Keywords Abstract
Burnett, Jeffrey. "A Prototype Voice Operated Computer Aided Design Workstation Intended for High Productivity Commercial and Educational Use." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 83-95. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. The recent availability of easy to use, tow cost voice recognition input devices combined with increasingly sophisticated mini and micro-computer based Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems offer numerous possibilities for quadriplegics to enter (or re-enter) the job market as draft-persons and design professionals. Serious productivity potential needs much more study, however, preliminary benchmarks indicate that it would be reasonable to expect ratios of.9 to 1.4 over manual drafting using the configuration described.
Kalay, Yehuda, A.C. Harfmann, and L.M. Swerdloff. "ALEX: a Knowledge-Based Architectural Design System." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 96-108. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. A methodology for the development of a knowledge-based computer-aided design system and its experimental application in the domain of single family house design are presented.  The methodology involves integrating within a unified design environment, tools and techniques that have been independently developed in various disciplines (including knowledge representation, information management, geometric modelling, human,machine interface, and architectural design). By assuming the role of active design partners, the resulting systems are expected to increase the productivity of designers, improve the quality of their products, and reduce cost and lead time of the design process as a whole.  ALEX (Architecture Learning Expert), a particular application of this methodology, is a prototype knowledge-based CAD system in the domain of single family house design. It employs user-interactive, goal directed heuristic search strategies in a solution space that consists of a network of objects. Message-based change propagation techniques, guided by domain-specific knowledge, are used to ensure database integrity and well-formedness.  The significance of the methodology and its application is threefold: it furthers our knowledge of the architectural design process, explores the utilization of knowledge engineering methods in design, and serves as a prototype for developing the next generation of computer-aided architectural design systems.
Schmitt, Gerhard. "Architectural Expert Systems: Definition, Application Areas and Practical Examples." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 43-51. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. Knowledge Based Expert Systems (KBES) have emerged as a new tool for decision making in scientific disciplines. From the definition of the term and from previous experiences in geology, computer science, engineering, and medicine, it seems that they could develop into an important tool for architectural design and the building industry. This paper gives a very general overview over existing expert systems and potential application areas in architecture. It then presents in more detail two of the prototype systems that are under development in the Department of Architecture at Carnegie - Mellon University to gain practical experience.
Schmitt, Gerhard. "Architectural Tool Building: Introduction to Pascal for Architects and Designers Using Graphics on the IBM PC and Macintosh." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 119-128. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. The growing number of architecture and design students that take introductory computing courses justify the development of courses that are tuned to the specific needs of these disciplines. The importance of graphics has to be reflected in these courses and relationships that exist between structured programming and deterministic design problems must be demonstrated. This paper describes such a course - the software and the tutorial developed for it. It is both the introduction for architecture and design students to become competent program users and the foundation and prerequisite for more advanced courses in data structures and Artificial Intelligence for architectural tool building.
Love, James. "CAAD: the Interactive Effect in Technical Education." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 12-Jan. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. The factors that determine the value of CAAD tools in technical education are investigated. Pedagogical theory on problem solving is reviewed, and its relationship to the design process as described by Mitchell is discussed. The goals of design practice and design education are compared. Consideration of the nature of the architectural design process and the impact of CAAD leads to the conclusion that cognitive skills, as defined by Gagne, are of increasing importance. Pre-CAAD approaches to technical instruction are discussed. The opportunities represented by CAAD in terms of more relevant, effective, and rewarding learning experiences are noted. Features that make CAAD tools effective for instruction are considered, and the need for specialized instructional software is pointed out. Additional benefits of CAAD usage, including greater effectiveness of instructional staff and substitution for laboratory hardware are noted.
Kellogg, Richard. "CAD-Spreadsheet Linkages for Design and Analysis." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 109-118. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. This paper reports on two systems under development which link a CAD system with a spreadsheet. The first extracts areas and R-values from a special AutoCAD drawing and processes the information in a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet to obtain total heatloss for a building. The second is a prototype expert system which uses space labels from an AutoCAD “bubble-diagram” to print lists of design recommendations extracted from a Lotus 1-2-3 data-base. These methods emphasize drawing as the primary design activity, while providing immediate factual feedback about the design proposal.
Hall, Theodore W.. "Design-Aided Computing: Adapting Old Spaces to New Uses." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 25-34. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. The introduction of computer-aided design to an architecture school requires many departures from tradition ? not only in the curriculum, but also in the facilities. Although there is an abundance of technical information available for the design of new computer rooms, building one from scratch is a luxury that few architecture schools can afford. To catch up with the computer revolution - and, it is to be hoped, come to lead it ? colleges must engage in the adaptive re-use of spaces that are often not particularly well-suited to the special needs of computing. This paper describes some of the issues that should be considered when an architecture school takes its first plunge into computing. It is not a technical reference, but rather an overview General guidelines are discussed, followed by a detailed case history of our own mixed experience The emphasis is on the need for developing specific plans regarding computer applications before making any big commitments.
Norman, Richard. "Electronic Color in the Architectural Studio - an Alternative Strategy for Introducing the Computer as a Creative Tool in the Studio Environment." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 35-42. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. An alternative strategy is proposed for introducing the computer as a creative tool in the studio environment. It is suggested that computer graphic capabilities, focusing on color as an element of design, be incorporated into basic design studios. Techniques of color drawing on the computer are discussed, and computer modelling of color systems is recommended as a vehicle through which to introduce color theory. The effect of color on the perception of buildings is explored, illustrating how color selection can affect a building's line, form and spatial quality. These techniques enable students to develop an appreciation of the use of color in buildings, reinforcing their knowledge of basic design, and introducing them to graphic computing in a visually provocative manner. The proposal recognizes the importance of both color theory and graphic computers to an evolving architectural curriculum.
Quadrel, Richard, and David Chassin. "Energy Graphics: a Progress Report on the Development of Architectural Courseware." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 129-141. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. Energy Graphics is a technique for determining the energy performance of buildings at the conceptual stage of the architectural design process. Unlike many energy analysis programs, which only produce results after ail of the building information has been supplied, Energy Graphics works with the designer in understanding how early decisions about building form and configuration affect energy use. The Energy Graphics technique is currently being “computerized” on a Sun 2/120 graphics workstation, under a grant by the Inter-University Consortium for Educational Computing. The resulting software will be used in the architectural design curriculum so that students will be able to receive an immediate energy evaluation of their design explorations. For use in the studios, the software must include a powerful graphics interface that allows students to “sketch” their design concepts interactively. The computer will then interpret these sketches as building information, organize them into an integrated database, perform the energy calculations, and inform the student of the results in a graphic format. One of the project's major goals is to provide this graphics interface in the same way that architects think about drawing, and not simply to imitate current computer “drafting” systems.  The goals of the project can only be met by developing the software on a powerful workstation system, which provides fast processing time, large memory, multitasking capabilities and high-resolution graphics. This progress report describes our efforts to date on the development of this important software. 
Bollinger, Elizabeth. "Integrating CADD into the AEC Process - a Case Study." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 13-24. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. A research grant was awarded to the Graduate School of Architecture at the University of Houston by Nash Phillips/Copus, a large homebuilding corporation, to study the integration of computer aided design into the entire building process. A computer aided design system had been utilized by the firm's department of architecture and planning for several months. A team of University faculty and graduate students studied the organization of the firm with respect to functions that could be automated. Its determination was that by utilizing an integrated data base, with information to be extracted from the computer generated drawings, the entire process of bidding and building a structure could be made more efficient and cost effective. The research team developed a system in which cost estimating could be done directly from the drawings. As drawings were modified, new reports could be automatically generated. More design solutions could be studied from the impact of cost as well as aesthetics. Additionally, once plans were drawn, a program written by students would automatically generate elevations of wall panels to be sent to the construction department for its use, and which would also generate material reports. The team also studied techniques of computer modelling for usage by the architectural planning department in client presentations.
Wolchko, Matthew. "Strategies Toward Architectural Knowledge Engineering." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 69-82. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. Conventional CAD-drafting systems become more powerful modelling tools with the addition of a linked attribute spreadsheet module. This affords the designer the ability to make design decisions not only in the graphic environment, but also as a consequence of quantitative design constraints made apparent in the spreadsheet. While the spreadsheet interface is easily understood by the user, it suffers from two limitations: it lacks a variety of functional capabilities that would enable it to solve more complex design tasks, also, it can only report on existing conditions in the graphic environment. A proposal is made for the enhancement of the spreadsheet's programming power, creating an interface for the selection of program modules that can solve various architectural design tasks. Due to the complexity and graphic nature of architectural design, it is suggested that both procedural and propositional programming methods be used in concert within such a system. In the following, a suitable design task (artificial illumination-reflected ceiling layout) is selected, and then decomposed into two parts: the quantitative analysis (via the application of a procedural programming algorithm), and a logical model generation using shape grammar rules in a propositional framework.
Lenart, Mihaly. "The Design of Buildings which Have Complex Mechanical Infrastructure using Expert Systems." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 52-68. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. This paper presents a project under development at the University of Karlsruhe in which the author took part for two years. The aim of this project which was supported by the German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) is to find better methods for the design of buildings having complex mechanical systems like laboratories, office buildings, schools, hospitals. etc. The design of the mechanical infrastructure in such buildings is as important as the design of other architectural or construction parts. The fundamental idea of the project is to consider design problems of the mechanical system as part of the design of the architectural and structural concepts of the entire building. This is based on the belief that the use of an expert system containing computer programs for the solution of design problems can support the whole design procedure and that the design of buildings having complex mechanical infrastructure can be qualitatively better and more efficient than the design with traditional methods.
Van Norman, Mark. "The user interface in programs for design education: issues and criteria." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 155-168. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. Due to inexpensive mass-marketed microcomputers and CAAD software the type of “clients” we serve as CAAD educators will soon change. In addition to teaching CAAD programming to 20 students a semester, we may soon be serving a much larger group of casual users from design studios and technical courses. These casual users will require that we provide programs and hardware which allow them to design a better product more swiftly and with less effort than by hand. The most crucial factor in meeting these criteria is the quality of the user interface of the programs and equipment we provide. At Harvard, we have studied the user interfaces of more than 80 programs used in 10 areas of design. This paper is a summary of a 90 page report in which issues are raised, the answers to which determine the quality of the user interface of a program. In the summarized report, different approaches to resolving each issue are discussed, but no “answers” are provided. In our roles as authors, teachers, and now, consumers of CAAD programs, we must - explicitly or by default - address these issues before designing or purchasing programs and hardware for design education.
Ozel, Filiz. "Using CAD in Fire Safety Research." In ACADIA Workshop ‘85: ACADIA Conference Proceedings, 142-154. ACADIA. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1985. While architecture offices are increasingly using CADD systems for drafting purposes, architectural schools are pursuing projects that use the CAD data base for new applications in the analysis and evaluation of buildings. This paper summarizes two studies done at the University of Michigan, Architecture Research laboratory, where the CAD system was used to develop a fire safety code evaluation program, and an emergency egress behaviour simulation.  The former one takes the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Life safety Code 101 as a basis, and generates the code compliance requirements of a given project. The ether study accepts people as information processing beings and simulates their way finding behaviour under emergency conditions. Both of these studies utilize the graphic characteristics of the CAD system, producing color displays on the CRT screen, and also outputting information in tabular form which refers to the display on the screen. Both of them also have plotting options.