Keywords Abstract
Turner, James, and Theodore W. Hall. "An Application of Geometric Modeling and Ray Tracing to the Visual and Acoustical Analysis of a Municipal Open-Air Auditorium." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 173-185. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. The APRL of The University of Michigan was recently contracted to develop geometric models of a large open-air auditorium on the Detroit River to facilitate computer aided visual and acoustical analysis. This paper is a summary of the approaches taken to construct solid and surface models of the auditorium, and to develop general software for acoustical simulation. The project was a cooperative effort between: faculty and students of the APRL, Kent L. Hubbell Architects, a local architecture office, Robert Darvas Associates, a local structural engineering firm, and OC Birdair. 
Turner, James, and Theodore W. Hall. "An Application of Geometric Modeling and Ray Tracing to the Visual and Acoustical Analysis of a Municipal Open-Air Auditorium." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 173-185. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. Thee APRL of The University of Michigan was recently contracted to develop geometric models of a large open-air auditorium on the Detroit River to facilitate computer aided visual and acoustical analysis. This paper is a summary of the approaches taken to construct solid and surface models of the auditorium, and to develop general software for acoustical simulation.
Harfmann, Anton, and Stuart Chen. "Building Representation within a Component Based Paradigm." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 117-127. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. This paper questions the use of a 2-dimensional medium to convey 3-dimensional information about design intent and proposes a computer-aided paradigm that could radically alter the way in which buildings are designed and built. The paradigm is centered about the accurate and rational representation (Rush, 86) of each individual component that makes up a building in a single, shared, computer based model. The single model approach couples the accurate physical representation of components with the accurate representation of technical information and knowledge about the assemblies of building components. It is anticipated that implementation of this approach will result in fewer communication problems that currently plague the fragmented process of practicing in the professions of architecture and engineering. The paper introduces the basic concepts within the paradigm and focuses on the development of intuitive, reasoning about the component-based design suitable for incorporation in a computer-aided setting.
Seebohm, Thomas. "CAD and the Baroque." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 79-97. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. After a review of various methods of teaching computer aided design in schools of architecture, including “the conventional wisdom of CAD”, an approach is presented whereby the application of this “wisdom” is taught by creating very complex drawings of Baroque elevations. A description is given of how such drawings may be structured and of how a group of students may work on such drawings simultaneously to complete them expeditiously. An extension of this method of teaching architectural CAD is discussed wherein students would not only draw but would also design detailed elevations and plans of villas in the Palladian manner using recently developed computer aids to assist in the design.
Kalay, Yehuda, and Bruce Majkowski. "CAD Technology Transfer: a Case Study." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 133-143. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. Transferring innovative university-based research results to the industry or practice that will ultimately use them is an arduous, time-consuming effort. One way to effect this technology transfer is to develop a demonstrable prototype product and then find or form a corporation that can expand the prototype into a full product and market it to the profession. Another way, which can shorten the transfer process, is to “sell” the idea, rather than the product, to a corporation that has the vision, the resources and the technical competency to support its development, with the intent to eventually market it. In this paper, we describe a case study of this latter approach, based on our seven year experience of researching, developing and transferring innovative architectural CAD technology. We describe the birth, growth, and maturity of Worldview, a computer-aided design and modelling system for use by architects. The project was initiated in 1983, and went through five software versions, numerous grants and grant extensions, two granting corporations, and extensive field testing. The software has developed into a mature system, with sufficient functionality appropriate for commercial distribution. The paper describes not only the factual chronology of the project, but also highlights the advantages and drawbacks of market-oriented university research. We conclude with suggestions as to how the process may be improved, and how problems and obstacles can be minimized.
Tan, Milton. "Closing in on an Open Problem: Reasons and a Strategy to Encode Emergent Subshapes." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 19-May. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. The interpretation of drawings, by breaking them into subshapes and classifying these subshapes, is an essential part of creative designing. Drawings must be open to different interpretations - i.e. different decompositions into parts, and classification of these parts in different ways - but conventional CAD systems do not readily allow this. Their data structures are too inflexible, and they do not provide subshape or implied-shape recognition capabilities. This paper discusses the centrality of emergent forms in the design process and proposes a datastructure based on construction lines and ordered lists which enables shapes as collection of lines and arcs to be efficiently encoded. The strategy to build a design tool around this data structure is also presented.
Gilleard, J.D., J. Myers, and O.A. Olatidoye. "Computer Applications in Architectural Conservation." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 187-199. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. The Center for Architectural Conservation, College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, is considered to be one of the leading exponents of computer-aided databases for the management of buildings of historical merit in the U.S. Through their involvement with the National Parks Service and other clients in North America, the Center has developed considerable expertise in the creation of computerized fabric and condition survey methods, and in the compilation of databases for components and materials used in the rehabilitation and conservation arena. In addition, exploratory research is currently being undertaken in the development of “expert systemsi in the area of building diagnostics. This paper gives a brief historical background of the Center for Architectural Conservation, comments on the early establishment of the Center, and reviews the application of an expert system in the area of window diagnostic.
Seebohm, Thomas. "Deconstructing the Constructivist Drawings of Iakov Chernikhov." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 61-77. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. The three-dimensional nature of Chernikhov's Constructivist architecture can be analyzed by a method of reverse perspective deconstruction. After a review and classification of the drawings in Chernikhov's book, 101 Architectural Fantasies, to determine which classes are suitable for deconstruction, the method of perspective deconstruction together with the underlying assumptions is presented and applied to three drawings. Conclusions concerning the forms comprising the architecture depicted in Chernikhov's images and the possibility of representing this Constructivist architecture by shape grammars are discussed.
Barnes, Thomas. "Dynamic Interaction of Solids as a Design Tool." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 29-40. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. Architectural form and order can sometimes be described as having dynamic characteristics. To capitalize on this notion, physical qualities (mass, velocity, material elasticity, and friction) are given to objects. The objects are set in motion and allowed to interact at will with each other and their environment. The physical qualities are the rules that govern the outcome of interactions. As a result, interactions can lead to affine transformations (translate, scale, rotate), reformations (topological editing), and/or deformations (geometrical editing) of the objects. The designer can investigate the effects of interaction between dynamic elements, vary their physical qualities, and evaluate the appropriateness of the outcome as a solution to the design problem.
Goldman, Glenn, and Stephen Zdepski. "Image Sampling." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 21-28. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. Analogous to music sampling, in which sounds from the environment are recorded, distorted and used in unique ways to create music, “image sampling” is the visual equivalent of a sound bite used to create new visual forms, textures, patterns and types of architecture. Through the use of image sam ling, a designer can accurately record and digitize images from the existing visual world: rom the physical (built or natural) context of the site, from history (a specific building ? or a significant architectural monument) or from previous work produced by the designer. The digital scanning process makes design information equal and uniform, as it converts all images to dot patterns of varying color. As a result the image can be transformed through numeric operations (even when the algorithms are transparent to the end user). The recorded images can therefore be fragmented, combined, distorted, duplicated, tweened, or subjected to random automated operations. Because computer images are digital, they facilitate modification and transformation, unlike their analog counterparts. Merging video and image processing capabilities with three-dimensional modelling permits the designer to collage visual information into new and readily editable architectural proposals. Combining image samples into new architectural concepts expands the scope of potentials available to the architect and also raises fundamental questions about issues of originality, creativity, authenticity, and the nature of the design process itself. What is original work, created by the designer, and what is merely re-used? The discussion of new digital imaging eventually leads to questions about design theory and ethics, in addition to those associated with computer technology and architectural form. As one works in any new medium, including the digital environment, many questions are raised about its impacts on design. Much of what is presented in this paper are early speculations on the implications of the digital technology and its influence on architecture.
Johnson, Brian. "Inside Out." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 219-231. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. An effort to generate discussion, this paper suggests that between 1980 and 1990 a significant and undesirable change has occurred in academic architectural CAD. We have moved from being developers of ideas and technology on the inside of the development loop to being consumers of products developed in the commercial market place, outside the loop. Certain negative consequences are discussed. Finally, some suggestions are made for turning ourselves “right side outi again.
Van Pelt, Robert-Jan, and Thomas Seebohm. "Of Computer Memory and Human Remembrance: History of Urban Form Through Three-Dimensional Computer Modeling." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 45-59. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. After a discussion of the problematic relationship between architectural history, computer aided design and the design studio, a course is described which provides an overview of the history of urban form through readings and three-dimensional modelling by computer. One objective of the course was to model a hypothetical, archaic Greek city on a hypothetical but realistic site and to transform the model of that city through time to the 20th century. An overview is given of the computer modelling techniques, of the successes and failures of the first offering of the course and of suggestions for improving future offerings of the course.
Madrazo, Leandro. "The Integration of Computer Modeling in Architectural Design." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 103-116. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. The integration of computers in architectural design is explored from the perspective of both architectural education and professional practice. The main part of this paper attempts to define the conditions necessary for an effective interaction between computers and architects in the process of design. In the second part, a specific example, developed by the author during the course of his practice, is used to illustrate the use of available systems in professional practice.
McCall, Raymond Joseph, J.L. Ostwald, F.M. Shipman, and N.F. Wallace. "The Phidias Hypercad System: Extending CAD with Hypermedia." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 145-156. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. Phidias is software which integrates computer-aided design graphics with hypermedia to create a hypermedia CAD - or hyperCAD - system. Phidias allows architects to develop building form while having immediate and nearly effortless access to a rich store of textual, numerical, and graphical information. This information access can make a wide variety of design literature and research findings available to architects in a way and at a time that they can easily use it. Thus, Phidias is intended to help bridge the gap between architectural research and practice.
Sirikasem, Peerapong, and Larry Degelman. "The Use of Video-Computer Presentation Techniques to Aid in Communication Between Architect and Client." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 205-216. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. In an attempt to enhance the communication between architect and client, research was conducted in the use of computer modelling and video imaging techniques for the final architectural presentation process. By superimposing the painted building design from the CAD system onto a digitized image of the intended location, a composite image was achieved. These techniques have advantages in creating a realistic composite image of a proposed building design in its intended location within a short period of time. In order to provide more visual clues, a multiple view presentation format using a series of selected views (multiple views) was used. In addition, the research had further attempted to present the video-computer presentation in an animation sequence. The animation presentations were evaluated by comparing them with the multiple view presentations. Manual rendering and single viewpoint displays were also included in the comparisons in order to validate the results. Questionnaires were used to measure the capability of each presentation format to communicate the intended information to the audiences. The experiments were conducted with non-architecture subject groups in the local Bryan/College Station area.
Milne, Murray, and Tarek Labib. "Tools for Designing Climate Responsive Buildings." In From Research to Practice: Mission - Method - Madness: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 161-172. ACADIA. Big Sky, Montana: Montana State University, 1990. The term “Computer-Aided Design” for some people is reserved exclusively for drafting systems that provide a 2- or 3-dimensional graphic representation of a building. But many other issues bear on the final form of a building, issues that initially cannot be represented in a drawing of that building. These issues include thermal performance, lighting, economics, behavioural factors, acoustics, structural safety, etc. Architects in the future will have a whole kit of computer-aided design tools to help them address all of these non-graphic issues. A “design tool” might be defined as something that helps an architect make a better design decision. But the development of design tools also has a hidden agenda: they leave the architect with a richer understanding of the underlying issues involved. In other words, they also teach.