Keywords Abstract
Mitchell, William. "A New Agenda for Computer-Aided Architectural Design." In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 27-43. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. The essential theoretical foundations for today's practical computer-aided design systems were laid more than two decades ago. They have served us well, but they are now sorely in need of revision. This paper suggests some directions that this revision might take. In particular, I focus on the roles of ambiguity and discontinuity in shape interpretation, instability in rules for carrying out shape computations, and non monotonicity in critical reasoning. I suggest that the challenge before us is to build a new generation of CAD systems that respond in sophisticated ways to these issues.
Novak, Marcos. "An Experiment in Computational Composition." In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 61-83. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. A compositional study based on a visual interpretation of information theory is introduced. An algorithm is presented that relates variety in spatial parameters to visual information, along with a genetically inspired mechanism for refining a design through cycles of incremental cumulative changes. Two- and three-dimensional examples are shown.
Dvorak, Robert. "CAD Tools for Systems Theory and Bottom up Design." In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 209-226. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. The use of CAD is investigated in the teaching of systems theory to a fourth year group of design students. A comparison is made between the CAD group using MacArchitrion and a non-CAD group using traditional design methods. The paper includes a discussion of the meaning of systems design theories, relates the CAD and non-CAD student design methods and illustrates the results. It also includes recommendations for improvements so the computer can become more effective in this type of design teaching. Finally, it concludes with recommendations from the students at the end of the semester project. The basic premise for the CAD design group is that computers should encourage students to understand and use systems design theory.
Harfmann, Anton, and Stuart Chen. "Component Based Computer Aided Learning for Students of Architecture and Civil Engineering." In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 193-208. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. The paper describes the methodology and the current efforts to develop an interdisciplinary computer aided learning system for architects and civil engineers. The system being developed incorporates a component oriented relational database with an existing interactive 3-dimensional modelling system developed in the School of Architecture and Planning at SUNY Buffalo. The software will be used in existing courses in architecture and civil engineering as a teaching aid to help students understand the complex 3-dimensional interrelationships of structural components. Initial implementation has focused on the modelling of the components and assemblies for a lowrise steel frame structure. Current implementation efforts are focusing on the capability to view connections in various ways including the ability to “explode” a connection to better understand the sequence of construction and load paths. Appropriate codes, limit states of failure and specific data will be linked to each specific component in an expert system shell so that the system can offer feedback about a student generated connection and perhaps offer other possible connections a library of standard connections. Future expansion of the system will include adding other “systems” of a building, such as mechanical, electrical, plumbing, enclosure etc., to help students visualize the integration of the various parts.
Danahy, John, and Robert Wright. "Computing and Design in the Canadian Schools of Architecture and Landscape Architecture: a Proposed Research Agenda for Integrated CAD and GIS in the 1990's." In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 227-244. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. Conventional computer systems currently used by architecture and landscape architecture are not addressing complex decision making, system interface, dynamic manipulation and real time visualization of data. This paper identifies a strategy by which Canadian Schools could form a supportive network, incorporate and expand their research development. Within this larger framework schools would have better tools, a larger research base and access to funding as a group. The following discussion is an idea of what we at the Canadian Schools need to do differently over the next five years in our research and teaching in order to make a unique contribution to our fields.
Norman, Richard, and Robert Lowrey. "Ground Sculpture on CADD: Forming and Coloring the Landform in a Graphic Data Base." In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 49-59. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. A graphic data base of our campus is being developed to record physical inventory and to provide a three- dimensional development tool for the University. The campus has many changes in elevation. Computer terrain modelling is planned to provide traditional contour information as well as to furnish a base for perspective views of the campus. Selecting an appropriate geometry to record the landform, and determining criteria for coloration of the ground surface is critical to the success of the project. Methods of modelling a three-dimensional surface are discussed, color principles which articulate landform are explored. A methodology is illustrated which achieves a flexible model of the campus landform.
Lawson, Stephen. "In the Eye of the Beholder: a Proposal to Further the Critical Framework of Computer Graphics in Architectural Design." In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 147-157. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. This paper speculates on some of the inherent differences between computer graphics and conventional media when used in architectural design. It suggests that a lot of work and thought has gone into developing computer graphics as a medium for the development and expression of architectural ideas and examines some of the reasons that the fruits of this labor have been slow to fmd their way into the mainstream of the profession. This slowness to embrace rapidly developing technologies seems to be resulting in an ever widening gap between potential and the mainstream practice.
Bonn, Markus. "Modeling Architectural Forms through Replacement Operations." In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 103-130. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. Replacement operations, where an element at any topological level may be replaced by another element at the same or different topological level, are defined. Their potential as design tools which may be incorporated in a CAD system is investigated and demonstrated through the experimental implementation of two such operations in MARCOS, a Modelling Architectural Compositions System. MARCOS has been written in C. It is highly interactive and runs on an Apple Macintosh IIx. The two operations which have been implemented are the face -> volume and volume -> volume replacements. They were chosen for their potential as generators of architectural forms. Examples of architectural compositions produced through the use of replacement operations are also illustrated.
Terzidis, Costas. "Transformational Design." In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 87-101. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. The use of dynamically executable transformations and their orchestration in time is discussed and explored as a design tool. The aim has been to accommodate the dynamic character of architectural design during its form searching stages. The transformation and reformation of architectural elements is executed in real time under the direction of a user, who, by controlling the rhythm and the speed, orchestrates the compositional evolution of an architectural parti.
Bernard, Rusty. "USL/State Facility Planning and Control Automation Pilot Project." In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 179-192. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. State supported Universities often lend a helping hand to their state by providing services which may be difficult or impossible to acquire otherwise. This presentation reviews the process of computer aided facility management with special reference to a recently completed joint venture project to fully automate Louisiana's Facility Planning and Control services.
Stiny, George. "What is a Design?" In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 137-146. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. Designs belong to relations.
Rubinger, Morton. "Will CAD Survive Designers?" In New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 159-173. ACADIA. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1989. Discussion about the future of CAD often focuses on hardware and software. But that is the wrong emphasis. Future directions for CAD should be considered from the point of view of what is of value to architectural design. This paper is mainly concerned with the needs of architectural design education. For CAD to develop effectively, design education must first address some existing problems which threaten the future of CAD. These problems result mainly from conflicts between traditional design values and needs of using computers. For computers to aid design, software designers need a clearer picture of what design is. But there is no single acceptable meaning of design. Instead several different yet coherent meanings with historical roots are suggested. Each of these directions have different implications for the development of CAD.