Keywords Abstract
Huang, Tao-Kuang, Larry Degelman, and Terry Larsen. "A Visualization Model for Computerized Energy Evaluation During the Conceptual Design Stage (ENERGRAPH)." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 195-206. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. Energy performance is a crucial step toward responsible design. Currently there are many tools that can be applied to reach this goal with reasonable accuracy. Often times, however, major flaws are not discovered until the final stage of design when it is too late to change. Not only are existing simulation models complicated to apply at the conceptual design stage, but energy principles and their applications are also abstract and hard to visualize. Because of the lack of suitable tools to visualize energy analysis output, energy conservation concepts fail to be integrated into the building design. For these reasons, designers tend not to apply energy conservation concepts at the early design stage. However, since computer graphics is a new phase of visual communication in design process, the above problems might be solved properly through a computerized graphical interface in the conceptual design stage.  The research described in this paper is the result of exploring the concept of using computer graphics to support energy efficient building designs. It focuses on the visualization of building energy through a highly interactive graphical interface in the early design stage.
Harfmann, Anton, and Bruce Majkowski. "Component-Based Spatial Reasoning." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 103-111. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. The design process and ordering of individual components through which architecture is realized relies on the use of abstract “modelsi to represent a proposed design. The emergence and use of these abstract “models” for building representation has a long history and tradition in the field of architecture. Models have been made and continue to be made for the patron, occasionally the public, and as a guide for the builders. Models have also been described as a means to reflect on the design and to allow the design to be in dialogue with the creator.  The term “modeli in the above paragraph has been used in various ways and in this context is defined as any representation through which design intent is expressed. This includes accurate/ rational or abstract drawings (2- dimensional and 3-dimensional), physical models (realistic and abstract) and computer models (solid, void and virtual reality). The various models that fall within the categories above have been derived from the need to “view” the proposed design in various ways in order to support intuitive reasoning about the proposal and for evaluation purposes. For example, a 2-dimensional drawing of a floor plan is well suited to support reasoning about spatial relationships and circulation patterns while scaled 3-dimensional models facilitate reasoning about overall form, volume, light, massing etc. However, the common denominator of all architectural design projects (if the intent is to construct them in actual scale, physical form) are the discrete building elements from which the design will be constructed. It is proposed that a single computational model representing individual components supports all of the above “models” and facilitates “viewing” the design according to the frame of reference of the viewer.  Furthermore, it is the position of the authors that all reasoning stems from this rudimentary level of modelling individual components.  The concept of component representation has been derived from the fact that a “real” building (made from individual components such as nuts, bolts and bar joists) can be “viewed” differently according to the frame of reference of the viewer. Each individual has the ability to infer and abstract from the assemblies of components a variety of different “models” ranging from a visceral, experiential understanding to a very technical, physical understanding. The component concept has already proven to be a valuable tool for reasoning about assemblies, interferences between components, tracing of load path and numerous other component related applications. In order to validate the component-based modelling concept this effort will focus on the development of spatial understanding from the component-based model. The discussions will, therefore, center about the representation of individual components and the development of spatial models and spatial reasoning from the component model. In order to frame the argument that spatial modelling and reasoning can be derived from the component representation, a review of the component-based modelling concept will precede the discussions of spatial issues.
Schierle, Goetz. "Computer Aided Design for Wind and Seismic Forces." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. A computer program, Lateral Design Graphs (LDG), to consider lateral wind and seismic forces in the early design stages, is presented. LDG provides numeric data and graphs to visualize the effect of building height, shape, and framing system on lateral forces. Many critical decisions effecting lateral forces and elements to resist them are made at early design stages. Costly changes or reduced safety may result if they are not considered. For example, building height, shape and configuration impact lateral forces and building safety, so does the placement of shear walls in line with space needs. But the complex and time consuming nature of lateral force design by hand makes early consideration often not practical. Therefore the objectives of LDG are to: 1) visualize the cause and effect of lateral forces, 2) make the design process more transparent, 3) develop informed intuition, 4) facilitate trade-off studies at an early stage, 5) help to teach design for lateral forces.
Ozel, Filiz. "Data Modeling Needs of Life Safety Code (LSC) Compliance Applications." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 177-185. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. One of the most complex code compliance issues originates from the conformance of designs to Life Safety Code (NFPA 101). The development of computer based code compliance checking programs attracted the attention of building researchers and practitioners alike. These studies represent a number of approaches ranging from CAD based procedural approaches to rule based, non graphic ones, but they do not address the interaction of the rule base of such systems with graphic data bases that define the geometry of architectural objects. Automatic extraction of the attributes and the configuration of building systems requires 11 architectural object - graphic entityi data models that allow access and retrieval of the necessary data for code compliance checking. This study aims to specifically focus on the development of such a data model through the use of AutoLISP feature of AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc.) graphic system. This data model is intended to interact with a Life Safety Code rule base created through Level5-Object (Focus Inc.) expert system. Assuming the availability of a more general building data model, one must define life and fire safety features of a building before any automatic checking can be performed. Object oriented data structures are beginning to be applied to design objects, since they allow the type versatility demanded by design applications. As one generates a functional view of the main data model, the software user must provide domain specific information. A functional view is defined as the process of generating domain specific data structures from a more general purpose data model, such as defining egress routes from wall or room object data structure. Typically in the early design phase of a project, these are related to the emergency egress design features of a building. Certain decisions such as where to provide sprinkler protection or the location of protected egress ways must be made early in the process.
Kalisperis, Loukas, and Randal Groninger. "Design Philosophy: Implications for Computer Integration in the Practice of Architecture." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 27-37. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. The growing complexities of modern environments and the socioeconomic pressures to maintain efficient design/build cycles have forced architects to seek new tools and methods to help them manage the processes that have developed as a result of new knowledge in architectural design. This trend has accelerated in the past few decades because of developments in both cognitive and computer sciences. In allied disciplines, the introduction and use of comPuters have significantly improved design practices. Yet at best, in disciplines such as architectural design, computational aids have attained marginal improvements in the design process despite efforts by universities in the professional education of architects.
Seebohm, Thomas. "Discoursing on Urban History Through Structured Typologies." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 157-175. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. How can urban history be studied with the aid of three-dimensional computer modelling? One way is to model known cities at various times in history, using historical records as sources of data. While such studies greatly enhance the understanding of the form and structure of specific cities at specific points in time, it is questionable whether such studies actually provide a true understanding of history. It can be argued that they do not because such studies only show a record of one of many possible courses of action at various moments in time. To gain a true understanding of urban history one has to place oneself back in historical time to consider all of the possible courses of action which were open in the light of the then current situation of the city, to act upon a possible course of action and to view the consequences in the physical form of the city. Only such an understanding of urban history can transcend the memory of the actual and hence the behaviour of the possible. Moreover, only such an understanding can overcome the limitations of historical relativism, which contends that historical fact is of value only in historical context, with the realization, due to Benedetto Croce and echoed by Rudolf Bultmann, that the horizon of “'deeper understandingi lies in “the actuality of decision” (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990). One cannot conduct such studies on real cities except, perhaps, as a point of departure at some specific point in time to provide an initial layout for a city knowing that future forms derived by the studies will diverge from that recorded in history. An entirely imaginary city is therefore chosen. Although the components of this city at the level of individual buildings are taken from known cities in history, this choice does not preclude alternative forms of the city. To some degree, building types are invariants and, as argued in the Appendix, so are the urban typologies into which they may be grouped. In this imaginary city students of urban history play the role of citizens or groups of citizens. As they defend their interests and make concessions, while interacting with each other in their respective roles, they determine the nature of the city as it evolves through the major periods of Western urban history in the form of threedimensional computer models.  My colleague R.J. van Pelt and I presented this approach to the study of urban history previously at ACADIA (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990). Yet we did not pay sufficient attention to the manner in which such urban models should be structured and how the efforts of the participants should be coordinated. In the following sections I therefore review what the requirements are for three-dimensional modelling to support studies in urban history as outlined both from the viewpoint of file structure of the models and other viewpoints which have bearing on this structure. Three alternative software schemes of progressively increasing complexity are then discussed with regard to their ability to satisfy these requirements. This comparative study of software alternatives and their corresponding file structures justifies the present choice of structure in relation to the simpler and better known generic alternatives which do not have the necessary flexibility for structuring the urban model. Such flexibility means, of course, that in the first instance the modelling software is more timeconsuming to learn than a simple point and click package in accord with the now established axiom that ease of learning software tools is inversely related to the functional power of the tools. (Smith 1987).
Fargas, Josep, and Pegor Papazian. "Metaphors in Design: an Experiment with a Frame, Two Lines and Two Rectangles." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 13-22. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. The research we will discuss below originated from an attempt to examine the capacity of designers to evaluate an artifact, and to study the feasibility of replicating a designer's moves intended to make an artifact more expressive of a given quality. We will present the results of an interactive computer experiment, first developed at the MIT Design Research Seminar, which is meant to capture the subjectis actions in a simple design task as a series of successive “movesi'. We will propose that designers use metaphors in their interaction with design artifacts and we will argue that the concept of metaphors can lead to a powerful theory of design activity. Finally, we will show how such a theory can drive the project of building a design system.  When trying to understand how designers work, it is tempting to examine design products in order to come up with the principles or norms behind them. The problem with such an approach is that it may lead to a purely syntactical analysis of design artifacts, failing to capture the knowledge of the designer in an explicit way, and ignoring the interaction between the designer and the evolving design. We will present a theory about design activity based on the observation that knowledge is brought into play during a design task by a process of interpretation of the design document. By treating an evolving design in terms of the meanings and rules proper to a given way of seeing, a designer can reduce the complexity of a task by focusing on certain of its aspects, and can manipulate abstract elements in a meaningful way.
Mackey, David. "Mission Possible: Computer Aided Design for Everyone." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 65-73. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. A pragmatic model for the building of an electronic architectural design curriculum which will offer students and faculty the opportunity to fully integrate information age technologies into the educational experience is becoming increasingly desirable.  The majority of architectural programs teach technology topics through content specific courses which appear as an educational sequence within the curriculum. These technology topics have traditionally included structural design, environmental systems, and construction materials and methods. Likewise, that course model has been broadly applied to the teaching of computer aided design, which is identified as a technology topic. Computer technology has resulted in a proliferation of courses which similarly introduce the student to computer graphic and design systems through a traditional course structure.  Inevitably, competition for priority arises within the curriculum, introducing the potential risk that otherwise valuable courses and/or course content will be replaced by the “'neweri technology, and providing fertile ground for faculty and administrative resistance to computerization as traditional courses are pushed aside or seem threatened.  An alternative view is that computer technology is not a “topici, but rather the medium for creating a design (and studio) environment for informed decision making.... deciding what it is we should build. Such a viewpoint urges the development of a curricular structure, through which the impact of computer technology may be understood as that medium for design decision making, as the initial step in addressing the current and future needs of architectural education. One example of such a program currently in place at the College of Architecture and Planning, Ball State University takes an approach which overlays, like a transparent tissue, the computer aided design content (or a computer emphasis) onto the primary curriculum.  With the exception of a general introductory course at the freshman level, computer instruction and content issues may be addressed effectively within existing studio courses. The level of operational and conceptual proficiency achieved by the student, within an electronic design studio, makes the electronic design environment selfsustaining and maintainable across the entire curriculum. The ability to broadly apply computer aided design to the educational experience can be independent of the availability of many specialized computer aided design faculty.
Shinners, Neil, Neville Cruz, and Andrew Marriott. "Multi-Faceted Architectural Visualization." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 141-153. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. As well as learning traditional design techniques, students in architecture courses learn how to use powerful workstations with CAD systems, color scanners and laser printers and software for the rendering, compositing and animating of their designs. They learn to use raytracing and radiosity rendering systems to provide visual realism, alpha-channel compositing systems to put a client in the picture (literally) or the design in situ, and keyframe animation systems to allow realistic walkthroughs. Student Presentations are now based on videos, photographic slides, slide shows or real time animation. Images (as data files) are imported into full color publishing systems for final year thesis presentation. The architectural graphics environment at Curtin University facilitates the integration of slide and video examples of raytraced and chroma-keyed images with computer aided design techniques for architectural student presentations.
Carrara, Gianfranco, and Yehuda Kalay. "Multi-Model Representation of Design Knowledge." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 77-88. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. Explicit representation of design knowledge is needed if scientific methods are to be applied in design research, and if comPuters are to be used in the aid of design education and practice. The representation of knowledge in general, and design knowledge in particular, have been the subject matter of computer science, design methods, and computer- aided design research for quite some time. Several models of design knowledge representation have been developed over the last 30 years, addressing specific aspects of the problem. This paper describes a different approach to design knowledge representation that recognizes the Multi-modal nature of design knowledge. It uses a variety of computational tools to encode different kinds of design knowledge, including the descriptive (objects), the prescriptive (goals) and the operational (methods) kinds. The representation is intended to form a parsimonious, communicable and presentable knowledge-base that can be used as a tool for design research and education as well as for CAAD.
Saggio, Antonino. "Object Based Modeling and Concept-Testing: a Framework for Studio Teaching." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 49-63. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. This chapter concludes with a proposal for a studio structure that incorporates computers as a creative stimulus in the design process. Three related experiences support this hypothesis: the role played in concrete designs by an Object Based Modelling environment, teaching with Computer Aided Architectural Design and OBM in the realm of documentation and analysis of architecture, previous applications of the Concept-Testing methodology in design studios. Examples from these three areas provide the framework for mutual support between OBM and a C-T approach for studio teaching. The central sections of the chapter focus on the analysis of these experiences, while the last section provides a 15 week, semester based, studio structure that incorporates OBM in the overall calendar and in key assignments.
Müller, Volker. "Reint-Ops: a Tool Supporting Conceptual Design." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 221-232. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. Reasoning is influenced by our perception of the environment. New aspects of our environment help to provoke new thoughts. Thus, changes of what is perceived can be assumed to stimulate the generation of new ideas, as well. In CAD, computerized three-dimensional models of physical entities are produced. Their representation on the monitor is determined by our viewing position and by the rendering method used. Especially the wire-frame representations of views lend themselves to a variety of readings, due to coincident and intersecting lines. Methods by which wire-frame views can be processed to extract the shapes that they contain have been investigated and developed. The extracted shapes can be used as a base for the generation of derived entities through various operations that are called Reinterpretation Operations. They have been implemented as a prototypical extension (named Reint-Ops) to an existing modelling shell. ReintOps is a highly interactive exploratory CAD tool, which allows the user to customize criteria and factors which are used in the reinterpretation process. This tool can be regarded as having a potential to support conceptual design investigations.
Stoker, Douglas, and Dennis Jones. "RISCAD: a simplified approach to CAD system design." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 113-123. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. When employing CAD systems to the design task, it is usually the case that 90% of the work is accomplished by 10% of the capabilities of the system. These capabilities are often more appropriate to the tasks of modelling and drafting rather than exploring design alternatives. CAD system design might well benefit from the application of the RISC philosophy, namely, identify and incorporate only those capabilities most appropriate and frequently used in the design process and make them very powerful and efficient, provide the ability to combine those capabilities to form compound operations, simplify and streamline the user interface and maximize the use of computational power. The RISCAD system (Reduced Instruction Set Computer Aided Design System) takes this approach.
Woodbury, Robert F., Anthony Radford, P.N. Taplin, and S.A. Coppins. "Tartan Worlds: a Generative Symbol Grammar System." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 211-220. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. Tartan Worlds is a highly interactive, generative symbol grammar system that generates designs as two dimensional configurations of symbols on tartan grids. It operates with multiple graphical rule sets on multiple design worlds. Designers can operate directly on rules and worlds. In this chapter we will introduce the system Tartan Worlds as implemented on the Apple Macintosh.
Marshall, Tony. "The Computer as a Graphic Medium in Conceptual Design." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 39-47. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. The success CAD has experienced in the architectural profession demonstrates that architects have been willing to replace traditional drafting media with computers and electronic plotters for the production of working drawings. Its expanded use in the design development phase for 3D modelling and rendering further justifies CAD's usefulness as a presentation medium. The schematic design phase however, has hardly been influenced by the evolution of CAD. Most architects simply have not come to view the computer as a viable design medium. One reason for this might be the strong correspondence between architectural CAD and plan view graphics, as used in working drawings, compared to the weak correspondence between architectural CAD and plan view graphics, as used in schematic design. The role of the actual graphic medium during schematic design should not be overlooked in the development of CAD applications.  In order to produce practical CAD applications for schematic design we must explore the computeris potential as a form of expression and its role as a graphic medium. An examination of the use of traditional graphic media during schematic design will provide some clues regarding what capabilities CAD must provide and how a system should operate in order to be useful during conceptual design.
Coyne, Richard. "The Role of Metaphor in Understanding Computers in Design." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 11-Mar. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. The study of metaphor provides valuable insights into the workings of thought and understanding. This chapter addresses the important question of what the study of metaphor has to say about technology, the design process and hence the role of computers in design. The conclusion is that design involves the generation of action within a collaborative environment in which there is the free play of metaphor. A recognition of the close relationship between technology and metaphor provides insights into how to evaluate and develop the effective use of computers in design.
Anderson, Lee. "Virtual Graffiti Three-Dimensional Paint Tools for Conceptual Modeling in Upfront." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 127-133. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. This chapter describes several limitations present in current 3-D programs used for conceptual design and then introduces a new three dimensional paint tool, as implemented in a beta version of Alias Upfront, that attempts to deal with some of those limitations.
Westergard, Curt. "Visualizing Negative Space." In Computer Supported Design in Architecture: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 135-139. ACADIA. Charleston, South Carolina: Clemson University, 1992. Designers and artists are, by training, accustomed to reversing figure /ground relationships-'They can easily picture and sketch negative (empty) spaces in plan or profile. Such perceptual reversals help them understand the voids between buildings as the dynamic and character-forming entities they are. Traditional drawing techniques like pocheing or hatching, just emphasize the static 2 dimensional aspects of these curious spaces: many sequential or layered views are needed to define their full 3 dimensional volume. Such multiple views are costly to produce and because of the 2 dimensional medium are inherently static and flat.  This research applies and further develops an under used visualization technique that depicts negative spaces (voids) as true 3 dimensional solids. It focuses specifically on visualizing outdoor spaces defined primarily by vegetation. The preliminary results are volumetrically revealing depictions of complex spaces. They give the designer and client quick spatial feedback about the intended “'openi space in a given design.