Keywords Abstract
Ostwald, Michael, Josephine Vaughan, and Stephan Chalup. "A Computational Analysis of Fractal Dimensions in the Architecture of Eileen Gray." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 256-263. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper is the first investigation of the fractal dimensions of five of the house designs of Eileen Gray, a prominent architect working mainly in France between 1922 and 1956. In this paper, a computational variation of the “box-counting approach” (used to determine fractal dimension) is applied to a multi-dimensional review of the houses of Gray. As a contemporary of Le Corbusier, Gray is a significant architect for such an analysis. This research is important because it expands the set of examples of early Twentieth Century architects who have been analyzed using the method. This paper provides a computer-assisted mathematical analysis of characteristic visual complexity in five houses designs by Eileen Gray.
Wan, Peng-Hui, and Ramesh Krishnamurti. "A Computational Approach for Evaluating the Facilitation of Wayfinding in Environments." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 430-437. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. In any environment, wayfinding is a kind of spatial problem that people encounter almost daily. Although it has been well documented that environmental cues significantly facilitate wayfinding, there has been little work done to examine the effectiveness of the facilitation. In particular, wayfinding manageability is considered in this paper, and, to this end, a computational approach to its evaluation is proposed. This is illustrated through simulation, employing a quantifiable measure for wayfinding facilitation. The measure is statistically determined from experimental data on certain wayfinding variables.
Marin, Philippe, Jean-Claude Bignon, and Hervé Lequay. "A Genetic Algorithm for Use in Creative Design Processes." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 332-339. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper deals with natural growth mechanisms applied to architectural design processes. We implement a genetic algorithm as part of a digital tool to be used in the creative design process. This evolutionary process is evaluated by means of environmental parameters, passive solar qualities and the designeris individual requirements. A morphogenetic process is put forward, based on a “metamorphosis strategy”.
Doumpioti, Christina. "Adaptive Growth of Fibre Composite Structures." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 300-307. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. The core idea of this research is the incorporation of the morphogenetic principles found in natural systems in the generation of fibre-composite structures by exploiting, at the maximum, the intrinsic performative capacities of the material system in use. The intention is the integration of form, material, structure and program into a multi-performative system that will satisfy simultaneously several, even conflicting objectives, in order to achieve an optimal compromise. This process involves the combination and implementation of concepts and methods based on precedent studies in the field of biomimetics, as well as form-finding digital and physical experiments that inform a coherent design methodology, leading to a structural system able to be fabricated using cutting-edge technology.
Bonwetsch, Tobias, Ralph Baertschi, and Silvan Oesterle. "Adding Performance Criteria to Digital Fabrication: Room-Acoustical Information of Diffuse Respondent Panels." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 364-369. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. In this research project we explore the defined design and application of digitally fabricated wall panels for room-acoustical architectural interventions. In Particular, we investigate the room-acoustical criteria applying to everyday used spaces. We present a digital design and fabrication process developed to create non-standardised panels and two case studies which apply this process on the acoustical improvement of a specific room situation. Our aim is to find correlations between digitally fabricated surface structures and sound- aesthetical characteristics, in order to utilise these for the architectural design.
Frumar, Jerome. "An Energy Centric Approach to Architecture: Abstracting the material to co-rationalize design and performance." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 72-81. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper begins by exploring matter as an aggregated system of energy transactions and modulations. With this in mind, it examines the notion of energy driven form finding as a design methodology that can simultaneously negotiate physical, environmental and fabrication considerations. The digital workspace enables this notion of form finding to re-establish itself in the world of architecture through a range of analytic tools that algorithmically encode real world physics. Simulating the spatial and energetic characteristics of reality enables virtual “form generation models that recognize the laws of physics and are able to create “minimumi surfaces for compression, bending [and] tensioni (Cook 2004). The language of energy, common in engineering and materials science, enables a renewed trans-disciplinary dialogue that addresses significant historic disjunctions such as the professional divide between architects and engineers. Design becomes a science of exploring abstracted energy states to discover a suitable resonance with which to tune the built environment.  • A case study of one particular method of energy driven form finding is presented. Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) is a generative engineering technique developed at RMIT University. It appropriates natural growth strategies to determine optimum forms that respond to structural criteria by reorganizing their topology. This dynamic topology response enables structural optimization to become an integrated component of design exploration. A sequence of investigations illustrates the flexibility and trans-disciplinary benefits of this approach. Using BESO as a tool for design rather than purely for structural optimization fuses the creative approach of the architect with the pragmatic approach of the engineer, enabling outcomes that neither profession could develop in isolation. The BESO case study alludes to future design processes that will facilitate a coherent unfolding of design logic comparable to morphogenesis.
Hall, Theodore W., Wassim Jabi, Katia Passerini, Cristian Borcea, and Quentin Jones. "An Interactive Poster System to Solicit Casual Design Feedback." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 438-447. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. As part of a government funded grant in ubiquitous social computing, we have developed and deployed an interactive poster kiosk that invites casual feedback on student design work or other items of interest among peers in the School of Architecture. The system runs on a standard PC with a large LCD display and a touch-sensitive overlay. Posters reside in the system as web-page URIs. Passersby provide feedback on poster content by “finger painting” on the touch screen. The system e-mails the feedback to the poster provider. We have deployed the system in the Architecture Library for a period of three weeks. During that time, interaction with the kiosk passed through three general phases ? unfamiliarity, novelty, and familiarity ? with the peak interaction occurring during the middle phase. This paper describes the development and deployment of the system, the quantity and quality of the feedback it attracted, and concludes with recommendations for repeating and improving the exercise.
Besserud, Keith, and Joshua Cotten. "Architectural Genomics." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 238-245. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper provides an introduction to the concept of genetic algorithms and a sampling of how they are being explored as an optimization strategy for some of the building projects in the BlackBox studio at Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill.
Moreno, Cristina, and Efrén Grinda. "ATMOSPHERE: Material for the digital gardener." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 34-37. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008.
Schlueter, Arno, and Frank Thesseling. "Balancing Design and Performance in Building Retrofitting: a Case Study Based on Parametric Modeling." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 214-221. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Retrofitting the existing building stock will become one of the key fields of action for architects in the future. Due to the raised awareness of CO2 emissions related to the energy consumption of buildings, architects have to increasingly consider parameters influencing the energy performance of their retrofit designs. This is a complex task especially in the early design stages as multiple dependencies between building form, construction and technical systems influence overall energy performance. The inability to cope with this complexity often leads to simple solutions such as the application of massive insulation on the outside, neglecting aesthetic expression and design flexibility. Digital models storing multidisciplinary building information make it possible to include performance parameters throughout the architectural design process. In addition to the geometric parameters constituting the form, semantic and topological parameters define building element properties and their dependencies. This offers an integrated view of the building. We present a case study utilizing mulit-parametric façade elements within a building information model for an integrated design approach. The case study is based on a retrofit project of a multi-family house with very poor energy performance. Within a design workshop a parametric building model was used for the development of the designs. An integrated analysis tool allowed an immediate performance assessment without importing or exporting building data. The students were able to freely define geometric and performance parameters to develop their design solution. Balancing between formal expression and energy performance lead to integrated design sketches, resulting in surprising solutions for the given design task.
Beaman, Michael. "Bio-complexity: Instructing with Relational Generatives." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 102-109. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper will discuss the use of complex systems in analyzing biological precedence of self-organizing, self-stabilizing and emergent phenomenon. The use of complex biological systems will be used to define relational models that avoid issues of scale. Scalability (the ability to traverse scales) will be presented as a relational construct through the use of scope, not scale. The analysis of biological formation and organization as a relational model defined by scope will be presented as a generative in forming design strategies and solutions and will be illustrated in four undergraduate-level architecture studio projects.
Jeronimidis, George. "Bioinspiration for Engineering and Architecture: Materials Structures Function." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 26-33. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008.
Roche, Francois, Stephanie Lavaux, Benoit Durandin, and Stephan Henrich. "BI[r]O-BO[o]T Ecosophical Apparatus and Skizoà¯d Machines." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 38-45. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008.
von Buelow, Peter. "Breeding Topology: Special Considerations for Generative Topology Exploration Using Evolutionary Computation." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 346-353. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Topology optimization of engineering structures has long been a topic of research scrutiny. Many methods have been successfully developed for the determination of continuum structures. Some of these techniques, for example the homogenous method, have also been adapted for use with discrete structural frames or trusses. Most commonly the topology optimization of truss structures is carried out with the aid of a ground structure, a simple raster that describes potential joint locations. Although this simplifies the computation, it greatly limits the range of potential solutions that fit the gridded raster. Additionally, when using Evolutionary Computation (EC) methods, the level of computational intensity increases exponentially with the size of the ground structure making anything above a very modest level of complexity impractical to process. This paper demonstrates several practical techniques that can be used with EC, and more specifically Genetic Algorithms, when applied to topology exploration of discrete structures. First a method of chromosome coding that avoids the use of ground structures is shown. Then specific genetic recombination techniques are illustrated that are well suited for breeding different topologies. The combined techniques are demonstrated in a topology design problem. The paper concludes with a discussion of advantages of EC over traditional optimization methods in the area of overall form design.
Celento, David, and Del Harrow. "ceramiSKIN: Digital Possibilities for Ceramic Cladding Systems." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 292-299. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. CeramiSKIN is an inter-disciplinary investigation by an architect and a ceramics artist examining new possibilities for ceramic cladding using digital design and digital fabrication techniques. Research shown is part of an ongoing collaborative residency at The European Ceramics Work Centre.  Ceramics are durable, sustainable, and capable of easily assuming detailed shapes with double curvature making ceramics seemingly ideal for digitally inspired “plastic” architecture. The primary reason for the decline in complex ceramic cladding is that manual mold-making is time-consuming - which is at odds with today’s high labor costs and compressed construction timeframes. We assert that digital advances in the area of mold-making will assist in removing some of the barriers for the use of complex ceramic cladding in architecture. The primary goals of ceramiSKIN as they relate to digitally assisted production are: greater variety and complexity, reduced cost and time, a higher degree of accuracy, and an attempt to facilitate a wider range of digital design possibilities through the use of a ceramics in architectural cladding systems. The following paper begins with an overview discussing double curvature and biophilia in architecture and their relationship to ceramics. This is followed by detailed commentary on three different experiments prior to a concluding summary.
Chalmers, Chris. "Chemical Signaling as a Model for Digital Process in Architecture." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 340-345. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. The role of the architect is quite literally one of assembly: synthesizing the various parts of a project into a cohesive whole. It is a difficult job, often requiring the architect to weave many seemingly contradictory concerns into a solution that benefits them all. It is not surprising then, that the many elegant and effective systems found in nature should be inspiring to the architect. Emerging fields like biomimicry and systems dynamics model the patterns of interaction between organisms and their environments in terms of dynamic part to part and part to whole relationships.  • Observations of real relationships between organisms and their environments, as they exist in nature, reveal complex feedback loops working across multiple scales. These feedback loops operate by the simultaneous action of two observed phenomena. The first is the classic phenotypic relationship seen when organisms of the same genetic makeup instantiate differently based upon differences in their environment. This is the relationship that was originally proposed by Charles Darwin in his theory of natural selection of 1859. Darwin’s model is unidirectional: the organism adapts to its environment, but not the other way around. It operates at the local scale as individual parts react to the conditions of the whole. (Canguilhem, 1952). • The second phenomenon, which sees its effect at the global scale, is the individual’s role as consumer and producer in the flows of energy and material that surround it. It is the subtle and incremental influence of the organism upon its environment, the results of which are often invisible until they reach a catastrophic threshold, at which point all organisms in the system feel global changes. The research presented in this paper addresses the dialectic between organism and environment as each responds reciprocally to the others changing state. Such feedback loops act in a non-linear fashion, across nested scales in biological systems. They can be modeled to act that way in a digital design process as well. This research is an exploration into one such model and its application to architecture: the simple communication between organisms as they affect and are affected by their environments through the use of signal chemicals.
Westre, Aaron. "Complexity Machine 1: a 3D Modeling Application Implementing Behavioral Simulation." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 222-229. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Complexity Machine 1 is a software application developed by the author as a Master of Architecture thesis project at the University of Minnesota. The software acts as a platform for exploring three dimensional form produced via behavioural simulation. Specifically, the behaviours are modeled on emergent group dynamics found commonly in nature such as flocking, chasing, and evading. Though various commercial softwares and numerous small-scale architectural projects exist in this area, Complexity Machine 1 is intended as a freely available and generic platform for exploring the formal implications of these emergent behaviours. The simulated behaviours are governed by a variety of parameters and a set of eight simple rules. Formal results are influenced by these parameters and rules, along with scale, color, and geometric settings. The flexibility of the software allows users to investigate a vast array of potential forms, adjust settings in real time, and export the results for further manipulation. Complexity Machine 1 continues to be refined and improved towards the goal of providing an easy to use platform to designers for exploring forms that emerge from complex group behaviour.
Key, Sora, Mark Gross, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "Computing Spatial Qualities for Architecture." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 472-477. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Computational representation of spatial qualities can lead us to a better understanding of how we construct spatial concepts. Analyses of spatial qualities can support architects in reasoning about the form of a configuration, helping them predict the consequences of a design.  • In this paper we present three definitions (enclosure, viewfield, continuity) that describe experiential qualities of architectural spaces. Our project aims to provide computable definitions to these qualities to describe common spatial experiences that are implicitly understood by architects. The description, using familiar terms, reveals the analytical structure of spatial qualities that is based on the geometry of the physical elements. We therefore introduce a graphic editor, Descriptor, that provides visualization of spatial qualities as the designer diagrams building elements. The system calculates perceived relationships (surrounded, visible, nearby, nearest) between a viewpoint and the architectural elements based on their geometric properties such as location and distance. The relationships are the components of the three qualities we define. We also present a use scenario to demonstrate how one might use our Descriptor system during early design. • Descriptor is an attempt to formalize descriptions of the spatial qualities to help beginners understand how to make design decisions. In the future, we plan to extend the set of qualities and add detailed attributes of the physical elements to the system.
Gibson, Michael, Kevin Klinger, and Joshua Vermillion. "Constructing Information: Towards a Feedback Ecology in Digital Design and Fabrication." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 182-191. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. As strategies evolve using digital means to navigate design in architecture, critical process-based approaches are essential to the discourse. The often complex integration of design, analysis, and fabrication through digital technologies is wholly reliant upon a process-basis necessitating the use of a design feedback loop, which reinforces critical decision-making and challenges the notions of how we produce, visualize, and analyze information in the service of production and assembly. Central to this process-based approach is the effective and innovative integration of information and the interrogation of material based explorations in the making of architecture. This fabrication “ecology” forces designers to engage complexity and accept the unpredictability of emergent systems. It also exposes the process of working to critique and refine feedback loops in light of complex tools, methods, materials, site, and performance considerations. In total, strategies for engaging this “ecology” are essential to accentuate our present understanding of environmental design and theory in relation to digital processes for design and fabrication. This paper recounts a design/fabrication seminar entitled “Constructing Information” in which architecture students examined an environmental design problem by way of the design feedback loop, where their efforts in applying digital design and fabrication methods were driven explicitly by material and site realities and where their work was executed, installed, and critically explored in situ. These projections raise important questions about how information, complexity, and context overlay and merge, and underscore the critical potential of visual, spatial, and material effects as part of a fabrication-oriented design process.
Peters, Brady. "Copenhagen Elephant House: a Case Study of Digital Design Processes." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 134-141. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper outlines the digital design processes involved in the design and construction of the new Elephant House at Copenhagen Zoo. Early design concepts for the canopy were tested using physical sketch models. The geometric complexity of these early physical models led to the involvement of the Specialist Modelling Group and the use of the computer to digitally sketch 3D CAD models. After many studies, the complex form of the canopies was rationalised using torus geometry. A computer program was written to generate the canopy glazing and structure. This parametric system was developed to be a design tool, and was developed by an architectural designer working with the team. Through its use the team were able to explore more design options, and alter the design farther along in the design process, however, this generative tool was created largely as a CAD efficiency tool. Another series of computer programs were written to generate and populate a shading system based on environmental analysis. Unlike the computer program that generated the structure and glazing, this program was not developed to make the generation of complex geometric structures more efficient, but developed to explore computational approaches that would have been impossible without the computer. Most of the canopyis design was communicated to fabricator through a geometry method statement, a method that has been proven to be effective in the past. The project completed in June 2008.
Perez, Santiago. "Crafting Complexity: Material / Procedure / Form." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 272-277. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. What is the role of Craft, in understanding Bio-Computational Forms & Systems? What is the relation between self-organizing systems & material-component assemblages? This paper will explore the relationship between material craft, procedure and form, in relation to complex, self-organizing assemblies. A comparison will be made, between (hand) crafted assemblies, guided by physical constraints and procedural methodologies, and digitally mediated fabrication, guided by recursion and algorithmic generative methodologies. An attempt will be made to connect various scales of making, in terms of module or unit of assembly, both at the micro-scale of biological structures, and the macro-scale of man-made systems. The goal of this essay is to question the relation between physically crafted component assemblies, as a means for exploring adaptive, complex, self-organizing systems, and bio-computational paradigms as a source of adaptive strategies for making.
Berrier, Seth, Gary Meyer, and Clement Shimizu. "Creating Metallic Color Sequences for an Architectural Wall." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 308-315. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. A metallic paint scheme for an architectural wall is created using computer aided color appearance design techniques. New computer graphic hardware that allows real-time rendering of complex reflectance functions is employed to produce photo-realistic images of the metallic paint applied to the surface of the wall. An interpolation scheme is developed that permits one and two dimensional metallic shade sequences to be determined between individual bricks in a single row of the wall and between the complete rows of bricks that compose the wall. Paint formulation software, originally developed for auto refinish applications, is used to determine the paint mixtures necessary to realize the metallic colors in the design. A prototype of the wall is constructed and exhibited in a museum gallery.
Sprecher, Aaron, and Paul Kalnitz. "Degrees and Switches." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 142-151. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. In recent years, evolutionary biology has been the focus of post-Darwinist theories superseding the mere notion of variation with a concept called evolutionary development. The theory of evolutionary development, commonly referred to as evo-devo, follows a series of observations on the nature of organic developments and natural morphologies. Its main contribution rests on an evolutionary model that considers the similarities of genetic material forming organisms and their differences in morphological development due to switching mechanisms between the assigned genes. As observed by the American biologist Sean Carroll, evolution follows regulatory sequences of selector genes that are similar and can be found across various species of insects, plants and animals. This observation represents a counter-proposal to the old-modern evolutionary theories that looked at processes of adaptation as a function of the emergence of new genes. Evo-devo, on the contrary, recognizes that morphological differences are triggered by recombinatory switches that re-arrange genes in manifold ways to produce numerous characteristics of adaptation. From a design point of view, evo-devo has tremendous implications because it suggests that generative design protocols may induce sets of similar operations, yet stimulate a wide range of morphologies according to their sequential arrangements and activities. These generative design strategies include, among others, computational methods such as structural shape annealing and object-oriented analysis and design. While these methods are now integrating computing design practices, it is here proposed to review these two computational design methods in the context of three research projects.
Wallick, Karl. "Digital and Manual Joints." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 370-375. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper considers the problem of detailing joints between manual and digital construction by tracking the provocations of KieranTimberlakeis SmartWrap research and the evolution of that knowledge into practical architectural instruments that can be deployed into more traditional construction projects. Over the past several years, KieranTimberlake Associates in Philadelphia has undertaken a path of research focusing on problems of contemporary construction systems and practices. One product of this research was a speculative wall system assembled for a museum exhibit. SmartWrap was to be a digitally prefabricated wall system with embedded technology. While they have yet to wrap a building with SmartWrap, KieranTimberlake have utilized a number of the construction principles and digital tools tested in the SmartWrap exhibit. One of the most important principles, prefabrication, was explored in a fast-track construction project at the Sidwell Friends School. The compressed schedule drove the design of an enclosure system which incorporated performative elements in similar categories to SmartWrap: insulation, an electrical system, view, daylighting, and a rainscreen. Besides being a prefabricated façade system, the rainscreen detailing became a formal system for organizing many other scales of the project including: site systems, thermal systems, daylighting systems, enclosure, and ornament. At a second project, a similar wood rainscreen strategy was used. However, at the Loblolly House the question of prefabrication and digital modelling was tested far more extensively: thermal systems were embedded into prefabricated floor cartridges, entire program elements - a library, kitchen, and bathroom were proposed as prefabricated systems of self-contained volume and infrastructure which were then inserted into the on-site framework., In all three projects the joint between manual-imprecise construction and digital-precise prefabrication became the area of richest invention (Figure 1). SmartWrap may not have yielded flexible, plastic architecture, but its conceptual and practical questions have yielded tangible implications for the design/construction processes and the built product in KieranTimberlakeis practice.
Hemsath, Timothy, Robert Williams, Ronald Bonnstetter, and Leen-Kiat Soh. "Digital CADCAM Pedagogy Model: Intelligent Inquiry Education." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 458-463. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Prototype manufacturing as an educational tool has been very successful at the college level in architecture and engineering design. This paper discusses an innovative inquiry-based learning approach rather than the problem-based learning models commonly utilized by other similar programs. For example, several research-funded technology projects (e.g., Cappelleri et al. 2007) look at involving students in problem-based learning exercises (e.g., building robots), however, these exercises (while providing valuable experiences) have predetermined outcomes ingrained by the teachers, the project structure, and the components used to construct the devices. Therefore, inquisitive and creative problem solving is limited to the “kit-of-parts” in their approach to solving the problem. The inquiry-based CADCAM pedagogy model is more concerned with the process of solving a problem through the vehicle of prototyping than with the specificity of the design project itself. This approach has great potential. First, the need to solve the problem drives learning on multiple levels, integrating interdisciplinary ideas into the problem and solution. Second, the problem interlocks disciplines through inquiry knowledge building in team exercises. Finally, it encourages diversity and flexibility by allowing students to look at problems from multiples perspectives and points of view.
Riether, Gernot. "Digital Traces." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 400-405. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Digital media, with the capacity to master complexity, has permitted an unprecedented ability to reinterpret natural processes. An infinite number of realities can emerge from their interpretations that can be developed into physical structures or spatial models that can further be appropriated to inform the design of architecture. In this paper the potential of these digital interpretations to inform architectural design processes will be discussed. Demonstrating how digital media can operate as an interface that couples information with cognitive processes I will show how digital media can be constructed in order to intensify our perception of our natural environment. Examples from projects that were developed with students during the spring semester of 2008 at Georgia Institute of Technology will be used to support the argument.
Lee, Yungil, Jumphon Lertlakhanakul, Jinwon Choi, and Yehuda Kalay. "Dynamic Architectural Visualization Based on User-Centered Semantic Interoperability." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 406-415. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Technically-oriented architectural spaces today are getting complicated because the building contains a number of electronic facilities and complex structures. Furthermore, the advent of the ubiquitous environment enabled the building to provide various services to users and accelerated the importance of architectural visualization as problem-solving and communicating tools. It is recommended that architectural visualization has been more intuitive and effective to support the design decision and collaboration. In this manner, this paper intends to define the role of current architectural visualization with considerations of previous research and related works in the practical field and proposes the appropriate method of architectural visualization. Also, in order to evaluate our idea, we recommend a prototype system based on dynamic and semantic representation with the avatar. It is a kind of simulator for the design of ubiquitous smart space and can deliver to users the better comprehension in how technological oriented space will be constructed and utilized.
Yan, Wie. "Environment-Behavior Simulation: from CAD to BIM and Beyond." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 478-485. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper describes our research on environment-behaviour simulation and focuses on the modelling of built environments using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Building Information Modelling (BIM). Our environment-behaviour simulation addresses the problem of predicting and evaluating the impacts of built environments on their human inhabitants. We present simulation systems comprising an agent-based virtual user model and building models created with CAD and BIM tools. We compare the use of CAD vs. BIM with two case studies for environment-behaviour simulation, and describe the essential parts of modelling buildings for the simulation, including geometry modelling ? how the building components are shaped, semantic modelling “ what the building components are, and pattern modelling ? how the building components are used by users. We conclude that a new extensible and pattern-embedded BIM system will be necessary to facilitate environment-behaviour simulation.
Cabrinha, Mark. "Gridshell Tectonics: Material Values Digital Parameters." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 118-125. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper begins with a simple proposition: rather than mimicking the geometric structures found in nature, perhaps the most effective modes of sustainable fabrication can be found through understanding the nature of materials themselves. Material becomes a design parameter through the constraints of fabrication tools, limitations of material size, and most importantly the productive capacity of material resistance ? a given material's capacity and tendencies to take shape, rather than cutting shape out of material. Gridshell structures provide an intriguing case study to pursue this proposition. Not only is there clear precedent in the form-finding experiments of Frei Otto and the Institute for Lightweight Structures, but also the very NURBS based tools of current design practices developed from the ability of wood to bend. Taking the bent wood spline quite literally, gridshells provide a means that is at once formally expressive, structurally optimized, materially efficient, and quite simply a delight to experience. The larger motivation of this work anticipates a parametric system linking the intrinsic material values of the gridshell tectonic with extrinsic criteria such as programmatic needs and environmental response. Through an applied case study of gridshells, the play between form and material is tested out through the authoris own experimentation with gridshells and the pedagogical results of two gridshell studios. The goal of this research is to establish a give-and-take relationship between top-down formal emphasis and a bottom-up material influence.
Hight, Christopher, Natalia Beard, and Michael Robinson. "Hydrauli_City: Urban Design, Infrastructure, Ecology." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 158-165. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. The Hydrauli_city project was commissioned by the Harris County Flood Control District, Brays Bayou Partnership and the Rice School of Architecture to research the transformation of one of the 21 main Bayous in Houston. The project seems perfectly aligned with the theme of the issue because it examines the relationship between infrastructure, risk and urban design, and does so by attempting to leverage diverse time scales and scales of intervention into the maintenance of this infrastructure, rethinking the legacy of its top-down 20th century planning logics. Moreover, it raises key questions about new agencies and sites that may be available to architects that seek to engage the political ecologies of the contemporary metropolis. Through research on the hydraulic urbanism of Houston and through three speculative design proposals, Hydrauli_city presents research about transforming Brays Bayou. The project attempts to provide a figure for and foster the new forms of collectives and networks required to transform the urban condition of Houston without resorting to unrealistic top-down planning infrastructures. We located several scales and time-frames of operations, from micro-scaled interventions derived from ongoing maintenance of the bayous to larger scale transformations now possible due to the programs to reduce the risk of flooding in the bayouis watershed. Hydrauli_city maps the confluences of interests and agencies invested in Brays Bayou at this crucial moment in its history, and offers proposals of bold new civic spaces for the Green Century. The project will be disseminated via an interactive website and a series of public presentations to raise awareness and spark conversation. Flood risk management is a hybrid phenomenon, at once the object of scientific knowledge, engineering practice, and political and economic forces, positioning the architect in a prime-position to intervene.
Zawidzki, Machi. "Implementation of Cellular Automata for Dynamic Shading of Building Facade." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 246-255. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Paper presents creative use of cellular automata (CA) in architecture, namely for dynamic shading of building facade. The abbreviation “CA” refers both to singular form “cellular automaton” and plural- “automata”. One of the most interesting “visual” quality of CA is abilty to create organic patterns which sometimes are very pleasing to human eye. These patterns seem to “live their own lifei and “taming” them to perform purposeful actions is quiet challenging due to their computational irreducibility as shown in an example of possible practical application, but as a result, provides visual effects of unmatched intriguing complexity hard to achieve by means of artistic will, whim or chance. Although amazing qualities of CA astonish for many years, their practical (physical) applications are still very sparse if existing at all, besides “pretty pictures”. Four classes of CA “behaviour” with conjunction to the problem of “pattern average grayness” was presented. Two classes of CA were analyzed: 2- color, 1- dimension, range- 1 (2C-1D-R1) and 2-color, 1- dimension, range- 2 (2C-1D-R2) for potential practical use. Problem of monotonic gradual change of average grayness as a function of sequence of initial conditions was discussed. Scheme of mechanical system realizing the idea of shading controlled by CA was proposed.
Robinson, Michael. "Instrumentalizing Coevolution as Design Technique." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 166-173. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. The paper introduces the concepts of system, milieu, and coevolution and illustrates how the terms are manifested in projects from an urban research and design studio.
Kemp, Robert. "Interactive Interfaces in Architecture: the New Spatial Integration of Information, Gesture and Cognitive Control." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 422-429. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Currently, a new interactive movement is beginning to take place in architecture whereby we are seeing increased desire to create space that has the ability to dynamically interact with users. A number of emerging technologies and insights are being made in paralleling fields that will have a vast influence on future spatial interactivity. This paper looks at a number of contemporary projects and themes in user interface design that are shaping and contributing to the future of tangible interactive architecture.
Kudless, Andrew, Neri Oxman, and Marc Swackhamer. "Introduction." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 14-17. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008.
Jaskiewicz, Tomasz. "iPortals as a Case Study Pre-Prototype of an Evolving Network of Interactive Spatial Components." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 174-181. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. The art and craft of design and creation of buildings is undergoing a radical paradigm shift. This shift is being driven by diverse novel cross-disciplinary technical possibilities, as well as by ongoing cultural transformations. They all, directly or indirectly, originate from omnipresent advancements in information technologies. Instant and ubiquitous availability of information and immediate access to computing power pervasively penetrating our lives is profoundly transforming our culture. This phenomenon has enormous implications for architecture in a multitude of ways1.  Firstly, the speed of changes that occur in modern-day culture and society makes it inconvenient or even entirely impossible to design buildings with fixed and permanent functionalities. As lifestyle patterns, production methods and environmental conditions, to name a few factors only, may now dramatically change from one day to another, architecture has to become flexible. It has to allow dynamic, active, or even pro-active adaptation and customization of spaces on many levels of its functionality2. Secondly, these profound cultural changes are not only of technical relevance. In its process-driven character, information technology strongly mandates the already widely recognized ontology of becoming, proclaimed by the prominent minds of contemporary philosophy and science. This process-oriented worldview, supported by latest technological possibilities3, has caused a radical change in the common sense of the manner in which architecture has to be understood and dealt with4. As an effect, it requires an in-depth reconsideration of the nature of processes of both creation and participation in spatial environments.
Griffiths, Jason. "Man + Water + Fan = Freshman: Natural Process of Evaporative Cooling and the Digital Fabrication of the ASU Outdoor Dining Pavilion." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 208-213. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. To the east of Johnson City TX is the Lyndon B. Johnsonis family home. Part of the Johnson Estate2 is given over to a working farm circa 1870 that presents various aspects of domestic practice from the era. This includes a desert fridge which is a simple four-legged structure with a slightly battered profile thatis draped in calico. Its principle is simple, water from an upturned jar is drawn by osmosis down the sides of the calico where it evaporates in wind currents drawn though a “dog runi between two log cabins. Cooled air circulates within the structure and where cheese and milk are kept fresh during the summer. The desert fridge is a simple system that reaches a state of equilibrium through the natural process of evaporation. This system provides a working model for a prototype structure for an outdoor dining pavilion that was designed and constructed on the campus of Arizona State University. The desert fridge is the basis for a “biological processi3 of evaporative cooling that has been interpreted in terms a ritual of outdoor dining in arid climates. The pavilion is intended as a gathering point and a place of interaction for ASU freshmen. The long-term aim of this project is to provide a multiple of these pavilions across the campus that will be the locus of a sequence of dining events over a “dining seasoni4 during the fall and spring semester., This paper describes how the desert fridge principle has been interpreted in the program and construction of the dining pavilion. It explores a sequence of levels by which the structure, via digital production process, provides an educational narrative on sustainability. This communicative quality is portrayed by the building in direct biological terms, through tacit knowledge, perceived phenomena, lexical and mechanical systems. The paper also describes how these digital production process were used in the buildingis design and fabrication. These range from an empirical prognosis of evaporative cooling effects, fluid dynamics, heat mapping and solar radiation analysis through to sheet steel laser cutting, folded plate construction and fully associative variable models of standard steel construction. The aim of the pavilion is to create an environment that presents the evaporative cooling message at a multiple of levels that will concentrate the visitor in holistic understanding of the processes imbued within the building.5
Ahlquist, Sean, and Moritz Fleischmann. "Material and Space: Synthesis Strategies based on Evolutionary Developmental Biology." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 66-71. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. A material system can be defined as a set of self-organized materials, defining a certain spatial arrangement. In architecture, this material arrangement acts as a threshold for space, though space often only appears as a by-product of the material organization. Treating space as a resulting, therefore secondary, independent product minimizes the capacity to generate architecture that is astutely aware of concerns of functionality, environment and energy. An effective arrangement of material can only be determined in relation to the spaces that it defines. When proposing a more critical approach, a material system can be seen as an intimate inter-connection and reciprocal exchange between the material construct and the spatial conditions. It is necessary to re-define material system as a system that coevolves spatial and material configurations through analysis of the resultant whole, in a process of integration and evaluation.   With this understanding of material system comes an expansion in the number of criteria that are simultaneously engaged in the evolution of the design. The material characteristics, as well as the spatial components and forces (external and internal), are pressures onto the arrangement of material and space. This brings a high degree of complexity to the process. Biological systems are built on methods that resolve complex interactions through sets of simple yet extensible rules. Evolutionary Developmental Biology explains how growth is an interconnected process of external forces registering fitness into a fixed catalogue of morphological genetic tools. Translating the specific framework for biological growth into computational processes, allows the pursuit of an architecture that is fully informed by the interaction of space and material.
Gutierrez, Maria. "Material Bio-Intelligibility." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 278-285. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Through the formation of bio-chemical information networks natural materials possess efficient processes of self-organization, adaptability, regeneration and decomposition. This performative excellence has lead science to draw behavioural models from nature implementing biomimmicry (Benyus 1998) in the pursuit of material systems optimization. Design disciplines influenced by this course are integrating living organisms as models of efficiency through bionic systems ever more into their discourse. Architecture, influenced by this tendency, is becoming progressively more aware of the vast benefits that biomimetics can yield particularly in the development of ecologically sensitive systems. Yet, the emerging incorporation of bionics into architecture is differing largely to that within the sciences by centering almost exclusively in form (geometrical pattern) generation. This paper analyzes a rising material design research methodology implementing biomimetics: matter-form parametrics based on bio-physical propertiesi data. Specific study of the incorporation of broad-scalar scientific imaging into the formulation of explorative parametric grammar for the development of material systems is analyzed through a bio-synthetic polymer based wall system (SugarWall, Gensler+Gutierrez 2006b). The incorporation of broad scalar imaging and material interdependencies is propelling the emergence of new programming tactics that will affect bio-material systems architectural research.
Biloria, Nimish. "Morphogenomic Urban and Architectural Systems: an Investigation into Informatics Oriented Evolution of Form: the Case of the A2 Highway." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 152-157. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This research paper exemplifies upon a novel information integrated generative design method: Morphogenomics, being experimented with at Hyperbody, TU Delft. Morphogenomics, a relatively new research area, which deals with the intricacies of morphological informatics. This paper furthermore discusses an ongoing Morphogenmoics oriented design-research case: the development of a Distributed Network-city along the A2 highway, Netherlands. The A2 highway, development is a live project seeking urban development on either side of this busy highway. Hyperbody, during the course of this research initiative developed a series of real-time interactive computational tools focusing upon the collaborative contextual generation of a performative urban and architectural morphology for the A2 highway. This research paper elaborates upon these computational techniques based Morphogenomic approach and its resultant outcomes.
Belcher, Daniel, and Brian Johnson. "MxR: a Physical Model-Based Mixed Reality Interface for Design Collaboration, Simulation, Visualization and Form Generation." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 464-471. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. MxR pronounced “mixer“ is a Mixed/Augmented Reality system intended to support collaboration during early phases of architectural design. MxR allows an interdisciplinary group of practitioners and stakeholders to gather around a table, discuss and test different hypotheses, visualize results, simulate different physical systems, and generate simple forms. MxR is also a test-bed for collaborative interactions and demonstrates different configuration potentials, from exploration of individual alternatives to group discussion around a physical model. As a MR-VR transitional interface, MxR allows for movement along the reality-virtuality continuum, while employing a simple tangible user-interface and a MagicLens interaction technique.
Weinstock, Michael. "Nature and the Cultural Evolution of Architectural Forms." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 20-25. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008.
Tierney, Therese. "Network Morphologies: Neuronal Systems as Models for Relational Form Generation." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 230-237. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Since the late 1990's, architectural form making has investigated advanced computation at the earliest stages of design through inductive analytic and algorithmic processes. This paper proposes a relational or contextual organization by analyzing existing networked models. It firstly presents a literature review regarding the development of networked models and then outlines the requirements for a conceptual prototype for future design applications.
Vrana, Andrew, Joe Meppelink, and Ben Nicholson. "New Harmony Grotto." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 390-399. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. With the expanding wave of contemporary architecture inspired and informed by biomorphic design and biomimetic processes, the re-evaluation of work of Frederick Kiesler has become immanent. Throughout the mid 20th century he became increasingly interested in the relationship of natural form and structure to architectural space and organization. The Grotto for Meditation proposed in 1963 for New Harmony, Indiana commissioned by Mrs. Jane Blaffer-Owen was the culmination of his lifeis work. Though the project was not realized, it embodies all of the influences of his time from surrealism to biology and cybernetic theory. Through our university and the Blaffer Foundation, we engaged in formal research and tectonic resolution of the project employing digital modelling and fabrication technologies at our College and in Houston where Mrs. Owen lives when she is not in New Harmony. We based this project on the full catalog of archival material made available to us with support from the Blaffer and Kielser Foundations. Our exploration also was influenced by discussions with Mrs. Blaffer-Owen who is still very interested in realizing this profoundly interesting and enigmatic project. Our university has opened the door to the opportunity that our reinterpreted Grotto become a permanent fixture on the campus next to a wetland landscape that it is currently under construction. Our research into Kiesler has engaged his esoteric concepts of “co-realismi and “continuous tensioni as well as his early use of recursive geometry and biomorphic form in design. From reverse engineering and digital fabrication via 3D scanning to generative structural articulation, we are experimenting with a structural/spatial system that closely aligns with Kiesleris originally proposed tile patterning dilated into a minimal structure. Our prototypes and the final version will be fabricated by one of the largest commercially for-hire water jet cutter in country and assembled on the site.
Narahara, Taro. "New Methodologies in Architectural Design inspired by Self-Organization." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 324-331. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper introduces a potential application of construction systems seen in biological systems to overcome various shortcomings in human architecture. Unlike human constructions, some social insects can produce habitable structures with simple rules without predetermined blueprints or central leaders to gain more adaptability. Active application of logics from self-organizing systems can possibly enhance our conventional centralized methods by designing artificial distributed systems. A conceptual case study is presented that involves a notion of the collective construction.
Sabin, Jenny, and Peter Jones. "Nonlinear Systems Biology and Design: Surface Design." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 54-65. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. The intent of this paper is to jointly investigate fundamental processes in living systems, their potential application in the novel design of responsive surfaces and spatial structures, and their applicability in biomedicine. Through the investigation of organotypic biological models designed to recapitulate breast tissue homeostasis and cancer, parallel models work to unfold the parametric logic of these biological and responsive membrane and scaffold structures, thereby revealing their deep interior logics. The result is an abstract surface architecture capable of responding dynamically to both environment (context) and to deeper interior programmed systems.
Feringa, Jelle. "Notes on the Potential of Simulation for Architectural Conception." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 264-271. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. With the projects described in this paper, EZCT has demonstrated a reversal of the traditional role of simulation in architectural conception. Traditionally the role of simulation has been to see whether a design complies to its aims. In the projects described in this paper simulation is at the heart of architectural conception itself. Optimization facilitates the role of simulation as a tool that can be applied towards design.
Greenberg, Evan. "Observation, Analysis, and Computation of Branching Patterns in Natural Systems." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 316-323. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Branching occurs in natural systems for functional reasons. However, the branching logic for each specific system is quite different due to environmental and mathematical factors. In the computation of branching systems, these mathematical factors can be incorporated quite easily into the coding of each system. However, it is the environmental components that must be given further consideration in the simulation of these natural systems. Through the engine of genetic algorithms based on evolutionary developmental theory, the specific logics observed and analyzed in branching patterns of river systems, trees, and insect tracheae can be simulated and optimized in a digital environment.
Vanucci, Marco. "Pluri-Potential Branching System." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 354-363. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. In contemporary construction industry, parametric softwares are often employed in design processes of rationalization and post-rationalization where, given a certain project, the answer to specific problems is required to actualize the desired shape [problem-solving approach]. This paper outlines a research project intended to develop a generative approach to digital design where the employment of parametric and algorithmic tools provide the possibility to set up integral multi-parametric systems, organizational as well as geometrical and structural aspects are investigated and, in parallel, they inform each other. The paper unfolds through constant reference to natural systems and, more specifically, develops the notion of pluri-potential systems deriving principle from the interaction between biological processes and computation. The results address the shift from mono-parametric problem-solving approaches to a generative problem-caring process where the integration of multiple system logics contribute to the development of a virtual pluri-potential set up. Finally, the paper explore the generative interdependency between structural, geometrical, organizational and computational logics of a system studying the manifold potentials of branching structures in the attempt to explore the emergent synergy between biological processes, computation and architectural design.
Helms, Michael, Swaroop Vattam, Ashok Goel, Jeannette Yen, and Marc Weissburg. "Problem-Driven and Solution-Based Design: Twin Processes of Biologically Inspired Design." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 94-101. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Biologically inspired design uses biological systems as analogues to develop solutions for design problems. We conducted a cognitive study of biologically inspired design in the context of an interdisciplinary introductory course on biologically inspired design in Fall of 2006. The goal of this study was to understand the processes of biologically inspired design. This paper provides a descriptive account of twin biologically inspired design processes, problem-driven and solution-based, and highlights the similarities and differences between them.
Peters, Brady, and Xavier De Kestelier. "Rapid Prototyping and Rapid Manufacturing at Foster + Partners." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 382-389. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Over the last 15 years, rapid prototyping has been an integral part of the design process in the car and aerospace industry (Brad Fox 2006). Recently the architecture profession has started to use these techniques in its design process (Greg Corke 2006), and some architecture schools have begun experimenting with these technologies.  Foster + Partners have been one of the first architecture practices to fully integrate rapid prototyping within its design process. The technology was initially seen as a sketch model making tool in the early stages of the design, in particular for projects with complicated geometries. It surpassed this purpose within a year and it is now seen an essential design tool for many projects and in for many project stages. The officeis rapid prototyping department now produces about 3500 models a year. Besides, or perhaps because of, rapid prototyping, Foster + Partners have started to experiment with rapid manufacturing. This first was done through the design and manufacture of a Christmas tree for the charity organisation Save the Children.
Khan, Omar. "Reconfigurable Molds as Architecture Machines." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 286-291. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. In The Architecture Machine (1970), Nicholas Negroponte postulates the development of design machines wherein the “design process, considered as evolutionary, can be presented to a machine, also considered as evolutionary, and a mutual training, resilience, and growth can be developed.” The book, dedicated to “the first machine that can appreciate the gesture,” argues for developing machines with human like qualities. This paper aims to develop an alternative trajectory to the “evolutionary” architecture machine, this time not towards anthropomorphism but responsiveness. The aim on one level is the same: to create machines that appreciate the gesture. However our approach is tied to more modest aims and means that bring current thinking on evolutionary processes and the forming of materials together. The reconfigurable mold (RCM) is an architecture machine that produces parts that can be combined to create more complex organizations. The molds are simple analog computers that employ various continuous scales like volume, weight and heat to develop their unique components. Parametric alterations are made possible by affecting these measures in the process of fabrication. An underlying material that is instrumental in the molds is rubber, whose variable elasticity provides unique possibilities for indexing the gesture that remains elusive for industrial processes.
Del Campo, Matias, and Sandra Manninger. "Speculations on Tissue Engineering and Architecture." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 82-87. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. The main aim of this paper is to speculate on opportunities inherent in the field of tissue engineering, for possible applications in the discipline of architecture. Engineered solutions based on the discoveries within the discipline of Tissue engineering can yield novel building materials and construction methods. These entire conjectures mean a different approach to the trajectories of architectural production, abandoning mechanical solutions for architecture problems in favor of biological, organ driven architectonic conditions.
Sach, Edgar. "Synthesis of Form, Structure and Material: Design for a Form-Optimized Lightweight Membrane Construction." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 200-207. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. The design for the Cologne Elephant House is the lightweight, membrane construction of a transparent “roof cloudi over a free plan geometry. This was made possible through the use of a new form-optimization method for structural calculations (SLang)1 and the use of ETFE Fluoropolymer sheeting for the roof material.
Architects, Cook+Fox. "The Generation of a Smart Cloud." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 126-133. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper presents the process by which Cook+Fox Architects responded to a design challenge that was part metaphorical and part practical. The project involved providing an environmental response to the natural world existing almost 800 feet above the ground, on the second-highest occupiable floor of New York Cityis second-tallest building. Environmentally-responsive features at the Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park are expected to make it the first LEED-Platinum high-rise in the world. The fiftieth floor was conceived as a headquarters for the fashion designer Elie Tahari, the south facing portion of the floorplate was to house a highly adaptable showroom that needed to be adaptable to complement and enhance each seasonis particular aesthetics. Additionally, the ceiling in the showroom space needed to allow for optimized height in an environment where structural, mechanical, electrical and sprinkler systems were all designed to be concealed. A combination of numerous computer-aided design scripts took into account various input variables and finally led to the generation of a Smart Cloud.
Alfaris, Anas, and Riccardo Merello. "The Generative Multi-Performance Design System." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 448-457. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. This paper proposes a framework for an integrated computational design system. This design system builds on the strengths inherent in both generative synthesis models and multi-performance analysis and optimization. Four main design mechanisms and their mathematical models are discussed and their integration proposed. The process of building the design system begins by a top-down decomposition of a design concept. The different disciplines involved are decomposed into modules that simulate the respective design mechanisms. Subsequently through a bottom-up approach, the design modules are connected into a data flow network that includes clusters and subsystems. This network forms the Generative Multi-Performance Design System. This integrated system acts as a holistic structured functional unit that searches the design space for satisfactory solutions. The proposed design system is domain independent. Its potential will be demonstrated through a pilot project in which a multi-performance space planning problem is considered. The results are then discussed and analyzed.
Silver, Mike. "The Most Important Airplane in the History of Architecture." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 376-381. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Composite structures consist of high strength carbon threads held together in a matrix of epoxy resin or thermoplastics. Surfaces made from these materials are typically 10 times lighter and 1.5 times stronger than aluminum. Both simple and highly contoured shapes possessing extreme strength can be produced using a computer controlled fiber placement machine (FPM). These incredibly thin, corrosion resistant membranes require little or no supplemental support to manage loads and enclose space. The computeris ability to determine the precise location of each fiber strand in a fiber placed part also facilitates unprecedented control of its aesthetic and functional properties. Fiber placement technology integrates building components that would normally be separated into clearly distinct systems. Here ornament, structure and cladding are collapsed into one material process. This paper explores the architectural potential of a technology normally reserved for aerospace applications through research conducted in close collaboration with fiber placement engineers at Automated Dynamics in Schenectady, New York (ADC).
Lee, Charles. "The Thermal Organism and Architecture." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 192-199. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Throughout the history of architectural discourse the concept of metabolic function in a building and a buildings relationship to its creators is expressed by keen designers who understand the subtle linkage. Organistic homeostasis is a biological function found in all mammals including humans. The interior generation of heat classifies man as endothermic. Endothermic heat generation allows for a very controlled equilibrium and is a characteristic of more complex organisms. The body has produced highly evolved surface systems to help efficiently manage the flow of heat energy in and out of the body. I suggest building envelopes represent the human being projecting itself outwards in a prosthetic extension of the skin. Inherent in this projection are the same demands of envelope put forth in the body. In my research of anatomy I have found one system that has evolved to help facilitate endothermic heat regulation in mammals at the skin level, which is hair. How does hair transcribe into architecture? An analysis into the function of hair and its adaptable morphologies is studied. Hair is a thermal regulating system, its building equivalent are forms of thermal insulation and radiant barriers. Hairs goal is homeostatic equilibrium which has its architectural counterpoint known as the balance point. Hair is an adjustable system that mitigates between internal and external heat loading which is the goal of a building envelope. In conclusion the paper explores these issues and more in new building systems and design tactics that originate from the function of hair.
Rahm, Philippe. "Thermodynamic Architecture." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 46-51. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008.
Wessel, Ginette, Remco Chang, and Eric Sauda. "Towards a New (Mapping of The) City: Interactive, Data Rich Modes of Urban Legibility." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 416-421. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. The modern metropolis is a vast environment replete with physical elements and complex overlays of information. The city historically has been represented as a discrete physical object, this allocentric view has become less and less useful as a method of meaningfully orientation and navigation. Today, the city is defined by technologies and flows of information that constantly change our perceptions. While it has always been true that symbolic and religious dimensions have had a place in our understanding of the city, the complex and transitory nature of the contemporary city requires a representation that is interactive rather than static. This paper presents proposals for new interactive modes of urban legibility: data space, based on the work of Bill Mitchell and Robert Venturi, virtual and physical city, established from the work of Christine Boyer and Bill Mitchell, multi-nodal, derived from the work of Tarik Fathy and Thomas Sieverts, and information flows, founded on the work of Melvin Webber. Each approach is introduced with a conceptual overview, nascent examples and a schematic proposal for a computer based urban visualization. Based on this study, we conclude that two necessary aspects of any urban visualization are interactivity and the combination of data and geospatial information. Interactivity is necessary because of the fluid nature of our experience and the diversity of individual intentions in the contemporary city. The combination of data and geospatial information is necessary because the geometry of the city had become less important as a reliable indicator of meaning.
Vermisso, Emmanouil. "Using Formal and Behavioral Patterns in Nature to Evaluate the Design of Bio-inspired Structural Shapes: the case of a Canopy for a South-east Asian Masterplan." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 110-117. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Born out of a design project at Foster+Partners, a number of three-dimensional shapes is examined vis--vis the recently emerging attempt of applying principles of evolutionary biology to engineering and design.
Hynes, Hugh. "When the Going Gets Tough, the Pluripotent Get Going: Resilient Developmental Models." In Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 88-93. ACADIA. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2008. Mechanisms of biological development, such as in embryogenesis, offer promising models for resilient architectural systems well-suited to volatile or unpredictable contextual conditions. The resilience of embryonic development as a process is such that successful development ? “success” defined here as that which results in the birth of an organism that can survive ? can sustain extreme shifts in a normal developmental process, triggered by mutations, environmental pressures, injury, or experimental intervention. More specifically, biological development combines mechanisms of standardization with mechanisms of customization to create open-ended or what biologists call pluripotent systems ? poised (“potent”) to develop into a wide range (“pluri-i) of potential forms ? which we can endeavor to reproduce mimetically. This paper considers biomimesis less a matter of replicating these developmental mechanisms physically or formally, but rather borrowing aspects of the mechanismsi operation in order to test project outcomes digitally. The discipline of developmental biology affords a virtually ready-made conceptual framework and terminology to guide an open-ended digital methodology, in the hope of incorporating increasing degrees of resilience into the resulting design work. Searching for a capacity to sustain a similar fluidity of differentiation afforded by organisms in early development, we explore a pluripotent architecture for which differentiation might occur over time, and which might be better able to absorb volatility.