Keywords Abstract
Sanguinetti, Paola, and Sherif Abdelmohsen. "242 on the Strategic Integration of Sketching and Parametric Modeling in Conceptual Design." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 242-249. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Architects perform problem-solving tasks while designing through various externalization modes. Among the architectural community sketching is associated with conceptual design, and parametric modelling is seen as a tool for detailed design development. However, parametric modelling is increasingly being used for exploring design concepts. We propose that sketching and parametric modelling can be integrated strategically as alternate externalization modes to support problem solving in conceptual design. With sketching, architects are able to externalize their ideas quickly and effortlessly, as the flexible structure of sketching provokes multiple interpretations through continuous refl ection. With parametric modelling, architects must define a set of parameters and rule-based constraints. By modelling design objects as parametric, multiple design variations can be generated, modifed, and evaluated. In this paper we describe an efficient process of problem-solving by studying the strategic use of sketching and parametric modelling in conceptual design. We conduct an experiment to explore the processes involved in both modes. Digital sketching is recorded by the Logitech io2 personal digital pen, and parametric modelling using Digital Project software is recorded by screen video capturing software, followed by a retrospective analysis. The ACADIA 2007 competition brief is used as the design task. 
Oatman, Devin, and Mahesh Senagala. "Am I? Architecture of Ambient Intelligence." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 158-163. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. In its purest state, Ambient Intelligence is smart computing whose presence is not apparent to the human senses except in response and actions. The original intentions and origins of Ambient Intelligence began with the need for more efficient and unobtrusive management of our everyday activities. Synonymous with ubiquitous computing, Ambient Intelligence, or AmI, consists of: UbiComp: the integration of microchips and computers into everyday objects, UbiComm: the ability of these objects to communicate with each other and the user, and Intelligent User Interface which allows inhabitants of the environment to interact with the system with human gestures (Riva 2005). Put together, these components are basically personifi ed computers. The key factor in Ambient Intelligent communities is that the microscopic computers are aware of their surroundings and their purpose just as human beings are. With the ability to self-program and react to new software, they eliminate the need for humans to program them, decreasing maintenance and programming time. These concepts and technologies raise important questions. What happens when the system disappears? Are we ready as a society to see a certain degree of power taken away from us by anticipatory computers? This short paper will provide an overview of AmI and why it is important for architects to embrace, explore, and engage this emerging technology.
Cantrell, Bradley. "Ambient Space." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 268-275. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. An exploration of streetscape lighting that responds to site phenomena provides a basis to explore the abilities of sensor driven devices to construct landscape form. The project expresses multiple reactive spaces through a hypothetical design project on Pine Street in New York City. The landscape is the input using the variables of wind, sound, motion, and light in order to focus, open, lower, and contract each lighting device. As the landscape progresses throughout the day, season, and/or year, various relationships are created in form and light to organize spaces on multiple scales. Data becomes the armature for scripted reactions allowing the infrastructure to respond for safety or efficiency. With the proliferation of sensor networks and sensor systems, the possibilities arise for the re-articulation of data expression. The single lighting device works within a network that is connected by the specifi c phenomenology of the site. The project is grounded historically in the landscape folly, an architectural device that is not what it appears to be (Figure 1). 
Ascott, Roy. "Architecture and the Culture of Contingency." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 25-31. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. A culture is a set of behaviours, attitudes and values that are shared, sustained and transformed by an identifi able community. Currently, we are bound up in a culture of consumerism, and of terror, there are also retro cultures and utopian cultures. Whatis happening now thatis interesting is that many, if not all of these diff erent tendencies, tastes and persuasions are being re-aligned, interconnected and hybridised by a vast global community of online users, who are transdisciplinary in their approach to knowledge and experience, instinctively interactive with systems and situations, playful, transgressive and enormously curious. This living culture makes it up as it goes along. No longer do the institu- tions of state, church or science call the tune. Nor can any architectural schema contain it. This is a culture of inclusion and of self-creation. Culture no longer defi nes us with its rules of aesthetics, style, etiquette, normalcy or privilege. We defi ne it, we of the global community that maps out the world not with territorial boundaries, or built environments, but with open-ended networks. This is a bottom-up culture “ non-linear, bifurcating, immersive, and profoundly human. Who needs architecture? Any structural interface will do.  Ours can be described as a contingent culture. Itis about chance and change, in the world, in the environment, in oneself. Itis a contingent world we live in, unpredictable, unreliable, uncertain and indeterministic. Culture fi ghts back, fi ghts like with like. The Contingent Culture takes on the contingency of life with its own strategies of risk, chance, and play. It is essentially syncretic. People re-invent themselves, create new relationships, new orders of time and space. Along the way, they create, as well as accommodate, the future. This culture is completely open-ended, evolving and transforming at a fast rate “ just as we are, at this stage of our evolution, and just as we want it to be. Human nature, unconstrained, is essentially syncretic too. 
Kwee, Verdy. "Architecture on Digital Flatland: Opportunities for Presenting Architectural Precedence." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 110-119. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. The importance of precedent-based learning in architecture is well recognised by education researchers. Therefore, attention needs to be paid to the sources of building information and their presentation. This paper provides an overview of a research project that deals with the delivery of information of notable buildings specifi cally on computer screen for the purpose of accessibility to the wider public in general, and architectural students in particular. The paper highlights the critical need to reassess the effectiveness of current available publications. Apart from their traditional print format, architectural publications of design precedents are also swiftly advancing into the digital platform. This platformis potential to contribute to in-depth learning within the discipline has to be explored and exploited. This paper describes an illustrative prototype digital interactive system that explores the potential of visual content and digital capabilities to showcase and present architecture on digital “flatland.i It adopts Murcutt, Lewin and Larkis, The Arthur and Yvonne Boyd Education Centre in New South Wales, Australia for the model, while outlining the aims, process, and considerations for its implementation. Finally, it reports on a general assessment of responses from a focus group. 
Mathew, Anijo. "Beyond Technology: Efficiency, Aesthetics, and Embodied Experience." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 138-145. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. The spaces we live in are increasingly entwined in a complex weave of architecture and technology. With the evolution of intelligent devices that work in the background, design of place will eventually be a seamless integration of not just efficient but also experiential and virtual technologies. This signals a paradigm shift because “smarti architecture affords users a new interaction with architecture. In spite of such promises, we have seen interactive architecture ideas and “smart” environments only within laboratory walls or in the form of simplistic implementations. Perhaps the reason is simple. Rachael McCann asks if the integration of technology within the context of an increasingly information-driven modern era has abandoned the body in favor of the mind (McCann 2006). If we acknowledge that “smart” computing has the opportunity to transcend an efficient backbone to generator of experiences, perhaps we, as designers, must reconsider our position and strategy in this modern world. This paper is designed as a critical essay ? one which evaluates interactive architecture and “smart” environments within the context of todayis socio-cultural climate. The paper hopes to open a discussion about the role of computing as architecture and the role of the architect in the design of such architecture. 
Tamke, Martin, and Olaf Kobiella. "Closing the Gap: the e4d Design Series and the Mediation of Digital Design Skills." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 204-211. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. The e4d design series is looking for an innovative use of digital technology in architectural education to overcome the gap between design development and the acquisition of digital skills. Digital design approaches include multimedia technology, the crossover of analogue and digital techniques, rapid-prototyping, visualization, and the presentation in artistic movies. Over the past two years a problem- based design approach was developed, which enabled students to learn digital and architectural skills simultaneously and efficiently. The educational concept consisted generally of four steps, which, though independent of each other, are determined by questions of the ongoing design process. The first step consists of an abstract or subjective research phase, in the second step the findings are transferred into dynamic spatial structures. Later, the detected qualities are used to develop a given building program. Finally, the different traces are connected, when site-specific parameters are blended with the design traces. This paper examines and evaluates textual and visual design approaches, the precise use of different kinds of media for the projectsi visualization, and the way architectural projects can be discussed, in addition, a competent monitoring of the process and outcome of innovative and efficient design strategies in architectural and pedagogical aspect is included. 
Gün, Onur, and Nicholas Wallin. "Composing the Bits of Surfaces in Architectural Practice." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 66-73. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Emergent design tools, with enhanced modelling and parametric manipulation capabilities, are encouraging the exploration of new geometric typologies in the field of architecture. Designers are not only finding more opportunities to work with geometries of higher complexities but are also becoming able to manipulate their designs with simple formulations. After a decade of familiarity with free form modelling tools, architects must now become more aware of the critical relationship between design and construction. When a design is performed without taking the constraints of construction into account the inefficient method of geometric post-rationalization becomes necessary. Thus, the knowledge of the rationale should be applied from the very beginning of the design processes, and digital models should be informed and controlled while being developed. This paper will present analytical strategies and methods for working with nonstandard geometries in a geometrically and parametrically controlled environment. Each method is supported with custom scripts which run in both parametric and non-parametric computer aided design (CAD) platforms. Each script and method is manipulated for the next project and the computational tools created build up a library of surface generation, manipulation, and subdivision tools. This library later becomes a source for office-wide use of surface manipulation. 
Anders, Peter. "Designing Mixed Reality: Principles, Projects and Practice." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 276-283. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Mixed Reality is an increasingly prevalent technology that merges digital simulations with physical objects or environments. This paper presents principles for the design of mixed reality compositions. The principles are illustrated by projects and experiments by the author involving architecture and robotics. 
Wierzbicki-Neagu, Madalina, and Clarence de Silva. "Development of Design Workflows for Kinetic Structures Using Fuzzy Logic." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 250-261. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Kinetic structures offer the means to significantly expand the functional and performance features of traditionally static architectural solutions. However, the added element of motion creates considerable challenges during conceptualization and introduction into existing design workflows. Rigidly foldable shells offer tremendous potential for developing kinetic architectural structures. They require few support points, eliminate sliding overlaps and are relatively easy to mock up as initial concepts. Achieving the desired motion range, however, requires a significant design effort. If performed manually, the motion optimization is tedious and unpredictable. This paper examines possible optimization algorithmic strategies with the use of fuzzy logic. Specifically the paper focuses on the application of fuzzy logic as a tool for effectively negotiating modifications of complex linked geometries while using intuitive, high level statements and directives. Highlighted is the potential of fuzzy logic-based algorithms as tools that can help the transition of existing design workflows into environments that can handle extended challenges involving kinetic geometries. 
Seebohm, Thomas. "Digital Design Pedagogy: Strategies and Results of Some Successful Experiments." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 192-203. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Are there design techniques unique to digital design software that should be explicitly taught or should one leave it to serendipity for students to discover these techniques? A review is provided of the experience of different teaching strategies for digital design pedagogy over a four-year period and, on the basis of this experience, recommendations for successful strategies are given. The teaching strategies presented assume prior training in basic three-dimensional digital modelling and hence represent a first exposure to digital design methodology. The three areas in which digital design provides unique strengths are: a) a three-dimensional design process, b) curvilinear and geometric design, and c) simulation to test the effectiveness of a design from various points of view, with particular emphasis on natural lighting. A brief overview is provided of the theoretical content of the course, the nature of the in-class design exercises, and the term project, all are visually illustrated with examples. The endeavour to reach an optimal pedagogical strategy was both enriched and complicated by the constant change in functional ability of digital design and simulation software and the availability of new software. Nevertheless, it was possible to draw some useful conclusions. 
Vollen, Jason, Dale Clifford, Kelly Winn, and Matt Gindlesparger. "Digital Fabric: Generating Ceramic Catenary Networks." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 48-55. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Digital modelling in the design environment has prompted intuitive shaping of architectural form. The pliability of the imagination allows limitless possibilities of shape without a constrained methodology. This paper chronicles a design exploring catenary form-finding using parametric constraints in a dynamic modelling environment. Catenary structural networks are treated as digital cloth objects. Applying parametric edge and point constraints simulates various behaviour patterns under gravity load. The integration of real-time Finite Element Method [FEM] and dynamic cloth simulation presents an intuitive method for the design and analysis of catenary structures. Constraints resist the limitless pliability of shape and hone the intuition using force to find form realized as a ceramic catenary network. 
Chen, Chien-Lin, and Brian Johnson. "DVIN: a Dual View Information Navigation System." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 104-109. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Differences in the preferred modes of representation of architects and their clients create challenges to their collaboration in the design process. Traditional two-dimensional drawings such as plans, sections and elevations form the backbone of architectural representation, anchoring text labels to record relevant non-graphical information. Nominally geometric “slicesi through the proposed building volume, these drawings employ abstractions and conventions unique to professional practice. In contrast, non-architects think about building configuration largely through experiential or photographic perspective. This challenge increases over the life of the project. Simple drawings, such as those used in schematic design, are easily understood by all parties. However, as the building design develops the architects encode more and more design detail through the drawing conventions of construction documents, inadvertently making this detail less and less accessible to non-architects. We present DVIN, a prototype system that uses coordinated plan and perspective views for navigation of building information models, linking the information to an individualis spatial navigation skills rather than their document navigation skills. This web-based application was developed using Java and VRML. The prototype makes it easier for naive users to locate and query building information, whether they are a client, a facility manager, or possibly an emergency responder.   *** NOTE: two pages missing from the printed proceedings have been appended to the PDF version of this paper and numbered'erratum page 1'and'erratum page 2'***
Robinson, Kirsten, Robert Gorbet, and Philip Beesley. "Evolving Cooperative Behaviour in a Reflexive Membrane." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 284-293. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. This paper describes the integration of machine intelligence into an immersive architectural sculpture that interacts dynamically with users and the environment. The system is conceived to function as an architectural envelope that might transfer air using a distributed array of components. The sculpture includes a large array of interconnected miniature structural and kinetic elements, each with local sensing, actuation, and machine intelligence. We demonstrate a model in which these autonomous, interconnected agents develop cooperative behaviour to maximize airflow. Agents have access to sensory data about their local environment and “learn” to move air through the working of a genetic algorithm. Introducing distributed and responsive machine intelligence builds on work done on evolving embodied intelligence (Floreano et al. 2004) and architectural “geotextile” sculptures by Philip Beesley and collaborators (Beesley et al. 1996-2006). The paper contributes to the general field of interactive art by demonstrating an application of machine intelligence as a design method. The objective is the development of coherent distributed kinetic building envelopes with environmental control functions. A cultural context is included, discussing dynamic paradigms in responsive architecture. 
Druckrey, Tim. "Five Excursions." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 16-24. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. In the history of mechanical contrivances, it is difficult to know how many of the automata of antiquity were constructed only in legend or by actual scientific artifice. Icarusis wings melt in the light of historical inquiry, as they were reputed to do in the myth, but was the flying automaton, attributed to a Chinese scientist of c. 380 BC actually in the air for three days, as related? (The same story is told of Archytas of Tarentum.) The mix of fact and fiction is a subject of critical importance for the history of science and technology, for our purposes, the aspirations of semi-mythical inventors can be as revealing as their actual embodiment.
Khan, Omar. "Mis(sed)information in Public Space." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 262-267. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. This paper looks at the question of freedom and control in relation to the design of interactive media architecture projects for public spaces. It speculates on how designers of responsive systems must negotiate the relationship between their designs, the usersi participation and the protocols of existing public spaces. Using Stafford Beeris formulation for a “liberty machinei it reflects on strategies for under-specifying such systems, to make them more adaptable to change. Questions that it poses include: How open should a system be? What role should public participation play in its instantiation? Who should maintain it? Who or what should control its objectives? 
Kalay, Yehuda, and Paul Grabowicz. "Oakland Blues: Virtual Presentation of 7th Street s 1950 s Jazz Scene." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 96-103. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Digital technologies, in the form of modelling buildings, people, and their activities, are becoming a popular vehicle for the re-creation and dissemination of cultural heritage. Together with video game engines, they can be used to let users virtually “inhabit” the digitally recreated worlds. Yet, like every medium ever used to preserve cultural heritage, digital media is not neutral: perhaps more than any older technology, it has the potential to affect the very meaning of the represented content in terms of the cultural image it creates. This paper examines the applications and implications of digital media for the recreation and communication of cultural heritage, drawing on the lessons learned from a project that recreates the thriving jazz and blues club scene in West Oakland, California, in the 1940s and 1950s. 
Qian, Cheryl, Victor Chen, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Participant Observation Can Discover Design Patterns in Parametric Modeling." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 230-241. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Our research aims to understand the mid-level patterns of work that recur across designers and tasks. Our users comprise active architects and civil engineers. The hypothesis is that making such patterns explicit will result in improved expert work practices, in better learning material and suggestions for improvements in parametric design. The literature shows that patterns express design work at a tactical level, above simple editing and below overall conception. We conducted a user experience study based on Bentleyis GenerativeComponents, in which geometry can be related, transformed, generated, and manipulated parametrically within a user-defined framework. After interviewing the systemis chief, we ran a participant-observer study in the January 2007 SmartGeometry workshop. We engaged designers through the role of tutor and simultaneously observed and discussed their design process. We found clear evidence of designers using patterns in the process and discerned several previously unknown patterns. In February at another 10-day workshop, we found more evidence supporting prior findings. The paper demonstrates that participant observation can be an efficient method of collecting patterns about designersi work and introduces such new patterns. We believe these patterns may help designers work at more creative levels and may suggest new ideas of interest to CAD application developers. 
Hyde, Rory. "Punching Above Your Weight: Digital Design Methods and Organisational Change in Small Practice." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 40-47. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Expanding bodies of knowledge imply expanding teams to manage this knowledge. Paradoxically, it can be shown that in situations of complexity “ which increasingly characterise the production of architecture generally “ the small practice or small team could be at an advantage. This is due to the increasingly digital nature of the work undertaken and artefacts produced by practices, enabling production processes to be augmented with digital toolsets and for tight project delivery networks to be forged with other collaborators and consultants (Frazer 2006). Furthermore, as Christensen argues, being small may also be desirable, as innovations are less likely to be developed by large, established companies (Christensen 1997). By working smarter, and managing the complexity of design and construction, not only can the small practice “punch above its weighti and compete with larger practices, this research suggests it is a more appropriate model for practice in the digital age. This paper demonstrates this through the implementation of emerging technologies and strategies including generative and parametric design, digital fabrication, and digital construction. These strategies have been employed on a number of built and un-built case-study projects in a unique collaboration between RMIT Universityis SIAL lab and the award-winning design practice BKK Architects. 
Oxman, Neri. "Rapid Craft: Material Experiments towards an Integrated Sensing Skin System." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 182-191. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. The distinction between matter (mechanics) and information (electronics) in the context of responsive building skins has promoted unique design protocols for integrating sensor technologies into material components. Such a distinction results in applications of remote sensing after the process of material fabrication. Sensors are commonly perceived as electronic patches which initiate mechanical output with response to electrical input. This work seeks to establish a novel approach to the application of electronics in building skins, which prioritizes material selection, behaviour, and fabrication technology in relation to the required task, over postproduction sensor integration. The term “Rapid Craft” is proposed to describe such design protocols which couple material behaviour and fabrication in the design of responsive skins. Rapid Craft is a designation for the incorporation of craft materialization knowledge within the framework of CNC processes of fabrication. A light-sensing inflatable skin system is developed as a working prototype, which demonstrates such an approach. 
Christenson, Mike. "Re-representation of Urban Imagery: Strategies for Constructing Knowledge." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 212-221. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Productive analysis of photographically composed urban imagery is a “wickedi problem due to the presence of multiple, entangled systems. This paper proposes constructive analytic techniques for composite imagery, consisting of digitally generating and superimposing graphic overlaps within and adjacent to original images, producing new images not rationally related to nameable systems. These new images promote pattern identifi cation, which in turn has the potential to inform conclusions about memory and navigation in urban sites. Thus, the difficulty inherent in systemic urban analysis is shifted to one of abstract image interpretation, and a new set of refl ective strategies becomes relevant. These strategies are illustrated through analysis of two existing systems in a midsize, Midwestern city: a system of pedestrian walkways connecting several downtown buildings, and a system of overhead power distribution structures. The systems have observable characteristics in common. But, while the walkways represent a deliberate attempt to structure memory and thus to aid navigation, the system of power distribution structures makes no such claim. The paper discusses specific implications of the method informing the authoris ongoing research and architectural design teaching. In conclusion, wider implications are suggested, informing the general question of constructing urban knowledge.
Dritsas, Stylianos, and Mirco Becker. "Research and Design in Shifting from Analog to Digital." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 56-65. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. In this paper we track the evolution of computational design from its analog origins to its contemporary digital regime. Our long term goal is to qualify and quantify the implications of digital computation on design thinking and its influence on the architectural practice. Meanwhile, we present the results of our past few years of collaborative research in design and computation that illustrate the nature of the intellectual engagement required for appreciating the potential of digital design thinking and making. In a temporal frame, these results are expressed as a constellation of punctuated innovations emerging sporadically during the painstaking process of tackling architectural problems using digital means. In the long run, they hopefully amount to an approach to fleshing out a paradigm shift from analog to digital and building a knowledge foundation of architectural methods. 
Satpathy, Lalatendu, and Anijo Mathew. "Smart Housing for the Elderly: Understanding Perceptions and Biases of Rural America." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 130-137. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. It is commonly acknowledged that “smart” environments, interactive architecture and “smarti homes will define the next cutting edge in architectural research. Most critics agree that one of the first problems that “smarti homes will help to address is that of spiraling costs of healthcare and aging-in-place. This may be true for urban settings where there is the financial feasibility for such technologies but what about rural America? It has been conclusively proven that rural America suffers from a lack of healthcare (delivery and access). Prior research (Mathew 2005) has also established that a rural home is different from an urban home. Will technologies designed for the urban home work in a rural setting? And do rural people carry the same attitudes and biases towards technology? This paper continues our research in the design of “smarti rural environments. It summarizes findings from focus group studies conducted in rural communities that help us to understand attitudes of people towards “smarti technology. We will use these findings to examine the feasibility of ubiquitous computing and “smarti spaces in rural areas. In conclusion, we will present guidelines to help designers in the creation of technology to augment healthy aging in rural home settings.
Woodbury, Robert F., Robert Aish, and Axel Kilian. "Some Patterns for Parametric Modeling." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 222-229. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Patterns express generic solutions to a well-described problem. In parametric modelling patterns can be used to describe a “tacticali level of work, above mechanics and below design. We describe three patterns and show how they can be used through an example model. 
Balakrishnan, Bimal, Katsuhiko Muramoto, and Loukas Kalisperis. "Spatial Presence: an Explication from an Architectural Point of View." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 120-129. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. This paper provides the theoretical foundation for understanding the concept of spatial presence. This is important for improving architectural visualization tools so as to capture the experiential aspects of space. The paper is organized into three sections. The first section explicates the concept of spatial presence by identifying various conceptualizations of spatial presence in the literature and performing a meaning analysis. It then proceeds to examine mechanisms underlying the formation of spatial presence. The paper concludes by offering initial guidelines for improving the nature of digital tools to enhance the feeling of spatial presence. 
Michalatos, Panagiotis, and Sawako Kaijima. "Structural Information as Material for Design." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 84-95. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. We present our investigations focusing on finding ways to design structural  solutions that respects criteria of efficiency, architectural intentions as well as intrinsic properties of the geometry. These are attempts to embed structural analysis results into the design space so that its form and structure will be affected by this information. The three examples show different approaches we have taken depending on the stage of design in which our processes intervened. The three approaches are Densification, Alignment, and Extraction. 
Bontemps, Arnaud, André Potvin, and Claude Demers. "The Dynamics of Physical Ambiences." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 174-181. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. This research proposes to support the reading of physical ambiences by the development of a representational technique which compiles, in a numerical interface, two types of data: sensory and filmic. These data are recorded through the use of a portable array equipped with sensors (Potvin 1997, 2002, 2004) as well as the acquisition of Video information of the moving environment. The compilation of information is carried out through a multi-media approach, by means of a program converting the environmental data into dynamic diagrams, as well as the creation of an interactive interface allowing a possible diffusion on the Web. This technique, named APMAP/Video, makes it possible to read out simultaneously spatial and environmental diversity. It is demonstrated through surveys taken at various seasons and time of the day at the new Caisse de dépôt et de placement headquarters in Montreal which is also the corpus for a SSHRC (Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council) research grant on Environmental Adaptability in Architecture (Potvin et al. 2003-2007). This case study shows that the technique can prove of great relevance for POEs (Post Occupancy Evaluation) as well as for assistance in a new design project. 
Sijpkes, Pieter, and David Theodore. "The New Architecture of Phase Change: Speculations on Ice Rapid Prototyping." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 32-39. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. The paper presents speculative avenues for constructing 3-D ice models at various scales using traditional fabricating methods and modern CNC and rapid-prototyping techniques. Canada has a long history of using ice and snow for the construction of houses (igloo), ice palaces, and ice roads, in some cases dating back thousands of years. These techniques will be reviewed and evaluated for their suitability in modern uses. Computer-driven ice imaging and production methods present many opportunities and challenges. On the software side, we will speculate on how to use parametric software for form-finding, on the hardware side, we will reflect on how to translate these models into task planning for ice-building machines. Initially, these machines will be off-the-shelf robots and rapid prototyping machines, but we envision using specially constructed “cold irons,” “re-icing” robots, and automatic “ice bricklaying” machines. Vapour deposition on a substrate is envisioned as well. An overview of the design and adaptation of water delivery systems, through drip or spray nozzles, as well as methods of cooling water through natural or artificial means will be given. The role of additives (for colour and / or strength) will be outlined. 
dor, Ron, and Dr. Stokesbury. "The Ocean Tracking Network." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 156. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. The Ocean Tracking Network (OTN) is a large-scale global initiative that comprehensively monitors ocean conditions and marine life response to these conditions. Scientists are tagging sea creatures, from salmon to whales, with tiny transmitters so that their movements can be tracked for over 20 years by receivers placed at one-kilometre intervals along the ocean floor. Pressure sensors added to these receivers allow real-time measurements of ocean depth, temperature and salinity, all of which provide significant information about climate change and the likelihood of natural disasters such as tsunamis. On shore, scientists around the world can receive this information regularly and upload it to a central database, resulting in current and reliable international records. 
Duck, Tom, Cameron Dickinson, and Matt Coffin. "The Pheonix Mars Lander." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 157. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. The Canadian Space Agency has agreed to supply the Phoenix Lander with a meteorological (or MET) weather station. This includes a pressure sensor, three temperature sensors located along a vertical one-metre mast, and a wind speed and direction sensor (called a Tell-Tale), mounted atop the MET mast. The MET suite of instruments will also include the first extraplanetary lidar system. The lidar will measure the distribution of Martian dust in the atmosphere up to altitudes of 20 km.
Peters, Brady. "The Smithsonian Courtyard Enclosure: a Case-Study of Digital Design Processes." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 74-83. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. This paper outlines the processes involved in the design of the Smithsonian Institutionis Patent Office Buildingis new courtyard enclosure. In 2004, Foster + Partners won an invited international competition to design the new courtyard enclosure in Washington, D.C. Early in the project, the Specialist Modelling Group (SMG), an internal research and design consultancy, was brought in to advise the project team on computer modelling techniques, develop new digital design tools, and help solve the complex geometric issues involved. Throughout the project, computer programming was used as one of the primary tools to explore design options. The design constraints were encoded within a system of associated geometries. This set-out geometry performed as a mechanism to control the parameters of a generative script. The design evolution involved the use of many different media and techniques and there was an intense dialog between a large team and many consultants. The computer script was a synthesis of the design ideas and was constantly modified and adapted during the design process. The close collaboration between architects, consultants, and fabricators was of key importance to the success of the project. This project, now named The Robert and Arlene Kogod Courtyard, will complete in late 2007. 
Diniz, Nancy, and Alasdair Turner. "Towards a Living Architecture." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 164-173. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. Interaction is the latest currency in architecture, as responsive components are now reacting to the inhabitant of the space. These components are designed and installed by the architect with a view to the phenomenology of space, where the experience of the environment is previewed and pre-constructed before it is translated into the conception of the space. However, this traditional approach to new technology leaves no scope for the architecture to be alive in and of itself, and thus the installed piece quickly becomes just that “ an installation: isolated and uncontained by its environment. In this paper, we argue that a way to approach a responsive architecture is to design for a piece that is truly living, and in order to propose a living architecture first we need to understand what the architecture of a living system is. This paper suggests a conceptual framework based on the theory of Autopoiesis in order to create a “self-producing” system through an experiment entitled, “The Life of a Walli (Maturana and Varela 1980). The wall has a responsive membrane controlled by a genetic algorithm that reconfigures its behaviour and learns to adapt itself continually to the evolutionary properties of the environment, thus becoming a situated, living piece. 
Angulo, Antonieta. "Ubiquitous Training of Visual-Spatial Skills: on the Development of Mobile Applications Using Handheld Devices." In Expanding Bodies: Art "Cities" Environment: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), 146-155. ACADIA. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie, NSCAD & CDRN, 2007. This research project seeks to develop m-learning applications that provide training in visual-spatial skills using wireless handheld mobile devices (e.g. PDAs and cellular phones). The paper acknowledges the role of visual-spatial competence as fundamental in science and most creative endeavors, including its critical role in architectural design. It also recognizes that there is a substantial amount of anecdotal evidence suggesting that undergraduate students in architecture have serious limitations in applying visual-spatial skills for design activities. A potential solution to this problem is envisioned through the introduction of extra-curricular learning activities that are ubiquitous and learner-centered. The suggested m-learning applications will include a set of instructional modules making use of media-rich representations (graphics and animations) for conveying the nature of 3-D spaces. As a first step toward reaching this development, a prototype was created and used for testing learning strategies. This experiment provided evidence regarding improvements to specific aspects of the studentsi visual-spatial competency, and it also collected qualitative feedback regarding the studentsi level of satisfaction about the learning experience. The paper provides recommendations for a future implementation of the beta version, including the learning strategy, content authoring, publishing, deployment, and criteria for the selection of the most accessible mobile device.