Keywords Abstract
Van Wyk, C.S.G., R. Bhat, J. Gauchel, and V. Hartkopf. "A Knowledge-based Approach to Building Design and Performance Evaluation." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 14-Jan. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. The introduction of physically-based description and simulation methods to issues of building performance (i.e., acoustic, visual, and air quality, thermal comfort, cost, and long-term system integrity) began in the early 1960s as one of the first examples of computer-aided design in architecture. Since that time, the development of commercially-available computer-aided design systems has largely been oriented towards the visualization and representation of the geometry of buildings, while the development of building performance applications has been concerned with approaches to mathematical and physics-based modelling for predictive purposes.
Seebohm, Thomas. "A Possible Palladian Villa." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 135-166. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. Ever since Wittkower published Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism in 1949, in which he showed that Palladio's villa plans are based on a tartan grid, it seemed that Palladio's design principles had been encapsulated. When subsequently, in 1978, Mitchell and Stiny enunciated all the topological possibilities for Palladian villa plans, it appeared that the case was closed. Freedman and Hersey have since shown that it is precisely in the application of specific building dimensions and proportions that additional design rules come into play, however. The present study builds on the work of Freedman and Hersey. It uses and extends their method which involves incorporation of the known design principles for Palladian villas, as given implicitly in Palladio's Four Books of Architecture and in his built works, into a computer program capable of generating schematic plans and elevations based on those principles and visually comparing the generated plans and elevations with the known works of Palladio. In cases of disagreement, the reasons for the disagreement help formulate further design rules.
Millet, M.S., G. Hildebrand, P. Cohan, and M. Read. "ArchiMedia Case Studies: Integrative Architectural Education." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 127-134. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. Few people would argue that architectural education, ideally a complex holistic experience, completely integrates the many aspects and concerns that contribute to the design and realization of a building. This is hardly surprising given the vast array of information that architecture schools with limited resources attempt to present to students within constricted time frames. One may argue that in attempting to approach such a holistic educational goal, representations of reality on a computer screen are no more useful or provocative than conventional communication devices: slides, photographs, drawings, the spoken and printed word, moving pictures (film, video), and various combinations of all of these. The opportunities offered by computer-driven multimedia presentations, however, lie in the speed and relevance of connections made between associated ideas in various media formats. In particular, a multimedia presentation, if carefully authored and developed, can provide a wide range of interactive information gathering pathways. The approach called ArchiMedia offers a means for presenting a wide variety of information about a range of building types in an interactive format with the goal of supporting the creative and practical processes of communication among teachers and students.
Wake, Warren, and Malcolm McCullough. "Architectural Tours through Texture Space." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 53-62. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. One challenge to the computer-aided designer is to portray physical realities using only visual, logical, or numerical representations. Recently there has been a lot of speculation about meeting this challenge with a new dimension of tools which couples physical interaction to animated output: cyberspace. However, so long as certain inherent limitations remain in the physical part of cyberspace prototypes, there is more to be gained in improving our graphics independently. One aspect of graphics for portraying physicality which we can address right now is texture.
Gianni, Benjamin. "Building, seeing, thinking: the use of the computer in the investigation of visual logic." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 87-112. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. A body of speculative work, produced with a solid modelling program, demonstrates how the use of the computer can radically transform the range of questions asked by the designer, affects the type of work produced, and questions the foundations of design logic and visual perception. Reality is a function of the tools and conventions used to describe it.
Sakr, Yasser, and Robert Johnson. "Computer-Aided Architectural Design Strategies: One Size Does Not Fit All." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 15-31. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. The practice of architecture is in the midst of significant change and an increasingly uncertain future. Socio-economic factors external to the profession are forcing firms to develop new strategies for delivering design services. Overlaying these external changes is the uncertainty resulting from the inevitable introduction of information technology, which is only beginning to have an impact on the profession. Some advocates see the emergence of a new form of design firm -the computerized design firm - as an intelligent organization structured around electronic work groups with powerful computation and communications tools (Catalano 1990). On the other hand, many practitioners still see CADD as an expensive technology whose primary result leads to an increase in overhead costs. But some practitioners and researchers (Coyne, 1991) recognize both the potential and, problems that computer-aided design presents to the profession. This research presents a framework for understanding how changing information technology might be appropriately integrated into the design firm. It argues that design is an increasingly diverse enterprise, and that this diversity must be understood in order to effectively integrate information technology. The study is divided into three sections. The first section develops an overview of major social, economic, and structural changes within the profession. The second section discusses two alternative approaches that have been utilized to integrate information technology into firms. The third part presents a framework for understanding how information technology may have an impact on strategies for structuring and organizing architectural firms.
Schnoedt, Heinrich. "Cultural Parametrics." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 223-234. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. The human desire for automation of repetitive processes offers opportunities for the employment of binary computing for these procedures. Architecture and the design of buildings is no exception. With an increase in industrial prefabrication of moderately variable building components, the focus of the practising architect shifts from the individual design process toward a selection process of parts or components with a defined parametric extent. While this concept of parameterized parts has been used by architects since the first repetitive part was available, the advent of modern CAAD systems, with a growing number of parametric components and parts already integrated, is likely to greatly amplify the impact of predefined parts on buildings. Both industry and research institutions continue to make a great effort to utilize building codes and organizational structures as the basis to develop sophisticated algorithms of rule based design. Their purpose of the parameterization of parts or concepts is twofold: to reduce the time frame of human labor on the design of pieces and concepts which are considered repetitive,. and, to install a control mechanism to eliminate mistakes which lay outside of the parametric framework. The implementation of these algorithms in architectural practice and in the educational environment suggests consequences on many levels. In the following, an attempt is made to cast some light on the history of parametrics in respect to computing and the problems associated with a predominantly numerically encoded parametric approach.
Clayton, Mark, and Howard Weisenthal. "Enhancing the Sketchbook." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 113-125. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. The architect's sketchbook has been virtually untouched by the march of fashions and theories throughout history. The sketchbook, from its modem beginnings in guild lodge books through the travel journals of Beaux-Arts and Modern architects, has remained the repository for observations and ideas waiting to be synthesized into architecture. However, new opportunities offered by computing technology provide ways to advance the sketchbook, transforming it from a personal log of experiences slowly being buried under a lifetime of work, into a vital, interactive information environment supporting design activity. This is not to argue that the computer may replace the artist's hand and pencil, but that the computer can be used to organize and structure the artifacts of design activities Commonly embodied in sketches and notes.
Mitchell, William. "Functional Grammars: an Introduction." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 167-176. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. A practical design must be realizable using available materials and fabrication processes, and it must meet specified functional requirements, these are necessary (though not always sufficient) conditions for solution of a design problem. It is possible to write shape grammars that produce designs which satisfy these two conditions.
Gross, Mark. "Grids in Design and CAD." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 33-43. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. The grid is a useful device for expressing design rules about the placement of elements in a layout. By expressing position rules for elements in relation to a grid, a designer can systematically organize decisions in a layout design problem. Grids and placement rules offer a discipline that can help a designer work effectively to lay out complex designs, and it can also facilitate group design work. Unfortunately, computer supported drawing systems often cannot support this way of working because they lack a sufficiently rich implementation of grids. The Grid Manager module of the CoDraw program shows enhancements useful for architectural Computer Assisted Design. These enhancements would enable more effective ways of using the computer as a design tool.
Brath, Richard. "Information Architecture." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 63-69. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. There now exists an identical realm situated in an entirely new context: computer simulation. Information architecture is a meaningful spatial environment. It is created by transforming existing social, cultural and technological computer data through theoretical and technical skills.
Perron, Richard, and Deron Miller. "Landscape of the Mind." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 71-86. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. The focus of this article is the exploration of landscape and the question of representation, more specifically how landscape principles can be represented through computation. It is a quest for essential qualities, through an application of philosophical questioning, and a response to a human perception of reality. Reality, as an invention of the human mind, is often thought of as a set of accepted conventions and constructs. Such a reality has an inherent dependency upon cognition where spatial and temporal principles may be defined within the natural and built environment, and further embraced within a cultural context. However, there also exist rules or relations that are neither invented nor formulated by the participants understanding. In effect these relations may not have been effectively articulated, a result perhaps of unfamiliar cues. Therefore, to the participant, these relations reside in the realm of the unknown or even the mystic. The aesthetic often resides in the realm of the mystic. The discovery of the aesthetic, is often an experience that comes from encountering physical and essential beauty where it has been produced through unconscious relations, perceived, yet transcending human understanding. The aspects of space and time, spatial and temporal properties and relations of things and events, are generally accepted conventions. Yet, the existence of a time order, is often not perceived. An understanding of spatial temporal properties may involve a temporal detachment from convention, allowing the release of previously unknown patterns and relations. Virtual realities are well constructed simulations of our environments, yet they may lack the embedded essential qualities of place. Virtual reality should transcend human perception and traditional modes of understanding, and most importantly our limited notions of the temporal nature of our environment. A desire to reach beyond the limits of perceived time order, may take us beyond existing sets of cultural values, and lead to the realization of new spatial/temporal conventions with the assistance of the computer.
Papper, M., J. Danahy, and R. Baecker. "Predictable Modelling Interaction Using High-Level Constraints: Making Objects Behave as They Would in Our Environment." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 211-222. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. An approach for a graphical CAD system that is capable of representing physical and geometric aspects of a design using high-level constraints (HLCs) is presented. A prototype spatial planning system incorporating constraints is used in an interactive manner to refine designs by following an iterative approach which uses visual information to evaluate the design at each stage of iteration. High-level constraints aid this iterative approach by influencing (or constraining) the behaviour of objects as they are interactively manipulated during the design stage of problem solving. High-level constraints also define the scaling properties of objects which are useful during the construction stage of problem solving. This system and its implications for the design of CAD systems incorporating HLCs are discussed.
Norman, Richard. "Real and Un-real Color." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 45-52. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. Drawings exist for the communication of ideas. They are the containers of mankind's visual dreams and embody all of the hopes, the aspirations, and intentions of their creators. The act of drawing is itself an expression of the desire for a world that is better than what already exists. The appearance of a new drawing media does not change that purpose, it only presents new and stimulating methods of communication, better ways of conveying ideas. In ideal terms the design of a building requires a holistic procedure, one where the entire edifice is created in a single instant. The building must seem totally compete and be universally understood in order that it can be accepted, detailed, structured, and priced. This is of course not possible, there are too many aspects of architecture that are not thought about at the moment of creation. The process of design is continuous and moves from general to specific, any drawing media, to be useful, must accommodate this continuity. Completeness, where complete thought does not exist, cannot be achieved by the pursuit of reality on the computer. There are many unknowns that prohibit the creation of “reali pictures-unless one makes design assumptions that prudent process should not accept.
Woodbury, Robert F.. "Realities of Design." In Reality and Virtual Reality: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 177-192. ACADIA. Los Angeles, California: University of California at Los Angeles, 1991. In an article published in 1965, the Bauhaus teacher and designer, Johannes Itten, wrote: “The creation of a work of art often requires that the creative potential has at its disposition a multitude of possibilities to arrive at the simplest and clearest formulation.” The possibilities that Itten refers to are the inner creative resources of the artist. In order to train these resources Itten's students worked on exercises to practice the links between perceiving, imagination and artistic media. Itten found the source of possibilities inside the artist, in recent years we have learned something about expressing possibilities externally.