Keywords Abstract
Senske, Nicholas. "A Curriculum for Integrating Computational Thinking." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

For architectural educators, a challenge of teaching digital design is maintaining a relevant curriculum amidst an increasing array of constantly evolving software and tools. This paper describes a curriculum proposal under review at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, which attempts to address this situation through the integration of computational thinking in studios and seminars.

Payne, Andrew. "A Five-axis Robotic Motion Controller for Designers." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 162-169. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Colonia del Sacramento (capital of Colonia department, in Uruguay) has been registered in the list of the Convention Heritage concerning the protection of worldwide cultural and natural heritage. The registration on this list (December 6th 1995) confirms the exceptional and universal value of a cultural or natural places which deserves protection for the whole humanity. The ancient Colonia del Sacramento founded in 1680 by Portugal, was a commercial and military site leading role of the historical controversy between Spain and Portugal. Main place of wars and treaties during a century, it keeps an urban design, unique in the area and valuable architectonical testimonies of different periods of this rich past, with a simple, popular profile. This work has been effected within the Clemente Estable Found 1996, which is promoted by National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICYT). Through virtual reality techniques, a three-dimensional model of Colonia del Sacramento city was built as it was in its period of prosperity (around 1762). For the achievement of this digital maquette, a great deal of written and graphic information was compiled and processed. This information was organized in an inventory way (with numerous readings and searches). The inventory and the digital maquette were joined in a multimedia application (CD-ROM) which allows potential users to move through virtual city and friendly and interactively consult images, graphics and texts.

Tibbits, Skylar. "A Model for Intelligence of Large-scale Self-assembly." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 342-349. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Imagine a world constructed of programmable matter and reconfigurable elements. An intelligent environment where objects can take on multiple forms based on localized desires and perform a myriad of tasks. This world would need to be intertwined with sensing, reasoning, actuation and various other human-adapted capabilities. If advancements are being made in programmable matter, then we should try to understand the problems at the front line of human interaction through responsive spatial environments. These environments would need to respond to human desires, occupation needs and environmental conditions, therefore we should focus directly on coded assembly at human scales.

Esquivel, Gabriel, and Ryan Collier. "A Swell Project: Between Parametrics and Fabrication." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

As a case study, Swell serves as: 1) an investigation into architectural ornamentation using a contemporary framework, as directed through specific modes of research, 2) a study in fabrication materials and methods, especially through the realization of form, and 3) as a pedagogical tool, loosely assembled through real and virtual space. This essay will focus mainly on the fabrication methods in terms of why and the pedagogical research initiatives and reactions that went into the design of Swell. The project was conceived through a summer studio which was formed to investigate tools and methods available at the Texas A&M Architecture Ranch and to further the local pedagogical direction toward fabrication in architectural design at Texas A&M University as a whole. That is to say, there was no specific agenda toward parametrics, form, research, technology, or the like. At the same time, as the research continued, certain decisions were cast in terms of technology, sensibility, site, etc. informed by research, iterative processes, or parametric evaluation that ultimately formed the project as it exists today.

Hoberman, Chuck, and Craig Schwitter. "Adaptive Structures: Building for performance and sustainability." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 56-59. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

In this paper we provide a “work-in-progress” report on on going investigation into the perception of building alternatives at a central urban place. The city-planning task in this case involves the development of several key parcels of real estate, with significant impact on a mediumsized German cityis overall appearance and functionality. The interests of investors wishing to maximize economic utilization are competing with public interests regarding urban planning and urban design as well as development needs. Hence, there is a need for the development of different spatial layouts for the district to help identify reasonable concepts for the use of these key properties and their impact on the visual townscape as well as the functional spatial properties of the cityis open space. Ultimately, clear deed restrictions and guidelines are to be identified for future investors to preserve the cityscape and to improve the quality of the existing public open space but also to enhance downtownis existing sensible economic equilibrium.

Howe, Nathan. "Algorithmic Modeling: Teaching Architecture in Digital Age." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Can a working knowledge of algorithmic modeling augment student understanding of building architecture? This question is fundamental when addressing student design education today. This paper demonstrates that when students apply a reductive process more in line with Newell, Shaw and Simon (Newell, Shaw and Simon 1957), they can break down a complex problem into simpler and simpler terms until the problem can be resolved. This type of reduction can be applied systematically to the parametric-driven form through reverse engineering. In the process of reverse engineering, students begin to connect descriptive geometry with complex form, breaking down the complex form into its simplest parts. This design process of reduction and reverse engineering leads designers to take a more systematic approach to theoretical ideas, at once creating complex constructs while pragmatically attacking the issues of buildable form. This paper will delve into teaching analytical tools so students not only comprehend the input of form-making, but the necessary output to test building and material concepts. Fostering a clear methodology for testing built form within the design process also furthers the student's development as a problem solver and design innovator.

Novak, Marcos. "AlloPolis and Kami: Manifesto toward the computational composition of the new polis." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 48-51. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Much of what computers allow us to do is spectacular. Indeed, much of current architectural production is better than before if considered objectively better engineered, more efficient, more ergonomic and yet, much is also curiously devoid of meaning. Like the spectacular display of ergonomically designed and computer manufactured shoes at a “lifestyle” shoe store, the designs are advanced, clever, and inventive but to what end? Let me quickly underscore that this is not just a problem for architecture, indeed, the same can be said for just about every mode of production, there is more of everything and less absorption of anything significant and less to absorb, even.

Scheer, David. "Architectural Drawing- a Prospective Requiem." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Drawing has been inextricably entwined with architecture since ancient times. Today, architectural drawing is moribund if not already dead, replaced by technologies that encode and store design information in digital databases. This change has taken place with unbelievable rapidity, especially viewed from an historical perspective. This paper examines how drawing has affected our fundamental ideas about architecture and what effects its demise may have on architecture in the future. The aim is to appreciate what drawing has meant for architecture and to assess the latter's drawing-less prospects, hence a "prospective requiem".

Hertz, Garnet. "Arduino Microcontrollers and the Queen s Hamlet: Utilitarian and Hedonized DIY Practices in Contemporary Electronic Culture." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 44-47. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

In this paper, I will pull together concepts of utility-driven do-it-yourself (DIY) culture and pleasure-oriented DIY practice to investigate a significant trend in contemporary computing culture, the maker movement, typified by an interest in building personalized and handmade electronic devices with sensors, motors and lights, usually controlled by microcontrollers like the Arduino. My argument is that maker culture has been co-opted by consumer hobby culture, but this is not necessarily detrimental because it provides an important outlet for personal exploration, increases an understanding of how electronic media actually works and assists individuals to be actors in a culture that is increasingly complex, technological and digitized.

Lavallee, Justin, Rachel Vroman, and Yair Keshet. "Automated Folding of Sheet Metal Components with a Six-axis Industrial Robot." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 144-151. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Through the automation of folding of sheet metal components by a six-axis industrial robot we explored the integration of parametrically-driven design and fabrication tools and its real-world implementation. Developed out of research into new possibilities presented by direct programming of flexible, digitally-driven, industrial tools, this project intends to speculate about the future implementation of parametric modeling tools in the field of design, and associated new, parametrically variable, fabrication processes. We explored the relationship between designer and machine, between data and craft, and tested conjectures about scale of production, through the digital creation, physical cutting, mental tracking, robotic folding, manual riveting, and sometimes painful installation of five hundred and thirty two unique sheet metal components. Such evaluations give insight into possible trajectories for development of new models of fabrication processes, questioning the scale and intellectual scope appropriate for custom fabrication environments, and the implicit need to then evaluate the incorporation of digital craft in design pedagogy.

Ahlquist, Sean, and Achim Menges. "Behavior-based Computational Design Methodologies: Integrative processes for force defined material structures." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 82-89. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

With the introduction of physics-based algorithms and modeling environments, design processes have been shifting from the representation of materiality to the simulation of approximate material descriptions. Such computational processes are based upon enacting physical and material behavior, such as gravity, drag, tension, bending, and inflation, within a generative modeling environment. What is often lacking from this strategy is an overall understanding of computational design, that information of increasing value and precision is generated through the development and iterative execution of specific principles and integrative mechanisms. The value of a physics-based modeling method as an information engine is often overlooked, though, as they are primarily utilized for developing representational diagrams or static geometry inevitably translated to function outside of the physical bounds and parameters defined with the modeling process. The definition of computational design provides a link between process and a larger approach towards architecture an integrative behavior-based process which develops dynamic specific architectural systems interrelated in their material, spatial, and environmental nature. This paper, focusing on material integration, describes the relation of a computational design approach and the technical framework for a behavior-based integrative process. The application is in the development of complex tension-active architectural systems. The material behavior of tensile meshes and surfaces is integrated and algorithmically calibrated to allow for complex geometries to be materialized as physical systems. Ultimately, this research proposes a computational structure by which material and other sorts of spatial or structural behaviors can be activated within a generative design environment.

Narahara, Taro. "Beyond Quantitative Simulations: Local Control Strategy Using Architectural Comonents." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Design of universal components that can tolerate technological, environmental, and circumstantial changes over time is a challenge for an architect. In this paper, I would like to propose a scaled prototype of architectural components that can reconfigure themselves into globally functional configurations based on feedback from locally distributed intelligence embedded inside the component. The project aims at demonstrating a design system that can respond to dynamically changing environment over time without imposing a static blueprint of the structure in a top-down manner from the outset of design processes. The control of the subunits are governed by the logic of a distributed system simulated by the use of multiple microcontrollers, and appropriate geometrical configurations will be computationally derived based on physical-environmental criteria such as solar radiation from various sensors and social-programmatic issues. The system's goal is to provide qualitatively optimum results through the use of quantified information acquired from surrounding environmental conditions.

Kudless, Andrew. "Bodies in Formation: the material evolution of flexible formworks." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 98-105. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Borne from the complex negotiation between liquid mass and tensile constraint, flexible formwork castings are resonant with material energy. Hard as stone, yet visually supple and fluid, the pre-cast architectural assemblies produced using flexible formwork techniques suggest integrative design strategies that acknowledge the intricate associations between form, fabrication, and material behavior. This tripartite synthesis between geometry, making, and performance has emerged as one of the central themes of contemporary architecture and engineering. Borrowing ideas of morphology from biology and physics, 20th century architectural innovators such as Antoni Gaudi and Frei Otto built a legacy of material practice that incorporated methods of making with material and geometric logics. The emergent effects (and affects) produced through these highly integrative practices serve as the basis of much of the research and design at Matsys. Building on the flexible formwork research of Miguel Fisac in the 1970s, the P_Wall series by Matsys explores the use of digital tools in the generation and fabrication of these bodies in formation.

Rosa, Joseph. "Breeding Architecture with Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 64-67. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The aesthetic lexicon of architecture and design has expanded substantially in the past decade. New technologies have resulted in methodologies and ideologies that now produce a more fluid dialogue between these discrete mediums, creating hyper-linked relationships that generate new aesthetic and social models for the design arts.

Sheikh, Mohamed, and David Gerber. "Building Skin Intelligence: a parametric and algorithmic tool for daylighting performance design integration." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 170-177. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The research presents a methodology and tool development which delineates a performance-based design integration to address the design, simulation, and proving of an intelligent building skin design and its impact on daylighting performance. Through the design of an algorithm and parametric process for integrating daylighting performance into the design phase an automated configuration evaluation is achieved. Specifically the tool enables design exploration of semi autonomous and fully autonomous configurations of an exterior building envelope louver system. The research situates itself in the field of intelligent building skins and adds to the existing solutions a validation of systems with interdependent louvers of varying tilt angles. The system is designed to respond to dynamic daylighting conditions and occupants preferences. Within the framework of this study, Grasshopper, Rhino, Galapagos and DIVA, are linked and coded into one integrated process, facilitating design optioneering with near real time feedback. The paper concludes with a description of the tool set's extensibility, future incorporation of domain integration, and conflation of natural and physical system interaction and complexity.

Dorta, Tomás, Yehuda Kalay, Annemarie Lesage, and Edgar Pérez. "Comparing Immersion in Collaborative Ideation through Design Conversations, Workload and Experience." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 216-225. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper presents a case study comparing the HIS (Hybrid Ideation Space), a system allowing designers to be physically immersed in their sketches and physical models, and Vyewâ„¢, a whiteboard software, in local and remote design collaboration, aiming to see if immersion benefits collaborative ideation. Three methodological tools were used: Design Conversations (Collaborative Ideation Loop CI-Loop, Collaborative Conversations CC and Collaborative Moving CM), Workload using NASA TLX and Design Flow for the designers experience. Local collaboration results appear to have benefited from immersion while remote results were mitigated by participant issues. However, looking deeper into users experience explains the impact of immersion.

Vermisso, Emmanouil. "Cross-disciplinary Prototyping: Pedagogical Frameworks for Integrating Biological Analogies into Design Courses." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 380-389. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The increasing use of digital tools within the architectural curriculum dictates a necessity for critically approaching technology beyond its perception as a “tool”, towards the creation of a “method”. This paper proposes the use of discrete components, such as biology, computation and fabrication to build theoretical frameworks which inform design “experiments” inviting the participation of the end-user through incorporation of kinetic devices. This is discussed with reference to a recently designed course, making an attempt to assess its strengths and potential as they relate to integration.

Pak, Burak, Ivo Vrouwe, and Johan Verbeke. "Design and Development of Low-cost Portable Immersive Spaces." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 260-267. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

In this paper, we will explore the potentials of low-cost portable immersive environments that combine textile structures, gesture-based interfaces and multiple projections. Our aim is to develop affordable, easy to set up, portable and inviting immersive spaces that can serve as an interface between a web-based geographic virtual environment, experts and lay people. In this context, after the introduction, we will review a variety of methods, conceptual tools and materials related to textile tectonics and techniques which can be individually used or combined for the development and construction of portable immersive spaces. In the next section, we will discuss the opportunities and challenges of using a low-cost gesture-based interface (Kinect) to support touchless interactions. Consequently, we will present the design alternatives of low-cost portable immersive spaces that we have synthesized from our background studies. This will be followed by the observations and findings from our prototype development, implementation and preliminary testing processes. In conclusion, we will discuss our conclusions and recommendations regarding the future development of low-cost portable immersive spaces.

Rael, Ronald, and Virginia San Fratello. "Developing Concrete Polymer Building Components for 3D Printing." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 152-157. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The creation of building components that can be seen as sustainable, inexpensive, stronger, recyclable, customizable and perhaps even reparable to the environment is an urgent, and critical focus of architectural research. In the U.S. alone, the construction industry produced 143.5 million tons of building-related construction and demolition debris in 2008, and buildings, in their consumption of energy produce more greenhouse gasses than automobiles or industry.Because the inherent nature of 3D printing opens new possibilities for shaping materials, the process will reshape the way we think about architectural building components. Digital materiality, a term coined by Italian and Swiss architects Fabio Gramazio and Matthias Kohler, describes materiality increasingly enriched with digital characteristics where data, material, programming and construction are interwoven (Gramazio and Kohler, 2008). The research aspires towards this classification through the use of parametric modeling tools, analytic software and quantitative and qualitative analysis. Rapid prototyping, which is the automatic construction of physical objects using additive manufacturing technology, typically employs materials intended for the immediate analysis of form, scale, and tactility. Rarely do the materials used in this process have any long-term value, nor does the process - except in rare cases with expensive metal prototyping - have the ability to create actual and sustainable working products. This research intends to alter this state of affairs by developing methods for 3D printing using concrete for the production of long-lasting performance-based components.

Griffiths, Jason. "Digital Haptic -Learning from K-Zell." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper describes a fabrication-centric studio as one example of the combination of digital and analogue design practice. It suggests that this combination, when applied to the constraints of a finite project, overcomes “mutual exclusivity” in favor of mutual dependence. It posits this scenario as a pedagogical model for upper division undergraduate learning.

Fure, Adam. "Digital Materiallurgy: on the productive force of deep codes and vital matter." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 90-97. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper expands the discourse surrounding digital forms of making by scrutinizing the role of materials within computation, ultimately proposing a speculative working model that charts new territory. The growing importance of materials within technological research makes this an appropriate time to consider the nuance of their role within it. Currently, material innovation is happening along two central tracks: the customized cutting, sculpting, and forming of conventional materials with Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) fabrication equipment and the development of new materials through innovations in material science. Both tracks rely on a limited set of material protocols which enable process-based control and eliminate the intrusion of any unpredictable material variable. Although efficient, such an approach limits architecture's ability to procure novel material engagements. A few designers are developing an alternative model where computational codes are coupled with eccentric materials to produce unusual results. Digital materiallurgy, as I have called it, is part technique and part attitude, it relies on intentionally ceding limited design control to unpredictable matter thus capitalizing on matter's innate ability to produce unexpected formal and material complexity. Digital materiallurgy identifies the intersection of computation and eccentric materiality as a departure point for architectural innovation. By purposefully inserting material heterogeneity and inconsistency into computational means and methods, this work pries apart the apparently seamless relationship between digital design and physical production. By blurring the distinction between physical material and digital form, this work offers an integrated aesthetic experience, one that fetishizes neither the virtual nor the vintage but fuses both into a richer, wilder present.

Lee, Dave, and Brian Leounis. "Digital Origami: Modeling Planar Folding Structures." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper presents a surface manipulation tool that can transform any arrangement of folding planar surfaces without the need to custom program for each instance. Origami offers a finite set of paper-folding techniques that can be cataloged and tested with parametric modeling software. For this work, Rhinoceros and Grasshopper have been chosen as a software platform to generate a parametric folding tool focusing on single surface folding, particularly where surfaces can transform from one configuration to another while retaining their planarity.

Hambleton, Daniel, Michael Braund, and Chris Walsh. "Dragonfly: an Ecological Approach to Digital Architectural Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 178-185. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Dragonfly is a simulation engine that extends the scope of current human-space interaction tools by encoding the basic principles of ecological psychology into an interoperable, interactive, CAD environment.

Krietemeyer, Elizabeth, and Anna Dyson. "Electropolymeric Technology for Dynamic Building Envelopes." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of natural light in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing dynamic glazing technologies have made limited progress towards greater energy performance for curtain wall systems because they are still unable to respond to dynamic solar conditions, fluctuating building demands, and a range of user preferences for visual comfort and individual control. Recent breakthroughs in the field of information display provide opportunities to transfer electropolymeric technology to building envelopes that can achieve geometric and spectral selectivity in concert with pattern variation within the façade. Integrating electroactive polymers within the surfaces of an insulated glazing unit (IGU) could dramatically improve the energy performance of windows while enabling user empowerment through the control of the visual quality of this micro-material assembly, in addition to allowing for the switchable patterning of information display. Using parametric modeling as a generative design and analysis tool, this paper examines the technical intricacies linking system variables with visual comfort, daylight quality, and pattern design of the proposed electropolymeric dynamic facade technology.

Taron, Joshua, Vera Parlac, Branko Kolarevic, and Jason Johnson. "Forewords: an Integrative Moment." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 20-21. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The ACADIA 2011 Annual Conference explores integrative trajectories and areas of overlap that have emerged through computation between design, its allied disciplines of engineering and construction, and other fields, such as computer science, material science, mathematics and biology. The conference highlights experimental projects in which methods, processes, and techniques are discovered, appropriated, adapted, and altered from elsewhere, and digitally pursued.

Cheng, Nancy. "Forewords: the Need for Nimble Thinking." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 18-19. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The digital age demands fluid movement between different modes of thought. At its foundation, research requires patient study, what Malcolm Gladwell describes as the expertise that comes from practicing one thing for 10,000 hours. Careful observation and reflection yield the small insights that lead to bigger discoveries. Through experimenting, designers learn how to do things in an intuitive way, developing a deep tacit knowledge of actions that is hard to express in words.

Parsons, Ronnie, and Gil Akos. "Form Force Matter: Investigating form-active systems through analog machines and physics-based simulation." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 106-109. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Form-active Systems offer an intuitive means of gaining direct and tangible knowledge for addressing architectural design problems with degrees of complexity typically beyond our capacity or desire to engage as designers. With these systems as a mechanism for research, we may establish a rich territory in which form, force, and matter are inherently imbricated in their conceptual domain. Furthermore, if we approach this conceptual terrain with an understanding that the elements of these systems exist along a continuum between the real and the virtual, we may incorporate methods and techniques in the form of analog machines and physics-based simulation from architecture's peripheral fields of structural engineering, physics, and computation. This paper presents an applied research framework undertaken in a continued sequence of seminars whereby Form-active Systems are analyzed for their performative characteristics, synthesized for operative design strategies, iteratively prototyped across scales, and redeployed within the context of a multi-story installation.

Zarzycki, Andrzej. "Form-making Without Form Making." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper looks at form-making as a result of parametric explorations of material, light, and dynamics-based behavior. Parametric explorations of materials and light aim beyond representational photorealism, and are used as speculative tools to pursue imaginative designs, to ask “What's questions in the context of material research.

Pigram, David, and Wes McGee. "Formation Embedded Design: a methodology for the integration of fabrication constraints into architectural design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 122-131. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

There has been little empirical research on the human aspects of CAD systems. In this paper observations on the analyses of designer activities are presented, by using a systems design approach. The paper concentrates on situation analysis and subsequent allocation of system tasks. A situation analysis was carried out in two design departments. The analysis consisted of a formal system description and a reconstruction interview. During the interview the previous week's activities were reconstructed with the help of photographs of the drawing board and protocols completed by design draughtspersons. This procedure was used for six design projects. In this study the technique of the reconstruction interview proved to be very useful and informative, and enabled three general conclusions to be made. First, designers liked the initial design phase and their responsibility for the final result. Second, they disliked the activities associated with drawing as well as the project documentation phase. Third, they preferred to work with two or more drawings on the drawing board. A number of frequent tasks could be identified, for example, large scale manipulation within and between drawings. In the final section, an example of a global allocation of system tasks for the design of a CAD system is given.

Dimcic, Milos, and Jan Knippers. "Free-form Grid Shell Design Based on Genetic Algorithms." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 272-277. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

In the 21st century, as free-form design grows in popularity, grid shells are becoming a universal structural solution, enabling the conflation of structure and skin (faéade) into one single element (Kolarevic 2003). This paper presents some of the results of a comprehensive research project focused on the automated design and optimization of grid structures over some predefined free form shape, with the goal of generating a stable and statically efficient structure. It shows that by combining design and FEM software in an iterative, Genetic Algorithms-based optimization process, stress and deformation in grid shell structures can be significantly reduced, material can be saved and stability enhanced.

Swackhamer, Marc. "From Post- to Plus-Digital." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 270-271. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The 2011 ACADIA Conference theme positions architecture's present condition as "post-digital". This term calls to question the relevance of an organization like ACADIA, whose focus is precisely on the digital in architecture. Paradoxically, it is the work of ACADIA and digitally-oriented designers that has facilitated the gradual dissolution of the digital. In reality, we of course know that the computer has never been more present and relevant to architecture than it is today. The barriers to entry are lower than they've ever been. Digital technology is more pervasive and flexible. But, its ubiquitous integration has rendered the computer itself, with its legacy of opaque user interfaces and inaccessible language, ostensibly transparent. Through this transparency, an array of designers and collaborators previously relegated to the sidelines of computation discourse are now active participants in it. The papers in this session point to five ways in which the boundaries between the digital and non-digital, between architecture and non-architecture, are quickly eroding, and thereby allowing each to influence the other in profound and surprising ways.

Kudless, Andrew. "Gordian Knots and Endless Loops." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 160-161. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Despite the current buzz surrounding the concept of integrative design, architects have always attempted to form greater wholes from disparate parts. It is nearly redundant to pair the words “integrative” and “design” together as what is design without integration? At the most fundamental level, good design must synthesize different and often conflicting parameters in order to achieve some higher level of performance. So why has the term “integrative design” emerged to described the contemporary design paradigm?

Sprecher, Aaron. "Homeorrhetism: Few Observations on the Nature of Experimentation in Computational Architecture." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 360-361. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

From the point of view of computation, concerns over the nature of an experiment raise questions that often belong to a deductive reasoning, in other words the possibility to understand the world in terms of established principles and theories: What kind of information should be extracted from our environment? What would be a comprehensive system of information that reflects the complexity of our world? How can one assure objectivity in the building of a model? In contrast, the experimental context of architecture calls for a different set of questions: How can a model convey the meaning of our world? What kind of effect is the model supposed to create? Why a particular model is more likely to express the condition of a culture versus another? Here, concerns over the inductive nature of the experimental protocol prevail, or in other words, the questions do not call for fixed principles but a range of possibilities often related to the cultural, social and even political sensitivity of the experimenter. These distinctive sets of questions therefore range from deductive to inductive experimental approaches. Most importantly, they express the essence of the now established field of computational architecture and its capability to propel a confluence of knowledge, a form of transdisciplinarity that oscillates between architecture's core knowledge and its disciplinal periphery. While both deductive and inductive assumptions are pre-requisite to operative experimentations, the question remains as to the principles managing their confluence.

Castellano, Devan. "Humanizing Parametricism." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

As we increase the complexity and correlations of variables that are critical to the design of a project, we are becoming increasingly aware of the possibilities emerging from a computer integrated design process. There is such great opportunity to use these tools to manage and analyze multi variable design information, yet there is still much criticism of the design solutions created from computational design. These design solutions have been said to be lacking any character, cultural influence, human engagement, or communication's and that "most of our contemporary architecture” has forsaken this dimension of architectural discourse and it's potential for exceptional spaces. The current focus of computational investigation is primarily limited to building performance and optimization. Buildings that are designed from a purely optimizational construct without acknowledging the users desires and needs are falling short in creating places. Optimization can be the end result, but the constructs that are being optimized must be broadened to address all facets of a project. Computational design has emerged because it has the capacity to resolve multiple constraints and deal with extreme complexity of variables. By optimizing a more holistic set of constraints, computational architecture can truly provide comprehensive design solutions.

Holland, Nate. "Inform Form Perform." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Architects have developed and employed parametric design strategies to both address these performance related concerns and improve their production. Though these strategies have improved architectural design, they are not being used to their full extent in the design process. I propose taking the use of computers in aiding architectural design one step further, information and data should INFORM the project, driving the creation of a building FORM enabling it to PERFORM at higher levels than traditional design.

Salim, Flora, Przemyslaw Jaworski, Martin Kaftan, Eva Friedrich, Rafael Urquiza, Suhee Oh, John Fihn, Jose Galaso, Rafael Roa, Tore Banke et al. "Informing Architecture and Urban Modeling with Real-world Data on 3D Tangible Interfaces and Augmented Displays." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 226-233. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The proliferation of online and digital data in our world yields unprecedented opportunities for connecting physical and digital parametric models with live data input and feedback. Tangible interfaces and augmented displays provide theatrical settings for designers to visualize real-world data and experience realtime feedback while manipulating physical and digital models on the table. This paper proposes a new approach to design workflow, where physical model and virtual model can be interconnected and informed in realtime by multiple analytical datasets and live data streams. Using 3D scanning, blob detection, and multi-touch techniques, multidimensional tangible interfaces and augmented displays presented in this paper demonstrate a powerful new approach for designing and interacting with physical models, materials, and environmental data.

Klinger, Kevin. "Informing Design through Production Formulations." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 112-113. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Over the decade of the aughts, architectural discourse has charted a new course, and in the wake of the digital effect on mainstream architectural thinking, we find ourselves in a great age of exploration. Research in digital fabrication has moved from the general to the specific, in that it aims to focus efforts related to technological impact on particular cases and variable parameters which contribute to even larger ideas, such as manufacturing, the social impact, sustainable practices, etc. Specific work on building components, coupled with a pragmatic rigor about durability, strength, and production have provided concrete examples of work that spin out of these design-through-production investigations. To be certain, each new design-through-production project explores unique territory and contributes to the knowledge map by adding to a matrix of possible applications. Still, we align our work with the age-old discipline of architectural thinking, while privileging Making, Materials, Performance, Form, and Function. Indeed, form is informed by performance! The principles that govern the human decision-making, in light of this new kind of digitally generated work have yet to be clearly articulated, but techniques and methods have expanded to create new opportunities for making architecture. In fact, research has tended to be less about framing the new principles for making digital architecture and more about adding specific cases to the knowledge base, as each new project helps to define the collective body.

Gutierrez, Maria-Paz. "Innovative Puzzles." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 70-71. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Matter and information, information and matter. A puzzle unveiled little by little. Hardly surprising since every atom, molecule, and basic particle in the universe registers bits of information. All interactions between these components, inert and alive, owe their existence to matter's intrinsic ability to process information. Such aptitude explains how complex systems can arise from fundamentally simple organizational laws. In fact, the world's almost infinite material combinations, viable through such few basic elements, are one of the most visible expressions of these capabilities. Triggered by the developments in quantum physics across the twentieth century, our understanding of material processes radically shifted our impressions of the world. For decades our scales of perception and manipulation have continued to expand into almost unfathomable boundaries. Yet, the study of the interdependencies between matter and information is still fundamentally part of the sciences and engineering. Only just recently did architecture venture into this inherently intricate field. The subsequent set of papers here presented posit fundamental interrogations of potential interdependencies between matter and information. Without fear to confront the obstacles of delving into a largely unexplored field of architecture, these researchers forge new frontiers of interrelating computational parameters to multi-physics in the complex settings of architectural scale. Unlike other epistemologies, architecture cannot be reduced to a single scale of exploration. We can neither restrict scalar boundaries (i.e., nano to micro), nor reduce morphologies to simplify the processing of multiple physics without compromising the design problem. By default, it is more difficult to conceptually and numerically articulate the abstract and numerical criteria of complex geometries and material variables.

Johnson, Jason. "Integrating Difference." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 34-37. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

In developing this year's ACADIA Conference, the organizing committee spent much time discussing the various streams of papers, projects and contributions that form its content. Often these questions have focused on what disciplines can be defined as being allied to architecture and more specifically to the particular obsessions that have historically been presented here. Questions of appropriateness and legibility are difficult to grasp in the context of a community whose research focus is being pulled in many directions. Technological advances (software, robots, bioengineering) and the push towards emergent systems or parametricism as theoretical frameworks, are providing us with an interesting moment in which to ask the question: who are appropriate allies in the development of architectural projects?

Parlac, Vera. "Integrating Physical and Digital: Interactive technologies and design of matter." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 26-29. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Today, thanks to current technological achievements, deepening and broadening of scientific information and knowledge, as well as expansion in our understanding of the world around us and underlying processes that govern metabolisms of natural world, we are able to see deep connections between the made and natural worlds. With such an expansive context comes an ability to effectively and productively integrate new knowledge, information, methods and techniques back into the design and production of architecture. Confluence of various technologies and their assimilation are altering the way we perform, organize and distribute our activities and materials. The conceptual model of architecture is changing.

Menges, Achim. "Integrative Design Computation: Integrating material behaviour and robotic manufacturing processes in computational design for performative wood constructions." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 72-81. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

In contrast to most other building materials, wood is a naturally grown biological tissue. Today, the organic nature of wood is recognized as a major advantage. Wood is one of the very few naturally renewable, fully recyclable, extremely energy efficient and CO2-positive construction materials. On the other hand, compared to industrially produced, isotropic materials, the inherent heterogeneity and differentiated material makeup of wood's anatomic structure is still considered problematic by architects and engineers alike. This is due to the fact that, even today, most design tools employed in architecture are still incapable of integrating and thus instrumentalizing the material properties and related complex behavior of wood. The research presented in this paper focuses on the development of a computational design approach that is based on the integration of material properties and characteristics. Understanding wood as a natural composite system of cellulose fibers embedded in a lignin and hemicelluloses matrix characterized by relatively high strain at failure, that is high load-bearing capacity with relatively low stiffness, the particular focus of this paper is the investigation of how the bending behavior of wood can become a generative design driver in such computational processes. In combination with the additional integration of the possibilities and constraints of robotic manufacturing processes, this enables the design and production of truly material-specific and highly performative wood architecture. The paper will provide a detailed explanation of such an integrative approach to design computation and the related methods and techniques. This is complemented by the description of three specific research projects, which were conducted as part of the overall research and all resulted in full scale prototype structures. The research projects demonstrate different approaches to the computational design integration of material behavior and robotic manufacturing constraints. Based on a solution space defined by the material itself, this enables novel ways of computationally deriving both material-specific gestalt and performative capacity of one of the oldest construction materials we have.

James, Anne, and Dai Nagasaka. "Integrative Design Strategies for Multimedia in Architecture." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 372-379. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Architecture is the physical expression of man's relationship to the landscape- an emblem of our heritage. Such a noble statement sounds silly into today's context, because civilized society has largely disassociated itself from raw nature. We have tamed the elements with our environmental controls and turned the deserts into pasture. I find much of the built environment distracting. Current architecture is trite, compared to geologic form and order. I visited the Bonneville Salt Flats- (Utah's anti-landscape) in the summer of 1997. The experience of arriving at the flats exceeded my expectations. I was overpowered by a sense of personal insignificance - a small spot floating on a sea of salt. The horizon seemed to swallow up the sky. Off in the distance I noticed a dark fleck. It looked as foreign as I felt on this pure white plane. I drove across the sticky salt toward it, only to discover an old rusty oil barrel half submerged in salt. In my mind, the barrel has a history. It tells the story of a man's attempt at achieving a goal, or maybe it represents a broken dream left to corrode in the alkali flats. The barrel remains planted in the salt as a relic for those who venture into the white wilderness. This experience left me to ponder whether or not architecture can serve the same purpose - telling the story of a place through its relationship to a landscape, and connection to events.

Mathew, Anijo. "Interactive Placemaking: Three Critical Enquiries into Urban Interactions in Place." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 362-371. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Project for Public Spaces (Project for Public Spaces) defines placemaking as a process that fosters the creation of vital public destinations: the kind of places where people feel a strong stake in their communities and a commitment to making things better. This paper uses 3 design implementations to argue that architects and designers must reconstruct these ideas of placemaking in the evolving social, cultural, economic and technological context of our time. The projects are used as critical enquiries to explore how designers can integrate current social-economic and cultural thinking from design, business, and computing and show how evolving interactive connected technologies can lead to new ways of constructing located and connected place.

Hillukka, Daniel. "Interior Climate Optimization by Volumetric Adjustment." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This research focuses primarily on the functionality of software, specifically Rhinoceros (McNeel & Assoc.) and a few associated PlugIns (Grasshopper, Rhino Assembly), to create and control a model of a building to study the environmental effects of modulation of space. Has technology been completely utilized in addressing comfort maintenance within a dwelling space? For example, animals have a similarities based upon their surface to volume relationship, yet they are able to adjust the ratios based on a reaction to their environmental circumstances. For example, when cold, they are able to “fluff” their fur in order to minimize their surface area in comparison to an increasing “interior” volume. Historically, abilities to influence temperature change within a space have been relegated to passive air exchange systems and more recently completely active air exchange means of control. Technological advances have raised significant questions towards methods and means for this control. Through use of 3D models and simulations, the topic of climate maintenance in spatial conditions was addressed using environmental controls. Thus modulation of the interior climate as well as the space could simultaneously occur to create a radically different space of habitation. The preparation and writing of this abstract addressed various areas of the SPC requirements, which become apparent during the digestion of the paper.

Kobayashi, Yoshihiro. "Irregular Vertex Editing and Pattern Design on Mesh." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 278-283. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper introduces an innovative computational design tool used to edit architectural geometry by addressing the problem of irregular vertices. An irregular vertex is a special kind of vertex which is connected with fewer or greater less or more edges than regular vertices on a mesh object. Irregular vertices create problems with further surface rationalization, as well as structural analysis and constructability of the surface. Geometry created using other tools can also be remeshed upon import. Using the developed tool, the user is able to identify irregular vertices, interactively change the type, and then move or remove these irregular vertices. Additionally, a computational tool to make various design patterns on the mesh after the topology has been edited is also developed. The workflow is illustrated step by step in the pipeline. The advantages and disadvantages of editing mesh topology on architectural geometry design including the limitations are discussed at the end.

Davis, Adam, Martha Tsigkari, Takehiko Iseki, and Francis Aish. "Just Passing Through: Integration in Computational Environmental Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 292-299. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper proposes Buckminster Fuller's concept of pattern integrity as a context for understanding computational techniques in environmentally responsive design. We argue that successful integration in this context requires a continuous design medium that allows for heterogeneous, mutable techniques and models. This model of integration is demonstrated by reference to a current project for a large canopy structure in Singapore with specific focus on issues of environmental mediation, object-oriented programming for CAD environments, and functional programming techniques within parametric modeling systems. We discuss the applicability of these novel integrative approaches to wider problems in computational design.

Chaturvedi, Sanhita, Esteban Colmenares, and Thiago Mundim. "Knitectonics." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 186-195. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The project Knitectonics aims at exploring digital fabrication systems that facilitate optimized, adaptive and specific integrated architectural solutions (Male-Alemany 2010). It is inspired by the beauty of nature systems with their inherent efficiency and performance. The research explored on-site fabrication of monocoques shells, integrating skin and structure along with services and infrastructure, using a simple household technique. It thus embodies a self organized micro system of textures and a macro system of structures. This paper elaborates how the numeric aspects of a textile technique were used, first to digitally imitate the process of assembly and further exploited to develop and visualize a novel fabrication system, based on material research and technical experimentation.

Lim, Jason. "Let s Work Together: a Stigmergic Approach to Acoustic Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 396-403. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper explores the application of agent-based modeling techniques to the domain of acoustics design. Concepts derived from Stigmergy, which is a class of mechanisms that mediate interactions between social organisms, are applied to a custom implementation of a raytracing based acoustics simulator. Rays are given the agency of changing the geometric and material properties of the surfaces they come in contact with during the raytracing phase. The acoustic simulation process is an active one, where the modeled room environment is adapted while being evaluated. Given performance criteria as input, the simulation process is applied to an auditorium example. The auditorium is adapted and its eventual emergent design has improved acoustic performance. It is hoped that this work will demonstrate the potential of coupling multi-agent systems with simulation processes in order to create new design tools.

Iwamoto, Lisa, and Craig Scott. "Material Computation: Voussoir cloud." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 52-55. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

In contrast to such structurally pure models, the power of computation has opened possibilities for at once muddying and synthesizing geometry, structure and material performance. Where the earlier twentieth century experiments employed a more or less uniform tectonic based on symmetrical structural diagrams, contemporary analysis and design techniques can efficiently adapt a material system to address variable, localized, and non-symmetrical loading conditions. This has resulted in projects characterized by non-optimized structural forms that register the impacts of geometry on material behavior with a deviated tectonic system.

Lee, Dave. "Meta-Zoning Logistics." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

To the architect, city zoning ordinances that pertain to site setbacks and building envelope profiles are often viewed as restrictive and introduced late in the design process. Conversely, to the urban planner, building design that is more individual, varied, and/or formally sculptural can be viewed as having a negative impact on the urban fabric. Is there a way to create a healthy dialogue between these seemingly polarizing disciplines with a common language?

Meniru, Kene. "Modeling Building Information in a Parametric Environment." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The building design stage starts with an early effort by the architect to create a sketch which embodies the fundamental building knowledge that forms the basis for all later work. This knowledge is mostly lost in current building design practice procedures where the sketch is reduced to individual building components such as walls, floors, etc. By the time the building is constructed, new efforts have to be made to document information about the building necessary to control and maintain it during operation. This paper represents the next step to a Ph.D. study that describes the early building process and important features to support. It presents a sample design session from the study and based on observations from this session, it identifies and describes important digital objects that can be used to capture building knowledge in the sketch.

Kim, Simon, Mark Yim, Jedtsada Laucharoen, Michael Wetmore, Sanam Salek, and Sam Pan. "Motion and Modular Architecture." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 350-357. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper presents an implementation of an architectural module that corresponds to a long serial chain modular robot. As such, this configuration poses possibilities that can move using travelling wave gaits based on snakes and caterpillars. The gaits are controlled with a Gait Control Table which is a simple but powerful way to coordinate the motion of a multiple degree-of-freedom systems. The gaits are implemented on a self-sufficient modular reconfigurable robot with onboard power, computation, sensors and actuators.

Takenaka, Tsukasa, and Aya Okabe. "Networked Coding Method for Digital Timber Fabrication." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 390-395. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper proposes a new interactive design method, called the networked coding method (NC method), which can manage computational design, multi-objective optimization and digital timber fabrication in an interactive design process. First, this paper discusses several drawbacks of the conventional method for architectural design. Second, the paper describes the facilities and equipment of the fabrication laboratory where the NC method was developed. Third, the paper outlines the components of the NC method together with the design process of architectural elements, called integrated fabric 2011. Finally, the paper summarizes several advantages of the method, including the production of an architectural element called the integrated-fabric that integrates various functions into one single element. The method is shown to handle any datasets, including structural and environmental analysis, which were otherwise difficult to integrate into conventional design processes.

Speaks, Michael. "New Values of New Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 60-63. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Driven by advances in building and information technology and accelerated by the tumultuous period of global economic restructuring that commenced in 2008, architecture and interior design practice is today confronted with the necessity of fundamental change. According to the “Building Futures” group at the Royal Institute of British Architects and US-based “Design Futures Council”, both of which this past year published studies on this very topic, a great deal depends on what happens in China and other emerging markets, where many European and US firms now have offices. And that is not only because these are the most vibrant markets for architecture and design services, but also because the demands placed on practitioners in these markets are fundamentally changing the way buildings are designed and delivered, at home and abroad. Both studies suggest that all sectors of the A/E/C industry will face increasingly fierce competition that will, of necessity, force practices large and small to compete less on cost and more on value. In the very near future buildings and their interiors will be valued almost entirely based on performance “economic, cultural, environmental” and only those firms able to create these and other forms of added value will survive. Disruptive technologies like building information modeling and integrated product delivery will enable all firms, even those competing solely on the basis of cost, to design better buildings and deliver them more efficiently. But in such a fiercely competitive global marketplace, efficiency alone will not be enough to guarantee market viability. The real differentiator will instead be design.

Taron, Joshua. "On the Integrative Program." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 22-25. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The ACADIA 2011 conference, “integration through computation”, constitutes the latest achievements in architectural research toward the integrative program. This program is one in which methods, processes, and techniques are discovered, appropriated, adapted, and altered from “elsewhere”, and often “digitally” pursued. As such, integrative violence presents itself as the empowering agent for research that employs computation toward purposefully violating boundaries, hybridizing processes and instrumentalizing nature in the name of architecture. It is at once easy and impossible to imagine the extraordinary power necessary to undertake such a task, yet we find ourselves thoroughly immersed in processes that exploit the world as we know it so that we might be able to design worlds that have not yet been imagined. But what makes the integrative program possible, how is it administered, and what constitutes “an effective digital exchange of information?” While the best answers to these questions lie in the research presented and projects exhibited at this conference, I'd like to take a moment to examine how the integrative program operates and how its operation has evolved programmatic violence.

Miller, Kyle. "Organized Crime: the Role of Ornament in Contemporary Architecture." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

In contemporary architecture, there are clever crooks engaging in organized crime. New architectural identities arise from the clever doubling of the performative and aesthetic/affective roles that architectural surfaces must, and can now feasibly assume. In 1908, Adolf Loos, in his celebrated piece, Ornament and Crime, called for “the elimination” of ornament from useful objects. Rather than demanding elimination and removal, it can be understood that what Adolf Loos was really calling for was reinterpretation. Through the clever reinterpretation and generation of ornament in contemporary architecture with the aid of parametric design software the term “ornament” has assumed a new definition and identity.

Carraher, Erin. "Parameters of a Digital Design Foundation." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Students can begin utilizing the computer as a tool in the first year of their education in the same way they begin drawing, modeling, and diagramming as a basis for developing progressively deeper understandings of the capabilities and limitations of these instruments and their particular roles within the process of design. This hypothesis is being tested in Virginia Tech's School of Architecture + Design over the course of the 2010-11 academic year by seeding a series of digital workshops into the beginning design curriculum.

Barrios, Carlos. "Parametric Affordances: What? When? How?" In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Parametric Affordances presents a theoretical framework for development, use and implementation of parametric models in a design setting. This paper presents fundamental background theoretical concepts and proposes an approach to separate tasks and actions of the design process in different kinds of parametric models to take advantage of them.

Kim, Jong, Mark Clayton, and Wei Yan. "Parametric Form-Based Codes: Incorporation of land-use regulations into Building Information Models." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This work considers affectation produced in disciplinarian codes by digital image, understood as a sign, and its influence in social codes in context of a hyper communicated macro society. Disciplinarian codes construct the significant structure of environment, affect behaviours in the identity sense, making comprehensive the habitable shapes and the individual and collective mechanisms of attribution of significance. The architect operates above them and in a dialectic action, connecting social and disciplinarian codes. The conformation of formal laws, generated in the context of the virtuality and the image, proposes to architects a renewal of language, working in a synthetic and ambiguous world. This paper adds to the theoretical frame of a current investigation, and its objective is to contribute to comprehension of modes in which, the electronic paradigm has been installed, in the relationship between the different actors that update the codes and ratify its dynamic role. [Full paper in Spanish]

Haliburton, James, Mark Clayton, Ozan Ö. Özener, Francisco Farias, and Woonseong Jeong. "Parametric Modeling and BIM: Innovative Design Education for Integrated Building Practices." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Parametric modeling and Building Information Modeling (BIM) present opportunities to radically change the architectural design process, which has similarly radical implications upon design education. These processes and technologies are demanding a broader knowledge base and deeper skill set. The same technologies and processes create opportunities to meet and surpass the traditional architectural knowledge base that forms the basis for design education. Outlined in this paper are the results of three studies that employed BIM and parametric modeling within the context of simulated professional project delivery and compares the results using the new process to the NAAB Student Performance Criteria. From these studies, it appears that the alternative design method that employs BIM and parametric modeling is more rigorous and effective than the traditional method of instructing students with respect to the Student Performance Criteria in Realm B: Integrated Building Practices.

Yenerim, Duygu, Mark Clayton, and Glen Mills. "Parametric Modeling of Informal Settlements." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Informal settlements consisting of substandard housing that lack adequate infrastructure, sanitation, living space and security, are one of the major challenges for developing cities in terms of their unpredictable growth. The colonias are informal settlements that originated in substandard housing development in the U.S. along the Mexico border. As informal settlements grow and transform into formal communities, their potential impacts upon energy consumption and economic development can be very high. This study proposes a method by using Building Information Modeling (BIM) parametric tool to develop a database of informal houses in the colonias that would assist the planning of development and upgrades.

Braumann, Johannes, and Sigrid Brell-Cokcan. "Parametric Robot Control: Integrated CAD/CAM for Architectural Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 242-251. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Robots are gaining popularity in architecture. Snøhetta has recently purchased their own industrial robot, becoming one of the first architectural offices to adopt robot technology. As more and more architects are exposed to robotic fabrication, the need for easy interoperability, integration into architectural design tools and general accessibility will increase. Architects are discovering that industrial robots are much more than kinematic machines for stacking bricks, welding or milling - they are highly multifunctional and can be used for a huge variety of tasks. However, industry standard software does not provide easy solutions for allowing direct robot control right from CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) systems. In this paper we will discuss existing methods of programming industrial robots, published architectural results (Gramazio and Kohler 2008) and the design of a new user interface that allows intuitive control of parametric designs and customized robotic mass production, by integrating CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) functions into CAAD.

Karle, David, and Brian Kelly. "Parametric Thinking." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Digital tools are currently being used in design schools across the country. This paradigm in both education and practice of architecture is continually changing the profession, from the way in which design is conceived, represented, documented, and fabricated. Parametric design can be defined as a series of questions to establish the variables of a design and a computational definition that can be utilized to facilitate a variety of solutions. Parametric thinking is a way of relating tangible and intangible systems into a design proposal removed from digital tool specificity and establishes relationships between properties within a system. It asks architects to start with the design parameters and not preconceived or predetermined design solutions.

Ra, Seung. "Parametric Translations." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The aim of this paper is to understand the outcomes of parametric methods in beginning design projects and their impact on rethinking digital technology in current design education. In order to realize comprehensive results, in this paper i) conceptual and formative projects are presented to describe specifications of a parametric design at OSU School of Architecture, ii) for OSU SOA, we plot pedagogical objectives and evaluate how we have interpreted and applied novel digital technology into the design process, and iii) Cultivate parametric design as systemic and organizational design. Along with unit-based, component design, expand the use of digital tools to become the discipline and domain of the creative culture. How digital tools are integrated into early design education through a collaborative studio project will be the focus of the study. Through the experimental exercises, we can begin to explore how the digital process can be integrated at a fundamental level.

Christenson, Mike. "Parametric Variation Revealing Architectural Untranslatability." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper describes a recently concluded graduate seminar which tested how form-generative design tactics of algorithmic work could be productively brought to bear on the conceptual analysis of existing buildings. The seminar did not seek to optimize performance or aesthetic value but simply to query the mechanics and consequences of translation as an act. Seminar participants mined existing buildings as sources for parametric rule-sets which were subsequently applied to varying media fields (e. g., physical materials, text, and graphics). This application revealed that specific media resist certain kinds of translation. This peculiar resistance suggested that characteristics of architecture exist which might broadly be called untranslatable.

Malmstrom, Troy. "Paremetric: Making." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Digital fabrication has stimulated the return of the architect as builder over the past fifteen years or so and projects are showing up all over which implement these tools as a major design factor. More recently, parametrics has become a buzzword as its being used to design structures that respond to their environment and other site conditions. While parametrics can be a powerful tool, we rarely see it leave the realm of the design process and venture into the physical world.

Vrana, Andrew, and Joe Meppelink. "Perforating Material Performance: Ceiling Cloud." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The focus of this project was to design a ceiling system within a new Materials Resource Center in the Architecture Building that would embody the potential of parametric design and digital fabrication to rethink a generic interior architectural system. The instructors and students in a combined design studio and digital fabrication seminar developed a Ceiling Cloud that clips on to a modified suspended ceiling grid using lightweight folded aluminum panels that are designed to incrementally change dimension and drape into the space below. Constraints and variables within the parametric models allowed for the optimization and extraction of 150 unique panels that are also perforated with their own individual pattern. The variations in the folded surface disburse and dissipate sound through refraction and absorption created by the corrugation in the panels and their perforation. The holes are also calibrated as a gradient to allow more light to penetrate in the center of the space away from the perimeter walls. The project was prototyped by the students as the College of Architecture and partially realized with the help of industrial partners in Houston. The studio was co-directed with Visiting Critic Scott Marble who provided a framework to conduct the studio's exploration and several successful projects as precedent.

Lopes, José, and Antonio Leitao. "Portable Generative Design for CAD Applications." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 196-203. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Most CAD applications provide programming languages for automation and generative design. However, programs written in these languages are not portable because they execute only in the family of CAD applications for which they were originally written. Consequently, users are locked-in to one family of CAD applications and they cannot reuse programs written for other families. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem: Rosetta, a programming environment that is compatible with several CAD applications. Rosetta is composed of (1) an abstraction layer that allows portable and transparent access to several different CAD applications, (2) back-ends that translate the abstraction layer into different CAD applications, (3) front-end programming languages in which users write the generative design programs, and (4) an intermediate programming language that encompasses the language constructs essential for geometric modeling and that is used as a compilation target for the front-ends.Rosetta allows users to explore different front-ends and back-ends, in order to find a combination that is most suitable for the problem at hand. As a result, users have access to different programming languages, namely, visual and textual, which can be used interchangeably to write generative design programs, without breaking portability. Furthermore, Rosetta ensures that a single program can be used to create identical geometric models in different CAD applications. This approach promotes the development of programs that are portable across the most used CAD applications, thus facilitating the dissemination of the programs and of the underlying ideas.

Celento, David, and Edmund Harriss. "Potentials for Multi-dimensional Tessellations in Architectural Applications." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 308-313. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Computationally, there exist significant potentials to integrate periodic (repeating) and aperiodic (non-repeating) tessellations in architectural applications. While exploration of two-dimensional and three-dimensional tessellations appear in historically significant works, today, higher-dimensional tessellations are capable of being generated computationally which may be useful in various architectural applications. This paper, a collaboration between an architect and mathematician, explores these processes and potentials. Insights will be offered into this early stage exploration regarding the creation and use of higher-dimensional geometries for architectural applications such as patterning, volumetric descriptions, and modular assemblages.

Chok, Kermin. "Progressive Spheres of Innovation: Efficiency, communication and collaboration." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 234-241. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Over the last few years, a large majority of construction work has moved overseas. In response to this, our engineering practice has been involved in a large number of Asian and Middle East design competitions, usually executed in a compressed timeframe. Building codes usually include very specific requirements regarding the lateral performance of a building under seismic and wind loads. This is especially true in China. Our structural engineering practice has thus developed a variety of digital tools customized to building code requirements, in order to provide relevant structural feedback in an appropriate design time frame. The paper will discuss our recent digital design work in the context of building code requirements and information sharing. Our innovations have centered on three progressive spheres of innovation: internal efficiency, communication and collaboration. We propose that only with closer and more transparent collaboration will the building industry be effective and efficient in meeting clients needs. However, without first addressing a firm's internal capabilities of efficiency and communication, the firm will be unable to effectively participate in the collaborative process. This paper begins by discussing various custom Rhino-Grasshopper components to facilitate our internal design process. We then touch on the communication realm discussing work in lowering the barriers for information sharing. Lastly, we explore the necessary shifts in thinking required to move beyond linear design exploration and the exciting opportunity to deliver truly innovative design solutions.

Hudson, Roly, Drew MacDonald, and Mark Humphreys. "Race track modeler. Developing an Iterative Design Workflow Combining a Game Engine and Parametric Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper documents the continuing development and testing of a novel digital work flow established and implemented for the design and redevelopment of formula one racing tracks. The Race Track Modeler (RTM) tool uses a game engine to simulate driving around proposed track designs. Performance data from the simulation is combined with real data acquired from analysis of vehicle mounted accident data recorders (ADRs). The output of the tool is a graphical representation of simulated stopping positions of vehicles that have lost control and left the track. This information directly informs the design of motor racing facilities, the zoning of spectator facilities, position and specification of crash barriers (if required), and surface material selection for the run-off zones (the area where vehicles are expected to stop after losing control and leaving the track). The RTM can suggest further design changes to the track geometry which are then fed back into the game engine. The project involves methods of binding analysis of design directly to geometry together with input from interactive controls. The RTM has been developed and tested during the redevelopment of Silverstone race track in the United Kingdom (figure 1) this paper documents the current state of the tool and concludes with proposed future developments.

Bell, Brad, Kevin McClellan, and Andrew Vrana. "Reconfiguring Collaboration by Computational Means Tex-Fab: a new model for collaborative engagement." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

TEX-FAB is a non-profit organization founded between three universities in Texas with the primary function of connecting design professionals, academics, and manufactures interested in digital fabrication. The three co-directors established TEX-FAB as a collective action, one that attempts to combine divergent interests and capabilities, for the purpose of strengthening the regional discourse around digital fabrication and parametric design. The three primary avenues for accomplishing this goal are set out as Theoria (Lectures / Exhibitions), Poiesis (Workshops) and Praxis (Competition). We see this type of effort as a new paradigm focused on providing a network of affiliated digital fabrication resources, and a platform for education/ exchange on issues of parametric modeling. It is our position that TEX-FAB engages the new and growing awareness of a regional and global hybridization. We seek to leverage the burgeoning global knowledge base to produce a more specific and contextual dialogue within the region we operate, teach, and practice.

Griffiths, Jason. "Repurposed Political Ply." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper describes a building envelope that has been formed from recycled political campaign boards. It explores its formation as a deviation from one cycle of production and consumption (manufacture, implementation, removal and disposal of the campaign board) to another i.e. a repurposed shade canopy.

Doumpioti, Christina. "Responsive and Autonomous Material Interfaces." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 318-325. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper presents continuing research on responsive systems in architecture, the ability of architectural systems to change certain properties in response to their surrounding environmental pressures. While doing so, it shifts from current and past examples of mechanical approaches of adaptation, towards biological paradigms of seamless material integration. Looking at biological mechanisms of growth and focusing on the material make-up behind them, the research proposes the exploration of material systems in a two-fold interrelated manner: firstly, through passive material systems of variable elasticity, and secondly through the embedment of smart materials with shape-changing properties. The combination of the two is aiming at architectural systems of functional versatility.Through an interdisciplinary approach, the paper examines the following questions: Is it possible to envisage structures that share the principles of adaptation and response of living organisms? What are the technological challenges faced when designing self-actuated responsive interfaces? Which is the conceptual framework for understanding and investigating complex adaptive and responsive systems? By exploring and synthesizing theories and tools from material science, bioengineering and cybernetics the aim is to inform architectural interfaces able to enhance interconnectivity between the man-made and the natural. Focusing on the self-organization of material systems the intention is to suggest architectural interventions, which become sub-systems of their ecological milieu. The emphasis therefore is placed not on architectural formalism, but on how we can define synthetic environments through constant exchanges of energy, matter and information.

MacDowell, Parke, and Diana Tomova. "Robotic Rod-bending: Digital Drawing in Physical Space." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 132-137. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper details preliminary project-based design research that emphasizes the development of tools and processes in tandem with the development of ideas and forms. Amid increasingly mechanized fabrication processes, this project injects the human as code-writer and tool-builder, asserting authorship within the modes of production themselves. The initial output from this foray, wavePavilion is an architectural installation generated by computer algorithms and built using custom digital fabrication technology. Completed in June 2010, the project is located on the grounds of the University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning. wavePavilion has a footprint of 20x30 feet and stands 14 feet tall, containing over a kilometer of 1/4-inch diameter steel rod.

Kaczynski, Maciej, Wes McGee, and David Pigram. "Robotically Fabricated Thin-shell Vaulting: a method for the integration of multi-axis fabrication processes with algorithmic form-finding techniques." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 114-121. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper proposes and describes a new methodology for the design, fabrication, and construction of unreinforced thin-shell stone vaulting through the use of algorithmic form-finding techniques and multi-axis robotic water jet cutting. The techniques build upon traditional thin-shell masonry vaulting tectonics to produce a masonry system capable of self-support during construction. The proposed methodology expands the application of thin-shell vaulting to irregular forms, has the potential to reduce the labor cost of vault construction, and opens the possibility of response to external factors such as siting constraints and environmental criteria. The intent of the research is to reignite and reanimate unreinforced compressive masonry vaulting as a contemporary building practice.

Wilkins, Gretchen, Leanne Zilka, and John Cherrey. "Scripted Materials." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 204-211. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Looking to fabrication technologies as a way to bridge the gap between design and execution, this research tested various methods for the digital optimization of flat sheet materials, specifically those which can be reclaimed from building and manufacturing sites. By reordering conventional design processes to begin with (reclaimed) material constraints we are looking to close the gap in the cycle of sheet material manufacturing and reduce the amount of building waste in architectural projects. This paper will discuss the process of embedding digital information and scripting processes into material systems in order to rethink the relationship between input and output in design, especially in the context of sheet material manufacturing, reclamation, fabrication and distribution. Two projects situated within architectural design studios are cited as examples to this approach, with speculation on how the work might shift the role of “craft” in design and fabrication processes.

Calderon, Emmanuel, Heimo Schimek, and Albert Wiltsche. "Seeking Performative Beauty." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 300-307. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

With digital design and fabrication becoming ever more common in architectural design, the computational geometry topic of discretizing freeform surfaces into flat panels has become a common challenge. At the present, most approaches to the issue of preserving a 2D-tessellation on a freeform surface are focused on optimizing the shape of the structure by approximating geometric “equally-sized” flat patterns. In doing so, these strategies treat the approximation of the desired shape as the primary goal, leaving aside the aesthetical aspect of the paneling, which can be seen as having an ornamental quality. In contrast to these common strategies, the project presented in this paper pursues a more holistic approach that tries to integrate aesthetical as well as structural issues by using more complex as well as more performative patterns for the discretization. In the present paper, we present algorithmic strategies that were designed to integrate from the aesthetics of an exposed timber structure, through analysis of structural loading feedbacks to a detailed level of the physical joint system, as part of the fundamental early design decisions. The consequence of the overall negotiations relies fully on their physical integration through computational design. The present paper discusses both the algorithmic techniques and the joint systems through a series of case studies. At the end of the paper we provide an overview to upcoming tasks including the production of a major structure.

Peters, Troy. "Simulation by Design: a Parametric Design Tool for Zero Energy Buildings." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

To address the shortcomings of integrating building simulation in architectural design and to make it more appealing to students, a simple interface to Energyplus was created. This interface models a simple rectangular building that is passively heated by direct gain and cooled by ventilation. A simple photovoltaic interface has also been added to supply fan energy. This tool has an OpenGL modeler for visualization and uses Energyplus for calculations. The interface will run a full year simulation and graph the results. The results are reported in a yearly graph that shows the outdoor and indoor temperature. The indoor temperature range is based on adaptive comfort level. The interface was tested and used in an introductory design studio in order to comply with the 2010 imperative. The students simulated a simple box and changed the buildings parameters until the building fell within the adaptive comfort zone for most of the year. The climate simulated was Chicago, IL. Using these parameters the students then designed the building. The resulting designs show that even though the students were restricted in parameters, such as window percentage, they were still able to creatively design unique buildings that use zero to negative net energy for heating and cooling in a climate such as Chicago.

Khoo, Chin Koi, Jane Burry, and Mark Burry. "Soft Responsive Kinetic System: an Elastic Transformable Architectural Skin for Climatic and Visual Control." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 334-341. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Most designers of dynamic building skins that reconfigure themselves in changing conditions have utilised mechanical systems. However, when designing for dynamic responsiveness, these systems often involve intricate and high-tech mechanistic joints, actuators and control. This research investigates the possibility of the “soft” form-changing material systems to minimise the use of “hard” mechanical components for kinetic responsive architectural skins. The research goal is to develop a prototype system that can be used to retrofit an existing building with an application of a “second skin” that performs well in various climate conditions and is visually compelling. This approach is tested by the prototype, namely “Curtain”. It serves two fundamental purposes: Comfort and Cosmetic, to improve the existing interior and exterior spatial conditions. As an early proposition, the significance of this research offers a practical method for realising a “soft” transformable architectural skin that synthesises passive cooling, manipulates sunlight and is set as an active shading device. Parametric design is used to explore and simulate these climatic and visual design constraints.

Schubert, Gerhard, Eva Artinger, Frank Petzold, and Gudrun Klinker. "Tangible Tools for Architectural Design: Seamless Integration into the Architectural Workflow." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 252-259. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The starting point for the “CDP” (Collaborative Design Platform) interdisciplinary teaching and research project is to examine how digital tools can be used to support architects in the early design stages. The CDP – Collaborative Design Platform – represents an interface between the familiar, tried and tested ways in which architects work with digital tools that support the design process. The focus of the project concept is to create a working environment that fits seamlessly into the design process. The aim is to close the gap between analogue ways of working and digital tools. Using a prototypical setup, we examine the use of the computer as a tool for supporting the design process.

Ogrydziak, Luke. "Tetrahedron Cloud." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 284-291. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The research project, tetrahedron cloud, explores agent-based stochastic behavior as a design tool. It investigates the possibilities for producing volumetric tetrahedral meshes based on the interactions of individual stochastic agents. The research situates itself at the intersection of the visual arts, the physical sciences, and computer science. The basic interest in stochastics comes from the visual arts, the growth simulation approach is borrowed from the natural sciences, and the use of a tetrahedral mesh within C++ comes from computer science. But more generally, the project focuses on architecture's ongoing engagement with stochastic systems. By embedding extremely specific tendencies within an agent's behavior, while also allowing for stochastic variation, we can create larger systems that are both in and out of our “control”. This sidesteps the typical limitations of many computational geometry and parametric methods, where there is often an overly deterministic relationship between the input and output of a given system. Such a shift from optimization to behavior inevitably brings up troubling questions of style. Abandoning the search for a best“ solution, or even the articulation of the criteria for such a task, re-opens computational architecture at its deepest levels as a site for design speculation.

Weinstock, Michael. "The Architecture of Flows: Integrated Infrastructures and the 'Metasystem' of Urban Metabolism." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 40-43. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The traditional approach to urban design studies has been based on what can be described as a generalised anatomical model, e.g., functional zoning coupled to metaphors such as green areas serving as the “lungs” of cities. Despite the frequent use of biological metaphors, urban design has generally proceeded from an understanding of cities as static arrays of buildings and infrastructures that exist in, but are distinct from, stable environments. But this approach does not reflect the dynamic systems of cities throughout history, nor their close coupling to the dynamics of their local environment, climate and ecology, and now the global dynamics of culture and economy. The limitations of this approach, in which cities are treated as discrete artefacts, rather than nodes interconnected by multiple networks, are compounded by the legal and regulatory boundary of the city usually being defined as an older core, so that cities are regarded as something quite separate from their surrounding territory. All cities have administrative boundaries, but cities are very rarely either physically or energetically contained within those administrative boundaries. In the past, cities gathered most of the energy and materials they needed from their immediate local territory, and trade linked systems of cities across whole regions. The growth and vitality of many cities are no longer dependent on the spatial relationship with their immediate environs but on the regional and global flows of resources. The flow of materials, information and energy through cities comes from far outside their physical and regulatory (municipal) boundaries. Cities now extend their metabolic systems over very great distances, so that the extended territory of the urban metabolism of a city and its geographical “place” are often completely decoupled.

Miller, Nathan. "The Hangzhou Tennis Center: a Case Study in Integrated Parametric Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This paper will provide a detailed overview of the parametric methodologies which were integral to the design and development of the Hangzhou Tennis Center. The tennis center is a 10,000 seat facility located in Hangzhou, China and is a part of a larger sports and entertainment master plan which features retail, public recreation, and an Olympic-size stadium to be completed in 2013.

Sanguinetti, Paola, and Chad Kraus. "Thinking in Parametric Phenomenology." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

This project explores the relationship between phenomenology and parametric design. Architects have made compelling arguments for a phenomenological understanding of architecture, rooted in the subject and in direct experience, for which the notion of intentionality plays a central role. However, the inherent subjectivity of phenomenology has remained a barrier to its use as an explicit method of design thinking. On the other hand, the wide spread use of parametric modeling, as a tool to capture design intent, has led to theorizing parameterization in architecture.

Wahlroos-Ritter, Ingalill. "Tooling Information." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 214-215. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

While each generation of new architects considers itself an agent of radical change within the profession, the implementation of digital tools has not changed the primary role of the architect. Architects remain, above all else, communicators, synthesizers, team builders, and spatial visionaries. These authors have little interest in the traditional architectural realms of geometry. Neither form nor performance are of primary interest to these authors, information is.

Velikov, Kathy, Geoffrey Thün, Mary Malley, and Colin Ripley. "Toward Responsive Atmospheres: Prototype Exploration through Material and Computational Systems." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 326-333. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The Stratus Project is an ongoing body of design research investigating the potential for kinetic, sensing and environment-responsive interior envelope systems. The research emerges from a consideration of our attunement to the soft systems of architecture “ light, thermal gradients, air quality and noise ” paired with a desire to develop and prototype envelopes that not only perform to affect these atmospheres, but also to promote continual information and material exchange, and eventually dialogue, between occupant and atmosphere. Stratus v1.0 included the construction of a modest prototype using simple open source technologies, aimed to explore the formal, operational and technological possibilities, as well as potential operability and control conflicts, as part of the first phase of thinking around these questions. It deploys a distributed approach to structural, mechanical and communications systems design and delivery, where localized response is prioritized. The project works to reclaim the environmentally performative elements of architecture - in this case, specifically, interior mechanical delivery and interface systems - to within the purview of the discipline, as territories of material, formal, technological and experiential innovation and exploration. This paper will describe both the development of the current prototype as well as future research and investigation trajectories. The Stratus Project begins by situating itself at the crossroads of the disciplinary territories of architecture, technology, environmental control and cybernetics. Through the use of computational technologies and in collaboration with researchers in the fields of computer science, mechanical engineering and materials science, this project aims to advance the development of responsive environmental design and performative building skins.

Kolarevic, Branko. "Towards Computationally Aided Integrative Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 30-33. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Concepts such as integrated practice and integrated design are increasingly seen in architecture as promising paradigms for a much needed (and long overdue) change in the building industry. What is usually meant by these terms is a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach to design in which various participants from the building industry architects, engineers, contractors, and fabricators participate jointly from the earliest stages of design, fluidly crossing the conventional disciplinary and professional boundaries to deliver an innovative or simply better and less costly product at the end.

Sterk, Tristan de Estree. "Using Robotic Technologies to Integrate External Influences in Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 316-317. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

Designers have always assembled materials to form purposeful connections between ideas and spaces, uniting the height of human thought with the great ability of people to shape the world with their hands and tools. People have understood this opportunity and used it to inform the material investments that they make in buildings.When reflecting upon the past ten or so years of practice it is clear that some methodologies have matured. Professionals, academics and students have found new ways to connect thinking and doing. These connections have a different flavor and tend to feel more analytical to those once used. Previously internalized decisions are being made increasingly explicit by a generation of designers that has found a more meaningful overlap between the theories and procedures of design. The methods they use are visual, analytical, as well as intuitive, and encompassed within a whole gamut of tools such as Grasshopper, Ecotect, Digital Project and Generative Components. All of these tools provide opportunities for designers to inquisitively explore alternative formal, spatial and environmental relationships. The opportunities that are brought by increasing externalization are important. Design is at once turning away from its focus on the end result, be it a building or an interior, and toward a renewed interest in the design process itself. Brought about by encapsulating design principles into self-made tools, this shift has enabled families of formal outcomes rather than singular instances of “pure” architecture. These multiple, equally valid, formal outcomes disrupt more traditional measures of formal legitimacy and help move architects toward more relational understandings of space, time and environment.

Xing, Qing, Gabriel Esquivel, Ryan Collier, Michael Tomaso, and Ergun Akleman. "Weaving Methods in Architectural Design." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

In an effort to investigate surface logics consisting of highly porous, irregularly defined weaving systems a series of investigative strategies were employed. This paper discusses certain modes of research and their derivatives through a case study, Spu_lenkorb, as an entry into a digital fabrication competition by Texfab, in which the project received honorable mention. The initial form is conceived as a Möbius band, a geometrical variant of the pure mathematical “strip”. The base mesh of the initial form is developed using the software TopMod3D and Maya. This base mesh is then processed into a woven object using internally developed weaving software.

Buell, Samantha, Ryan Shaban, Daniel Corte, and Christopher Beorkrem. "Zero-waste, Flat Pack Truss Work: an Investigation of Responsive Structuralism." In Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 138-143. ACADIA. Calgary/Banff, Canada: The University of Calgary, 2011.

The direct and rapid connections between scripting, modeling and prototyping allow for investigations of computation in fabrication. The manipulation of planar materials with two-dimensional CNC cuts can easily create complex and varied forms, volumes, and surfaces. However, the bulk of research on folding using CNC fabrication tools is focused upon surfaces, self-supporting walls and shell structures, which do not integrate well into more conventional building construction models.This paper attempts to explain the potential for using folding methodologies to develop structural members through a design-build process. Conventional building practice consists of the assembly of off-the-shelf parts. Many times, the plinth, skeleton, and skin are independently designed and fabricated, integrating multiple industries. Using this method of construction as an operative status quo, this investigation focused on a single structural component: the truss. A truss is defined as: A triangulated arrangement of structural members that reduces nonaxial external forces to a set of axial forces in its members. (Allen and Iano 2004) Using folding methodologies and sheet steel to create a truss, this design investigation employed a recyclable and prolific building material to redefine the fabrication of a conventional structural member. The potential for using digital design and two-dimensional CNC fabrication tools in the design of a foldable truss from sheet steel is viable in the creation of a flat-packed, minimal waste structural member that can adapt to a variety of aesthetic and structural conditions. Applying new methods to a component of the conventional kit of parts allowed for a novel investigation that recombines zero waste goals, flat-packing potential, structural expression and computational processes.