Keywords Abstract
Brown, G.Z., and Barbara-Jo Novitski. "A Macintosh Design Studio." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 151-162. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. During the past year at the University of Oregon, we have conducted an experimental design studio in which each student had an Apple Macintosh SE microcomputer on his or her studio desk. Each term we experimented with a variety of software, furniture arrangements, and pedagogical approaches to integrating computers in design teaching. Like most others who have conducted such experiments, we encountered problems in trying to use hardware and software which is fundamentally inappropriate for the intuitive, graphic, and creative processes characteristic of preliminary design. However, we solved many of these problems and have produced useful techniques that may form the beginnings of a new approach to the use of computers in architecture schools. Our results fall in three major categories: 1) pedagogical discoveries about learning to design with a computer, which is greater than the sum of learning to design and learning about computers, 2) design exercises based on the Macintosh environment, exploiting the unique graphic qualities of the machine while simultaneously developing the ideas and drawing skills needed in the preliminary stages of design, 3) descriptions of the studio environment, including hardware, software, workstation layouts, security solutions, and other practical information that might be useful to others who are contemplating a similar project. 
Brooks, Gordon. "A New Communication Model for Architecture Using Video and 3D Computer Animated Graphics." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 263-274. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. The University of Arkansas School of Architecture has produced a half-hour television program describing Richard Meier's Atheneum in New Harmony, Indiana. The program uses an analysis technique developed by Dr. Geoffrey Baker, RIBA. The treatment for the material is a combination of on-site video and computer generated 3D animated graphics. An instrument was developed to evaluate the video and its 3D graphics. Based on analysis of the test data several conclusions are apparent. Students believe the video to be very helpful in understanding this building. This video appears to be paced too quickly for understanding in one viewing. Repetitive viewings of the video are helpful in understanding the content. Some students are able to understand principles presented visually better than those presented verbally, but best learning happens when information is reinforced visually and verbally.
Goldman, Glenn, and Stephen Zdepski. "Abstraction and Representation: Computer Graphics and Architectural Design." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 205-215. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. While there is evidence to support that many important aspects of architectural design are not graphically based, but analytical in nature, there remains a long history of design exploration dependent on representation. Furthermore, methods of imager 3While there is evidence to support that many important aspects of architectural design are not graphically based, but analytical in nature, there remains a long history of design exploration dependent on representation. Furthermore, methods of imager 3While there is evidence to support that many important aspects of architectural design are not graphically based, but analytical in nature, there remains a long history of design exploration dependent on representation. Furthermore, methods of imager 3While there is evidence to support that many important aspects of architectural design are not graphically based, but analytical in nature, there remains a long history of design exploration dependent on representation. Furthermore, methods of imager 3While there is evidence to support that many important aspects of architectural design are not graphically based, but analytical in nature, there remains a long history of design exploration dependent on representation. Furthermore, methods of imager 3While there is evidence to support that many important aspects of architectural design are not graphically based, but analytical in nature, there remains a long history of design exploration dependent on representation. Furthermore, methods of imager 3While there is evidence to support that many important aspects of architectural design are not graphically based, but analytical in nature, there remains a long history of design exploration dependent on representation. Furthermore, methods of imager 3While there is evidence to support that many important aspects of architectural design are not graphically based, but analytical in nature, there remains a long history of design exploration dependent on representation. Furthermore, methods of imager 3While there is evidence to support that many important aspects of architectural design are not graphically based, but analytical in nature, there remains a long history of design exploration dependent on representation. Furthermore, methods of imager 3While there is evidence to support that many important aspects of architectural design are not graphically based, but analytical in nat
Jordan, Peter. "ARCH 431: Computer-Aided Design." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 187-200. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. There is a significant variance in the way computer courses are taught at various institutions around the country. Generally, it is useful to think of these courses falling either into a “tool-buildingi or a “tool-using” category. However, within either category, there is a variety of focus on the application of the “tool”. Two courses have been developed at the University of Hawai” at Manoa which deal with computer applications. The first course is more quantitatively oriented, encouraging students to explore ways of dealing with problems in a more complex and substantial manner. This paper deals with the second course whose focus has shifted toward design issues, using the computer as a tool to explore these issues. This course exposes the student, not to training on a specific computer-aided drafting system, but to issues in computer-aided design which include hardware and software systems, human-machine interface, and the nature of the design process. This course seems to be an appropriate model for introducing computer-aided design to undergraduates in a professional design program.
Novak, Marcos. "Computational Composition in Architecture." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 30-May. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. The impact of computers on architectural design, manifested through the creation of architectural designs that equal or surpass in quality and sophistication architecture generated using traditional means, has yet to be demonstrated. Computer-aided design is conspicuously absent from theoretical discussions of architectural design per se, and there exist no major built or published buildings that have been designed using the computer in a true design capacity. Most prominent architects continue to ignore computer-aided design. This paper argues that the issues of architectural theory and composition must be addressed directly by the computer-aided design field, and that until this occurs computer-aided architectural design will necessarily be peripheral to architecture because it does not address the central problems of architecture as an expressive medium. To this end, it proposes a shift to the paradigm of computational composition, and discusses recent work in this direction.  The paper is divided into four parts. Part I identifies fundamental theoretical problems, contrasts the application of computation to architecture and to music, and draws upon several different areas for insight into the nature of making, Part II reviews particular architectural implications of these considerations, introduces the concept of computational composition in architecture, and presents a brief overview of important precedents, Part III proposes new goals for computer-aided architectural design and presents a framework for computational composition, finally, Part IV presents recent work directly related to the ideas presented in the previous parts and leads to the Conclusion. The appendices contain a pseudo-Prolog expression of Alvar Aalto's architectural language and notes on features of the PADL-2 solid modeler that are architecturally interesting. 
Bourque, Paul. "Computer-Aided Learning of Structural Behavior." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 135-146. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. Computer-aided learning of structural behaviour can be very effective and motivating. Students are able to analyse structures in far less time than by traditional methods and address problems of much greater complexity. They do so without the burden of manual computation.  Computer programs exist that are well suited for this purpose, two of which are described. They offer a broad range of design capabilities, and are easy to master because of their intuitive and graphically oriented approach.  A number of examples are given to illustrate the potential of computer-aided learning as a complement to traditional methods either in the classroom or in coursework. 
Radford, Anthony, Robert Oxman, and Rivka Oxman. "Design Teaching: the Language of Architectural Plans." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 99-110. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. The aims, operation and student reaction to a design studio course for beginning architecture students on the syntax of architectural plans are described. The course is highly structured and draws from computer graphics templates and a teaching manual which set up a series of exercises. The process of learning comes from execution of the exercises and from associated reading, discussion and debate on architectural planning issues.
Dvorak, Robert. "Designing in the CAD Studio." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 123-134. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. The “CAD Studio” is one of many design options that fourth year students may select in the College of Architecture. In this electronic environment, the students analyze and present their designs totally on the computer. The vehicle used is a fifteen week architectural problem called the “Calor Redesign Project”.  The “Calor” problem requires the move of a famous residence to a hot arid climate. The residence must then be redesigned in the original architect's style so the building becomes as energy efficient as possible in its new arid environment. The students are required to use as design criteria a new building program, the design philosophy of the original architect, and appropriate passive energy techniques that will reduce the thermal stress on the building. The building's energy response is measured by using an envelope energy analysis program called “Calor”.  Much of the learning comes from imposing a new set of restraints on a famous piece of architecture and asking the student to redesign it. The students not only need to learn and use a different design philosophy, but also develop new skills to communicate their ideas on the computer. Both Macintosh and IBM computers are used with software ranging from Microsoft Works, Superpaint, AutoCAD, MegaCAD, Dr Halo, to Calor.
Rubinger, Morton. "Drawing Lessons from Word Processing." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 235-245. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. Word processing is universally successful as a computer application whereas computer-aided design is not. What can we learn from word processing? It tells us that, to be successful, an entry-level CAD system should be basic and focus mainly on drawing and manipulation of drawings rather than on sophisticated operations and automation, it should be simple, easy to use and moderate in cost. In architectural education, it should be used in the early stages of design to enhance design quality and design learning. To do this, we need to understand the characteristics of this new drawing and design medium. Software needs to be thoroughly learned in advance of studio use, and computer-based studio projects should take a computational view of design to enhance the effective use of computers in learning to design. 
Stevens, Garry, and Anthony Radford. "Educating for the Unknown: Present Computer Education for Future Design Practice." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 47-57. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. The penetration of computing and computer-aided design into current and future architectural practise is examined and the implications for education discussed. It is argued that computing is part of the working environment in which both education and practise exist and that the content of education needs to be reinterpreted in the context of this new environment.
Danahy, John. "Engaging Intuitive Visual Thinking in Urban Design Modelling: a Real-Time Hypothesis." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 87-97. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. This paper will present prototypical software being used in the teaching of urban design to students and for use by professionals in the early stages of a project. The system is intended to support a heuristic approach to design. That is, it supports a process of refining ideas and understandings through a process of trial and error. The support or aid to design comes in the form of a didactic real-time programme. Its power lies in its ability to provide instantaneous response to operations on the data that can allow one to develop threedimensional spatial ideas in an intuitively driven manner. This condition appears to occur for both novice and expert computer operators. The presentation will present our experience to-date in using conventional computer graphic tools to represent design ideas and contrast it with a video demonstration of our prototypical dynamic urban design modelling software for the Silicon Graphics IRIS computers.
Seebohm, Thomas. "Interpreting Takefijmi Aida's Toy Block Houses." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 175-185. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. Three-dimensional modelling projects interpreting Takefumi Aida's Toy block Houses form the basis of a first course in architectural computer graphics described in this paper. Takefumi Aida's houses were chosen for two recent offerings of the course because they form a consistent body of architectural work which is very sculptural, geometrically structured and based on a single vocabulary of shapes. Shaded images produced in the course show the importance of human skill and judgement in computer modelling and rendering. The paper demonstrates the subjective nature of computer interpretations.
Noble, Douglas, and Horst Rittel. "Issue-Based Information Systems for Design." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 275-286. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. The understanding of planning and design as a process of argumentation (of the designer with himself or with others) has led to the concept of IBIS (Issue-Based Information Systems). The elements of IBIS are Issues, each of which are associated with alternative positions. These in turn are associated with arguments which support or object to a given position (or another argument). In the course of the treatment of issues, new issues come up which are treated likewise. Issue-Based Information Systems are used as a means of widening the coverage of a problem. By encouraging a greater degree of participation, particularly in the earlier phases of the process, the designer is increasing the opportunity that difficulties of his proposed solution, unseen by him, will be discovered by others. Since the problem observed by a designer can always be treated as merely a symptom of another higher-level problem, the argumentative approach also increases the likelyhood that someone will attempt to attack the problem from this point of view. Another desirable characteristic of the Issue-Based Information System is that it helps to make the design process'transparent'. Transparency here refers tO the ability of observers as well as participants to trace back the process of decision-making. This paper offers a description of a computer-supported IBIS (written in'C'using the'XWindows'user interface), including a discussion of the usefulness of IBIS in design, as well as comments on the role of the computer in IBIS implementation, and related developments in computing. 
Katz, Genevieve. "Paint Systems as a Design Tool.... "Oh Wow!"." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 224-233. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. The use of computer graphics paint systems is investigated as a primary design tool in the architecture studio. Paint programs are more conducive than CAD systems to providing a supportive environment for the exploration of design concepts.
McCullough, Malcolm. "Representation in the Computer Aided Design Studio." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 163-174. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. Application of commercial computer aided design systems to schematic design in a studio setting in a professionally oriented university provides the opportunity for observation of extensive use of CAD by designers with little or no orientation toward computing. Within a framework of studios intended to contrast media and highlight the issue of design representation, the most encouraging applications of computing have involved dynamic visual design representation. This paper presents a case study of three studios at the University of Texas at Austin together with commentary on the place of computing in this essentially artistic environment. It presents, in slide form, a body of aesthetically oriented CAD work which signals the spread of computer aided design out of the hands of researchers and into mainstream architectural design, where development of the visual and dynamic aspects of the medium may prove to be primary routes to improvement of it S power and acceptance. Much like a first design project, this paper then presents a lot of observations without yet much rigorous development of any one. It asks implicitly whether application of software constitutes research. 
Meurant, Robert. "Some Metaphysical Considerations Raised by the Computer-Generated Electronic Environment." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 59-70. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. The effects of the computer on the designer are profound, and affect design methodology and habitation. The computer-aided designer experiences within the electronic environment a freedom from certain important constraints of real-world modelling of physical reality. Electronic configurations are not bound by the constructional, material, or structural constraints operating in the physical world. This freedom is liberating, in that the imagination is given a powerful tool with which to develop external representations of ideal environments. But there is also the potential of destructive tendencies. Is the increasing sophistication of external tools of the imagination at the expense of the ability of the individual to master the internal imagination - are we externalizing at the price of inner vision? There is also the possibility of greater alienation from the physical world. We loose the tactile sensitivity, and the spatial and structural intuition with which we draw and make physical models. These are essential parts of the design of the physical environment. We are left on the horns of a dilemma. The rapid response and exciting images of the computergenerated video environment suggest we are entering an era when architecture itself becomes electronic. The physical built-form recedes in importance, and may even become redundant. But we must also ask: Are we entering a post-computer age? Will we realize the potential profundity of our innate human biocomputers - to the point where we renounce the hard technology of the material for the soft technology of consciousness?
McIntosh, John. "The ASU Strategic Plan for Computing Support." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 301-310. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. Our College has spent approximately one hundred thousand dollars per year on computing over the last five years. This paper, which developed out of a University-wide strategic planning exercise, speaks to the question: What are we getting for all that money?  The background to this large planning exercise is sketched, the goals of our computing support plan are stated, the strategies aimed at achieving these goals are explained, and the observed outcomes from implementing these strategies are listed.  In evaluating the plan, this paper argues the position that a computer culture must take hold within the College before computer-aided design will have a truly profound effect upon pedagogy. Operationally, this means that every faculty member must have a personal computer and that every student must have free access to a microcomputer facility. Only then does the whole College adopt the new culture. The fiscal commitment is high, but there are payoffs in of fice automation that justify the investment even in the short-term. Trivial as it seems, wordprocessing is the first step in seeding this culture. These short term payoffs help make the case for investing in the promise of long-term payoffs in superior design through computer aids.
Shaw, Doris. "The Conceptual Approach to CAD Education." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 35-45. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. Recent research at the Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) investigated embedded computer-based instruction for AutoCAD. The results of this study, which are the focus of this paper, indicated that the only factor which correlated with success in completing the final test was previous experience with another CAD system. Those who knew another CAD system had higher scores and required less than half the time to complete the lessons. Presumably their conceptual knowledge about CAD transferred to the new software environment, even though the Corps'study showed that they were initially biased against learning the new system. Such biased attitudes have been observed when users are asked to learn a second similar software of any kind.  Architects who are deeply involved in computer-aided design have stated that one must learn to program the computer to build the conceptual framework for the creative process. We at CERL agree that an understanding of underlying graphics concepts is essential to the designer. Our research shows that giving students the freedom to explore an existing software program can result in the development of conceptual knowledge. Interviews also reveal that students can invent ways to meet individual objectives when “guided discoveryi learning is encouraged.
Reed, Raymond. "The Teaching of Computer Assisted Sustainable Architectural Design." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 111-122. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. Sustainable architecture is high-tech, energy and resource conserving architecture that sustains and increases the human and natural carrying capacity of the host environment. This paper presents a computer assisted design process to teach sustainable architectural design. The energy performance of a base case building in each of four climates and cultures is presented. The climates are: Phoenix (hotdry), Minneapolis (cold-dry), Boston (cold-humid), and New Orleans ( hot- humid). Keeping the host climate, site, building size and function constant: but varying materials, shape and design concepts, each base case is iterated through a series of computer assisted re-designs to transform each base case building into an architecture representative of its regional climate and culture. Traditional technologies and concepts produce traditional regional architecture. New technologies and concepts produce forms expressive of an emerging high-tech, high-touch, low energy society. The paper presents computer generated work by the author and his students. It also presents an interim evaluation of the successes and difficulties of conducting a'paper free'design studio. 
Mitchell, William, Robin Liggett, and Milton Tan. "The Topdown System and its use in Teaching - an Exploration of Structured, Knowledge-Based Design." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 251-262. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. The Topdown System is a shell for use in developing simple (but we believe non-trivial) knowledge-based CAD systems. It provides a data structure, graphics capabilities, a sophisticated user interface, and programming tools for rapid construction of knowledge bases. Implementation is for Macintosh, Macintosh II, IBM PC/AT, PS12, and Sun workstations. The basic idea is that of top-down design - beginning with a very abstract representation, and elaborating that, in step-by-step fashion, into a complete and detailed representation. The basic operations are real-time parametric variation of designs (using the mouse and slide bar) and substitution of objects. Essentially, then, a knowledge-base in Top down implements a kind of parametric shape grammar.  The main applications of Top down are in introductory teaching of CAD, and (since it provides a very quick and easy way for a user to develop detailed geometric models) to provide a uniform front-end for a variety of different applications. The shell, and some example knowledge-bases, are publicly available. This paper discusses the principles of the Top down Shell, the implementation of knowledge bases within it, and a variety of practical design applications.
Haglund, Bruce, and Brian Sumption. "Toward a Computer Integrated Design Studio." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 291-299. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. The formation of our vision for a computer-integrated design studio is outlined. The ways in which our experience in teaching with computers in a variety of settings and in developing our own computer tools has contributed to this is explained. The next step in actualization of our vision is the creation of a design curriculum and a computerized studio which support the integration of this new technology into the traditions of architectural education.
Steinfeld, Edward. "Using CAD to Teach Architectural Design." In Computing in Design Education: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 75-86. ACADIA. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1988. A CAD program with solid modelling capabilities was used as the primary instructional media for a graduate level architectural design studio. The objective of the studio was to enhance design education by use of the CAD tool. A series of projects were designed to utilize CAD most effectively without sacrificing complexity and depth of educational content. The experiment identified several pedagogical advantages of CAD for design education and also some problems that have to be resolved to take maximum advantage of these tools.