Keywords Abstract
Barker, Daniel, and Andy Dong. "A Representation Language for a Prototype CAD Tool for Intelligent Rooms." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 170-183. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. Intelligent rooms are a type of intelligent environment which enhance ordinary activities within the confines of a room by responding to human interaction using pervasive and ubiquitous computing. In the design of intelligent rooms, the specification of how the intelligent room enacts intelligent behaviour through computational means is as integral as the geometric description. The self-aware and context-aware capabilities of intelligent rooms extend the requirements for computer-aided design tools beyond 3D modelling of objects. This article presents a Hardware as Agents Description Language for Intelligent Rooms (HADLIR) to model hardware in an intelligent room as “hardware agents” having sensor and/or effector modalities with rules and goals. End-users describe intelligent room hardware as agents based on the HADLIR representation and write agent rules and goals in Jess for each hardware component. This HADLIR agent description and the requisite software sensors/effectors constitute “hardware agentsi which are instantiated into a multi-agent society software environment. The society is then bridged to either a virtual environment to prototype the intelligent room or to microelectronic controllers to implement a physical intelligent room. The integration illustrates how the HADLIR representation assists in the design, simulation and implementation of an intelligent room and provides a foundation technology for CAD tools for the creation of intelligent rooms.
Sanchez-Del-Valle, Carmina. "Adaptive Kinetic Architecture: a Portal to Digital Prototyping ." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 128-140. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. This paper presents a definition for adaptive kinetic structures in architecture, generated from an examination of research in engineering and architecture. This characterization introduces the challenges presented both by modelling form and environment, and simulating their interaction. Adaptive kinetic structures react to a changing environment, as well as generate their own. These conditions make them appropriate subjects through which the design and implementation of tools for “digital prototyping” may be explored. Digital prototyping serves performance and simulation-based design. In general terms, it is an interdisciplinary integrated approach for modelling, predicting, and analyzing the behaviour of a system. It is at the core of virtual engineering. In the aerospace, automobile, and manufacturing industries, it is practiced extensively through discrete-event and continuous simulations, as well as simulation environments. This paper provides an overview of digital prototyping commercial software for engineering applications that can be transferred to architecture, and identifies some of the unresolved issues. It thereby extends the vision of the comprehensive building information modelling initiative.
Anders, Peter, and Werner Lonsing. "AmbiViewer: a Tool for Creating Architectural Mixed Reality." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 104-113. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. This paper presents a new mixed reality system for architecture, AmbiViewer.  The system employs digital video, onboard modeler and global positioning to merge physical and simulated entities on the screen.  The system can be used to model projects on-site, and in view of the project environs.  The paper also discusses the use of AmbiViewer in creating cybrids, compositions of virtual and material reality.  The paper concludes with a description of a small project undertaken with AmbiViewer and its implications for cybrid architecture.
Tsou, Jin-Yeu, Chan Lee, Mak Pui, Ru Du, Liang Jian, and Yeung Kim. "Applying Scientific Simulation to Integrate Thermoelectric Conductor Module into Architectural Design - Smart Wall for Thermal Comfort." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 200-210. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. This paper presents the innovative architectural design concept, which is to integrate the new material and technology into the building design to achieve the thermal comfort and at the same time reduce the energy consumption of the building by making use of the renewable energy, including solar and wind energy. The system is developed based on the idea of regional thermal comfort in building. The advantage of the system is the environmental friendly approach, costless operation, reliability, flexibility, scalability and adaptability for the integration to the building design. With the design concept, we tried to do two application designs in two virtual sites. One is a badminton court for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and the other is a cooling pond in a shopping mall. We will introduce how computational simulation can contribute to the prediction of the performance of the design. We will also discuss how the computation simulation can help in the design optimization process. Through the development of the new design integration of the material to the building, we would like to feedback to the material industry to encourage further collaboration and development in the material enhancement, so that both industries and the society can benefit from the advancement.
Senagala, Mahesh. "Building is a Network for Living in: Toward New Architectures." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 36-47. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. Our societies today are beginning to think, communicate, interact and live differently as everything in the human world is beginning to be networked wirelessly at the speed of light with everything else in the world (including architecture). This article looks at the big picture and outlines a series of recent developments in digital technologies that would enable architecture to become sensate, supple and globally networked at the speed of light. New thinking, new commerce, new polity, and new architectures are emerging out of the apparently disparate yet closely related design and technological inventions. We are on the verge of moving from the outmoded notions of space and time to the post-spatial notion of sensate and supple space-time.
Lee, Jaewook, and Yehuda Kalay. "Collaborative Design Approach to Intelligent Environments." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 142-155. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. Intelligent environments are buildings and other settings that can recognize the changing needs of their users and/or the changing nature of their context, and respond to them by adjusting some key environmental parameters (temperature, light, sound, furnishings, etc.). Unlike the currently common approach, which is based on systems theory (i.e., adjusting the parameters of the environment to match some pre-defined use profile), the approach proposed in this paper is based on dynamic, collaborative design: it views the (built) environment as comprised of multiple independent object-agents, each of which is responsible for one small aspect of the environment. Each can sense the immediate changes pertaining to its domain of responsibility, and propose corrective measures, which are negotiated with other agents to form a collective response. The paper hypothesizes that such an approach can be made more context-sensitive and dynamic, is easily scaleable, and can respond to the needs of multiple different users of the environment at the same time. The paper presents the rationale for developing the multi-agent approach, its hypothetical implementation, and its application to hypothetical case studies.
Modeen, Th, C. Pasquire, and R. Soar. "Design Ground - an Iconic Tactile Surface ." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 192-199. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. This paper forms an intermediary summary of a project which aim is to suggest an alternate methodology for utilizing additive Rapid Manufacturing (an evolved rendition of Rapid Prototyping), for the conceptualization and fabrication of design and architecture. It plans to do so by establishing a methodology that is innate and a direct reflection of the additive RM production process. The project also aims to address the seemingly divisive discrepancy between the process of digitally conceiving a design and the intrinsically somatic way we perceive it. Such aims are explored through a surface design that is not predominantly guided by visually derived nodes but instead relies on a form of “tactile iconography” as a means for expressing and amplifying various qualities and elements found in its vernacular. The resulting design would be very difficult, if not impossible, to make by any other means. 
Biloria, Nimish, K. Oosterhuis, and Cas Aalbers. "Design Informatics." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 226-235. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. The research paper exemplifies a novel information integrated design technique developed at ONL (Oosterhuis and Lenard), Netherlands, specifically appropriated for envisaging complex geometric forms. The “informed design technique”, apart from being highly instrumental in conceptualizing and generating the geometric component constituting architectural form in a parametric manner, is also efficiently utilized for precise computer aided manufacturing and construction of the speculated form. Geometric complexities inherent in contemporary architectural constructs and the time spent in appropriation of such topologies, fueled the “informed design” approach, which caters to issues of timely construction, precision oriented design and production (visual and material) and parametric modelling attuned to budgetary fluctuations. This design-research approach has been tested and deployed by ONL, for conceiving “the Acoustic Barrieri project, Utrecht Leidsche Rijn in the Netherlands and is treated as a generic case for exemplifying the “informed design” technique in this research paper. The design methodology encourages visualizing architectural substantiations from a systems perspective and envisages upon a rule based adaptive systems approach involving extrapolation of contextual dynamics/ground data in terms of logical “rules”. These rules/conditionalities form the basis for spawning parametric logistics to be mapped upon geometric counterparts exemplifying the conception.  The simulated parametric relations bind dimensional aspects (length, width, height etc.) of the geometric construct in a relational manner, eventually culminating in a 3D spatial envelope. This evolved envelope is subsequently intersected with a “parametric spatio-constructive gridi, creating specific intersecting points between the two. The hence extorted “point cloudi configuration serves as a generic information field concerning highly specific coordinates, parameters and values for each individual point/constructive node it embodies. The relations between these points are directly linked with precise displacements of structural profiles and related scaling factors of cladding materials. Parallel to this object oriented modelling approach, a detailed database (soft/information component) is also maintained to administer the relations between the obtained points. To be able to derive constructible structural and cladding components from the point cloud configuration customized Scripts (combination of Lisp and Max scripts) process the point cloud database. The programmed script-routines, iteratively run calculations to generate steel-wireframes, steel lattice-structure and cladding panels along with their dimensions and execution drawing data. Optimization-routines are also programmed to make rectifications and small adjustments in the calculated data. This precise information is further communicated with CNC milling machines to manifest complex sectional profiles formulating the construct hence enabling timely and effective construction of the conceptualized form.
Silver, Michael. "Discrete Space: Automason Ver. 1.0." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 68-77. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. This paper will demonstrate the power of digital technology by encouraging architects to become more involved in the creation of small scale, ad-hoc and task specific software tools. Rather than appropriating code originally designed to solve the visualization problems faced in other fields, designers should instead develop their own programming culture. Through the acquisition of new skills and better collaborative exchanges architects can advance the unpredictable desires of the poetic imagination while addressing the practical challenges faced by craftsmen, engineers and project managers.  
Cabrinha, Mark. "From Bézier to NURBS: Integrating Material and Digital Techniques through a Plywood Shell." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 156-169. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. The development of digital fabrication has reintroduced material processes with digital processes. There has been much discussion about the tool and the objects of the tool, but little discussion of the implication of the material process on the digital process. A brief historical review on the development of computer numerical control and the origins of the Büzier curve reveals an instrumental fact:  computer numerical controlled tools necessitated advancements in computational surfaces which eventually led to NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) surfaces.  In other words, the origins of NURBS surfaces resides in its relation to material processes, rather than many current approaches that develop free form surfaces and then force the tool onto the material without regard to the material properties.  From this historical and mathematical review, this project develops toward more intelligent construction methods based on the integration of NURBS differential geometry paired with material qualities and processes. Specifically, a digital technique of developing conceptual NURBS geometry into piecewise surface patches are then flattened based on the material thickness and density. From these flattened patches, a material technique is developed to intelligently remove material to allow the rigid flat material to re-develop into physical surface patches. The goal of this research is to develop digital and material techniques toward intelligent construction based on the correspondence between digitally driven surface and digitally driven material processes. The application of this technique as a rational and flexible system is to support the dynamic response of form and material toward such performative aspects as structure, daylight, ventilation, and thermal properties.
Clayton, Mark. "How I Stopped Worrying and Learned to Love AutoCAD." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 94-103. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. The history of computing is expressed through AutoCAD as an accretion of ideas and inventions, each of which was a breakthrough in its time.  Learning to use AutoCAD, or any CAD system, is augmented by an understanding of the historical context of its development.  In contrast to a “deconstructivist” criticism of AutoCAD that avoids all historical context, this paper discusses the user interface of AutoCAD placed in its historical context by combining facts of history with personal reminiscences.  The paper answers mysteries about AutoCAD such as “Why a black screen?” understanding, mastering, and improving software.
Sheil, Bob, and Chris Leung. "Kielder Probes - bespoke tools for an indeterminate design process." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 254-259. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. Sixteen (makers) are a group of practicing architects, academics, designers and makers who assemble when key questions surrounding design, fabrication, use and adaptability in architecture emerge. Initially, the group was formed out of a motivation to engage as designers with the physical and tactile aspects of production without a dependency upon drawing. Now, in the post digital age, the age of digital fabrication, boundaries between drawing and making, between the designer and the maker, have dissolved.  Consequently sixteen*(makers) work is now engaged with questions of knowledge transfer, expertise, and innovation where modes of investigation are equally embedded within in the analogue and the digital world. This article relates to our latest ongoing work which is due for completion in 2005/06. The work has been developed as a specific response to the award of an architectural residency by the Art and Architecture Partnership at Kielder Park, Northumbria, England. From the outset, it has not been a requirement of the residency that an outcome is identified early on. In fact, as I write, the outcome remains open. Presented with an extraordinary site and coinciding with a time of rapid change the work has begun by exploring a design process that is adaptable, indeterminate, and informed by site conditions. In October 2003, sixteen*(makers) were awarded an architecture residency by The Art and Architecture Programme at Kielder (AAPK) of Northumbria, UK. This organization is well known for commissioning works such as the “Belvederei by Softroom and the “Skyspace” by James Turrell. Coordinated by Peter Sharp, AAPK consists of a number of large public bodies, including The Forestry Commission, Northumbrian Water and Tyndale District Council. Together they manage a land area of 62,000 hais centred on the UKis largest reservoir and surrounded on all sides by one of Europeis largest managed forests.
Luhan, Gregory A.. "Modern Translations, Contemporary Methods: DL-1_Resonance House®." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 212-225. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. As the first design-build-fabricate-assemble experiment at our school, the intent of the studio was to design a framework from which to examine a “lived space” through digital-to-digital processes. Moving from digital models and physical stereo lithographic models to hand-fabrication and digital assembly allowed the students to move from creation to completion. As part of our holistic design process, the studio fabricated almost all components for the project. These elements include the wood flooring, the copper and wood skins, the buildingis structural panels, and the two-story light vortex. This single-family, in-fill house is located within an historic downtown neighborhood and is subject to historic district zoning regulations, design guidelines, and Board of Architecture Review approvals. The project is analogous to design challenges presenting themselves in historic districts throughout the United States including the Savannah, Georgia site for the 2005 ACADIA Conference. The scale of the project relates well to the horizontal nature of this context and after a formal, televised review process with the local Board of Architecture Review, the project represents a dynamic, yet sympathetic architectural dialogue with the surrounding buildings. The project develops simultaneously from the exterior and interior resulting in two courtyards that mediate the urban “front doori and the private “terrace.” The students designed these areas through a series of two-dimensional axonometric drawings, three-dimensional physical and digital models, and four-dimensional time-based animations. The building massing separates into two core elements: gabled copper volume and wood screen volume. These elements maintain their conceptual purity by using the same types of modulations on their skins. The copper form with its deep-cut reveals and proportionally placed light scoring patterns reflects the horizontal datum lines of the floor, sill, threshold, and ceiling. In contrast, the wood volume reflects these same lines as applied “shadow screens” which create depths that seamlessly tie together the side, rear, and front facades.The hinge point of the house is the light vortex. Designed in Rhino, translated in Catia, fabricated out of aluminum, and clad in stainless steel, this two-story sculptural element will literally wrap light around its surfaces. Like a sunflower, the light vortex, with its angel hair stainless steel finish, responds to the incremental differentiation of light throughout the day. Photosensitive floor-mounted lights designed to augment the volume of natural light will provide a continuous light rendition on the sculpture. The project, scheduled for completion at the end of the 2005 summer session, is at the time of this submission about 60% complete.
Schmidt, Anne. "Navigating towards digital tectonic tools ." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 114-127. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. The computer holds a great potential to break down the barriers between architecture and the technical aspects relating to architecture, thus supporting innovative architecture with an inner correspondence between form and technique. While the differing values in architecture and technique can seem like opposites, the term tectonics deals with creating a meaningful relationship between the two.  The aim of this paper is to investigate what a digital tectonic tool could be and what relationship with technology it should represent. An understanding of this relationship can help us not only to understand the conflicts in architecture and the building industry but also bring us further into a discussion of how architecture can use digital tools.  The investigation is carried out firstly by approaching the subject theoretically through the term tectonics and by setting up a model of the values a tectonic tool should encompass. Secondly the ability and validity of the model are shown by applying it to a case study of Jiørn Utzonis work on Minor Hall in Sydney Opera House - for the sake of exemplification the technical field focused on in this paper is room acoustics. Thirdly the relationship between the model of tectonics and the case will be compared and lastly a discussion about the characteristics of a tectonic tool and its implications on digital tectonic tools will be carried out.  
Katodrytis, George. "Poiesis and Autopoiesis in Architecture." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 48-57. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. The use of digital technology in architecture has proven to be more assertive than originally thought: it has reconditioned the nature of the design process, and established new practices and techniques of fabrication. The 21st century began with the technology of art. There is a new responsiveness to the reading and understanding of digital space, which is characterized by complexity and the uncanny. Recent applications in digital technology show inquisitiveness in the contentious subject Genetic Algorithms. This new architectural process is characterized by two main shifts: from poiesis (or poetry) to autopoiesis, and from authenticity to mimesis. Since evolutionary simulations give rise to new forms rather than design them, architects should now be artists and operators of both Inventive and Systematic design. Inventive design: The digital media should bring about poiesis (poetry). Digital spaces reveal and visualize the unconscious desires of urban spaces and bring forth new dreamscapes, mysterious and surreal. This implies a Freudian spatial unconscious, which can be subjected to analysis and interpretation. “Space may be the projection or the extension of the physical apparatus”,  Freud noted1. Space is never universal, but subjective. A space would be a result of introjection or projection - which is to say, a product of the thinking and sensing subject as opposed to the universal and stable entity envisaged since the Enlighten. There is a spatial unconscious, susceptible to analysis and interpretation. Systematic Design: Digital media should bring about an autopoiesis. This approach calls into question traditional methods of architectural design - which replace the hierarchical processes of production known as “cause and effect” - and proposes a design process where the architect becomes a constructor of formal systems. Will the evolutionary simulation replace design? Is metric space dead? Is it replaced by the new definition of space, that of topology? The new algorithmic evolutionary conditions give architecture an autopoiesis, similar to biological dynamics. The use of algorithms in design and fabrication has shifted the role of the architect from design to programming. Parametric design has introduced another dimension: that of variation and topological evolution, breaking the authentic into the reused. Architecture now is about topology than typology, variation than authenticity, it is mimetic than original, uncanny and subconscious than merely generic. In a parallel universe, which is both algorithmic and metaphysical, the modelling machine creates a new abstraction, the morphogenesis of the “new hybrid conditioni. The emphasis of the exploration is on morphological complexity. Architecture may become - paradoxically - rigorous yet more uncanny and introverted.
Anshuman, Sachin. "Responsiveness and Social Expression, Seeking Human Embodiment in Intelligent Façades." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 23-Dec. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. This paper is based on a comparative analysis of some twenty-six intelligent building facades and sixteen large media-facades from a socio-psychological perspective. It is not difficult to observe how deployment of computational technologies have engendered new possibilities for architectural production to which surface-centeredness lies at that heart of spatial production during design, fabrication and envelope automation processes. While surfaces play a critical role in contemporary social production (information display, communication and interaction), it is important to understand how the relationships between augmented building surfaces and its subjects unfold. We target double-skin automated facades as a distinct field within building-services and automation industry, and discuss how the developments within this area are over-occupied with seamless climate control and energy efficiency themes, resulting into socially inert mechanical membranes. Our thesis is that at the core of the development of automated façade lies the industrial automation attitude that renders the eventual product socially less engaging and machinic. We illustrate examples of interactive media-façades to demonstrate how architects and interaction designers have used similar technology to turn building surfaces into socially engaging architectural elements. We seek opportunities to extend performative aspects of otherwise function driven double-skin façades for public expression, informal social engagement and context embodiment. Towards the end of the paper, we propose a conceptual model as a possible method to address the emergent issues. Through this paper we intend to bring forth emergent concerns to designing building membrane where technology and performance are addressed through a broader cultural position, establishing a continual dialogue between the surface, function and its larger human context.
Brandt, Jordan. "Skin that Fits: Designing and constructing cladding systems with as-built structural data." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 236-245. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. An awkward interface exists between the structure and skin of complex architecture. The primary structure is typically allowed much higher tolerance ranges than that of the cladding industry, due primarily to the delicate nature of the building envelope which, above all, must prevent water penetration and meet the aesthetic requirements of the architect and client. As architecture has integrated advanced design and fabrication techniques to realize increasingly complex shapes, this problem has been aggravated because of the tangency requirements for high gloss curved finish surfaces and the larger variations found with rolled steel columns and undulating concrete forms. To date, most innovations in this area have been focused upon mechanical connections that can be adjusted and shimmed, thus requiring increased design engineering and on-site labor costs for effective implementation. It would be preferable to manufacture cladding components that are properly adjusted to the actual site conditions, negating the need to predict and accommodate potential dimensional variation with complex connections. The research provides a model for implementing long distance laser scanning technology to facilitate a real-time parametric BIM, herein called an Isomodel.  
Daveiga, José, and Paulo Ferreira. "Smart and Nano Materials in Architecture." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 58-67. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. We describe and analyze the fields of Smart and Nano Materials and their potential impact on architectural design and building fabrication. Distinguishing Smart and Nano materials, Smart Materials perform both sensing and actuating operations, whereas many Nano materials are capable of self-assembly. In general, Smart and Nano materials can perform like living systems, simulating human skin, the bodyis muscles, a leafis chlorophyll and self-regeneration. Recognizing that the traditional partition between Materials Science and Architecture is obsolete, our intent is to show how these two fields are intrinsically connected, while growing evermore symbiotic as we progress into the futureKeeping the designer in mind, our paper begins with the question: “What Nano and Smart materials can be used in future architectural designs?” Outlining what such materials might mean for architectural fabrication and design, we claim that Smart and Nano Materials can imitate living organisms. Effective implementation of these materials will therefore allow designed spaces to operate as active organs within a larger dynamic organism, synthesizing both expressive intent and pragmatic considerations. This paper is a collaboration between an architect and a materials scientist on the future of materials and their influence in architecture. By giving examples of work already underway we intend to illustrate and suggest directions ranging from the functional to the expressive, from tectonics to morphology. We conclude with a reflection on the importance of future research between our two areas of knowledge.  
Mathew, Anijo. "Smart Homes for the Rural Population: New Challenges and Opportunities." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 24-35. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. “Smart” Homes (domestic environments in which we are surrounded by interconnected technologies that are more or less responsive to our presence and actions) seem increasingly plausible  with the emergence of powerful mobile computing devices and real time context aware computing (Edwards and Grinter, 2001). Research at premier technology universities have given birth to home “labs” that experiment with sensors, cameras and monitors to study physical, behavioural and social consequences of such technologies on occupants of such homes. One of the most important problems that “smart” homes will eventually help to address is that of spiraling costs of healthcare. Using ubiquitous technologies to motivate healthy decisions can help prevent the onset of myriad medical problems  (Intille, 2004). Moving the focus of attention from the health centers and hospitals to the working home through such technology interventions would eventually lead to decreased financial pressure on the traditional healthcare system. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in the design of “smart” technologies for preventive healthcare in rural homes. It summarizes findings from current ethnographic and demographic studies, and examines other contemporary research in the field of ubiquitous computing and “smart” homes. With the help of these studies, the paper lists different technical, social and functional challenges that we as designers may have to consider before designing “smart” homes for rural populations. 
Fox, Michael, and Catherine Hu. "Starting from the Micro: a Pedagogical Approach to Designing Interactive Architecture." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 78-93. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. The paper outlines a pedagogical approach whereby a number of technology-intensive skills can be quickly learned to a level of useful practicality through a series of discrete, yet cumulative explorations with the design goal of creating intelligently responsive architectural systems. The culmination of such explorations in creating full-scale interactive architectural environments leads to a relatively unexplored area of negotiation whereby individual systems must necessarily manage environmental input to mediate a behavioural output. The emerging area of interactive architecture serves as a practical means for inventing entirely new ways of developing spaces, and the designing and building environments that address dynamic, flexible and constantly changing needs. Interactive architecture is defined here as spaces and objects that can physically re-configure themselves to meet changing needs. The central issues explored are human and environmental interaction and behaviours, embedded computational infrastructures, kinetic and mechanical systems and physical control mechanisms. Being both multidisciplinary and technology-intensive in nature, architects need to be equipped with at least a base foundational knowledge in a number of domains in order to be able to develop the skills necessary to explore, conceive, and design such systems. The teaching methods were carried out with a group of undergraduate design students who had no previous experience in mechanical engineering, electronics, programming, or kinetic design with the goal of creating a responsive kinetic system that can demonstrate physical interactive behaviours on an applicable architectural scale.  We found the approach to be extremely successful in terms of psychologically demystifying unfamiliar and often daunting technologies, while simultaneously clarifying the larger architectural implications of the novel systems that had been created. The authors summarize the processes and tools that architects and designers can utilize in creating and demonstrating of such systems and the implications of adopting a more active role in directing the development of this new area of design.
Fineout, Matthew. "The Tower of Babel: Bridging Diverse Languages with Information Technologies." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 184-191. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. New digital tools or information technologies are providing the means for architects to realize unprecedented architectural creations. Unfortunately, the promise these technologies hold is far from their potential expression in the built physical environment. A contributing cause to this disjunctive state is the multiplicity of languages and knowledge sets employed by the various team members or actors engaged in a building project. From the cost models of the owners to the shop drawings of the fabricators, each actor views the project in terms specific to their individual discipline. In order to successfully engage the building process, these new technologies must account for this condition and develop means in which to span across traditional boundaries. This paper will examine the disjointed and fractured nature of the building project and identify opportunities for the deployment of information technologies to bridge boundaries, ultimately providing for and delivering architectural projects of unparalleled precedence. Specific aspects inherent to these technologies will be examined to understand where their application may benefit the building process. The key attributes this paper will focus on include: visualization tools, centralized database, cross discipline platform tools and novel forms of information representation.  A case study of an architectural project will serve as the means in which to study the successful implementation of these attributes and their resulting impact on the design process and building project. This study will demonstrate how information technologies can be implemented within the multifaceted framework of conventional building projects to yield a project of unprecedented form.
Wierzbicki-Neagu, Madalina. "Unfolding Architecture - Study, Development and Application of New Kinetic Structure Topologies." In Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies: Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 246-253. ACADIA. Savannah, Georgia: Savannah School of Architecture and Design (SCAD), 2005. Advances in design tools and material engineering open new possibilities for architectural structures that may respond better to the demands of the increasing density of development, better space management and lesser environmental impact. Folding structures that provide adjustable on demand configurations can be effectively conceptualized if appropriate interdisciplinary expertise is brought together. Kinematic chain geometries borrowed from traditional mechanics can be developed into a variety of topologies suitable for architectural structures. Rectilinear deformable grids can provide the functionality of expanding and collapsing as well as the ability to be infinitely arrayed. Converging grids allow for circular arrays and fan like folding. The challenge is to translate a two-dimensional chain concept into a three-dimensional array of interleaved frames that form a stable structure and can bear the necessary loads. In order to complement the folding structure with the corresponding foldable shell, the algebra of rigid folds can be adapted to develop viable geometrical concepts. The demands of the design process needed to develop kinetic structures will expand the traditional architectural workflow to include parametric modelling tools that are common in mechanical engineering. Folding architectural structures require, besides traditional architectural layout development, parametric assembly capabilities and motion analysis typical for mechanical design. Potential application development, marketing, building code changes and effective multidisciplinary collaboration must take place for kinetic structures to enter the architectural mainstream.