Keywords Abstract
Boza, Luis. "(Un) Intended Discoveries Crafting the Design Process." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 150-157. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Computer Numeric Controlled (CNC) fabrication machineries are changing the way we design and build. These technologies have increased productivity through greater efficiencies and have helped to create new forms of practice, including increased specializations and broader collaborative approaches. (Kieran Timberlake 2003: 31). However, some argue that these technologies can have a de-humanizing effect, stripping the human touch away from the production of objects and redistributing the associated skills to machines. (Dormer 1997: 103).  The (Digital) Craft studio explored the notions of technology and craft to understand how and when designers should exploit the tools employed (both the hand and the machine) during the design and production processes. 
Lewis, K., and J. Kentnar. "110% Juice." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 548-549. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. New Englandis seacoast is an active, working landscape. Here, with long history of whaling, sailing, and fishing, people have lived comfortably next to their economic infrastructure. Recent infrastructure projects, such as Deer Island Water Treatment Facility and the Big Dig, have embraced landscape as a way to facilitate modern “live / work” relationships.Wind turbines are part of the working landscape. So are ferries, commercial fishing, and cranberries. All clean, prosperous, and socially vibrant industry, we see the Cape Wind Project as a way to bring these landscape industries closer together, and to reestablish the vision of Cape Cod as a working landscape.The current wind proposal offers 100% efficiency with 0% consideration of the view. The turbinesi current configuration produces a view that is uneven and disorganized. Efficiency doesnit have to be lost at the expense of aesthetics. By proposing a circle of turbines rather than a grid, an even perspective is provided for all of the cape and the islands (no strange bunches, as with the grid), the turbines are less dense, allowing one to see through them, and not just at them, service travel between turbines is shortened - 77 miles of travel for the grid versus 46 miles for the circle. By becoming larger, the effect of the circular array has become smaller.
Tredinnick, R., L. Anderson, B. Ries, and V. Interrante. "A Tablet Based Immersive Architectural Design Tool." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 328-340. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. In this paper we describe a SketchUp VR system in which we create a hybrid two-dimensional / three-dimensional immersive architectural design system. This system combines a tablet PC, an optically tracked room, a display wall, a Space Traveler motion controller, and stereographic eyewear to allow immersive conceptual design and walkthrough using a version of SketchUp that has been enhanced with Ruby plug-ins. The tablet PC provides a “sketchpad” type of user interface for SketchUp, while the tracked space and display wall enable the designer simultaneously to design at full (or any other) scale in an immersive (VR) environment.
McIntosh, Patricia. "ACADIA '88." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 28-29. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Noble, Douglas. "ACADIA at 25." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 40-41. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Klinger, Kevin. "ACADIA past 15 years reflections in the mirror are closer than they appear." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 53-58. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Yessios, Chris. "ACADIA s Past and Future." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 18-20. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Mathew, Anijo. "Aesthetic Interaction a Model for Re-thinking the Design of Place." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 278-291. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. We live in a landscape of digital information and communication. Digital technology finds pervasive application in many aspects of modern habitable spaces ? environmental control systems, internet based systems for information exchange, cellular systems for instant communication, and the list goes on. In fact, recent Intel studies show that every day we encounter at least 150 different computing devices in our living environments. As computing initiatives evolve intelligent devices that work in the background of our day to day living, several questions arise about how we interact with these devices. The design of “smart” places will eventually involve the seamless integration of both the physical and virtual. Such interventions will lead to a transformation in the way we design. Architects will increasingly find themselves using the computer in design as opposed to design. Over the last few years our lab has been working on several projects, from the level of a room to the level of urban design, that use embedded interactivity and computing as part of the design. This paper describes three such projects, completed at different times, which deal with different problems and the overall impact of computing on the way the designs were developed. The description and evaluation of these projects will be used to develop a theory for the use of pragmatist aesthetics for “information interchange” within architectural design. In short, the paper will explore the evolution of Computer “Aided” Design from a model for designing architecture to a model for designing computing within architecture through aesthetic interaction.
Faulders, Thom. "Airspace Tokyo." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 542-543. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Airspace Tokyo is designed to establish a screened buffer zone - a thin, super-compact artificial “yardi that protects the buildingis occupants from the pressing context of the dense urban environment outside. The new white, minimalist four-story building, designed by a Tokyo architect, is a stacked four unit multi-family dwelling with a garage and two large professional photography studios for lease on its ground floor. Located in the Ota-ku area of the city, the site was previously occupied by the owner with a sprawling residence that was wrapped by a layer of dense vegetation, and was unique in a city where open space is rare amidst the high demand for built space. Since the entire site is to now be razed to accommodate construction for the new and much larger development, the design intention for the screen is to invent an architectural system that performs with similar attributes to the demolished green strip and creates an atmospheric zone of protection. In effect, the demolished two meters of setback width of open ground space is now to be reduced into a new zone with a width of only 20 cm.
Kumar, Shilpi. "Architecture and Industrial Design a Convergent Process for Design." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 79-94. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The use of technology has grown with the way design professions have evolved over time. Changing needs, desires of comfort, and perceptions of the consumers have led to a distinct improvement in the design of both product and architecture. The use of the digital media and emerging technologies has brought a dramatic change to the design process allowing us to view, feel, and mould a virtual object at every stage of design, development, and engineering. Change is often quick and easy since a virtual product does not inherently carry the biases of its physical counterpart. In order to communicate ideas across the team, digital processes are also used to bring together opinions, experiences, and perspectives. These methods encourage decision making based on information rather than prejudice or instinct. Thus, digital exchanges (technology) impact firm strategies at three levels: product, process, and administrative or support activities (Adler 1989).Digital tools for design exchange in Industrial Design (ID) began much earlier than many other professions. The profession of Architecture is also slowly moving to a similar model with digital exchange finding increasing prevalence in drawing, modelling, performance simulation, design collaboration, construction management, and building fabrication. The biggest problem is the disintegrated use of technology in the architectural profession without a strategy toward streamlining the design process from conception to fabrication. In this paper we investigate how the use of technology has evolved in the professions of Industrial Design and Architecture comparatively in their product, process, and support activities. Further, we will present a set of guidelines that will help architects in the convergence of design process, helping in a more efficient work flow with a strategic use of digital technology.
Skinner, Martha. "Audio and Video Drawings Mapping Temporality ." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 178-189. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. In my work and the work of my students, the audio/video camera has been employed as a medium with which to combine the various characteristics that make up place. It has been important to be both immersed as well as removed, to be both realistic and abstract, to be picturesque and analytical. In addition, we have experimented with the merging of two vocabularies: that of architectural drawing and that of moving image as a way to rediscover both vocabularies and as a way to achieve readings of place that are both qualitative and quantitative. In this essay, various mappings and notations of cities done through the exploitation of the audio/video camera as a mapping medium will be introduced.  
Chaisuparasmikul, Pongsak. "Bidirectional Interoperability Between CAD and Energy Performance Simulation Through Virtual Model System Framework." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 232-250. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The paper describes a novel approach involving interoperability, data modelling technology, and application of the building information model (BIM) focused on sustainable architecture. They share relationships and multiple experiences that have existed for years but have never have been proven. This interoperability of building performance simulation maps building information and parametric models with energy simulation models, establishing a seamless link between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and energy performance simulation software. During the last four decades, building designers have utilized information and communication technologies to create environmental representations to communicate spatial concepts or designs and to enhance spaces. Most architectural firms still rely on hand labor, drafted drawings, construction documents, specifications, schedules and work plans in traditional means. 3D modelling has been used primarily as a rendering tool, not as the actual representation of the project. With this innovative digitally exchange technology, architects and building designers can visually analyze dynamic building energy performance in response to changes of climate and building parameters. This software interoperability provides full data exchange bidirectional capabilities, which significantly reduces time and effort in energy simulation and data regeneration. Data mapping and exchange are key requirements for building more powerful energy simulations. An effective data model is the bidirectional nucleus of a well-designed relational database, critical in making good choices in selecting design parameters and in gaining and expanding a comprehensive understanding of existing data flows throughout the simulation process, making data systems for simulation more powerful, which has never been done before. Despite the variety of energy simulation applications in the lifecycle of building design and construction projects, there is a need for a system of data integration to allow seamless sharing and bidirectional reuse of data.
Guidera, Stan. "BIM applications in Design Studio an integrative approach Developing Student Skills with Computer Modeling." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 213-227. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This paper proposes a reductionist approach to the integration of software used in professional practice with course activities associated with design studio. This proscriptive strategy emphasizes the use of task-specific software features to support specific aspects of design project activities and learning outcomes. The rationale of this strategy is discussed followed by case studies that review the application of a reductionist approach to building information modelling software in a third year studio and a design foundation course.
Diewald, J., and M. Frederick. "Building Information Modeling: Interactive Versioning Experiment." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 540-541. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Interactive Versioning, is the first experiment of an ongoing investigation into the conceptual role of parametric modelling in the design process.  In this case, the form is defined by constrained floor-plate relationships. Originally testing methods using numerical values exported to excel, we obtained undesirable results and shifted our focus to the creation of an interactive model, restoring the direct influence of user input. The result is a 10-floor structure that allows the user to tweak point locations along the slab perimeters that in turn have global effect on the overall geometry of the architectural body. We are using four point definition types: reference above, interactive reference, reference below, and independent value. Interactive reference points use referential constraints defined as x and y distances from the global origin, which change on account of user inputs. Reference above points pull (x,y) values from an interactive point above. Reference below points pull (x,y) values from interactive points below. Independent points are unaffected by changes in any of the other points but may also be tweaked to adjust a form. On any given level, there are 2 interactive reference points, 2 reference above points, 2 reference below points, and 4 independent points. Additionally, 2 length constraints link interactive points with reference above points on the same level. This allows for changes to affect the entire structure rather than only the floor plates immediately above and below a given change. The addition of constraints to the floor outlines will yield a variety of formal results and offer the possibility to further control the output.
Johnson, Jason. "Complexity as a Creative Force in Design Variegation, Heterogeneity, Diversity." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 510-517. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This paper describes an experimental project that attempts to use complexity as a creative and vital force within the design process. The project seeks to release architecture from its conventional role as a static urban backdrop and to transform it into a vital, dynamic, and active participant within cities. The project, entitled “Energy Farm”, was instigated by the 2005 International Open Design Competition for a “Performing Arts Islandi located within the Han River in Seoul, Korea. Through the exploration of the site and program elements as an interacting matrix of fields, forces, and flows (energy, program, water flow, infrastructure, etc.), our proposal emerged as a variegated landscape marked by its capacities to produce its own energy, interweave heterogeneous threads of structure and program, and instigate a diverse set of scenarios in which physical and virtual realms coalesce. Architecture, in its unique capacity to bridge these realms, can release the rich computation potential of complexity into the physical realm. Within this scenario, architecture becomes a creative and vital agent for productive change with profound social, political, and ecological implications.
Kensek, Karen. "Computers in Architecture or “Are we there yet?” a short, rambling, personal essay." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 30-31. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Lee, E., S. Hong, and Brian Johnson. "Context Aware Paper-Based Review Instrument a Tangible User Interface for Architecture Design Review." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 317-327. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. We describe the design and implementation of a prototype computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW) environment for review of architectural construction documents. This environment utilizes a novel plain-paper tangible interface that supports shared activity such as review of construction documents using an “over the shoulder” computational assistant called CAPRI. Despite the increasing use of computers, work in most architecture firms still largely revolves around paper drawings. Architects structure their work around paper instead of digital representations for reasons of legal liability and tradition, as well as technical limitations. While hardcopy is intuitive, dense, and easy to access, it lacks direct connection to the wide range of design knowledge increasingly available in interactive design environments. This lack is felt most acutely during design review processes, when the designer or reviewer is often called upon to consult and consider holistically a variety of supporting (backing) documents, a task which requires focused attention and a good memory, if errors are to be avoided. Our prototype system enables multiple reviewers to interact equally with a paper construction document using a tangible interface to query detail and backing data from a project knowledge base. We believe this will decrease the revieweris cognitive load by bringing design data to them in a contextual and timely way. In doing so, we believe errors will be caught sooner and mistakes reduced.
Senagala, Mahesh. "Curvilinear Pedagogy of Tensile Fabrications." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 122-134. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This paper outlines the pedagogical issues of design and fabrication of tensile membrane structures. Pedagogy needs to closely follow the nature of structures, materials and fabrication processes. Pedagogy of tensile fabric structures is significantly different from that of the conventional frame and panel (stick-built) structures. To explore the digital design and fabrication of tensile membrane structures, a design/build studio was conducted at the University of Texas at San Antonio. The present paper identifies the peculiarities of this type of project and discusses the pedagogical lessons learned from this design-build studio.
Barrow, Larry. "Digital Design and Making 30 Years After ." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 158-177. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Current design studio pedagogy is undergoing significant change as the means and methods of ideation, representation and making evolve with digital tools, Computer-Aided-Design-Computer-Aided-Manufacturing (CADCAM) remains a contentious topic among many studio instructors and faculty in the academy. Computing is now nearing ubiquity, many processes and products have seen significant evolutionary trends, if not revolutionary transformations, this is no less the case in the academic and firm design studio.  The impact of “digital” media and CADCAM, in the design-make process, remains obscure and formally unknown.In this paper, we will review our research and findings from the work of three students, two current students who were in our Digital Design II (DDII) spring 2006 course and the third student, the writer, will reflect on “design and making” from a “pre-architecture”  and pre-studio/pre-computer (CADCAM) perspective of “makingi thirty-three years ago. The research findings provide universal precepts pertinent to current thinking about emerging studio pedagogy. Our findings suggest that computing technology should be introduced at the outset of design education for the beginning student in basic design studio, and moreover, advanced designers can partner with “digitali tools to ideate and realize their, heretofore unrepresentable and unconstructable, ideas in the early stages of design using CADCAM. 
Campbell, Cameron. "Digital Design Pedagogy Setting the Foundation for Digital Design in the Architecture Curriculum." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 411-417. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. In this paper I will present the work of developing a digital media foundation course that addresses this need to give design students a digital design foundation that crosses over many design disciplines and navigates the inter-relationships of various software packages. These considerations do not preclude students from engaging in the analog-digital debate. Instead, the students become informed participants in understanding the differences, benefits, and liabilities of the mediums. Furthermore, by addressing digital technology at an early stage, the digital divide in architectural education is reduced, and more students have the opportunity to fold digital technology into their foundations of methodologies.
Elys, John. "Digital Ornament." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 68-78. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Gaming software has a history of fostering development of economical and creative methods to deal with hardware limitations. Traditionally the visual representation of gaming software has been a poor offspring of high-end visualization. In a twist of irony, this paper proposes that game production software leads the way into a new era of physical digital ornament. The toolbox of the rendering engine evolved rapidly between 1974-1985 and it is still today, 20 years later the main component of all visualization programs. The development of the bump map is of particular interest, its evolution into a physical displacement map provides untold opportunities of the appropriation of the 2D image to a physical 3D object. To expose the creative potential of the displacement map, a wide scope of existing displacement usage has been identified: Top2maya is a scientific appropriation, Caruso St John Architects an architectural precedent and Tord Boonjeis use of 2D digital pattern provides us with an artistic production precedent. Current gaming technologies give us an indication of how the resolution of displacement is set to enter an unprecedented level of geometric detail. As modernity was inspired by the machine age, we should be led by current technological advancement and appropriate its usage. It is about a move away from the simplification of structure and form to one that deals with the real possibilities of expanding the dialogue of surface topology.  Digital Ornament is a kinetic process rather than static, its intentions lie in returning the choice of bespoke materials back to the Architect, Designer and Artist. 
Jemtrud, Michael. "Eucalyptus: User Controlled Lightpath Enabled Participatory Design Studio." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 496-509. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. A new notion of participation is at stake with advances in technologically mediated work environments. The digitally mediated e-design studio has been around since the mid-1990's and has been employed in various forms in disciplines including architecture/engineering/construction (AEC), industrial design, and the automotive industry. Insufficient bandwidth and insufficiently powerful, crudely coordinated tools resulted in distributed task-based modes of collaboration that did not allow full participation by members of the distributed design team. At the very least, the present “second generation” network severely limits the applications, tools, and modes of communication that can be used in data and visualization intense design scenarios. The emergence of Service Oriented Architectures and User-Controlled LightPaths (“intelligent infrastructure”) herald the beginning of a new age where fully participatory multi-site design may become possible. The networks, visualization & communication tools, Service Oriented Architecture & Web Services, work protocols, and physical site designs of the Participatory Design Studio (PDS) being developed by the authors will constitute one of the first working examples of this future. This paper will briefly outline the “mise en scene” or staging of the technical configuration of the Eucalyptus project, observations and results from the creative activity of the PDS in the context of two case studies, and speculate on the implications for design activity, pedagogy, and a more robust mode of participation. 
Ambach, Barbara. "Eve s Four Faces interactive surface configurations." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 455-460. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Eveis Four Faces consists of a series of digitally animated and interactive surfaces. Their content and structure are derived from a collection of sources outside the conventional boundaries of architectural research, namely psychology and the broader spectrum of arts and culture.The investigation stems from a psychological study documenting the attributes and social relationships of four distinct personality prototypes: the Individuated, the Traditional, the Conflicted, and the Assured (York and John 1992). For the purposes of this investigation, all four prototypes are assumed to be inherent, to certain degrees, in each individual. However, the propensity towards one of the prototypes forms the basis for each individualis “personality structure.i The attributes, social implications and prospects for habitation have been translated into animations and surfaces operating within A House for Eveis Four Faces. The presentation illustrates the potential for constructed surfaces to be configured and transformed interactively, responding to the needs and qualities associated with each prototype. The intention is to study the effects of each configuration and how each configuration may be therapeutic in supporting, challenging or altering oneis personality as it oscillates and shifts through the four prototypical conditions.
Martens, Bob. "Exploring the Design and Fabrication of Inflatables: “The Taming of the Shrew”." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 461-470. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The building materials that help designers or architects achieve their goal of defining and enclosing space are usually concrete, steel, glass or wood. For these materials designers have both empirical data gained from experience and at times complex calculation methods enabling them to use them in their designs in a tangible, reckonable and, consequently, almost risk-free manner. It seems obvious that creating a design with well-known building materials will lead to more or less predictable outcomes. This is a good reason for investigating a design process dealing with air-filled building-elements. Architectural structures look completely different when one employs a “building material” which has not been subjected to either detailed investigations or sophisticated calculations. The “Smart_Air” Design Studio was devised to take a closer look at the unusual building material “air,” which we have only just begun to explore, and to make it the centre of a focused design exercise. The objective was to use “air” or, rather, pneumatic technologies, to arrive at structurally sound solutions for enclosing space, which could be considered a “roofi in the widest sense of the term.
Kudless, A., and I. Vukcevich. "Flexible Formwork Research (FPR)." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 555. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. FFR investigates the self-organization of plaster and elastic fabric to produce evocative visual and acoustic effects. Inspired by the work of the Spanish architect Miguel Fisac and his experiments with flexible concrete formwork in the 1960-70s, FFR continues this line of research by exploring aspects of pattern generation and recognition in relation to self-organized form. In line with the theme of the current exhibition, Digital Exchange, the work can be understood as a dialog between physical and digital computation. The form is a result of a negotiation between the digital manipulation of images and the physical deformations of materials under stress. Both digital and physical processes play an equal role in the final form of the plaster tiles.Reflecting on Miguel Fisacis flexible concrete formwork, there was a desire to investigate the potential for more differentiated patterns while still using the same basic fabrication technique. This was accomplished through the use of a custom-designed script in Rhino that analyzes a given image and translates it into a field of points. These points establish areas of constraint in the elastic membrane of the mould. Through numerous physical tests, the minimum and maximum distances between constraint points was determined and these were entered into the script as limits for the point creation. If the points are too close, large wholes with very thin and weak plaster form whereas if the points are too far apart the amount of elastic deformation is so great that the weight of the plaster can cause failures to occur in the fabric mould. One of the most important aspects of the project is its resonance with the body and our natural attraction and repulsion for certain forms. Through exploring the natural self-organization of material under stress, FFR unintentionally reminds us of our own flesh. The plaster tiles resonate with our own bodyis material as it sags, expands, and wrinkles in relationship with gravity, structure, and time.
Lim, Chor-Kheng. "From Concept to Realization." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 386-391. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This research aims to provide a deeper understanding of the unique features of CAD/CAM media tools and their applications. Moreover, it analyzes the role of the CAD/CAM media in the fabricating of physical models and the kind of added benefits they offer above and beyond those of traditional hand-made physical models. This research concludes that certain aspects of CAD/CAM can aid in the digital design process.
Johnson, J., and N. Gattegno. "Future Cities Lab | Energy Farm: Seoul Opera House." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 556-559. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The patterning ranges are developed by merging images of the river surface with tonal ranges that pair with the desired transparency of the metal surface. Water surface images were chosen for the non-uniform distribution of tone. Light tonal areas create small punches, while dark tonal areas create larger punches. The water composite image is rasterized in a half-tone patterning and converted to fabrication data with RhinoScripts for CNC production.
Senagala, Mahesh. "Going Past the Golem: the Emergence of Smart Architecture." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 372-382. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. At a time when the notion of smart architecture is gaining foothold as the next cutting edge in architecture, the paper attempts to provide a much needed historic overview of the emergence of smart architecture in terms of technologies and concepts. Additionally, the paper traces the many exciting current developments, challenges and opportunities from the viewpoint of architecture.
Architects, SHoP. "Houston Street Project." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 550-552. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The Houston Street Project poses a far greater challenge to information management than its relatively small size seems to imply. This high-end residential development, located in an up-and-coming New York neighborhood, negotiates an incredibly complex set of rules and relationships, such as: irregular site geometry, proximity to MTA tunnels, and “special districti codes, where the use of masonry was required. Masonry implies a monolithic treatment of the facade, yet panelization, due to cost, demands that fabrication dictates the design. The model, then, required us to know the location of every brick on the facade, for not a one could overhang any of its adjacent neighbors by more than 3/4i at any given point.
Dorta, Tomás, and E. Perez. "Hybrid modeling revaluing manual action for 3D modeling." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 392-402. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. 3D modelling software uses conventional interface devices like mouse, keyboard and display allowing the designer to model 3D shapes. Due to the complexity of 3D shape data structures, these programs work through a geometrical system and a graphical user interface to input and output data. However, these elements interfere with the conceptual stage of the design process because the software is always asking to be fed with accurate geometries “ something hard to do at the beginning of the process. Furthermore, the interface does not recognize all the advantages and skills of the designeris bare hands as a powerful modelling tool. This paper presents the evaluation of a hybrid modelling technique for conceptual design. The hybrid modelling approach proposes to use both computer and manual tools for 3D modelling at the beginning of the design process. Using 3D scanning and rapid prototyping techniques, the designer is able to go back and forth between digital and manual mode, thus taking advantage of each one. Starting from physical models, the design is then digitalized in order to be treated with special modelling software. Then, the rapid prototyping physical model becomes a matrix or physical 3D template used to explore design intentions with the hands, allowing the proposal of complex shapes, which is difficult to achieve by 3D modelling software alone.
Dorta, Tomás, and E. Perez. "Immersive Drafted Virtual Reality a new approach for ideation within virtual reality." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 304-316. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. There is a void between design and computer in ideation. Traditional tools like sketching are more appropriate for conceptual design since they can sustain abstraction, ambiguity, and inaccuracy “ essentials at the beginning of the design process. Actual graphical user interface approaches, as well as hardware devices, constrain creative thinking. Computer representations and virtual reality are now used for presentation and validation rather than for design. Most virtual reality tools are seen as passive rather than active instruments in this process of ideation. Moreover, virtual reality techniques come from other disciplines and are applied to design without considering the design process itself and the skills designers already possess.This paper proposes and evaluates a new approach for the conceptual design of spaces within virtual reality. Starting from the non-immersive technique we developed before, where the user was able to be inside a 3D modeled space through real sketches, this technique goes one step further, allowing the designer to sketch the space from the inside all in real-time. Using an interactive pen display for sketching and an immersive projective spherical display, designers and colleagues are able to propose and make design decisions from inside the project. The capabilities of the computer to display the virtual environment are, therefore, mixed with the designeris skills in sketching and understanding the space.
Yan, Wei. "Integrating Video Tracking and Virtual Reality in Environmental Behavior Study." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 483-488. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. One of the essential considerations in architectural design is how people use the built environments. Adequate study of environmental behaviour can reveal significant information about that use. This research suggests applying new computing technologies to enhance environmental behaviour study, in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. Specifically, this project will develop an integrated system of automatic video tracking and video-quality virtual reality. The integrated system will provide designers and behavioural scientists with substantial statistical measurements of end user behaviour patterns. Furthermore it will enable them to walk through the virtual reality of the environments and interactively observe details of the behaviours from various viewpoints. Thus, this project can help obtain behaviour data in different levels of details, and in a structured and planned way that can facilitate analysis of the data with maximum automation. The major significance of this project is an introduction of a rigorous new methodology into environmental behaviour study to enhance first-person observation with state-of-the-art computing technologies. This research will be a novel application of virtual reality in environmental behaviour study. We expect that it will fundamentally advance the methods behavioural scientists use to study human environmental behaviour, and the ways architects evaluate architectural design in terms of human behaviour.
Schindler, C., M. Braach, and F. Scheurer. "Inventioneering Architecture' Building a doubly curved section through Switzerland." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 136-145. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This paper describes the automated detailing and fabrication of a complex doubly curved exhibition platform (designed by Instant Architects) accomplished with a continuous digital process chain. The project analysis points out a shift in value creation from material processing to information processing.
Schindler, C., M. Braach, and F. Scheurer. "Inventioneering Architecture: building a doubly curved section through Switzerland." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 544-545. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Inventioneering Architecture is an exhibition of the four Swiss architecture schools that has been traveling the world during 2005/06. This doubly curved exhibition platform, resembling an abstract crosscut through Swiss topography, measures 40 by 3 meters. The authors proposed to assemble the hilly platform from 1000 individually curved rafters that were milled out of 40mm medium density fiberboard (MDF). By implementing a continuous digital chain from the definition of the surface geometry in the CAD software Maya to the control of the five-axis CNC-mill that manufactures the parts, production costs could be lowered significantly. The detailing was developed closely after the capabilities of a five-axis router. The platform is divided into 40 mm wide cross sections, each describing the upper surface path of one rafter. The milling tool follows this path and rotates around it at the same time, cutting out a so called “ruled surfacei that follows the topography of the platform both along and across the section. In order to meet the budget requirements, the crucial point was to automate the translation of the platform geometry into the geometry of the single parts and finally into the steering code (G-Code) for the computer controlled mill.
Senagala, Mahesh. "Light Exchange." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 538-539. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The notions of collaborative exchanges, leadership, and entrepreneurialism that cross disciplinary boundaries were promoted in a digital design-build studio taught in spring 2005. With the starting funds of one dollar, the studio took up the challenge of building two full-scale tensile fabric structures that mark the entrances to a downtown San Antonio building. Structures of 1200 square feet total surface area were successfully designed, engineered, and executed within a semester framework at a final cost of $102,490. Collaborations were fostered with 24 industry partners from Asia, Europe, Australia, and USA, including four structural engineers. Innovative pedagogical, collaborative and project management methods were employed. The studio was structured as a self-organized design “firm.” Positions were created and students were “hiredi into the firm to play different roles. The studio utilized web-based communication and project management tools. After a four-week warm-up project that established an innovative studio culture, professional schedules were prepared and the engineers were engaged in the collaborative process of designing the anchors, cables, connections and PTFE/PVC membranes. The peculiarities of digitally designing, fabricating and erecting tensile fabric structures were comprehensively explored. The studio completed all the CNC fabrication, concrete footings and membrane fabrication at local workshops through special partnerships.
More, Gregory. "Making Space Content Specific Interactive Architectures for Information Presentation." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 292-299. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This paper examines the connections between digital architectures and interaction design with an emphasis on how the latter informs the former. Digital spatial interfaces have been in development for well over a decade. However there is still a distinct and problematic separation between the function of these spaces architecturally and the functional use of architectural concepts in the design of these spaces. The research presented here outlines an approach to interface design that promotes an architecture that is temporal, interactive and sonic, and is defined explicitly by a functional relationship to its informational content. In particular this research reports on the design of a software prototype that incorporates spatial concepts of interactivity, visualization and sound to assist in the navigation of presentation information, promoting space as a primary interface to an information collection.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Manufacturing Surface Effects." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 95-103. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The paper examines the newfound capacity to digitally design and manufacture highly crafted material and surface effects. It traces an emerging trajectory in contemporary architecture aimed at the decorative effects of digitally crafted surface patterns and textures, as a potential return to ornamentation in architecture. It surveys practices whose approach to form and pattern varies from the “ornamented minimalism” of Herzog and de Meuron to the “expressive exuberance” of Greg Lynn. The paper also describes the different digital modes of material production aimed at particular surface effects, as in series of panels with repetitive, yet unique decorative relief or cutout patterns, striated surface configurations, etc.
Narahara, T., and K. Terzidis. "Multiple-constraint Genetic Algorithm in Housing Design." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 418-425. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. As architectural projects are becoming increasingly more complex in their formal manifestation as well as in their functional requirements, methods are sought to address these complexities. Genetic algorithms offer an effective solution to the problem allowing multiple constraints to compete as the system evolves towards an optimum configuration that fulfills those constraints. A case study is presented that involves a housing project with multiple environmental, functional, and economic constraints.    
Eastman, Chuck. "Old and New Challenges ACADIA After 25 Years." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 14-17. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Barrow, Larry. "Performance House: a CADCAM Modular House System." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 104-121. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Millions of persons around the globe live in low quality indigenous, or Manufactured Housing (MH) systems that often result in low “performance” undesirable living environments and, at times, life threatening habitation. Our research has explored mass production principles in product design and architecture, currently at the single family housing scale, with a focus on the recent devastation along the US Gulf Coast as a result of hurricane impact, most notably hurricane Katrina. “Modern architecture” theoreticians have conceived, written, prototyped and even launched business ventures in an attempt to bring their manufactured housing “ideasi to fruition. However, architects have generally had little “long-term” impact in the area of manufactured housing trategies and the current manufactured housing industry remains archaic and problematic. This paper includes our research of other architects attempts to leverage technology in the manufactured housing industry, additionally, we analyzed current problems in the US mass housing industry. We then derived a set of “design criterion” as a means of anchoring our design inquiry for a proposed factory-built modular house system.Our research encompasses both process and product innovation, this paper reflects on our  use of technology to leverage an Industrial Design (ID) process that is inclusive of many “design” partners and team members. We are using both virtual and physical output representation and physical prototyping for a factory-built house system, our Research and Development (R&D) is on-going with our collaborating design-manufacture engineering partners from the automotive, furniture and aerospace research labs here at Mississippi State University. Our goal is to use “industrial designi principles to produce mass housing components that provide durable-sustainable housing. 
Klinger, Kevin. "Perimetric Boundary." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 554. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. A strong dichotomy exists between the factors of fluctuating natural orders apparent in the river, and the striation of the land by human historical and cultural influence. The installation exists as surface of influence between these forces. The form is informed by parameters of light, vista, material, and process through a method of digitally folding and perforating sheets of steel to enable a self structuring membrane which rises and falls from the plateau edge. A swath of prairie grasses, rising and falling in their own cycle, demarcates this edge. A screen of 15 weathering steel sheets stretches for 63i across the boundary of the human order and the encroaching erosion of the natural realm. From the initial generation of geometry pairings, well “adapted” pairings are spliced from the parent and “bredi with similarly fit geometries. The fit of these pairs is based on the relationships between the form and the desired criteria of reflection, screening, and framing. To properly combine these pairings, several mutations occur (indicated in red).
Perez, Santiago. "PolyForm: Biomimetic Surfaces." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 471-482. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The evolution of the architectural surface from a static, fixed geometric assemblage to a responsive, biomimetic aggregate surface will be the topic of this paper. The work exhibited has been developed by the author and his students over the last two years, prompted by an interest in robotics, advanced material assemblies, and biomimetics. The work ranges in scope from digital models and simulations to working prototypes and full-scale habitable constructions. One aspect that serves to unite the emerging body of work may be summarized in the prefix “polyi denoting many, or having more than one state or form. Thus the word Polyform begins to suggest the interplay between biomimesis and adaptive surfaces. A similar term is found in the combination of poly and morph:
Bollinger, Elizabeth. "Position Paper for ACADIA 2006." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 26-27. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Clayton, Mark. "Replacing the 1950's Curriculum." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 48-52. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006.

White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA

Lömker, Thorsten. "Revitalization of Existing Buildings through Sustainable Non-Destructive Floor Space Relocation." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 261-268. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The revitalization of existing buildings is gaining importance. We are facing a development where, in many cases, there is no need to design new buildings because an increasing number of existing buildings are not used anymore. The most ecological procedure to revitalize these buildings would be through a continued usage and by making few or no alterations to the stock. Thus, the modus operandi could be called a “non-destructive” approach.From the architectis point of view, non-destructive redesign of existing buildings is time-consuming and complex. The methodology we developed to aid architects in solving such tasks is based on exchanging or swapping utilization of specific rooms in order to reach a design solution. With the aid of mathematical rules, which will be executed by the use of a computer, solutions to floor space relocation problems will be generated. Provided that “design” is in principle a combinatorial problem, i.e., a constraint-based search for an overall optimal solution of a problem, an exemplary method will be described to solve such problems.The design of the model developed is related to problems in logistics (e.g., the loading in trans-shipment centers). The model does not alter geometric proportions or locations of rooms, but solely changes their occupancy such that a new usage could be applied to the building. From our point of view, non-destructive models can play an important role in floor space relocation processes. Our examinations demonstrate that new patterns of utilization could be found through the use of this model.
Kobayashi, Yosihiro. "Self-Organizing Map and Axial Spatial Arrangement: Topological Mapping of Alternative Designs." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 342-355. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This research attempts to formulate a computational framework for exploring spatial arrangements in the early phases of design. In the physical world, this could be compared to exploring spatial arrangements using cardboard cut-outs or simply a grid of spaces on paper. This research demonstrates the framework by means of a generative design system that introduces axial order in a plan parti made up of discrete 3D objects. The tool is designed to organize the 3D objects along an Axis specified by the user and also rearrange them following user-defined mathematical expressions. The numerical parameters (the dimensions and physical properties of the individual objects) are linked through the mathematical expressions to vary the spatial arrangement of objects. Implementation of the tool involves the Self Organizing Maps (SOMs) as the Graphical User Interface (GUI) in generative systems. This allows the user to select and dynamically view spatial arrangements that have been organized on a map based on their similarity. The application is implemented, tested, and its results are demonstrated using buildings designed by Louis I. Kahn, Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe.
Sterk, Tristan de Estree. "Shape Change in Responsive Architectural Structures: Current Reasons and Challenge." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 251-260. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Shape control within architectural structures is a natural extension to the practice of engineering and architectural design. The knowledge needed for itis development builds upon two well understood foundations: 1) the long existing knowledge that building performance and function are intimately connected to the shape of built spaces, and 2) the relatively new idea that embedded computational systems may be employed to control devices in useful and beautiful ways.  When combined, each type of knowledge can be used to further architecture and engineering at both theoretical and methodological levels. Structural shape control is of major interest within architecture because it is the primary ingredient needed to produce building envelopes that change shape. Structural shape control also currently represents a major technological and methodological stumbling block for architects, posing many challenges that have theoretical and practical origins. Theoretically, responsive architectural structures demand a re-evaluation of existing notions of space making.  Practically, these systems demand a re-evaluation of construction and design methodologies across both engineering and architectural practice.
Williamson, Shane. "Stock Space." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 546-547. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Modest in budget and ephemeral in nature, STOCK SPACE was installed, exhibited, and dismantled over a five-day period at the Toronto National Trade Center as part of an invited exhibition of concept spaces at the 2005 Toronto Interior Design Show. Occupying 450 square feet within an 110,000-square-foot convention center, STOCK SPACE was small, vertical, warm, and quiet, in contrast to the immense horizontality of the mechanically cooled trade floor of nearly 40,000 exhibitors and attendees.  STOCK SPACE was an investigation of limits. Material had to fit through doors and on our CNC milling bed. It had to clear staircases, be carried by hand, and be stored compactly within the confines of our fabrication area.  STOCK SPACE was an exercise in subtraction. The space was created through the removal of stock material from a conceptually full volume that measured 24i long x 18i wide x 12i tall. High density EPS foam in 4ix 8i x 16i modules provided a light and machinable medium capable of recording the vestigial marks of fabrication as well as providing adequate dampening and insulation. The resulting assemblage of stacked modules embodied traits of the orthographic grid associated with the length and width of the stock, the topographic contours associated with the depth of the stock and the isoparametric grooves of the resulting surface. The collective composition of these elements was the analytical result of maximum machining curvature.
Johnson, Brian. "Surfing the Tide of Change." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 42-47. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Clarke, Cory. "Synthetic Dissemination." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 302-303. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Synthetic Dissemination, within the context of architecture and information culture, offers seemingly contradictory possibilities. The ends of dissemination and synthesis are at odds. The purpose of the former being diffusion and distribution, and the byproduct of the latter being quite the opposite - namely the combination and association of information into a coherent whole. The conjoining of dissemination and synthesis implies these two contradictory operations can operate in a symbiotic or complementary manner.Relative to architecture and design the combination of dissemination and synthesis is potentially profound. The marriage of synthesis and dissemination presents a possibility that the method of distributing information could be, or have embedded within it, a synthetic process. In the simplest sense synthetic dissemination implies that the tools for design and synthesis could be the same as tools for documentation and dissemination, or more specifically that the fluidity and creativity of design software could be coupled with the practicality and meticulousness of building information modelers (BIM). More abstractly synthetic dissemination implies that the means of encoding and distributing information could propagate design. Architects have readily adopted digital tools for encoding and presenting their ideas, but have not fully recognized how the informational structures of these applications promote or hinder design. Developments in the information architecture of  D software, such as the shift from geometrically based data structures to procedurally based directed action graphs (DAG) as seen in Maya and  DMax, have opened up innovative methods of architectural design. Each new change in the information architecture of design software ushers in new approaches to design, raising the question - how does the production and storage of information affect design? More broadly, how can the tools of dissemination facilitate synthesis?
Luhan, Gregory A.. "Synthetic Making." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 64-67. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Various approaches of virtual and physical modelling have led to a synthetic form of making that is plastic and scalable in nature. This shift from traditional forms of representing and generating architecture now offers a better possibility of full-scale construction and fabrication processes and links transparently to industry. Architects are beginning to dynamically inform the visioning processes of assemblies and design through a range of precise subassemblies. Further to this end, the synthetic techniques and materials are opening up avenues for designers to investigate a range of fibers and fabrics that radically transform light and color renditions, and texture. Investigations in the realm of traditional materials such as stone, wood, and concrete continue to evolve, as do their associated methods of making. As a result of synthetic technologies, architects today have the possibility to work along side industry engineers and professionals to design castings, moldings, patterns, and tools that challenge not only the architectural work of art, but industrial and product design as well. This cultural shift from physical space to virtual space back to physical space and the combination of hand-, digital-, and robotic-making offers a unique juxtaposition of the built artifact to its manufacturing that challenges both spatial conventions and also the levels of precision and tolerance by which buildings are assembled. Traditional forms of documentation for example result typically in discrepancies between the drawn and the actualized which are now challenged by the level of precision and tolerance at the virtual level. It is within this context that leading-edge architects and designers operate today. Yet, how the profession and the academy respond to these opportunities remains an open line of inquiry and addressing these concerns opens up the rich potential enabled through synthetic making.
Cabrinha, Mark. "Synthetic Pedagogy." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 148-149. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. As tools, techniques, and technologies expand design practice, there is likewise an innovation in design teaching shifting technology from a means of production and representation to a means of discovery and development. This has  implications on studio culture and design pedagogy. Expanding the skills based notion of digital design from know-how, or know-how-to-do, toward know-for, or knowledge-for-action, forms a synthetic relationship between the skills necessary for action and the developing  motivations of a young designer. This shifts digital design pedagogy to a medium of active inquiry through play and precision. As digital tools and infrastructure are now ubiquitous in most schools, including the increasing digital material exchange enabled through laser cutters, CNC routers, and rapid prototyping, this topic node presents research papers that engage technology not simply as tools to be taught, but as cognitive technologies which motivate and structure a design students knowledge, both tacit and explicit, in developing a digital and material, ecological and social synthetic environment.  Digital fabrication, the Building Information Model, and parametric modelling have currency in architectural education today yet, beyond the instrumentality of teaching the tool, seldom is it questioned what the deeper motivations these technologies suggest.  Each of these tools in their own way form a synthesis between representational artifacts and the technological impact on process weaving a wider web of materials, collaboration among peers and consultants, and engagement of the environment that the products of design are situated in.If it is true that this synthetic environment enabled by tools, techniques, and technologies moves from a representational model to a process model of design, the engagement of these tools in the design process is of critical importance in design education. What is the relationship between representation, simulation, and physical material in a digitally mediated design education? At the core of synthetic pedagogies is an underlying principle to form relationships of teaching architecture through digital tools, rather than simply teaching the tools themselves. What principles are taught through teaching with these tools, and furthermore, what new principles might these tools develop?
Anzalone, Phillip. "Synthetic Research." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 230-231. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. Synthetic Research insinuates a relationship of a meticulous process of discovering truth contradicted against a fabricated, as in concocted, reality.  It is important to recognize the logical aspect of synthetic when examining what synthetic research can provide for architectural discourse.  Synthesis contrasts with analysis in that itis primary methods involve recourse to experience, it is experience that is at the heart of synthetic research.  The synthesis of theory, architectural constructions, technological artifacts and computational techniques requires experiencing the results of experimentation.  Synthetic digital architecture necessitates a discovery process incorporating creation that allows for experience, be it virtual reality, full-scale prototyping or spatial creations, provided experience is a truthful one, and not disingenuous and thereby slipping into the alternate definition of synthetic.Researchis experimental arm, as opposed to the analytic, relies on tinkering - implying the unfinished, the incomplete, the prototype.  Examples of this are everywhere.  Computer screenshots are a strikingly literal example of synthetic research when used as a means of experiencing a process.  Performance mock-ups of building assemblies are a method of synthetic research in that one experiences a set of defined performances in order to discover and redefine the project.  The watchmaker craft is an exercise in research/experimentation where material properties are inherent in function and aesthetics, consider how the components interact with the environment - motion, gravity, space-time, temperature. Efficiency at this point is predominantly structural and physical. Decorative or aesthetic elements are applied or integrated in later iterations along with optimization of performance, marketing and costs.What is a architectural research?  How can research synthesize the wide range of possibilities for the trajectory of architecture when engaged in digital and computational techniques?  The goals, techniques, documentation and other methods of research production have a place in architecture that must be explored, particularly as it related to computation.  As in other fields, we must build a legitimate body of research whereby others can use and expand upon, such that digital architectures evolve in innovative as well as prosperous paths.
Kalay, Yehuda. "The (changing) roles of computing in architectural design and education." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 21-25. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Bell, Brad. "The Aggregate of Continuum." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 440-454. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The Traversable Matrix (Fig. 1.) illustrates the iterative fragments that comprise the continuum of exploration for a digital aesthetic and digital tectonic. These non-hierarchical fragments operate as footholds across a larger tessellated landscape of current digital design explorations. In seeking an organizational strategy, we attempt to move laterally across a variety of examples, texts, and illustrations. Each short excerpt is a partial architecture illustrating deeper issues in the current discussion of digital fabrication. Though counter to conventional academic inquiry, the associative approach can help frame the matrix, the synthetic landscape traversed becomes less linear, less framed but no less interconnected and cohesive. The patterning of complex geometries, the production of ornament, the leveraging of digital fabrication against standard forms of material and construction practices, and the acute emphasis on surface all serve as the aggregate to a broader spectrum of architectural thinking and architectural making.Introduction: The Traversable Matrix 
Lonsway, Brian. "The Argument for the Argument Revisiting the Architecture Machine ." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 356-371. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The argument for the argument, that is, the defense of the computable quantity, has had a profound impact on the contemporary understanding of design practice. In this paper, I explore the history of the architectural-computational “argument” to uncover a generally accepted yet poorly understood collusion between architectural and urban theory, structuralist semantics, and computation. From arguments about the machine to the mechanics of language, and from the language of architecture to the architecture machine, the argument for the argument has radically transformed contemporary design practices, but neither the history nor the theory behind  these developments has been critically examined.  My own argument seeks to build upon this nexus a hypothetical construct - a post-structuralist computer -  as a provocation of sorts: a challenge to contemporary computational work in architecture to critically and philosophically address its current trajectories.
Hasegawa, Toru. "The hexEnvelope system: a cross-platform embedding of material and software logic into descriptive geometry." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 518-529. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This paper follows the technical problematic of the hexEnvelope, a novel system for building complex geometric objects. Operating as a scripted system of parametric operations, and running through multiple 2D, 3D, and fabrication software packages, the hexEnvelope system allows for a highly tectonic assemblage of cellular units. Specific issues addressed within the system include the realization of curved surfaces through flat material, the embedding of fabrication logic and material performance within descriptive geometry, and multiple scales of deployment in terms of their tectonic and material consequence.
Sprecher, A., C. Ahrens, and E. Neuman. "The Hylomorphic Project." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 536-537. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. The Hylomorphic Project is a complex canopy structure, genetically evolved as a vital entity that reacts to changing data streams while configuring the architectural form. For the Hylomorphic Project, Open Source Architecture (OSA) together with structural engineer Prof. Kristina Shea and Marina Gourtovaia of Cambridge University (UK) developed genetic algorithms. Performs in eifForm software, an experimental computer-aided design system for structural synthesis, the algorithm is based in computational environments as a methodology for form finding and material expression that goes beyond the formal articulation of the computational procedure. This procedure simulates a topological condition of natural form evolution that can be consolidated according to innumerable trajectories. Seeking dynamic, flexible and continuous evolution procedures, the software provides the required conditions for this type of the design as it consists of a computational core, which is written in C, a fast low-level compiled language. The modules providing interactive access to the core and the graphical user interface (GUI), a high-level scripting language written in Python, allow for easy customization of the software according to a design task in hand.  
Bonswetch, T., D. Kobel, F. Gramazio, and M. Kohler. "The Informed Wall: applying additive digital fabrication techniques on architecture." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 489-495. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. In this work in progress report we present the results of a four week design studio with graduate students as part of a broader research project on investigating digital additive fabrication processes and their implications on architectural design.In a simple test arrangement we realized the digital design and additive fabrication of two by three meters brick walls. The use of bricks, being the primary module for construction, and at a relatively coarse resolution, allowed us to concentrate on the design of completely programmed walls encompassing material-dependent parameters. The resulting prototypes depict the great potential of the integration of the design and the fabrication process. Non-standardized solutions can be easily accomplished as the design data is directly used to control the fabrication process. In using an additive digital fabrication process, a novel architectural product of the kind “brick walli emerged, which could not have been conceived or fabricated manually.
Garber, R., and N. Robertson. "The Pleated Cape: from the Mass-Standardization of Levittown to Mass Customization Today." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 426-439. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. In the 1950's, the Levitts put mass-production and the reverse assembly line into use in the building of thousands of single-family houses. However, the lack of variation that made their construction process so successful ultimately produced a mundane suburban landscape of sameness. While there were many attempts to differentiate these Levitt Cape Cods, none matched the ingenuity of their original construction process. The notion of mass-customization has been heavily theorized since the 1990is, first appearing in the field of management and ultimately finding its way into the field of architecture. Greg Lynn used mass-customization in his design for the Embryological House in which thousands of unique houses could be generated using biological rules of differentiation (Lynn 1999). Other industries have embraced the premise that computer-numerically-controlled technologies allow for the production of variation, though it has not been thoroughly studied in architecture. While digital fabrication has been integral in the realization of several high-profile projects, the notion of large-scale mass-customization in the spec-housing market has yet to become a reality. Through the execution of an addition to a Cape Cod-style house, we examine the intersection between prefabricated standardized panels and digital fabrication to produce a mass-customized approach to housing design. Through illustrations and a detailed description of our design process, we will show how digital fabrication technologies allow for customization of mass produced products.
Maher, A., and Jane Burry. "The Re-Engineering Project Developing Pedagogical Frameworks for Early Stage Collaborative Design between Engineers and Architects." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 200-212. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. We describe a research-based design studio entitled Reengineering, brought together by two research groups with the aim of further understanding factors that promote conceptual design for interdisciplinary work between architects and engineers. The aim, through a sequence of semi-structured projects, was to reflect upon the studentsi attempts both at a co-rational (Fischer 2006) approach to design and at the culmination of each stage to return to the beginning albeit with a more sophisticated understanding of the work. Through this process we found that a close-coupled design process was achieved between these disciplines at a conceptual level but when the participants developed a shared understanding supported by a project language and when each eschewed their discipline specific tools a co-rational approach was obtained. 
Goldman, Glenn. "The Search." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 32-36. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Taylor, Justin. "The Value of Arrhythmic Sounds in Isolated Space." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 403-409. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This study examines the impact of bringing sound uninterrupted from outside a building into isolated spaces within the building. Is a silent space less or more productive than a space that is filled with normal outside sounds?  Can bringing sound in from the outside, thereby allowing the users an uninterrupted connection to the outside without being in physical proximity of the exterior, make a difference in the work they do? Using music in these spaces has become commonplace.  However, this research chooses to address sounds that do not mask the arrhythmic sounds of the world. These random sounds might break a personis concentration, just as a bird flying by a window breaks oneis concentration. Even though these sounds of nature, vehicles, and people interrupt, do they give a greater sense of place than ambient music? Do these breaks in concentration help keep an individual oriented and aware of time while increasing both comfort and connection to the work being done? To test this thesis, students working in an isolated studio/classroom space will be subjected to the same sounds students in rooms near the outside would hear.  Sounds will be provided by a direct audio link with the outside of the building.  Student reaction will be evaluated by a series of observations and surveys that will focus on any differences in the amount of time spent on task, the sense of productivity experienced, the overall sense of functioning at a higher level and the interaction of student and professor.
Talbott, K., and D. Hesketh. "Wax, Plywood, Parametric Surface: Small Box Retail Renovation." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 553. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This plywood cladding project explores the tension between material fabrication and parametric control. Student Dan Hesketh performed experiments to discover latent properties of plywood, which were then used to drive the design. The introduction of parametric modelling complicated the effort, however, raising issues of Digital Exchange. On one hand, parametric control empowered the student to explore a wider range of geometries. On the other hand, by doing so, awareness of materiality was curtailed.
Lindquist, Mark. "Web Based Collaboration (for Free) Using Wikis in Design Studios." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 190-199. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. This paper presents a case study of the use of Wikis by students in a landscape architecture design studio to evaluate the suitability of Wikis for enhancing student collaboration in the site analysis and preliminary design stage of a project. It was anticipated that using Wikis to facilitate collaboration would provide alternatives to conventional peer to peer collaboration. In addition, Wikis could enhance feedback between the course coordinator and students. The Wiki was used to collect, compile and present data for the purpose of a precedent study of cultural and physical analysis of a site in New Zealand, for which the technology proved successful. The Wiki was less successful in contributing to the collaborative preliminary design of the project. The following discussion and presentation will include the evaluation of online Wiki services, the process used in the design studio, strengths and weaknesses observed, and opportunities for future research. 
Jabi, Wassim. "Were they right?" In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 59-61. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
Kolarevic, Branko. "What is ACADIA S Future?" In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 37-39. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. White Paper - Reflecting on 25 years of ACADIA
He, Weiling. "“Flatness” through Camera the Implications of Camera Movement in the Digital Reconstruction of Diamond Museum." In Synthetic Landscapes: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 270-277. ACADIA. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2006. In architectural design, explorations using digital modelling and rendering tools do not stop at producing 3D geometries and representations. We need to interrogate the spatial implications of the functions these tools provide. One of the questions we need to ask is, is it possible to foreground architectural concepts “within” the mechanisms of these tools? This study focuses on one single function in 3D VIZ camera movement. The objective is to examine the spatial implications of this function in the computerized architectural space of Diamond Museum. Camera movement is studied in six variables: distance, point of view, camera angle, framing, duration and travel speed and sequencing. Further, the architectural concept of flatness will be understood through the movies generated within the space of Diamond Museum.