Keywords Abstract
Cajati, Claudio. "A Fully Integrated Use of Available Media and of Computer Technology for Up-to-date Educational Tools in Architecture." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 129-147. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. In this paper no general or specific forecast is- made about what is going to happen in the next decade in architectural education. No extrapolation and projection in the future, through more or 1e33 sophisticated technique3, of plausible trends is attempted. Such an effort goes beyond the competence and inteffectual force of the author.
Langendorf, Richard. "Alternative Models of Architectural Practice: the Impact of Computers -- 1990 and 2000." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 71-79. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. Though many architectural firms have only recently begun to use computers, and most firms still do not use computers for design, it is likely that by the turn of the century computers will have transformed architectural practice. First this paper assesses the likelihood of change by examining the potential use of computers in architectural practice, summarizing technology forecasts for computer hardware, software, and standards. -However, because there is an opportunity, architectural firms will not necessarily computerize. Next is a brief review of impediments to change and the process of organizational adaptation of new technology. Finally, the paper concludes with a number of forecasts in architectural practice in 1990 and 2000. A variety of professional practice options are defined, with the suggestion that there will be increasing experimentation and diversity within the profession. Finally, the implications of these changes are explored for architectural education.
Kieffer, Bruce. "An Interactive CAD Based System Integrating Visual Analysis and Design." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 191-202. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. The paper describes the development of an enhanced CAD based instructional system specifically focusing on a linkage between the analytical and creative tasks necessary during the early schematic or conceptual design. The first two components of the system are fairly conventional items and include a tutorial and library of six (6) two and three dimensional CAD design files which document the visual and organizational aspects of archetype buildings and spaces. The CAD facility allows a user to selectively highlight and combine for review, various features of a buildings design. This allows its users to literally, “build-up” an understanding of the complexity of factors at work in recognizably good building. The final component to a customized CAD environment allowing users to develop their own designs with the same tools used during analysis of the archetypes. In addition to a description of the system, the paper identifies the effectiveness measures and instructional setting being established for evaluation of the system.
Paasi, Jyrki. "Architectural Space Synthesizer - the last link of a CAAD system." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 217-223. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. Computer technology and CAD are about to change radically the thousands of years of tradition of the architect's work. We are leaving behind the old method of drawing by hand, replacing the pencil with a stylus for pointing elements of mathematical models of projects. We are changing over from two dimensional to three dimensional design. Decisive for the architect to achieve a successful outcome has always been and will always be the visualisation of the project right from its early stages. There is a trend -in our time and a risk in the. new technology of fragmenting our work and making it more abstract. The new technology is based on the old one and in the beginning its user still has the habits of the old. Therefore the visualisation in present CAD systems and three dimensional design is based on the old plane projections, axonometrics and perspectives. However, there is an essentially better way which happens also to be natural to the new technology and simple to realize using it. This is the spherical projection.
Shaw, Doris. "Case Studies in Architectural CADD Education." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 157-172. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. Stages in the formation of concepts necessary for mastery can be observed in cognitive development in many different areas of study. These stages seem to follow a particular hierarchy common to most learners. Distinct levels can be recognized by patterns of procedural errors. The remediation of errors can then take the form of building a conceptual framework rather than training in procedural patterns. This has been found to be highly efficient for learners at all stages since it can be aimed at the underlying problem area and not at isolated errors which may change frequently. It was felt, that concept development of architects learning to use computer-aided drawing programs would show such levels. Preliminary studies made at the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory upon selected subjects using computer-aided lessons in AutoCAD as a basis for observations reveal several categories of errors in using computer-aided design. These case studies show that the design process can be enhanced by automated drawing and design tools if the conceptual relationships are established as a part of the learning environment. Even more important, the observations show that architects have particular characteristics which differ from engineers and other CAD users. These differences require that education and software be tailored to their needs. 
Morgan, Charles. "Conceptual Design on a Microcomputer ." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 89-102. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. As most computer users in the profession of Architecture recognize, computer usage in the profession, while increasingly widespread, is limited in scope. Architects may use the computer for word processing, estimating, office management and drawing production, but for the work most central to their profession, building design, the computer Is used very little. While computer software and hardware vendors try to maintain the utility of their wares in this area, their misunderstanding of the differences among engineering, CAD/CAM, and Architecture shows in the inappropriateness of most systems for conceptual architectural design. While some software and systems address basic architectural design, most are incapable of the transition to design development, with its need for more symbolic information.
Johnson, Robert. "Micro-computers and Computer Aided Design Instruction." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 173-181. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. During the past few years we have been involved in a variety of experiments that teach the use of computers to non-computer oriented architecture students. These teaching experiences have led to the development of an experimental, entry-level course in computer-aided architectural design using the Macintosh personal computer. Objectives of this course included: a) to provide an introductory course to students with little or no prior computer experience, b) to use the course as a vehicle for illustrating principles of computer-aided design, c) to course so that it would be applicable to design in general, not just architectural design, and d) whenever possible, to use “off the shelf”, generic, readily accessible software. The history of these developments will be presented along with a very preliminary evaluation of results.
Kim, Uk. "Model for an Integrated Design Evaluation System using Knowledge Bases." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 204-215. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) systems need to be integrated so that one unified system can generate and do various analysis and evaluation of building models. A data system can not solve this problem because all design concepts can not be stored in the database before the design is completed. As design stage proceeds, design concept and necessary information for analysis and evaluation become complex and detailed. In order to accommodate increasing entities and new relationships between them, knowledge-based systems are integrated into the database of building models. frame structure and production rules are adopted to represent knowledge about the database, and to represent evaluation rules respectively. The system is implemented in Prolog on an Apollo workstation.
Brown, G.Z., and Barbara-Jo Novitski. "Nurturing Design Intuition in Energy Software." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 183-189. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. This paper discusses educational software under development at the University of Oregon which helps to alleviate the difficulties of integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural design process.
Wagter, Harry. "Stimulating Creativity by Using Computers." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 149-155. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. Discussions that cope with the relation between computers and creativity often turn out to be very sensitive. It seems that this aspect of computer technology makes people feel uneasy. This can easily be understood. Many examples can be found were interesting jobs with social contacts for workers changed into dull and monotone ones. This counts specially for administrative oriented organisations, but also in more technical based organisations we can see variations to this theme. Nevertheless many advantages can be mentioned for the organisation itself, and of course for the customer himself, who is being served more accurate, faster and with a higher degree of service. The discussion on creative aspects mainly takes place in the technical oriented professions. Architects among them seem to be strongly represented. Specially in relation to CAD-techniques being obstructed in one's creative possibilities is very often mentioned as an argument for not adopting the new techniques.
Zdepski, Stephen, and Glen Goldman. "The Computability of Design." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 103-111. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. A number of architectural design studios (second, third and fifth year) at the School of Architecture at the New Jersey Institute of Technology have undertaken traditional design problems through the use of IBM-AT microcomputer based CAD/Graphics systems. Utilizing three-dimensional modelling software, color graphics “paint” software, and animation software, the studios integrated the use of computers into the very heart of the core program as the primary means of design, simulation, and evaluation. At the same time, other non-computer based studios engaged in similar (and often identical) design problems. Therefore, the opportunity became available to compare and evaluate both the impact the computer made to the traditional architectural studio and also to the building design itself.
Neuckermans, Herman. "The Intelligent Pencil: a framework for CAAD in Education." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 113-128. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. Computer Aided Architectural Design in Education (CAADE) can only be meaningful if it brings meaningful answers to meaningful questions about architecture and architectural education. In the discourse about CAAD and CAADE these questions are completely absent, this can be concluded from: (1.) an absolute lack of architectural-theoretical and historical reflection, without which no architecture can exist, (2.) a frequent confusion between designing and drawing: the latter being a non neutral tool for the former, (3.) the absence of a clear understanding of the way in which architecture comes about: what are the concepts and entities an architect is working with and how does he manipulate them? (4.) no clear insights about the way architectural “design by hand” should be taught and a fortiori about the way a computer could help.
Harfmann, A.C., L.M. Swerdloff, and Yehuda Kalay. "The Terminal Crit." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 794-801. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. Numerous attempts have been made to develop formal design methods with -the purpose of increasing the predictability, consistency and dissemination of the design process and improving the quality of the objects produced. The ill- structured nature of design, and the perception of design activities as intuitive and experience dependent have frustrated many of the efforts to structure these process. The growing complexity of the built environment and advances in technology have led to a more rigorous effort to understand and externalize creative activities. Computer aided design tools have recently been playing an important role in the evolution of the design process as a rationally defined activity. The use of- computers for drafting, analysis, and 2 or 3 dimensional modelling is  rapidly becoming an accepted method in many design schools and practitioners. A next logical step in the externalization of the design process is to endow the computer with the ability to manipulate and critique parts of the design. Under this scenario, the “terminal crit” is redefined to mean critiques that are carried out by both the designer and the computer. The paper presents the rationalization of the design process as a continuum into which CAD has been introduced. The effects of computers on the design process are studied through a specific incorporation of CAD tools into a conventional design studio, and a research project intended to advance the role of CAD in design.
Yessios, Chris. "What has yet to be CAD." In Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 29-36. ACADIA. Houston, Texas: University of Houston, 1986. The theme of this Acadia Conference was to a large extent addressed by Mitchell in his article “'What was Computer-aided design?”', published about two years ago. While one has to agree with most of his points, I find his predictions gloomy enough to wish I could disagree. Luckily, Mitchell has chosen to address what the majority of the profession (and many architectural schools) currently consider to be CAD. It turns out that this CAD is not what CAD is supposed to be. I have, therefore, purposely chosen a title which appears to echo an opposite view. My intention is not to express disagreement but rather to project the other face of CAD, in my own mind, the only CAD which deserves the name. Whether the current CAD should or will be called CAD in the future is of non-essential significance. As teachers of architectural design we need to be concerned that architectural CAD remains, to date, a very immature field. It is CAD only by name, since a true CAD system has yet to be'discoveredi. This presentation consists of three major sections. The first reviews why the currently available CAD systems do not have the ingredients which may justify them as design oriented machines. This discussion leads to the identification of architectural modelling and knowledge systems as the two main areas which need to be researched so that they may offer the basis for the development of truly design oriented machines. Each is discussed under a separate section, but the point is also made that the two should work hand-in-hand and should be integrated into a completely unified system.