Keywords Abstract
Yessios, Chris. "A Fractal Studio." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 169-182. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. The experience of using computer aided architectural design tools in a second year graduate studio is presented. These tools had to be developed as the search for design solutions evolved. The computer has been used for the exploration and generation of architectural forms and very little as a drafting/rendering machine. The generative algorithms were based on fractal geometries, arabesque ornamentations, DNA/RNA biological processes'etc. The design problem was a Biological Research Complex. The whole experience raised some interesting pedagogical questions, which are also discussed. 
Miranda, Valerian, and Larry Degelman. "An Experimental Computer-Aided Design Studio." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 19-28. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. A pilot experiment was conducted in the use of microcomputers and Computer Aided Design (CAD) software for architectural design education. The CAD workstations were incorporated into two consecutive semesters of the third year design studio and consisted of TANDY 3000 HD (tm) microcomputers with 20 megabyte hard disks, digitizer tablets, digitizer mice, enhanced graphics capabilities, dot-matrix printers and multi-pen plotters. Software packages included the Personal Architect (tm), VersaCAD (tm), DataCAD (tm), word processing software etc. Student to machine ratio of 4 to 1 was maintained and the use of the equipment was made available to students for approximately 20 hours per day. Design assignments neither emphasized nor required the use of CAD techniques, as the experiment was designed to measure the students'acceptance of and adaptation to the use of CAD tools. The objective was to “teachi design in the traditional sense of a design studio, while making the computer an integral part of the setting in which the student learned designing and problem solving. Measurements were made of (1) time for the “fundamentalsi learning curve, (2) time for a “basic competence” learning curve, (3) hours utilized by categories of type of use, (4) hours utilized by equipment and software type, and (5) progress in design ability as evaluated by the traditional jury review methods. 
Jog, Bharati. "An Interface Between CAD and Energy Analysis System." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. During the architectural design process it is helpful to get the energy analysis at various steps. Using the knowledge obtained from energy analysis programs, a design can be improved during the next step. Today Computer-Aided Drafting packages are popular as drafting tools in the architecture profession and schools. Many software packages for energy analysis are also available. To promote such analytical design process, there is a need to develop interfaces between energy analysis systems and Computer- Aided Drafting packages to get the energy analysis using the drawing files. This paper describes the use of the interface between Computer-Aided Drafting system and energy analysis program as an analytical tool in the Computer-Aided Design process. Then it presents an interface developed between AutoCAD, a popular Computer-Aided Drafting tool, and CALPAS3, an energy analysis program.
Johnson, Robert, and Yasser Mansour. "Aspects of Rules and Language in Design Decisions." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. This paper is a report of a doctoral research seminar conducted during the Winter term, 1987. The interdisciplinary seminar investigated both theoretical and practical aspects of how design decisions are made. Participants in the seminar represented diverse interests ranging from human science to computer-aided design. The paper focuses on two of several decision making issues that emerged from this seminar: design rules and design languages. These issues are explored from a theoretical context and illustrated through design experiments and discussions that were conducted as part of the seminar. The paper concludes with several suggestions for the development of computer-aided design software.
Van Wyk, C.G.. "CAAD Usage: Now and When at OSU." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 121-134. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. In February of this year the Department of Architecture at The Ohio State University began a study to determine existing and long-term needs and expectations regarding the use of computers in teaching, research, administration, and service. The results of the study are to aid in two broad planning objectives: (1) facility, hardware, and software acquisition, and (2) curriculum enhancement, faculty and staff development, and support services (i.e., consultants, lab monitors, etc.).  An interview technique was developed to address three main concerns: (1) how computers are and should be utilized in areas--i.e., research, course preparation, lecture delivery, computer-aided instruction, grading and monitoring, and student exercises, (2) what kinds of applications are and should be utilized--i.e., word processing, statistics, graphics, drafting, modelling, audio-visual, database, etc., and (3) what problems or concerns stand in the way of achieving the desired levels of computer usage.  The twenty-three full-time faculty surveyed (96% participation) represent 65 curriculum courses varying in format from design studio and labs to lecture. This paper outlines the methods of the study and presents the findings via graphs of current and desired computer usage by both area and application along with a graphic summary of statistics and trends. Also presented are a summary of root problems and concerns noted during the interview process and conclusions and limitations of study.
Goldman, Glenn, and Stephen Zdepski. "Form, Color and Movement." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 39-50. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. Computer generated three dimensional architectural modelling is a fundamental transformation of the traditional architectural design process. Viewing a three dimensional computer model from many vantage points and through animation sequences, presents buildings and their surrounding environments as a sequence of spaces and events, rather than as static objects or graphic abstractions. Three dimensional modelling at the earliest stages of design tends to increase the spatial and formal properties of early building design studies, and diminishes the dominance of plan as the form giver.  The following paper is based upon the work of second, third and fifth year architectural students who have engaged in architectural design through the use of microcomputer graphics. In each case they entered the architectural studio with virtually no computer experience. Although the assigned architectural projects were identical to those of other “conventionali architectural studios, their design work was accomplished, almost solely, using four different types of graphic software: Computer-Aided Drafting, 3-Dimensional Modelling, Painting and Animation programs. Information presented is based upon student surveys, semester logs, interviews, impressions of external design critics, and the comparison of computer based and conventional studio final presentations. 
Turner, James. "Graphic Standards: IGES and PDES in an AEC Environment." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 195-. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. The idea made a lot of sense: many diverse CAD systems communicating a common project data-base through a neutral format translator. The “Initial Graphics Exchange Specification”, kindly known as IGES (pronounced “I guess” by its proponents, and “I guess noti by its opponents) was the the initial effort, and is either loved or hated, there is no “neutral” ground. Has it succeeded? Has it failed? Is there a future in this neutral format business? Was CAD meant to be “design” or “drafting”? Does industry support it? What does it mean for architecture? Is a “one-to-many” translator a wonderful idea, but impossible to implement? Is a complete set of “one-to-one” translators a better idea?  This paper will give a short history of IGES, discuss its reason for being, list its strengths and weaknesses, examine its inner workings, and introduce the current effort of the IGES committee: a total “Product Design Exchange Specification”, PDES (and internationally as STEP). It will also discuss the techniques used by the PDES application committees to model their various products, and give a case study of the effort of the AEC committee in modelling an architectural “product”.  The paper will conclude with the opinions on the future of IGES by the author (a four year member of the IGES/PDES organization).
Brown, John. "Integrating Computers into the Design Studio - a Critical Evaluation." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 29-38. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. This paper presents a critical evaluation of two years of experience in using computer aided design as the primary graphic tool in an architectural design studio. In addition to significant benefits being realized, it was found that in a number of circumstances the graphic tool seemed to place unnecessary or inappropriate constraints on the designer. A critical examination of this tendency revealed that there may be a discrepancy between the theoretical framework in which computer aided design systems are developed and used, and the conceptual framework of contemporary architectural thought. These issues arising from the studio experience, are discussed and placed within the context of current theoretical concerns in architecture. 
Wilcox, Peter. "Interactive Color Theory - Education, Research and Practice: the Development of CoMoS3." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 77-86. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. This paper describes one way to integrate the computer into architectural color research, teaching, and practice. In my work with the Architecture and Interior Architecture programs at the University of Oregon, I am currently developing software exploiting the full three-dimensional and dynamic nature of the Munsell color organization, thereby making it easier for students to learn and apply color theory. CoMoS3 provides an interactive means of understanding and exploring color relationships from within the Munsell system of organization, employing the Munsell harmonies essentially as both a theoretical datum and an interactive “mentor” for color studies. In describing CoMoS3, Color Modelling System in 3D, this paper proposes a method for the integration of computers into one of the more creative and subjective aspects of architectural education and practice. The paper also discusses the problems inherent in this approach and suggests directions for future work.
Hall, Theodore W.. "Space Stations, Computers and Architectural Design." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 18-Jul. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. In the winter semester of 1987, I had the opportunity to work with a group of aerospace engineering students on the design of an artificial-gravity rotating space habitat. This was an interesting project in its own right, but of particular relevance to ACADIA was the role of the computer in the design process. Because of its unusual nature, this project forced me to reconsider several issues. This paper addresses the following: (-) The computer as a medium for communication. (-) The need for special tools for special tasks. (-) The pros and cons of computer models vs. cardboard models. (-) The designer's reliance on technology and technocrats. (-) The role of the guru. // Since it was the experience with the space habitat design project that raised these issues, the discussion starts there. The paper then looks for similar experiences in other, more “typicali studio projects. The conclusions are personal opinions about software design, computer literacy, and the teaching of CAD skills to non-programmers.
Herbert, Daniel. "Study Drawings in Architectural Design: Applications for CAD Systems." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 157-168. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. To guide their future development, research and teaching in computer-aided design must look beyond the technical capabilities of computer systems to establish a theoretical foundation based on known processes in design. This paper suggests that such a theoretical foundation can be derived by analyzing architectural study drawings -- defined as the rough drawings that architects make in the exploratory stages of design -- to determine their epistemelogical properties. The analysis brings forward concepts from a number of disciplines related to the structure of human knowledge to identify five properties of study drawings. Based on these properties, the paper proposes strategies for application to the next generation of research and teaching in CAD systems.
Kennedy, Michael. "The Initial Start: Beginning CAADD for the Brand New Student." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 65-76. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. Described is a teaching system presently being used during the first five weeks of a first course in Computer Aided Architectural Design and Drafting (After these five weeks students spend eleven weeks actively using a 2-D drafting package and a 3-D surface modelling package). It is the view of the author that a student can obtain much more from her or his first course in CAADD if some fundamental concepts are covered specifically and dramatically, rather than assumed or conveyed by osmosis. On the other hand, one does not want to significantly delay the teaching of he principal objective: how to use a computer as a partner in design and production. The answer to meeting these two divergent objectives is two-fold: (1) careful organization with computer based tutorials, and (2) integration of architectonic lessons during the introduction. The objectives of he initial five weeks are (1) to demystify computers, (2) teach the fundamental concepts of computer systems relating to hardware (disks, cpu, memory, display), and software (programs, data, files), (3) illustrate programming and program design, and (4) convey the concept of discrete symbol manipulation and its relation to graphics and text.
Bancroft, Pamela. "The Integration of Computing into Architectural Education Through Computer Literate Faculty." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 109-120. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. This paper discusses the apparent correlation between faculty computer literacy and the success of integrating computing into architectural education. Relevant questions of a 1985 national survey which was conducted to study the historical development of faculty computer utilization are analyzed and interpreted. The survey results are then used as the basis for a series of recommendations given for increasing computer literacy among faculty in architectural schools, thus increasing the integration of computing. 
Schmitt, Gerhard. "The Perceived Impact of Computers on the Teaching of Design Goals and Reality." In Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 135-152. ACADIA. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University, 1987. The actual and potential impact of computers on design education is an issue of growing concern for students, faculty, and practitioners. The assessment ranges from very positive to negative. (On first sight, the complexity of reasons for and against computers in design seems overwhelming. This paper attempts to isolate reasons for the various attitudes and find a method to judge the impact of computers on design education rationally by identifying goals and comparing them to reality.  Part One establishes facts: the human and financial investment that universities have made in CAD, based on results from publications and a national ACADIA survey, and the investment of architectural firms in CAD, based on recent national and regional in-depth studies.  Part Two examines goals of the use of CAD in the design studio. For better analysis, goals are divided into two extreme categories: tool independent and tool dependent. Tool independent goals are born out of the need to improve the existing design education, independent from technological development. Tool dependent goals are tailored to the alleged capabilities of new software and hardware and to pressure from the professional community. The actual definition of goals for design education will lie somewhere in between.  Part three examines the reality in the design studio. It tries to determine the place of the computer in the design process from a student's view, and an educator's view. The last section is dedicated to the testing of the developed theory against actual studios.