevich, Gerard. "The Electronic Bauhaus." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 197-208. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. This paper describes the use of electronic space in a fourth year undergraduate architectural design studio. It attempts to address the importance of developing a design process that is redefined by the use of computing, integrating concept and perception. This goal is set in the studio exercise, an international student design competition to design an addition to the school of architecture at the original Bauhaus/Weimar. The studio involved re-evaluating the Bauhaus principles of integrating the artist and the craftsman, but in contemporary or post-industrial terms. In 1989 the Wall came down. Seamless access of western telecommunications and media became greatly responsible for the crumbling of the rigid machine-age soviet technocracy, and with it, the former east German city of Weimar, home to the first Bauhaus, was once again a living part of architectural history. When the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture announced an international student competition to design a new addition to the school of architecture at the original Bauhaus/Weimar, we immediately decided that this should be an Electronic Bauhaus.
Gross, Mark. "The Fat Pencil, the Cocktail Napkin, and the Slide Library." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 103-113. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. The paper describes recent explorations in sketch recognition and management to support architectural design. The exploration and decisionmaking of early, conceptual design is better suited to freehand drawing, sketching, and diagramming than to the hard-line drawing and construction kit approaches of traditional CAD. However, current sketch programs that simulate paper and pencil fail to take advantage of symbolic manipulation and interactive editing offered by computational environments. The paper presents a computer as cocktail napkin'program, which recognizes and interprets hand-drawn diagrams and provides a graphical search facility, simulated tracing paper, and a multi-user shared drawing surface. The cocktail napkin is the basis of Stretch-A-Sketch, a constraint-based draw program that maintains spatial relations initially specified by a diagram. The cocktail napkin program is also the basis for a query-by-diagram scheme to access a case-based design aid as well as a small collection of images of famous buildings. The paper briefly reviews these extensions of the cocktail napkin program.
Hill, Pamela, and Geert Smeltzer. "Virtual Reality in the Architectural Design Studio." In Reconnecting: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 229-231. ACADIA. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1994. In 1994, students from Montana State University took part in a student exchange at the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The goal of this exchange was to investigate the pedagogical results of using Virtual Reality in the architectural design studio as a tool to create, understand, and describe three-dimensional space. At the conclusion of this project, it was discovered that through VR the students were able to understand the spatial qualities of their own designs much more comprehensively than with threedimensional computer models alone. It was also discovered that the understanding of peer students, design, and technical faculty was enhanced as well.