Keywords Abstract
Jaskiewicz, Tomasz. "(In:)forming Interactive Architectural Systems, Case of the xMAiA Meta-model ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 203-210. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper positions the domain of interactive architecture (iA) and searches for an appropriate model for structure and processing of information in the design and operation of such architecture. It is shown that there are different approaches to ways in which iA system models can be defined, each with numerous advantages and disadvantages. However, due to complexity of encountered problems, application of such models can be only partially validated by simulation and hence their design is inherently dependent on creation of operational and experiential full-scale prototypes of the systems these models represent. Another observation is the lack of correspondence between existing iA models and other contemporary models of computation for architectural geometry, fabrication and engineering. A meta-model for extensible multi-agent interactive architecture (xMAiA) is consequently proposed as a remedy to this situation. xMAiA meta-model is aimed to provide an open framework for integrated evolution, development and operation of interactive architectural systems. It delivers an extensible platform, in which diverse, project-specific models and approaches can be implemented, tested, and further evolved. Such a platform has the potential to empower agile development and operation of interactive architectural ecologies, as well as to substantially facilitate integration of creative design and experiential prototyping from day-1 of project design and development cycle. An example application conforming to the xMAiA meta-model is consequently presented and illustrated with a case study project performed in the university education context. 
Crawford, Scott. "A Breathing Building Skin." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 211-217. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper details an initial exploration into the development of a breathing building skin. This research proposes a system of diaphragms as an alternative to the use of fans for distributing volumes of air. The driving concepts for this project are the three types of evolutionary adaptation: flexibility, acclimation, and learning. Of particular interest is how these biological concepts relate to architectural design. Parametric modelling was used throughout the project to study a family of folding geometry. This allowed for the iterative development of a complex part that is capable of being manufactured from a single sheet of material. Preliminary calculations point to this system being several times more energy efficient than a fan at moving a given volume of air per Watt of electricity. This research is significant as it puts forth a potentially energy efficient and highly integrated alternative to fans, while also illustrating a way of relating biological concepts of adaptation to architectural design. 
Brell-Cokcan, Sigrid, and Johannes Braumann. "A New Parametric Design Tool for Robot Milling." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 357-363. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper proposes the use of parametric design software, which is generally used for real-time analysis and evaluation of architectural design variants, to create a new production immanent design tool for robot milling. Robotic constraints are integrated in the data flow of the parametric model for calculating, visualizing and simulating robot milling toolpaths. As a result of the design process, a physical model together with a milling robot control data file is generated. 
Perry, Chris. "Anticipatory Architecture | Extrapolative Design." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 305-312. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. The instrumental and aesthetic implications of architectureis engagement with science and technology has a long history, part of which includes the period following the Second World War when the rapid technological advances of the Industrial Revolution merged with a general cultural mindset characterized by themes of progress and futurism. For postwar thinkers like Reyner Banham, this interest in a futurist architecture suggested an approach to design rooted less in architectural precedent than technological extrapolation. While a precedent based approach might be viewed as more disciplinary in nature, technological extrapolation suggests an inclination towards interdisciplinarity. Thus, Banhamis concept of extrapolation encouraged architects to look beyond the limits of their own discipline as a means of discovering new forms of knowledge and expertise. Indeed Banham was engaged in taking stock of the technological advances particular to his time while simultaneously anticipating the implication of these advancements for the future. To this extent, the postwar period and its inherent futurism provides a useful and poignant lens through which to take stock of our own technological climate. Given the equally revolutionary advances in computer technology in the last twenty years, our contemporary moment can be seen as having many parallels with the postwar period, and not unlike the postwar generation of architects and thinkers, contemporary designers are inevitably faced with the challenge of engaging new technological advances and their implications for architecture. In our current age of digital and biological technologies, these advances are both rapid and widespread, and include LED and fiber-optic lighting systems, motion sensing, interface design, solar tracking photovoltaic skins and wind harnessing technologies, magnetic levitation, and robotics. This paper begins with an examination of design work and criticism from the postwar period and proceeds to utilize that examination as an historical framework for addressing issues of contemporary design and 21st Century technological advancement. 
Estévez, Alberto. "Application of Life Information in Architecture: Biodigital Architecture and Genetics ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 168-173. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Antonino, Di. "Architecture as Caregiver: Human Body - Information - Cognition." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 110-116. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Recent studies in contemporary architecture have developed a variety of parameters regarding the information paradigm which have consequently brought different results and techniques to the process of architectural design. Thus, the emergence of an ecological thinking environment and its involvement in scientific matters has determined links moving beyond the conventional references that rely on information. It is characterized as an interconnected and dynamic interaction, concerning both a theoretical background and providing, at the same time, appropriate means in the architectural design process (Saggio, 2007, 117). The study is based on the assumption that Information Theory leads into a bidirectional model which is based on interaction. According to it, I want to emphasize the presence of the human body in both the architectural creation process and the use of architectural space. The aim of my study, is consequently an evaluation of how this corporeal view related to the human body, can be organized and interlinked in the process of architectural design. My hypothesis relies on the interactive process between the information paradigm and the ecological one. The integration of this corporeal view influences the whole process of architectural design, improving abilities and knowledge (Figure 1). I like to refer to this as a missing ring, as it occurs within a circular vital system with all its elements closely linked to each other and in particular, emphasizes architecture as a living being.
Rajus, Vinu, Robert F. Woodbury, Halil Erhan, Bernhard Riecke, and Volker Mueller. "Collaboration in Parametric Design: Analyzing User Interaction during Information Sharing ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 320-326. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Designers work in groups. They need to share information either synchronously or asynchronously as they work with parametric modelling software, as with all computer-aided design tools. Receiving information from collaborators while working may intrude on their work and thought processes. Little research exists on how the reception of design updates influences designers in their work. Nor do we know much about designer preferences for collaboration. In this paper, we examine how sharing and receiving design updates affects designersi performances and preferences. We present a system prototype to share changes on demand or in continuous mode while performing design tasks. A pilot study measuring the preferences of nine pairs of designers for different combinations of control modes and design tasks shows statistically significant differences between the task types and control modes. The types of tasks affect the preferences of users to the types of control modes. In an apparent contradiction, user preference of control modes contradicts task performance time. 
Marcos, Carlos. "Complexity, Digital Consciousness and Open Form: a New Design Paradigm ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 81-87. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Complexity as a result of improved design capabilities through the use of computer tools was introduced in the architectural debate since these became irreplaceable. On the other hand, not every designer is genuinely aware of the logical implications that the use of these tools may entail. Used as a simple emulation of enhanced traditional design tools ? drawings and models, they do not alter the process of design significantly. However, the potential of such tools beyond their instrumentality introduces designers into the realm of digital consciousness. This paper analyzes complexity as an inherent quality of computer aided architectural design in relation to four different digitally conscious design strategies. First, the increase of complexity involved in digital architectural designs because of their potentiality to manage enormous amounts of differentiated information. Second, the complexity inherent to an open form such as parametric or generative designs may be defined. Third, the use of the computer as a smart partner involved in the design process ? i.e., form finding strategies ?  rather than as a simple efficient machine able to repeat our abilities faster and more effectively in certain roles of the design process. Finally, it analyzes the possibility of generating parameterized typologies as a result of the openness of form, as well as the increased complexity that randomness may introduce in algorithmic design. The paper concludes with reflections on complexity vs. simplexity considering the fact that the simplicity characteristic of Modernism aesthetics and constructive values collide with the baroque formal complexity achieved in generative design.
Meier, Alexis. "Computation against design? Toward a new logicocentrism in architecture." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 49-52. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. The purpose of this paper is to make apparent critical and theoretical aspects of the instrumentation of new technologies inside architectural processes. After twenty five years of “Choral Worki between architecture and post-structuralist philosophy superimposed together inside architectural processes, we now face a new technological era which seems to provide a new figure of authority by replacing logocentrism to mathematical logicocentrism. Everywhere, the “insemination” of computer by biogenetic algorithms and codification processes transform matter into a zoocentric paradigmatic system, which is supposed, by its internal “modulation,” to extend our potential of social dynamics into space. The goal of our demonstration will then be to examine new technical and theoretical strategies, in a way that the positivistic structure of computation can avoid a totalizing effect (that leading architecture under technological domination), but open up to an un-programmable (emergent) future far above “weaving” and calculated design.
Salim, Flora Dilys, Hugo Mulder, and Przemyslaw Jaworski. "Demonstration of an Open Platform for Tangible and Social Interactions with Responsive Models ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 227-233. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Information is ubiquitous due to the digitization of our world. There is an unprecedented volume of information in our physical and socially networked world that can be used to inform our design problems and the way we design. To date, designers of parametric models have been using design precedents, archived data, and simulated datasets to inform their modelling process, but live information sources from the environment are rarely considered as direct input to models. The paper discusses novel experiments in which digital parametric design models are extended with live input and parameters from physical environments and online social networks. The paper also presents UbiMash, an open source software platform that was introduced and refined during the dev elopment of these experiments. 
Marble, Scott. "Designing Design, Designing Assembly, Designing Industry." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 286-292. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Sabin, Jenny. "Digital Ceramics: Crafts-based Media for Novel Material Expression and Information Mediation at the Architectural Scale ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 174-182. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Design research for digital ceramics commenced with the project, “Ground Substancei an experimental form produced in the Sabin+Jones LabStudio. The design team was led by Jenny E. Sabin and Andrew Lucia. Dr. Peter Lloyd Jones and Agne Taraseviciuete led the scientific team. Our design critic was Annette Fierro. The project was inspired by original biological research conducted at the Jones Laboratory, supervised by Dr. Peter Lloyd Jones and led by MD-PhD student Agne Taraseviciuete at the Institute for Medicine and Engineering, UPenn. This research was supported generously by the CMREF. Design and production of “Ground Substancei was supported generously by a UPenn Research and Development Grant awarded to the Sabin+Jones LabStudio. 
Picon, Antoine. "Digital Culture and Architecture: Evolution or Revolution." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 24-25. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Blough, Lawrence. "Digital Tracery: Fabricating Traits." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 333-339. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Recently, prototyping enabled by CNC technology has found its way into design practice where concepts can be quickly and economically tested through multiple design iterations that closely approximate the realities of oneto- one construction. This has lead to the promise of renewed research in tectonics and constructional techniques where the traditional concepts of craft and the joint, that were once married to the hand, can be rediscovered through the agency of mass customization. If we apply the lineage of the trait?a representational and cognitive tool to marry complex form with the exigencies of construction?pedagogical approaches can be developed that extend the current interest in intricate surface, structural morphology and geometry towards a robust materiality rooted in componentry, the joint, and part-to-whole relationships. This paper will introduce several threads from the twentieth century that have informed these tendencies in contemporary design practice, emerging from the well spring of Viollet-le-Duc. The thesis is supported by undergraduate model-based research employing digital design and fabrication techniques. 
Doumpioti, Christina, Evan Greenberg, and Konstantinos Karatzas. "Embedded Intelligence: Material Responsiveness in Façade Systems ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 258-262. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper presents recent research for new mechanical systems and façade designs that are able to respond to environmental changes through local interactions, inspired by biological systems. These are based on a model of distributed intelligence founded on insect and animal collectives, from which intelligent behaviour emerges through simple local associations. Biological collective systems integrate material form and responsiveness and have the potential to inform new architectural and engineering strategies. The proposed façade system uses integrated sensors and actuators that moderate their local environments through simple interactions with their immediate neighbors. Computational techniques coupled to manufacturing methods and material logics create an integral design framework leading to heterogeneous environmental and structural conditions, producing local responses to environmental stimuli, and ultimately, effective performance of the whole system. 
Foged, Isak, Worren Poulsen, and Esben Skouboe. "Environmental Feedback and Spatial Conditioning." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 250-257. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper illustrates responsive systems, which focus on the implementation of multi-objective adaptive design prototypes from sensored environments. The intention of the work is to investigate multi-objective criteria both as a material system and as a processing system by creating prototypes with structural integrity, where the thermal energy flow through the prototype, to be understood as a membrane, can be controlled and the visual transparency altered. The work shows performance based feedback systems and physical prototype models driven by information streaming, screening, and application. 
Wall, Jennifer, and Erik Hegre. "Expel Binary Assumptions." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 190-195. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper is an analysis of the insufficient nature of binary terms to define and discuss digital information flow and fabrication, and seeks to purport ways in which these binary definitions can be dispelled in favor of a push towards wholeness in both our understanding of the contemporary design climate as well as our own interaction with objects and material. 
Tamke, Martin, Jacob Riiber, and Hauke Jungjohann. "Generated Lamella." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 340-347. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.

The hierarchical organization of information is dominant in the setup of tectonic structures. In order to overcome the inherent limitations of these systems, self-organization is proposed as a means for future design. The paper exemplifies this within the research project “Lamel la Flock”. The research takes its point of departure in the structural abilities of the wooden Zollinger system: a traditional structural lamella system distributed as a woven pattern of interconnected beams. Where the original system has a very limited set of achievable geometries our research introduces an understanding of beam elements as autonomous entities with sensorymotor behaviour. By this means freeform structures can be achieved Through computation and methods of self-organization, the project investigates how to design and build with a system based on multiple and circular dependencies. Hereby the agent system negotiates between design intent, tectonic needs, and production. The project demonstrates how real-time interactive modelling can be hybridized with agent-based design strategies and how this environment can be linked to physical production. The use of knowledge embedded into the system as well as the flow of information between dynamic processes, Finite Element Calculation and machinery was key for linking the speculative with the physical.

Yeshayahu, Shai. "Hack-on-Life." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 14-15. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. The concepts of “life” and “information” become all the more deeply connected as life becomes inextricably affected by both data and technologies. Architecture is intimately related to this new reality, and it contributes to the discourse of the interdependency of life and information and how it impacts our very structures of perception.
Geiger, Jordan, and Virginia San Fratello. "Hyperculture: Earth as Interface." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 379-384. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Digital Fabrication and Hybrid Interface: Lessons in Agriculture:abstract Two vitally important fields of work in architecture and computing “ in digital fabrication methods and in the development of interfaces between digital and analog systems “ can find new forms in their combination with one another. Moreover, a recent such experiment in the production of landscape rather than building not only suggests a number of implications for architectural work, but of ecological, economic and urban structures that underlie the projectsis visible formal and aesthetic orders. This project, “Hyperculture: Earth as Interface,i studied the potential outcomes of modifying a commonly employed information infrastructure for the optimization of agricultural production throughout most of Americais heartland, and that same infrastructureis latent flexibility to operate in both “readi and “writei modes, as a means for collaborative input and diversified, shared output. In the context of industrialized agriculture, this work not only negotiates seemingly contradictory demands with diametrically opposed ecological and social outcomes, but also shows the fabrication of landscape as suggestive of other, more architectural applications in the built environment. The Hyperculture project is sited within several contexts: industrial, geographically local, ecological, and within the digital protocols of landscape processing known as “precision agriculture.i Today, these typically work together toward the surprising result of unvariegated repetition, known commonly as monoculture. After decades of monocultureis proliferation, its numerous inefficiencies have come under broad recent scrutiny, leading to diverse thinking on ways to redress seemingly conflicting demands such as industryis reliance on mass-production and automation, the demand for variety or customization in consumer markets, and even regulatory inquiries into the ecological and zoning harms brought by undiversified land use. Monoculture, in short, is proving unsustainable from economic, environmental, and even aesthetic and zoning standpoints. But its handling in digital interfaces, remote sensing and algorithmically directed fabrication is not. 
Douglis, Evan. "In Search of Synthetic Immortality." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 40-44. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Lorenzo-Eiroa, Pablo. "In:forming a Critical Digital Architecture Autonomy into Life." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 16-23. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Referential structures in digital representation and those structures that have established contemporary canons have been progressively negated. As a result of this tendency, post-structuralism, as a pendulous reactionary force against structuralism, broke away from deconstructionis conceptual premise: to produce a full decomposition of any assumed disciplinary fundamentals. Therefore, rather than focusing on a syntax based on structural logics, current digital architecture tendencies hide deep conceptual structures in favor of superficial perceptual structures, relying on the media-based spectacular semiotic effect of the visual that has exhausted its capacity to be critical.
Russo, Rhett. "Information as Material: Data Processing and Digital Fabrication Technologies ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 299-304. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper will examine the recent transformations to architectural drawing that are occurring in the presence:abstract of information based drawing procedures and their potential for new fabrication methods. The mathematical organization of information has resulted in a more systemic, intricate, and variable approach toward making things ? characteristics that have historically been associated with manual forms of craft. The shift from a geometric to an information based paradigm is allowing a wide range of industries to more easily converge. Consequently, a much broader range of interdisciplinary fabrication processes are now available to architects and designers. This confluence of numerical based machinery in other fields is providing new possibilities for architects to visualize data using a broader range of materials and techniques. 
Briscoe, Danelle. "Information Controlled Erosion." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 145-150. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper documents research of a design process that interrelates a single information model to 5-axis, waterjet cutting technology. With the intention of creating an optimized design, data is streamed through a building information model that controls geometry parametrically by a component/system relationship. At the scale of a 4ix8i panel, material properties and pattern variability act as underlying initiators of design rather than post-rational information. In a manner uncommon to the discipline, the information model is being used as a generative tool, rather than as one for mere documentation. The research assigns a limestone wall type to the panel ? a material predominantly used in areas where it is indigenous and typically desirable for its texture, color, and thermal properties. The intention is to develop potentialities through material specificity in the information modelis conceptualization. The water-jet process is then used to erode the limestone to achieve varying fields of scalar voids. In addition, the thickness of wall cladding attenuates for figuration and interest. The final stone panels transition from a rain screen system to a solar screen that modulates light, thereby linking environmental intentions to current technological capabilities. The information model is exported for analysis of daylight and structural dynamic qualities and quantities as part of the workflow. Parameters within the information model database facilitate a dimensionally controlled iterative process. Moreover, fabricating with building materials via the information model expedites a design and makes possible for materiality to move beyond merely conceptual representation.
Saggio, Antonino. "Information is the Raw Material of a New Architecture." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 45-48. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. The brief of this 2010 Acadia conference is Life in Formation: On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture, and it will discuss “on the influence of computing and its impact on the changing nature of information.” But at this point an interesting question should be answered. What is information? What is its specific significance in the area of information technology? How could information be considered the “raw material” in the most advanced architectural experimentation over the past few years? This essay wants to demonstrate the effectiveness of the affirmation: Information is the Raw material of a New architecture. To further expand the thesis and to access bibliography and notes, see the many books of the “IT revolution in Architecture Book Series” Birkhäuser (Basel, Boston) and EdilStampa (Rome) and the last book of the author “The IT Revolution In Architecture, Thoughts on a Paradigm Shift” Carocci,(Rome) 2007 translated in English in ITool and distributed by Lulu.com.
Sprecher, Aaron. "Informed Architecture: Affluence, Influence, and Confluence: Three Conditions on the Nature of Information and the Architectural Organism." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 13-Oct. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. With the advent of the modern sciences and the perception of natural phenomena in terms of indeterminacies, the discipline of architecture has marked a shift from an idealistic expression of the real world to the unleashing of performative systems that reflect its instabilities.
Schmiedhofer, Heinz. "Interactive Geometric Design of Architectural Freeform Hulls with Embedded Fabrication Information ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 348-356. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. As a possible solution to the quandary of seeing two natural parts of the architectural process ?free design and successive rationalization? in the hands of two separate professions when it comes to freeform architecture, this paper proposes the incorporation of respective geometric information into architectural design tools. An exemplary prototypical software is introduced, empowering an architect to interactively design and edit architectural freeform shapes represented as regular quad meshes with planar faces. The sustained planarity of faces is an integral part of the design process, thus considerably decreasing the need for elaborate post processing towards feasibility. 
Vassigh, Shahin, and Silvana Herrera. "Interactive Teaching through Simulation Environments." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 327-332. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Spurring new and innovative building design will be critical to the urban energy and economic future of the nation. The operation of completed buildings account for 48% of the nationis annual greenhouse gas emissions, and 76% of all electricity generated by U.S. power plants goes to supply the building sector. Therefore developing and applying new and innovative sustainable building design will have a measurable impact on the environment. Recent studies show sustainable building design is closely linked to system integration, where various components of a building work in confluence to produce synergetic benefits. As a result, a critical component of sustainable design involves a clear understanding of building systems operation, interaction, and the selection parameters. A consideration of suitable building systems, gauging their interaction, and proposing well integrated systems can lead to producing efficient models of sustainable buildings with minimal impact on the environment. The following paper outlines the progress on a project entitled “Building Literacy: the Integration of Building Technology and Design in Architectural Education.” The project develops a digital tool for teaching/learning architectural technology from an integrated systems perspective. The project attempts to immerse students in a simulated environment that is based on the real life practice of architecture. The project accomplishes this by harnessing the capabilities of simulation and dynamic modelling programs, as well as the state of art graphic media, to create compelling and rewarding reasons for students” engagement in the lear ning process. The project involves a multidisciplinary team of faculty from Florida International University, University at Buffalo the State University of New York, and Iowa State University and is funded by the US Department of Education for the period of 2007-2011. 
Rocker, Ingeborg. "Interface: Between Analog and Digital Systems." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 53-60. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Analog and digital media not only inform each other but also inform the discussion and production of architecture.
Mathew, Anijo. "Just in Place Learning: a Novel Framework for Employing Information in “Place” for Urban Learning Environments ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 73-80. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Nineteenth century models of education and learning which dictate that information is passed on from teacher to apprentice:abstract in a closed classroom environment seem archaic to us, especially since so much of our experiences are constructed in the outside world. Advances in ubiquitous and calm computing, social and immersive media, and urban locative technologies now allow for embedding complex information into physical environments and thus open up possibilities for teachers to set up carefully tagged student engagements in the real world ? in “places” where real scientific phenomena are happening and technological artifacts can be engaged with. However these models are seldom successful because they are employed without an understanding of changing paradigms of learning. In this paper, we look at several new developments in learning models and use them to develop Just in Place learning, a novel framework which harnesses embodiment, place, and the potential of new locative technologies to augment traditional practice-based learning. Just in Place learning provides new potential for teachers and students to engage with information in “place,” exploit the urban environment as the new classroom, and the built environment as a portal for situated learning.
Linder, Mark. "Literal Digital." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 282-285. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
de Monchaux, Nicholas, Shivang Patwa, Benjamin Golder, Sara Jensen, and David Lung. "Local Code: the Critical Use of Geographic Information Systems in Parametric Urban Design ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 234-242. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Local Code uses geospatial analysis to identify thousands of publicly owned abandoned sites in major US cities, imagining this distributed, vacant landscape as a new urban system. Deploying GIS analysis in conjunction with parametric design software, a landscape proposal for each site is tailored to local conditions, optimizing thermal and hydrological performance to enhance local performance and enhance the whole cityis ecology. Relieving burdens on existing infrastructure, such a digitally mediated, dispersed system provides important opportunities for urban resilience and transformation. In a case study of San Francisco, the projectsi quantifiable effects on energy usage and stormwater remediation would eradicate 88-96% of the need for more expensive, centralized, sewer, and electrical upgrades. As a final, essential layer, the project proposes digital citizen participation to conceive a new, more public infrastructure as well. 
Dierichs, Karola, and Achim Menges. "Material Computation in Architectural Aggregate Systems." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 372-378. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Aggregates are defined as large amounts of elements being in loose contact. In architecture they are mainly known as an additive in concrete construction. Relatively few examples use aggregates in their unbound form as an architectural material system in their own right. The investigation of potential architectural applications however is both a very relevant and unexplored branch of design research. Loose granular systems are inherently different from other architectural construction systems. One of the most decisive distinctions lies in the way information on those granular architectural systems is being generated, processed, and integrated into the design process. Several mathematical methods have been developed to numerically model granular behaviour. However, the need and also the potential of using so-called,materiali computation is specifically relevant with aggregates, as much of their behaviour is still not being described in these mathematical models. This paper will present the current outcome of a doctorate research on aggregate architectures with a focus on information processing in machine and material computation. In the first part, it will introduce definitions of material and machine computation. In the second part, the way machine computation is employed in modelling granulates will be introduced. The third part will review material computation in granular systems. In the last part, a concrete example of an architectural aggregate model will be explained with regard to the given definition of material computation. Conclusively a comparative overview between material and machine computation in aggregate architectures will be given and further areas of development will be outlined. 
Menges, Achim. "Material Information: Integrating Material Characteristics and Behavior in Computational Design for Performative Wood Construction ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 151-158. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Architecture as a material practice is still predominantly based on design approaches that are characterized by a hierarchical relationship that prioritizes the generation of geometric information for the description of architectural systems and elements over material specific information. Thus, in the early design stage, the materialis innate characteristics and inherent capacities remain largely unconsidered. This is particularly evident in the way wood constructions are designed today. In comparison to most construction materials that are industrially produced and thus relatively homogeneous and isotropic, wood is profoundly different in that it is a naturally grown biological tissue with a highly differentiated material makeup. This paper will present research investigating how the transition from currently predominant modes of representational Computer Aided Design to algorithmic Computational Design allows for a significant change in employing woodis complex anisotropic behaviour, resulting from its differentiated anatomical structure. In computational design, the relation between procedural formation, driving information, and ensuing form, enables the systematic integration of material information. This materially informed computational design processes will be explained through two research projects and the resultant prototype structures. The first project shows how an information feedback between material properties, system behaviour, the generative computational process, and robotic manufacturing allows for unfolding material-specific gestalt and tapping into the performative potential of wood. The second project focuses on embedding the unique material information and anatomical features of individual wooden elements in a continuous scanning, computational design and digital fabrication process, and thus introduces novel ways of integrating the biological variability and natural irregularities of wood in architectural design. 
Tang, Ming, and Jonathon Anderson. "Mathematically Driven Forms and Digital Tectonic: a formula for realizing the digital ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 97-102. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Mathematics has been the interest of architects for hundreds of years and has been used in projects ranging from the Denmark Pavilion at Expo 2010 to Gaudiis cathedral. Generative form finding frequently takes the inspiration of the geometric aesthetic found in mathematic forms. Today, the influence of digital computation technology is increasingly evident in architectural form seeking and analysis as they relate to mathematics. The sculptural possibilities of math forms have reconditioned the design process that establishes new modelling and tectonic approaches. This paper focuses on the study of current constraints and new procedures within mathematical approaches to architecture. Furthermore, this paper describes three experimental projects exploring mathematically driven designs and their potential within architectural vocabulary. In these experiments, the designers and students explored the manipulation of a planar surface through algorithmic equations and the molecular make-up of a surface through voxel representation. 
Derix, Christian. "Mediating Spatial Phenomena through Computational Heuristics ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 61-66. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Tenu, Vlad. "Minimal Surfaces as Self-organizing Systems." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 196-202. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Minimal surfaces have been gradually translated from mathematics to architectural design research due to their fascinating geometric and spatial properties. Tensile structures are just an example of their application in architecture known since the early 1960s. The present research relates to the problem of generating minimal surface geometries computationally using self-organizing particle spring systems and optimizing them for digital fabrication. The algorithm is iterative and it has a different approach than a standard computational method, such as dynamic relaxation, because it does not start with a pre-defined topology and it consists of simultaneous processes that control the geometryis tessellation. The method is tested on triply periodic minimal surfaces and focused on several fabrication techniques such as a tensegrity modular system composed of interlocked rings (Figure 1). 
Ponte, Alessandra. "Notes for an Archeology of Responsive Environments: the case of Montreal 1965-1975 ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 164-167. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Sharif, Mohamed. "Notes on Abductive Experimentation." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 271-275. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Tehrani, Nader. "On the Abstraction of Information and the Physical Tectonics of Materials ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 276-281. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Interview to Nader Tehrani, Principal of Office dA developed on Tuesday June 15th of 2010 by Pablo Lorenzo-Eiroa, Aaron Sprecher and Shai Yeshayahu, ACADIA 2010 Co-Conference Chairs.  
Banda, Pablo. "Parametric Propagation of Acoustical Absorbers." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 313-319. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. The following paper deals with a performance-driven morphogenetic design task to improve the conditions of room acoustics, using as a case study the material laboratory of the School of Architecture at Federico Santa Maria University of Technology. Combining contemporary Parametric Modelling techniques and a Performance- Based approach, an automatic generative system was produced. This system generated a modular acoustic ceiling based on Helmholtz Resonators. To satisfy sound absorption requirements, acoustic knowledge was embedded within the system. It iterates through a series of design sub-tasks from Acoustic Simulation to Digital Fabrication, searching for a suitable design solution. The internal algorithmic complexity of the design process has been explored through this case study. Although it is focused on an acoustic component, the proposed design methodology can influence other experiences in Parametric Design. 
Cabrinha, Mark. "Parametric Sensibility: Cultivating the Material Imagination in Digital Culture ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 364-371. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Digital fabrication and parametric tools require not only digital dexterity but a robust material sensibility that precedes digital mediation. Developed through Gaston Bachelardis concept of the graft, the material imagination acts as a reciprocal creative intelligence to todayis dominant formal imagination enabled through the fluid geometric precision in digital tools. This paper presents a series of “materials first” pedagogical approaches through which material constraints become operative design criteria in the development of digital skills. This intersection between analog and digital systems develops a parametric sensibility that is demonstrated through physical prototypes and full-scale installations. This approach is implicitly a critique of the disregard of material logic in many parametric approaches in particular, and digital design culture in general. Conversely, the development of a parametric sensibility through analog means enables the development of material primitives from which parametric tools can expand the material imagination while giving structure to it. 
Legendre, George. "Parametric Surface Redux: IJP (Finally) Explained." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 36-39. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Pasold, Anke, and Isak Foged. "Performative Responsive Architecture Powered by Climate." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 243-249. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper is to link the thermonastic behaviour found in flower heads in nature with the material research into bimetallic: abstract strips. This is to advance the discussion of environmental responsive systems on the basis of thermal properties for advanced environmental studies within the field of architecture in general and in form of a responsive building skin in particular. 
Beaman, Michael, and Stefan Bader. "Responsive Shading | Intelligent Façade Systems." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 263-270. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. As issues of sustainability gain traction for architects, methodologies for designing, analyzing, and calibrating design solutions have emerged as essential areas of research and development. A number of approaches have been pursued with regard to embedding data into the design process, most fall into one of two approaches to research. The first approach is to mediate environmental impact at the level of applied technology, the second alters building methods and material construction, generating efficient energy use. However, few approaches deal with the crafting of relationships between information and performance on an architectural level. We will examine an approach focused on understanding how crafting relationships between information and design can move architecture towards achieving sustainability. In developing this approach, we created a data-driven design methodology spanning from design inception to construction. Data-driven models, common in the fields of natural science, offer a method to generate and test a multiplicity of responsive solutions. By contextualizing the solutions generated, we were able design though a set of specific and controlled responses rather than as a singular solution. Information utilization requires a new kind of craft that moves beyond instances into relationships and offers performance sensitive issues in design a focused trajectory. We applied this method to the research and development of a responsive shading structure built in conjunction with a thermal testing lab for two test locations - Austin, Texas (Figure. 1 and 2) and Munich, Germany. The following paper chronicles the design and construction at the Texas site over an academic semester. 
Flöry, Simon, and Helmut Pottmann. "Ruled Surfaces for Rationalization and Design in Architecture." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 103-109. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. In this work, we address the challenges in the realization of free-form architecture and complex shapes in general with the technical advantages of ruled surfaces. We propose a geometry processing framework to approximate (rationalize) a given shape by one or multiple strips of ruled surfaces. We discuss techniques to achieve an overall smooth surface and develop a parametric model for the generation of curvature continuous surfaces composed of ruled surface strips. We illustrate the usability of the proposed process at hand of several projects, where the pipeline has been applied to compute NC data for mould production and to rationalize large parts of free-form facades. 
Steinfeld, Kyle, Pravin Bhiwapurkar, Anna Dyson, and Jason Vollen. "Situated Bioclimatic Information Design: a new approach to the processing and visualization of climate data ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 88-96. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Currently, most approaches to graphic evaluative frameworks (GEFs) for the early-stage evaluation of bioclimatic design strategies adopt a design-tool metaphor, wherein a battery of analytical routines is performed by a software tool based upon a standardized weather file from which a stock set of graphic material is produced. In seeking to evaluate a broad range of climates and to address a wide variety of passive design strategies, existing climate visualization and evaluation tools position themselves far outside of the context of a situated design problem. Remaining agnostic to the particularities of site, program, tectonic system, and material behaviour these tools become, by definition, generic. As a consequence, while such design-tools can be effective in evaluating particular relationships between environmental resource, demand profile, and built-system, they maintain a potential to be rendered ineffective in any outlying cases not specifically anticipated by their authors. Situated Bioclimatic Information Design (SBID) presents an alternative approach that targets a class of design strategies prominent among these outlying cases: those highly responsive to negotiation between the continually fluctuating resources within microclimates and the fluctuating demand profile of the building program. Using a custom-built weather data parser a number of diagrams and data visualizations have been produced under this approach. These visualizations are not only useful in and of themselves for aligning design strategies to specific contexts, but they also illustrate the foundations of a larger theoretical framework for the processing and visualization of climatic data for effective utilization of bioclimatic flows. 
Crotch, Joanna, Robert Mantho, and Martyn Horner. "Social Spatial Genesis: Activity Centered Space Making." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 117-124. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. Digital technologies and processes have been used to generate architectural form for over two decades. Recent advances in digital technologies have allowed virtual digital environments to be constructed from physical movement. But can a bridge that connects the physical and virtual realms be developed? Can this, currently arbitrary form making be grounded in human activity and subsequently be integrated in to real time, space, and place. This research asks how space generated from the process of digital morphogenesis can be related to meaning beyond just the creation of form. Existing research asks how new form can be discovered, or what material and structural possibilities can be derived from form, through these morphological processes. The aim of this research project is to complete the loop, physical-virtual-physical, and to connect these digital processes to meaning through human activity. Its aim is to discover the consequences of generated spatial envelopes that are manipulated through digital morphogenesis and related to specific human activity, in the pursuit of possibilities for a digitally generated architecture that is socially engaged. This is not random form finding, wherein architecture tries to imitate biological processes or form, but form finding that is connected to a primary architectural concern, how is the architecture being used by humans.
Ireland, Tim. "Stigmergic Planning." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 183-189. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper presents an application of swarm intelligence towards the problem of spatial configuration. The methodology classifies activities as discrete entities, which self-organise topologically through associational parameters: an investigation of emergent route formation and spatial connectivity based on simple agent and pheromone interaction, coupled with the problem of “loosei rectangular geometric assembly. A concept model sniffingSpace (Ireland, 2009) developed in Netlogo (Willensky, 1999), which established the self-organising topological capacity of the system, is extended in Processing (Fry & Rea, 2009) to incorporate rectangular geometry towards the problem of planning architectural space. 
Chok, Kermin, and Mark Donofrio. "Structure at the Velocity of Architecture." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 218-226. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper outlines a digital design workflow, utilized by the authors, which actively links the geometry platforms being utilized by architects with tools for structural analysis, design, form-finding, and optimization. This workflow leads to an accelerated generation and transfer of information to help guide and inform the design process. The engineering team is thus empowered to augment the architectis design by ensuring that the design team is conscious of the structural implications of design decisions throughout the design process. A crucial element of this design process has been the dynamic linkage of parametric geometry models with structural analysis and design tools. This reduces random errors in model generation and allows more time for critical analysis evaluation. However, the ability to run a multitude of options in a compressed time frame has led to ever increasing data sets. A key component of this structural engineering workflow has become the visualization and rigorous interpretation of the data generated by the analysis process. The authors have explored visualization techniques to distill the complex analysis results into graphics that are easily discernable by all members of the design team. 
Kim, Jong, and Mark Clayton. "Support Form-based Codes with Building Information Modeling - the Parametric Urban Model Case Study." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 133-138. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This study aims to develop the parametric urban model to support Form-based Codes (FBCs) by using Object-Oriented Parametric Modelling (OOPM) and Building Information Modelling (BIM). FBCs have been used to substitute conventional land-use and zoning regulations in the United States. In many cities, FBCs were implemented successfully, but excessive design constraints, difficult code making process, and missing density of FBCs are criticized. As a response to the increasing needs of parametric modelling approaches in the urban design domain, we applied BIM and OOPM techniques in two case studies. We conclude that BIM and OOPM have a great potential to support planning and design processes, and that the parametric urban model allows FBCs to be more flexible, interpretable, and interoperable.
Chu, Karl. "The Global Brain: Beyond the Correlationist Paradigm in Architecture." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 32-35. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Theodore, David. "The Limits of Digital Architecture: Interpretation versus Data ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 293-298. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Teyssot, Georges. "The Membrane and the Fold." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 26-31. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Andersen, Paul, and David Salomon. "The Pattern that Connects." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 125-132. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. While patterns have a spotty history in architecture, their definitions and uses in other fields offer new possibilities for design. This paper examines those definitions and uses “ including theories put forward by architectural theorist, Christopher Alexander, art educator, Gyorgy Kepes, chemist, Ilya Prigogine, and anthropologist, Gregory Bateson. Of particular interest is the shift from eternal, essential, universal, and fundamental patterns to fleeting, superficial, specific, and incidental versions. While endemic to many contemporary architectural practices, this multifaceted view of patterns was anticipated by Bateson, who saw them as agents of evolution and learning. His desire to combine redundancy and noise offers architects new ways to understand patterns and use them to link form and information, matter and thought. 
Gersten, David. "Time Promise Land: Notes on our current geographies ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 67-72. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Bressani, Martin. "Towards a Digital Theory of Affect." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 159-163. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010.
Miller, Nathan. "[make]SHIFT: Information Exchange and Collaborative Design Workflows ." In LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 139-144. ACADIA. New York, New York: Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, 2010. This paper explores design processes requiring the invention and implementation of customized workflows for the optimization of design information exchange. Standard workflows in design software are typically dependent upon the use of proprietary file formats to communicate design intent across the design team. Software platforms promote “one-stop-shop” proprietary approaches to BIM where all team members and consultants ideally operate within a single model environment and store information within a single file format. While the “single model” approach can be effective under some circumstances, this approach is often found to be limiting when the design process calls for the integration of other design toolsets and delivery processes. This is especially true for large complex projects where multiple participants with different software requirements need to collaborate on the same design. In these cases, various non-standard ways of working are often implemented, resulting in a new means of communicating design and building information across a team. This paper will outline the impact customized workflows have on the design process at NBBJ and evaluate their potential for leading to more innovative design and integrated teams. The first study will explore and evaluate the communication and collaborative process that took place in the design development and construction documentation stages of the Hangzhou Stadium. The second study will be an overview of ongoing investigation and experimentation into customized workflows for team and data integration.