Keywords Abstract
Skauge, Jørn. "An Electronic Tool for Urban Design Analysis." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 77-85. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. Architects and urban designers are increasingly using computers in their attempt to improve decision making in urban design. Most existing systems emphasize hard data such as statistics, land use data, etc. In recent years with the use of more powerful computers we have seen a greater emphasis on managing visual data. Computer systems are being used to generate urban models and simulations of the various kinds of impact new developments have on the existing cityscape.  This project emphasizes the use of visual data. The purpose of the research has been to develop a computer system for urban designers to use in analyzing urban architectural qualities. Therefore this project focuses on applying traditional methods and theories of urban designers rather than developing new computer techniques.  The traditional methods and theories of urban designers fall within the category which the French theorist Francoise Choay calls Pre-urbanism and Urbanism - the Cultural Model. Theorists within this category include Camillo Sitte, Gordon Cullen, Kevin Lynch, Leon Krier, Aldo Rossi, Michael Trieb, Roger Tranzick and Thiis-Evensen.  This computer system has been developed as a prototype in order to gain experience and knowledge for future development of a large system. Later development will be based upon a vectorized threedimensional model of a whole city using texture mapping and tracing techniques to annotate important architectural features.  The computer system consists of the basic analysis module supplied with a simulation unit and a theory unit. With this analytical tool, analysis is conducted on three different urban scales. The prototype has been developed on the Macintosh computer with SuperCard as the authoring tool.  The computer system was developed as a prototype for Danish Urban Designers and is currently being tested in conjunction with the city of Viborg, Denmark. ( population 55,000). Located in Jutland, Viborg was the capital of Denmark around the year 1000. It now functions as a center for regional government. Viborg was selected as the test site because of its historical core.
Fox, William. "An Interactive Urban Database." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 69-75. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. This paper describes a development process and mechanism for transmitting academic research and information to the community and the profession, and attempts to examine the effect of the information on the community. It is about my recent work with students on the design and development of a prototype interactive electronic document for archiving and visualizing information on an urban area. The work reflects the initial phase of a three year research grant and is a prototype document of a pilot area. The design and visualization of information for this area will establish the primary organization and graphic user interface, for the entire project. The final document will provide community organizations and city agencies with an interactive tool for visualizing and evaluating neighborhood planning and design proposals.
Wojtowicz, J., P. Papazian, J. Fargas, J.N. Davidson, and N. Cheng. "Asynchronous Architecture." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 107-117. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. Computer culture creates new demands on the process of making architecture. Both academia and practice are undergoing rapid changes due to the impact of information technology, and one of the most significant phenomena which has resulted from this transformation is collaborative design in a networked environment. Many researchers in the field have focused their efforts on minimizing or eliminating an apparent shortcoming of networked collaboration, namely the difficulty of immediate interaction between participants [Maher, Gero and Sand, 1993]. In an ongoing experiment in collaborative design we have taken a different approach. Instead of trying to work in a synchronous environment, we have taken the asynchronous nature of networked collaboration to be one of the important features of this ethereal medium, a feature whose consequences need to be explored.
Fraser, Michael. "Boundary Representation in Practice." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 173-185. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. There is an essential contradiction between the making of buildings or built environments in a threedimensional modeler and the graphic control of this process. Three-dimensional modelling is a constructive activity, in which solids are assembled as they would be in an actual structure, it benefits the designer. Presentation and documentation, on the other hand, are prescriptive activities that direct some of the construction and all the visualization and criticism of the proposal, they benefit the user and builder.  A building while being designed can be visualized and criticized from its solid model, and the model can take a variety of forms depending on its part): computer-based, drawn in orthographic or perspective projection, constructed of cardboard or wood, or described narratively by means of text, programmatic data, performance model or animation. However, practicing architecture is the process of recording and communicating the decision making process and the contractual obligations that result. In actual practice, in contrast to the designer directed ideal, more participants are brought in sooner at the beginning of a project and with more publicity, which in turn means keeping more, not fewer, records. As the profession evolves, records of the string of design decisions will become more automated, more carefully structured and more retrievable. More buildings will be “trackedi and exposed to review in this way because public environmental sensitivity will improve. The communication between a single designer and his own thoughts will become less and less important.
Smulevich, Gerard. "CAD in the Design Studio: the Discovery of Inhabitation." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 39-53. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. The impact of CAD on the design process itself has to date been negligible. The vast majority of architects using information technology in the design of buildings have been either job-trained, viewing CAD as an optimization tool, or educated in academic programs where CAD is treated as a specialized subject, isolated from the core design studios and allowing for the perpetuation of manufacturing/ systems based ideologies which have changed very little over the last century. The tragedy is that this is happening while the design studios themselves explore vastly more complex and contemporary issues highlighted by the works of architecture's avantgard. The result is a constant, perverse repetition of arcane, industrial-age processes spilling over into information-age environments, constituting a misuse of the electronic medium, one that could offer the possibility of restating conceptual spatial exploration by its own definition and enabling students and by extension the profession to envision and test the design of the built environment from its most essential aspect, that of inhabitation. There is a synthetic chunk of universe at our fingertips where we can explore space not as an abstraction but as a phenomenological experience, allowing us to exercise our freedom to move and possibly regain our condition of Modernity.
Harfmann, Anton. "Component-Based, Three-Dimensional "Working Drawings"." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 141-151. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. It is now possible to communicate technical information about a building utilizing accurate threedimensional computer modelling of component assemblies of an entire building for the production of an alternative set of “working drawings.” Most assembly illustrations and final appearance can be presented as output from the computer model. The use of these three-dimensional images in the practice of architecture may improve communication between the members of the building design team and, therefore, may improve the overall design integration of the various systems in a building.  Additionally, this type of component model construction for the production of technical drawings offers a unique bridge over the gap between the practice of architecture and the teaching of architecture. Rather than teaching students how to “do working drawings,” something all practitioners wish the academic institutions did, students would develop the ability to design, integrate, and construct complex three-dimensional assemblies and present them in a variety of ways using the standard sections, layers, view, etc. inherent in any reasonable threedimensional computer based modelling system.
Fargas, Josep. "Design Mediums and Other Phenomena of First Generation CAD Practice." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 99-105. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. In the majority of architecture firms which use CAD tools, computer technology has been retrofitted to an existing traditional practice, with mixed results. I will addresses some of the more interesting phenomena which occur in first generation CAD practices of this type, taking as a case study one well- established firm in Barcelona which, after more than thirty years of a successful practice, has adopted computer technology to such an extent that it is now very difficult to find even an ink pen in their offices.  Less than three years after the introduction of its first computer workstation, the Barcelona office is fully computerized, from carrying out even basic design directly with computer technology, to developing inhouse software and maintaining an internet node via modem. This rapid adoption of the technology, although a relatively smooth one, was not free from strange side-effects. Because of the continuing involvement of a large part of the existing staff, the transition to computer aided design required the appearance of hybrid methodologies which are neither the traditional ones, nor what one might expect to find in the newly established CAD practice.
Jog, Bharati. "Integration of Computer Applications in the Practice of Architecture." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 89-97. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. Computer Applications in Architecture is emerging as an important aspect of our profession. The field, which is often referred to as Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has had a notable impact on the profession and academia in recent years. A few professionals have predicted that as slide rules were replaced by calculators, in the coming years drafting boards and parallel bars will be replaced by computers. On the other hand, many architects do not anticipate such a drastic change in the coming decade as present CAD systems are supporting only a few integral aspects of architectural design. However, all agree that architecture curricula should be modified to integrate CAAD education.  In 1992-93, in the Department of Architecture of the'School of Architecture and interior Design'at the University of Cincinnati, a curriculum committee was formed to review and modify the entire architecture curriculum. Since our profession and academia relate directly to each other, the author felt that while revising the curriculum, the committee should have factual information about CAD usage in the industry. Three ways to obtain such information were thought of, namely (1) conducting person to person or telephone interviews with the practitioners (2) requesting firms to give open- ended feed back and (3) surveying firms by sending a questionnaire. Of these three, the most effective, efficient and suitable method to obtain such information was an organized survey through a questionnaire. In mid December 1992, a survey was organized which was sponsored by the School of Architecture and Interior Design, the Center for the Study of the Practice of Architecture (CSPA) and the University Division of Professional Practice, all from the University of Cincinnati.  This chapter focuses on the results of this survey. A brief description of the survey design is also given. In the next section a few surveys organized in recent years are listed. In the third section the design of this survey is presented. The survey questions and their responses are given in the fourth section. The last section presents the conclusions and brief recommendations regarding computer curriculum in architecture.
Ataman, Osman. "Knowledge-based Stair Design." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 163-171. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. The application of computer--based technique to support architectural design has often concentrated on matters of representation. Typically, this means computer-aided drafting, and less frequently, computer-aided modelling and visualization. The promise of new computer-based tools to support the process of design has thus far failed to produce any significant tool that has had a widespread impact on the architectural profession. Most developments remain in university based research labs where they are used as teaching instruments in CAD courses or less often in design studios. While there are many reasons for this lack of dissemination, including a reluctance on the part of the architectural profession itself, the primary obstacles deal with difficulties in explicating design knowledge, representing this knowledge in a manner that can be used for design, and providing an intuitive and effective user interface, allowing the designer to easily use the tool for its intended purpose.  This study describes a system that has been developed to address a number of these issues. Based on research findings from the field of Artificial Intelligence which expounds on the need for multiple techniques to represent any complex area of knowledge, we have selected a particular approach that focuses on multiple techniques for design representation. We review this approach in depth by considering its many facets necessary when implementing a knowledge-based system. We then partially test the viability of this approach through a small case study, implementing a knowledge-based system for designing stairs. While this effort only deals with a small part of the total design process, it does explore a number of significant issues facing the development of computer-based design assistants, and suggests several techniques for addressing these concerns.
Randle, Jay. "Light and Form: a Case Study." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 21-38. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. The first great consideration in design is that the human world is irreducibly phenomenal, we are immersed in the overwhelming richness and sensuousness of the physical environment. And the first great task of design education is to put the student of design into a disciplined awareness of that phenomenal world, by development of categories of discrimination. The introductory experiences bring the student into vivid contact with compelling phenomena. The associated exercises structure and differentiate perception of nuance within these. There is little doubt that texture, surface, extension, value, and color are in one sense basic categories of physical phenomena, constituting in essence a fundamental stratum of experience and the sensible world. Modern psychology and epistemology, however, cohere in saying that this stratum is not the sense world of everyday, the primary datum of the functioning societal member. Neither is the abstract world of the physicist's concepts an everyday world. What is given in our day-to-day life is neither very abstract, nor very concrete, but a sort of functionally-bound middle world of norms and stereotypes.  It takes the disciplined seeing characteristic of foundational training in the arts to drive this bourgeois view of physical reality back to elemental sense data. Just as it requires the supremely abstract language of mathematics and the rarified “experience” of modern scientific experimentation to drive that same view offcenter in the direction of abstraction. The first exercises of a program of design education begin to perform the former role.
Liu, Yu-Tung. "Recognizing Emergent Subshapes in Design Problem Solving: a Connectionist Investigation." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 131-139. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. Human problem-solving behaviour has been modelled as a search through the space as defined as problem states, within which earlier states move to subsequent ones by applying rules in the human mind until the goal state is found. This cognitive model of problem-solving has been broadly accepted and has become dominant in both cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence (AI). In the field of computeraided architectural design (CAAD), search models are also widely used for solving design problems, although various foci of design knowledge are differently represented by shape grammars, graphs, and knowledge-based systems using predicate logic for different purports.  In design search, design evolves from one state to another by exhaustively or heuristically applying proper rules. Each rule application involves, first, pattern-matching the antecedent of a rule to the current state and, second, transforming the matched portion of that state into the consequence of the rule. However pattern-matching techniques of current CAAD systems are still limited. In current CAAD systems, only those two squares can be dealt with by patternmatching for further development. However, a human designer can effortlessly recognize not only those two but other emergent subshapes, for example a smaller square in the middle where the two squares overlap and two L-shapes in the corners. Therefore a human designer can thoroughly deliberate all these alternatives before making a decision. In other words, human designer is capable of restructuring shapes in terms of emergent subshapes in any step of designing.
Calvo, Charles. "Some epistemological concerns regarding artificial intelligence and knowledge-based approaches to architectural design - a renewed agenda." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 155-162. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. It has been noted that designers - when confronted with computers - have, by and large, refused to accept the introduction of apparently new design methodologies, and it has been speculated that this is the result of a failure of those methodologies to address the cognitive processes which take place in the course of designing. This position is somewhat suspect in that such innovations as computer-aided drafting -which also fail to recognize these processes have been widely accepted. It is perhaps more likely that the lack of acceptance results from a perception on the part of designers that the new methodologies either do not reflect some or all of those concerns that designers consider fundamental to design, or that they actively interfere with the designer's ability to accomplish what he/she sees as the goals of design. Given that the application of artificial intelligence and related work to architecture is still in its infancy, all of this suggests the need for a reassessment of the role of computing in design in order to clarify and strengthen those roles deemed appropriate. Two approaches to the integration of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based systems into architectural design practice are currently dominant. One attempts to create systems which can on their own produce designs, the other provides intelligent support for those doing design. It was, in part, the recognition of limitations in the ability of traditional CAD systems and building modelers to reflect what designers actually do that led to explorations into the idea of intelligent assistants. Development of such assistants was aided by research into the act and process of design through protocol and other studies. Although some work is currently being done in the development of artificial intelligence and knowledge based applications in architecture, and work continues to be done on the study of design methodologies, the bulk of available information in each of these areas remains in the realm of design disciplines related to but outside of architecture and do not reflect the explicit role of architectural design in the embodiment and expression of culture.  The relationship of intelligence to culture has resulted in some skepticism regarding the ultimate capacity of neural nets and symbolically programmed computers in general. Significant work has been done questioning the rational tradition in computer development for its failure to address phenomena which are not easily subject to scientific analysis. Further skepticism regarding the role of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based or expert systems in architectural design has been emerging recently. Such criticism tends to focus on two issues: the nature of drawing as an activity which involves both the generation and interpretation of graphic artifacts, and the nature of the human designer as an active agent in the design process.
Johnson, Brian. "The Graphics Application Paradigm: a Framework for User Understanding of CG/CAD Applications." In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 20-Nov. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. What do young architects need to know about computer graphics? What “immutable and eternali models will allow them to perform their best as professional architects? At one time all computer users were computer programmers and the answer was thus rooted in programming expertise, but the era of personally developed software is largely past. An alternative more vocational approach would stress courses in the use of specific programs, but it is hard to imagine a more mutable “object of knowledge” than the practical details of computing in the late twentieth century. In fact, our students are deluged with information: commands, vocabulary, options, sales hyperbole, and “do this, it worksi cookbooks. As educators, we face the challenge of identifying that which is “immutable and eternali, and presenting it to our students (and trying to focus their attention on it).
Bollinger, Elizabeth, and Pamela Hill. "Virtual Reality: Technology of the Future or Playground of the Cyberpunk?" In Education and Practice: The Critical Interface: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 121-129. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1993. Jaron Lanier is a major spokesperson of our society's hottest new technology: VR or virtual reality. He expressed his faith in the VR movement in this quote which appears in The User's Guide to the New Edge published by Mondo 2000. In its most technical sense, VR has attracted the attention of politicians in Washington who wonder if yet another technology developed in the United States will find its application across the globe in Asia. In its most human element, an entire “cyberpunk movement” has appealed to young minds everywhere as a seemingly safe form of hallucination. As architecture students, educators, and practitioners around the world are becoming attracted to the possibilities of VR technology as an extension of 3D modelling, visualization, and animation, it is appropriate to consider an overview of virtual reality.  In virtual reality a user encounters a computersimulated environment through the use of a physical interface. The user can interact with the environment to the point of becoming a part of the experience, and the experience becomes reality. Natural and  instinctive body movements are translated by the interface into computer commands. The quest for perfection in this human-computer relationship seems to be the essence of virtual reality technology.  To begin to capture the essence of virtual reality without first-hand experience, it is helpful to understand two important terms: presence and immersion. The sense of presence can be defined as the degree to which the user feels a part of the actual environment. The more reality the experience provides, the more presence it has. Immersion can be defined as the degree of other simulation a virtual reality interface provides for the viewer. A highly immersive system might provide more than just visual stimuli, for example, it may additionally provide simulated sound and motion, and simultaneously prevent distractions from being present.