Keywords Abstract
De Kestelier, Xavier, and Richard Buswell. "A Digital Design Environment for Large- Scale Rapid Manufacturing ." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 201-208. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Innovation in architectural design often follows technological innovation. This innovation can often be related to advances in construction techniques or design tools. This paper focuses on the development of a digital design environment for a new manufacturing process that can produce large architectural components. The design environment can be customized so that it incorporates both the flexibility and the constraints of the construction technology, such that the components produced maximize the core concept of the technology. Rapid Prototyping is a mature technology that has been around for 25 years in the manufacturing and product design industries. It is used primarily to speed up the product design cycle time from concept to physical realization for evaluation, it is now gaining a foothold in contemporary architectural practice. A number of protagonists are taking the Rapid Prototyping concept a stage further by developing large-scale processes capable of printing architectural components, there are even claims of the ability to produce whole buildings. These processes will give the architect a new palette of choice in terms of component design, and promise similar levels of geometric freedom as the Rapid Prototyping counterparts.
Cantrell, Bradley, and Natalie Yates. "Abstraction Language: Digital/ Analog Dialogues." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 234-239. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. The connection between biological systems and machines is quickly becoming an important factor in designing the built environment. This paper explores the model of abstraction languages as a method to create communications between biological and mechanical systems, focusing on modes accessible to design professionals. The development of data and control abstraction in programming is explored in order to develop linkages between physical systems and digital interfaces. This examination looks at current methods of data conveyance for the built environment, and at pushing beyond these current methods to suggest a method of abstraction. The researchers are particularly interested in the ability of abstraction to compress ecological/biological complexity into accessible modules for responsive environments.
Drozdowski, Ziggy, and Shawn Gupta. "Adaptive Fritting as Case Exploration for Adaptivity in Architecture." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 105-109. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This paper explores the incentive, design process, and realization of an adaptable building system. Hoberman Associatesi installation at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard  University, Adaptive Fritting, is used as a case study for the more general thesis of mechanism design in architecture. Traditionally seen as expensive and impractical, “movement” in buildings can be accessible if done with high economy and simple elegance. The goal of this example is to illustrate the design process, challenges, constraints and parameters required to realize an adaptable architectural system.
Gharleghi, Mehran, and Amin Sadeghy. "Adaptive Pneus." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 110-117. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. The research focuses on the performative capacities of a pneumatic material system in regards to the specific environmental conditions. The use of Adaptation as a mechanism to modulate environmental performance was the main focus of the design process and research. The location of the sun during the day acts as a trigger to adapt the system, allowing the system to passively augment the environmental conditions. A new form-finding method that combines digital and material processes has been the main method by which the experiments were undertaken. This approach necessitates a dramatic shift in the architectural design, from producing static to environmentally responsive objects. It requires a shift in thinking from buildings as static and non-active systems to material system existing over time within specific environments capable of complex environmental performances. 
Miranda, Pablo, Christian Derix, Asmund Gamlesaeter, and Lucy Helme. "Aedas R&D: Global Practices of Computational Design ." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 242-244. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This paper gives an overview of the approach of working methods at the Aedas R&D computational Design and Research [CDR] Group. It first contextualizes research in architectural practice and tries to propose an explanation for the difficulties in implementing it, then explains the evolution of the groupsi computing approach from bespoke to heuristic sets of lightweight applications. It concludes with examples of the developed computational design approach.
Senagala, Mahesh, and Joshua Vermillion. "An Inconvenient Studio ." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 287-290. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. The authors propose that technologically empowered design innovations, able to confront the many global challenges faced presently and in the future, require new pedagogical and organizational strategies in the design studio. The paper describes a novel approach to conducting An Inconvenient Studio and the unique learning experience that led to original active and reactive inventions. Situated technologies / physical computing played a central role in enabling An Inconvenient Studio. Five projects that came out of the studio will be briefly described: Legobotics, Bloom, Twist, Arcus Animus, and Morpholuminescence.
Zhang, Yu, Han Feng, and Jianguo Wang. "An Interactive Decision Support System for Deriving Plot Ratios Based on the Similarity Relations Between Land Attributes." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 264-266. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This paper presents a simple tool for deciding land attribute plot ratios by defining elementary entities and their relationships from the viewpoint of a complex adaptive system. Each entity in this case, a block in the city, is described according to its condition and potential for development, such as land function, accessibility, landscape control, and so on. This not only provides a rich yet subtle identification of each entity, but also creates the basis to establish dynamic interconnections between them. The similarity coefficient, calculated by the comparison between the different blocks factors fits well with the explanation of the spontaneous development of the city. The weight of every factor and the threshold of the similarity coefficient are both set as variables, with the optimized value recommended as a default, which ensures a multitudinal application of this software with a focus on different aspects of urban planning. The resultant self-regulatory system with flexible input is not only a credible tool for deriving plot ratios, but also an effective platform to activate urban design creations. The system, as a socio-technical tool, enhances the essential process of urban self-organization and hetero-organization.
Brien, William. "Approaching Irreducible Formations." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 259-263. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This essay codifies and extends contemporary conceptions of systemic organization using architectural case studies within the context of 1950is space-time. Given the dominance of certain concerns within the profession of architecture during that time ? prefabrication and strict modularity ? the selected case studies reveal unprecedented characteristics which anticipate current developments in algorithmic and parametric formation. The projects in question demonstrate sophisticated strategies for differentiated part-to-whole relationships which predate contemporary organizational systems, now derived with the aid of digital computation. Their importance to current architectural discourse lies in distinguishing the manner in which they manifest notions of space-time, including transformation, continuity and modulation, as architects increasingly operate within dexterous and interconnected environments. 
Bennett, Ed. "ArtBus: a Minimal Bus and Protocol for Distributed Interfacing in Art and Design." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 98-104. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. ArtBus is a protocol and hardware bus for interfacing computers to sensors and actuators. It is a distributed interface, meaning that different parts of an ArtBus system can be at different locations in a space. ArtBus devices can be made on any embedded platform or microcontroller. While unconventional in some ways, ArtBus makes use of engineering design inspired by long established supervisory control and laboratory instrumentation practice. At the same time it is a simple, flexible interface which should be viable into the next generation of media devices and embedded control.
Sabin, Jenny. "Code, Context, and Perception: Matrix Architecture and the Architect Weaver." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 52-57. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Recent technological leaps in data production and computation have afforded both architects and scientists an extraordinary ability to generate information and complex form. Rather than deal in the composition of wholes, architects specializing in generative and parametric design strategies—more formally known as design computation—have adopted a bottom-up approach to the negotiation of constraints within the design process. This renewed interest in complexity has offered alternative methods for investigating the interrelationships of parts to their wholes, and emergent self-organized pattern systems at multiple scales and applications. The contemporary architecture avant-garde has provided many examples that showcase the proven power such digital tools afford the designer, inspiring and leading to the generation of beautiful form. But what are our next steps in addressing complexity? How should architects with expertise in design computation situate themselves in larger design dialogues concerning pressing topics such as those concerning our environment? Biology provides useful systems-based models for architects to study to understand how context specifies form, function, and structure.
Lonsing, Werner. "Composite Images on Mobile Devices Augmenting Reality in an Outdoor Environment." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 270-272. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Mobile devices like cell phones, handhelds, and other gadgets are useful tools in organizing and communicating. This is going to change. Recent developments in hardware have proven that such small devices are much more capable and have reached the levels of common laptops as of five years ago. With more computational power, more memory, and new methods of interaction such as touch screens, or accelerometers, mobile devices can be used in the design process. However, the assumption that they can, or will, substitute desktop computers might be misleading. By no means will mobile devices substitute them directly. Instead, thinking of them as innovative tools that provide new approaches in the design process can establish new methods and, consequently, might circumvent the overall need of desktop computers at all.
Campbell, Cameron. "Compu-Kinetic Mediapod." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 281-283. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This paper describes an interactive experiment in which “middleware” is interpreted as the architecture of non-building, and the making of media as mediator between physical and visual, temporal and fixed, digital and analog. Leon Battista Alberti, Jorge Silvetti, and other architectural critics have posited that architects do not make buildings but, rather, representations of buildings. The simple translation of this is that architects make drawings, models, computer simulations, and the like for the ultimate purpose of making a building. This work challenges the notion that architects make only representation media, and expands the role of architecture to include mediation as an act upon a space that is both physical and analytical. What if architects make, but they donit make for the end result of a building? What if architects  make representations that are physical and experiential, and that are designed and built without the presumption of a building? This is the space that middleware occupies.
Bitonti, Francis. "Computational Tectonics." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 82-89. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. The goal of this research is to define a methodology for the construction of complex non-repeating surfaces and structures that rely on the formulation of a singular tectonic mechanism. Computational systems like cellular automata seem to suggest that it might be possible for modular material systems to self-assemble into complex organizations. A single series of modular parts could be capable of producing not only complex behaviour, but also, depending on initial conditions, simple periodic behaviour. The research outlined in this paper uses simple geometric transformations to produce tectonic computers that can be applied to a variety of building systems. This paper outlines a methodology for encoding and decoding material assemblages as discrete computational systems. Exploiting the combinatorial nature of tectonic systems makes it possible to produce a population of “material algorithms” capable of exhibiting a wide range of behaviours. Encoding assemblages as discrete systems affords the designer the ability to enumerate and search all possible permutations of a tectonic system. In this paper, we will discuss the calculations and computational processes used to encode material assemblages as populations of discrete algorithms. 
Gage, Stephen. "Constructing the User." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 44-51. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. A distinction is drawn between designing settings that are part of the performative framing of immediate behaviour and, the often more difficult task, constructing an architecture of possibilities. Analogies are drawn to the work of stage magicians and software interface designers that suggests some attributes of both of the above aspects of architecture. The concept of “Utilitas” is explored both as a way of reducing variety so change can be introduced in an orderly manner and as a way of initiating a rich and complex user illusion
Oesterle, Silvan. "Cultural Performance in Robotic Timber Construction." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 194-200. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. In the research presented in this paper, we investigate the architectonic potential of additive digital fabrication in timber construction through robotic processes. The goal of the project was to learn from traditional building techniques and to translate the cultural knowledge about performance requirements such as constructive weather protection and structure for todayis tools and digital design systems.
Peronto, John, Ken Maschke, Robert Sinn, Fei Xu, Ben Raines, and Dennis Rehill. "Data Flow and Communication in the Design of Complex Architectural Forms." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 159-164. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Recent advances in architectural and engineering technology have opened the door for complex architectural expression in todayis built environment. When pushing the envelope on geometric complexity, architects and engineers must begin a dialogue early on in the design process and communicate effectively throughout. Using digital models for communication, visualization, and analysis creates additional digital information that may need to be shared. Middleware provides interoperability between different software packages and facilitates the exchange of information. However, this does not exempt the partners from maintaining traditional lines of open communication. This paper will discuss the importance of open communication and demonstrate a strategy for sharing digital information. The case studies that will be presented are taken from design projects whose geometric complexity required close partnership between design team members. Effective communication will first be discussed in the context of three sculptural concept designs. Second, the interoperability of digital models will be discussed through a case study of a complex, faceted super-tall high-rise tower.
Hemsath, Timothy, Brian McCracken, and Darin Russell. "Decon Recon: Parametric CADCAM Deconstruction Research." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 291-293. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Prototype manufacturing as an educational tool has been very successful at the college level in architecture and engineering design. This paper discusses an innovative inquiry-based learning approach rather than the problem-based learning models commonly utilized by other similar programs. For example, several research-funded technology projects (e.g., Cappelleri et al. 2007) look at involving students in problem-based learning exercises (e.g., building robots), however, these exercises (while providing valuable experiences) have predetermined outcomes ingrained by the teachers, the project structure, and the components used to construct the devices. Therefore, inquisitive and creative problem solving is limited to the “kit-of-parts” in their approach to solving the problem. The inquiry-based CADCAM pedagogy model is more concerned with the process of solving a problem through the vehicle of prototyping than with the specificity of the design project itself. This approach has great potential. First, the need to solve the problem drives learning on multiple levels, integrating interdisciplinary ideas into the problem and solution. Second, the problem interlocks disciplines through inquiry knowledge building in team exercises. Finally, it encourages diversity and flexibility by allowing students to look at problems from multiples perspectives and points of view.
Strehlke, Kai. "Digital Technologies, Methods, and Tools in Support of the Architectural Development at Herzog and de Meuron ." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 26-29. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. The architectural office of Herzog & de Meuron (HdM) started in 1978 and has grown to a company of about 330 employees. Besides the two founding partners who participate in every project there are nine additional partners who take responsibility for individual projects. Furthermore, the office collaborates with artists and outside experts of various fields to support and enhance the available knowledge and skills. The partners ensure that each project has a distinct and unique identity and is well adapted to its environment. This emphasis on the uniqueness of a project characterizes the design philosophy of HdM.The growth of the office and the size and complexity of the projects has demanded continuous adaptation of the office structure. The amount of required data is increasing exponentially, while the design cycles are, generally, becoming shorter. The challenge is to find the right tools and media. HdM does not restrict itself to the realm of digital tools but, rather, uses all possible media: hand sketches in pencil, together with diagrams, drawings, and images, as well as physical and digital models.
Flohr, Julie. "Digital Templates: Diagrams of Associations." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 167-173. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This paper claims that a speculative design space exists within the crafting of digital rule-based associations in parametric modelling environments, which promises to support potent contemporary designs in architecture. In addition to reviewing some diagrammatic frameworks located within the techniques of associative design modelling, this paper also details a project for a research-oriented practice based on the development of a registry of digital diagrams called “re-usables.” Working with “re-usable templates” of association, a precise sequence of design logic is invented for each project, while some of its aspects are re-used and re-configured. Such practice aims to operate between the “one-offi world of the all-custom and the entirely reproducible world of “copy-paste.”
Kolarevic, Branko. "Exploring Architecture of Change." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 58-61. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This paper discusses what may seem to be rather obvious: responsive, adaptive, flexible, etc., architectures are all about change, which in turn, is all about time. It surveys significant past and current projects that deal with interactive, responsive environments. The principal argument is that change in architecture is far from being adequately addressed or explored theoretically, experimentally, or phenomenologically.
Fox, Michael. "Flockwall: a Full-Scale Spatial Environment with Discrete Collaborative Modules." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 90-97. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. The paper highlights a built example of a human-scale spatial environment composed of discrete collaborative modules. The primary goals were to develop and understand strategies that can be applied to interactive architecture. The design and construction were carried out in an academic context that was displayed to a public audience of approximately 200,000 people over the course of three days. In addressing the performance parameters of the prototype, the concept focused on several key strategies: 1) geometry 2) movement 3) connections 4) scale and 5) computational control, and human interaction. The final objective of the approach was to create an innovative design that was a minimally functional spatial environment with the capability for evolving additional multi-functionality. Heavy emphasis was placed on creating a full-scale environment that a person could walk through, interact with, and experience spatially.  
Fritz, Randolph, Chih-Pin Hsiao, and Brian Johnson. "Gizmo and WiiView: Tangible User Interfaces Enabling Architectural Presentations." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 278-280. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Widespread use by 3D designers of simple digital modelling applications such as Googleis SketchUp may displace the use of physical models in design. However, the difficulties often faced by non-experts in the ad hoc navigation of digital models during design reviews have not been eliminated. Keyboards and mice are clumsy navigational devices and difficult to share in a collaborative setting. This work explores the combination of new, inexpensive interface hardware technologies with a popular 3D modeler in order to create a viable surrogate for physical models. Two architectural model navigation and presentation interfaces were developed, one based on an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) circuit board (“Gizmo”), and one that used a Wii Remote Controller (“WiiView”). Both were interfaced with the popular architectural modelling program SketchUp. Anecdotal responses and preliminary user testing results are presented.
Keough, Ian. "goBIM: BIM Review for the iPhone." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 273-277. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This paper summarizes the development of goBIM, a model viewer, markup, and data-querying environment that utilizes Appleis iPhone and Autodeskis Revit software. Geometric and database information are written to a user defined server location via a custom Revit plugin. Model geometry and database information are loaded at run-time from the web server to the goBIM iPhone application, using a cellular network connection or WiFi. The user can then navigate the 3D environment, selecting objects to view their associated database information. The user has the ability to tag elements in the model with additional data, which can then be pushed back to the server and reloaded in the local version of the Revit model. BIM data can now be accessed anywhere there is a WiFi or cellular network connection available.
Sterk, Tristan de Estree. "Introduction: Thoughts for Gen X-Speculating about the Rise of Continuous Measurement in Architecture." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 18-22. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. We are here, in Chicago, not to talk about what we know, but what we do not know. We are here to share ideas and to speculate about what the world might look like if it were challenged, rethought, and rebuilt. We are here to uncover, piece by piece, a sense of our own ambitions for an architecture influenced by today but motivated by tomorrow. We are all speculators and dreamers. We find places for dreaming in our work, our models, our essays, our lectures, our research, and our teaching. Through these activities we speculate on the architecture of tomorrow. Sometimes these speculations hold great promise, while at other times they do not - certainly much of what we do can be improved, refined, qualified, quantified, and genuinely benefit from being computed. This could be horrifying, it could set the scene for an engineered architecture if we do not adapt.But architecture is changing and responding to very fresh and different ways of thinking. As a movement, young architects are questioning their inheritance and establishing new values, new methods, and new forms of practice. We might best think of these young architects as the Generation X of architecture - a generation who shapes discourse through technological, social, and environmental lenses. From its smallest technical process to its highest level of thought, this conference represents the spirit of this movement.
Frumar, Jerome, and Yi Zhou. "Kinetic Tensegrity Grids with 3D Compressed Components." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 255-258. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This paper details a series of preliminary explorations into the concept of kinetic tensegrity grids that can respond to stimuli by changing their shape, porosity, and transparency. The research presented explores double-layer tensegrity grids that utilize 3D “compressed” components. A case study demonstrates their applicability to the formation of sophisticated building envelopes that can actively or passively respond to changes in the environment. A computational form-finding tool is introduced to study design variations in real time. This tool is shown to expand the design spectrum by supporting increased complexity and revealing unexpected design potential. This research is significant as it outlines a practical methodology for conceiving responsive building systems. In particular, it illustrates an approach that synthesizes design concerns with engineering and fabrication goals.
Ostwald, Michael, Chris Tucker, and Stephan Chalup. "Line Segmentation: a Computational Technique for Architectural Image Analysis." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 153-158. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Planar methods have typically dominated the computational analysis of architectural and urban space and form. In contrast, analytical methods that consider the formal, or visual, qualities of architectural façades, or images of buildings, are not only rare, but only a few have ever been repeated and adequately tested. The present paper outlines a new method ? derived from the Hough Transform algorithm ? for the dissolution of architectural images into segmented lines that can be counted and charted, and that can have their spatial orientation determined. This method for investigating the visual qualities of buildings is demonstrated in an analysis of a series of images of suburban houses. The proposed method, line segmentation, is potentially significant because it is a method not commonly used for the quantitative analysis of the formal and textural character of real buildings, it is repeatable, and it delivers consistent results if a simple procedure is followed.
Oxman, Neri. "Material-Based Design Computation: Tiling Behavior." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 122-129. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. From natural objects to man-made artifacts, tiling is all around us: it is the act of rationalizing highly complex form by breaking it up into smaller, continuous components. If well pursued, tiled objects can be easily designed and assembled. However, a geometric-centric view of tiling, whereby a predefined form determines the shape, size, and organization of tiles, has victimized the field of digital design. This paper questions the role of tiling as rationalizing method and offers an alternative theoretical framework and technical grounding for tiling behaviour: the act of generation-through-tessellation informed by material behaviour. The tools developed are implemented in the design of a 3D-printed chaise lounge, using multiple materials. The technical objective is to introduce a quantitative characterization and analysis of property mapping, as it is applied to a tiling algorithm using Voronoi cell tessellation. The network of tessellated Voronoi cells is  used as an element in the Voronoi Finite Element Method (V-FEM) that the author developed. Various characterization functions and geometric parameters are generated, and V-FEM is executed for plane-strain analysis of doubly curved surfaces, from which global and local responses are evaluated. 
Verde, Marco. "Multiperformative Efficient Systems (MES) Towards System Thinking." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 248-251. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. In order to address the demands of an ever-increasingly data-driven architectural practice, the designer must become an interdisciplinary specialist. Therefore, it is necessary to rethink new strategies in order to establish a robust connective tissue between disciplines and specializations. Bringing new digital productions to the scale of a real building implies the need for radical innovation in non-standardized building solutions. This paradigm shift implies rethinking buildings as systems rather than the juxtaposition of optimized and monofunctional layers. This paper is rooted in a personal research agenda based in Systems Thinking, currently under development at Hyperbody, the research group
Christenson, Mike. "On the Use of Occlusion Maps to Examine Additions to Existing Buildings." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 267-269. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This paper discusses occlusion maps, or diagrams of isovists deployed in a plan field, which graphically describe an inhabitantis position-dependent perception of a buildingis visual permeability. Occlusion maps are shown here to be an important tool for analyzing the effect that additions to existing buildings have on this perception. The question is critical because additions invariably affect the visual permeability of their host buildings. 
Niemeijer, Remco, B. De Vries, and Jakob Beetz. "One Size Fits None: a User Interface for Constraint-Based Design." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 245-247. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Flexible mass customization of buildings is still in its infancy. Current systems for the automated support of ownerdriven configuration management are limited with regard to the degree of freedom they offer to end-users, due to the lack of an easy way to specify those freedoms. In this paper we present the prototype of an interface that allows architects to define constraints to which user-customized dwellings must conform.
Swackhamer, Marc, and Blair Satterfield. "Oswall (Open Source Wall): Rethinking Residential Wall Construction through Collaboration, Crowd Sourcing, and Iteration." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 294-297. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Collaboration is essential to the kind of innovative, revolutionary, game-changing innovations necessary to improve our world. Oswall is a collaborative construction system that endeavors to leverage collaboration to make a game-changing leap forward. Oswall (Open Source Wall) is an experimental wall prototype that challenges conventional residential wall construction through an open, collaborative approach to material, fabrication, and installation methods. It proposes an “open source” construction platform in which third-party designers, engineers, scientists, or “do-it-yourselfers” can create, produce, market, and sell “applications” that are plugged into the wall. 
Peters, Brady. "Parametric Acoustic Surfaces." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 174-181. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Acoustics are important performance criteria for architecture, however, architects rarely consider them, except, perhaps, when designing concert halls. Architectural spaces can be said to perform well or poorly in terms of their acoustic qualities. By altering the geometry or material characteristics of the surfaces within a room in specific ways, the acoustics can be controlled. Once the geometric rules governing these acoustic alterations are understood, these rules can be encoded into a CAD system through parametric modelling or the use of computer programming. The architectural designer can then generate acoustically regulating surfaces according to desired performance criteria. In this way, acoustic engineering links to architectural design, and allows architectural design to become acoustically performance-driven. This paper considers three primary types of acoustic surfaces: absorbers, resonators, and diffusers.  complex surfaces that combine these three performance characteristics in different ways are proposed. 
Miller, Nathan. "Parametric Strategies in Civic Architecture Design." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 144-152. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Using several NBBJ civic projects as case studies, this paper provides an overview of how NBBJis Los Angeles design studio is leveraging parametric and generative processes for the design of projects such as stadiums and exposition halls. A combination of ambitious intent and fast project schedules necessitates the use of advanced parametric tools to quickly solve complex problems, generate unique features, and automate parts of the design process. Designers will utilize digital tools for a variety of purposes, which can be classified under two general categories. The first and most common application of the technology is within the category of rationalization and optimization. The tool, in this case, is limited to the role of a production device that aids the designer in efficiently solving complex design problems. In more unique projects, the advanced technology acts as a generative tool and is an integral part of a working design methodology. In this case, the design technology becomes more than just a tool at the designeris disposal. Rather, it has the potential to act as a critical lens for identifying new possibilities in the architecture. 
Menges, Achim. "Performative Wood: Integral Computational Design for Timber Constructions." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 66-74. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Wood differs from most building materials in that it is a naturally grown biological tissue. Thus wood displays significant differentiation in its material makeup and structure as compared to most industrially produced, isotropic materials. Upon closer examination wood can be described as an anisotropic natural fiber system with different material characteristics and related behaviour in different directions relative to the main grain orientation. Because of its differentiated internal capillary structure wood is also hygroscopic. It absorbs and releases moisture in exchange with the environment and these fluctuations cause differential dimensional changes. In architectural history the inherent heterogeneity of wood and the related more complex material characteristics have been mainly understood as a major deficiency by the related crafts, timber industry, engineers and architects alike. This paper will present an alternative design approach and associated computational design tools that aim at understanding woodis differentiated material make up as its major capacity rather than a deficiency. Along two design experiments the related research on an integral computational design approach towards unfolding woodis intrinsic material characteristics and performative capacity will be discussed. The first experiment explores the anisotropic characteristics of wood by exploiting the differential bending behaviour in relation to the local induction of forces through which a specific overall morphology can be achieved. The second experiment focuses on the hygroscopic property of wood as the base for developing a surface structure that responds to changes in relative humidity with no need for any additional electronic or mechanical control. 
Ottevaere, Olivier, and Sean Hanna. "Quasi-Projection: Aperiodic Concrete Formwork for Perceived Surface Complexity." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 75-81. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Aperiodic tiling patterns result in endlessly varied local configurations of a limited set of basic polygons, and as such may be used to economically produce non-repeating, complex forms from a minimal set of modular elements. Several well-known tilings, such as by Penrose (2D) and Danzer (3D), have been used in architecture, but these are only two examples of an infinite set of possible tilings that can be generated by the projection in two or three dimensions of high-dimensional grids subject to rotations. This paper proposes an interface that enables the user to parametrically search for such tilings. Assembly rules are explained by which arbitrary geometry as specified by NURBS surfaces may be based on the pattern to form a non-repeating complex surface. As an  example, the fabrication in concrete of a cylindrical tiling is used to demonstrate the mass production of a continuous, free-flowing structure with the aid of a minimum amount of formwork. 
Rappaport, Nina. "Real Time / Implication for Production Spaces." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 186-193. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Systems of feedback loops and cybernetic methods have influenced for decades the production and consumption networks and supply and demand chains in computer-integrated manufacturing. These mechanisms contribute to the increased efficiency of production, expanding the ability of both manufacturers and production engineers to create a workplace with smoother supply-chain management, as well as economies of scale and scope that are contingent on increased capitalism in a networked, globalized world. Mobility and flexibility are both physical and philosophical imperatives, aided by new small-scaled controls such as handheld wireless devices, which also contribute to a rising culture of  nomadism. The shrinking scale of technologies and facilities has provided the mobile worker with numerous opportunities within complexly networked systems, forming a new paradigm for urban production spaces of the future. This paper is an investigation of how technology is changing and reshaping the architectural potentials for the contemporary industrial workplace.
Benton, Sarah. "reForming: Responding to Our Land in Crisis." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 226-233. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. An environmental crisis in Australia in early 2009 prompted the architectural design work considered in this paper. Bushfires ravaged the Victorian hinterland, destroying lives and families. The crises inspired me to explore the ACADIA 2009 conference theme, reForm(): how technologies transform the ways in which buildings and spaces perform, act and operate. This paper explores architectural design in distressed contexts and some design technologies used to formalize new housing development and respond to the environmental crisis. 
Baker, William, Alessandro Beghini, Juan Carrion, and Cenk Tort. "Scripting for a New Architecture: Studies in Structural Optimization ." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 252-254. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. This paper describes how scripting has been successfully used by structural engineers at Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, LLP (SOM) to rediscover, apply, and develop several tools for structural optimization. Some of these methods are described in this paper for applications to high-rise buildings and long-span roof structures
Cheng, Nancy, and Erik Hegre. "Serendipity and Discovery in a Machine Age: Craft and a CNC Router." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 284-286. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Our digital carving experiments reveal ways to invite discovery into the design process. Working with sketched lines, handcrafted finishing, geometric overlay, and tool path coding can lead a designer to unexpected results. Concentrating on forming processes moving through material over time encourages open-ended play. Iteratively examining how computer operations generate carved results provides a craftsman's understanding of tools and materials.
Wiebe, Kimberly, Karen Kensek, and Marc Schiler. "SonoranSystems: Building Simulation Modeling Using a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Analogy." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 216-225. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Biomimicry is one source of inspiration for innovation in the passive thermal design of buildings and of strategies that decrease the need for auxiliary heating and cooling systems. This paper explores the potential for using analogies drawn from Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to create a software program that simulates selected building materials to predict temporal building temperature variations. 
Kimpian, Judit, Josh Mason, Jeroen Coenders, Dan Jestico, and Steve Watts. "Sustainably Tall: Investment, Energy, Life Cycle." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 130-143. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. The purpose of this project is to provide an interactive platform for clients and design teams to evaluate the consequences of shape, form, and briefing decisions on the energy use, embodied energy, and capital / life-cycle cost of a tall building early in the design process. The Tall Building Simulation (TBS) model is the result of a collaborative partnership between Aedas, Arup, Hilson Moran (HM), and Davis Langdon (DL). It is estimated that most decisions determining the sustainability of a project are made in the first 1 percent of a projectis program, whereas the majority of the information required for sustainability  assessment is not usually available or examined until after the concept stage. By this time, most solutions would need design or briefing changes that are too costly to implement. Using the TBS model, architects, engineers, and clients can simultaneously explore the impact of typical technical and design decisions on a tall buildingis energy footprint and its dynamic relationship to cost at the briefing stage. 
Aish, Robert. "Tools of Expression: Notation and Interaction for Design Computation." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 30-31. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Design considers function, fabrication, and aesthetics collectively. Computation is beginning to affect the competitive dynamics of design. Using algorithms, designers are exploring forms that are essentially “undrawable,” even with advanced modelling and direct manipulation techniques. Determining the appropriate functional characteristics may require the application of increasingly complex structural - and environmental-performance analysis techniques. To realize physically a design may require further geometric analysis and rationalization, and the use of  complex computer-controlled fabrication techniques. 
Shepard, Mark. "Toward an Architecture of Hertzian Space." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 209-215. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. Cities today are intricate hybrids of physical and informational space. Brought into being through complex yet common everyday techno-social practices, these hybrids rely on the wireless spectrum to enable a variety of media, information, and communications events that continually make and remake the spatial conditions of urban life. This paper examines the relations between this Hertzian space and the architecture of urban environments. Building on a longstanding discourse surrounding the material and immaterial limits of urban architecture, it asks how we might begin to think about shaping the Hertzian space of contemporary cities through the practices and promises of urban computing and locative media. Coaxing architecture beyond its professional and disciplinary boundaries and, at the same time, recasting contemporary media art within broader social, cultural, and political contexts of urban space, the essay attempts to outline a conversation between these fields of practice that share a common theater of operations: that of the contemporary city.
Singer, Peter. "What Inspires Them: Science Fiction s Impact on Science Reality ." In reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 32-42. ACADIA. Chicago, Illinois: The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2009. The following is an excerpt from my book Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century (Penguin, 2009). This chapter explores how the world of science fiction actually helps to shape the very real human-built environment around us. Besides being one of my favorite parts of the book to research and write, I thought it a particularly fun fit for the ACADIA audience, as it takes us back to the question of what originally inspires us.