Keywords Abstract
Liapi, Katherine A.. "A computer Based System for the Design and Fabrication of Tensegrity Structures." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 100-109. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. Tensegrity structures are composed of tension compression components, where the compression components (bars) are discontinuously enclosed within continuous tensile components (cables). From an engineering point of view, a tensegrity structure is characterized by geometric non-linearity and large displacements under loading. Therefore, its prestressed shape and deformation under loading are the result of the combined effect of the geometric parameters that determine the initial configuration of the structure, the level of prestress applied to cables, and the material properties of the component members of the structure. A method for generating the initial geometric configuration of tensegrity structures composed of ten segrity units and a parametric expression of this geometry have already been developed. A novel technology that makes possible the construction of tensegrity structures from the on-site assembly of deployable tensegrity units, which are furnished with a simple mechanism that permits bar-elongation, and, as a result, an increase of the prestress applied to the cables of each unit, is also under development. Also under development is a static analysis method that takes into account the above method for prestressing cables. This paper discusses the features of a system that supports the combined geometric and structural design of tensegrity structures, and integrates a graphical interface to display: a) models of initial geometry, b) geometry of the structure after prestress and loading are applied, and c) magnitude of forces applied to the structureis component members (bars and cables). The system also provides numerical data to be used in component fabrication, and is therefore expected to become a very valuable tool for the design and construction of tensegrity structures.
Harrop, Patrick. "Agents of risk: Embedding resistance in architectural production." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 66-75. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. In its most common usage, the term fabrication calls to mind industry and production. For architecture, fabrication and industry have been defining aspects of modern practice. While dependant on the dimensional and temporal standards of industry, modernists were preoccupied with the limitations imposed by the generic restrictions of mass production. When we make, instead of predetermining action, we discover a map of engagement. We play by challenging and resisting material. It in turn, reveals an intentional resistance that provokes yet another challenge, and on and on and on. In fact, craft excels in the less-than-ideal situations. When challenged by aberrant materials, geometry and craft are forced into innovative discovery: a knot of reaction wood within an otherwise homogeneous surface would force a novel adaptation of geometry generated by the imperfection. How, then, do we integrate the indeterminate cycle of craft and invention into a design process transformed by tools entirely reliant on prediction and the (virtual and real) homogeneity of materials? Is it reasonable to introduce an element of risk into the realm of digital fabrication equivalent to the auto-generative sabotage of Signwaveis Auto Illustrator? This paper reflects on the nature of material craft in the realm of digital fabrication. It will look both at the history and the contemporary opportunity of generative art and automata and their subversive (yet essential) relationship to the making of architecture.
Surjan, Terry. "Appealing to the Masses, or Serious Play with Blocks." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 138-149. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. With a certain budget and limited access to a Computer-Numerically-Controlled mill, fourth year architecture students were charged with the problem of designing a full-scale architectural space that could be assembled and re-assembled in various contexts and configurations. As the constraints for the design studio, an economy of capital ($150 per student) and an economy of means were devel• ¬oped to create and produce over 600 units of a flexible architectural component, and many variations, into a building system that could be assembled to create multiple formal and spatial configurations pushing the concept of Mass-Customization towards MASS-Appeal. After choosing a unit-multiple method as the most practical parti for designing a space which can be disassembled and reassembled in multiple configurations and contexts, the students developed the economy of their block unit based on a maximization of blocks per sheet of 4'x 4'Medium Density Fiberboard. 4'x 4'was the maximum size that could be cut on the CNC mill at the school of architecture. The cut sheet was developed such that less than 3% of the board would go to waste. The exploration of assembly with these components produced multiple block types and multiple connection types that gave flexibility to the designed system. 
Anders, Peter. "Arch-OS: an Implementation of Cybrid Strategies." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 282-293. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. A review of the literature on Intelligent Buildings suggests an ideal of a building as an autonomous system that controls its internal and external environments. The model, whose origin lies with early models of artificial intelligence, effectively treats the building as a slave to human needs, and appears to invest more intelligence in the building than in its occupants. This paper proposes that automated environments be understood as extensions of human sense and awareness. It describes an operating system, Arch-OS, that exemplifies this approach by increasing building occupantsi consciousness of their environment.
Kelmans, Marsha. "Bahá í Temple temple of ligh." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 34-39. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. The winning entry by Torontois Hariri Pontarini Architects (HPA) for the design of the BaháiTemple for South America in Santiago, Chile has not gone unnoticed by the architectural community and media. Sumptuous images of the “Temple of Lighti described by Gary Michael Dault as “a soap bubble that has alighted, momentarily, on the groundi reveal a dramatic departure from the firmis portfolio. HPA is responsible for McKinsey & Co. in Toronto and the Schulich School of Business at York University (with RYWA in joint venture). Their work is characterized by close attention to proportion and composition through the meeting of materials. Using conventional methods of construction, the firm is capable of producing a high level of detail refinement.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Designing and Manufacturing in the Digital Age." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. The paper discusses the newfound capacity to digitally design and manufacture materials, their properties and effects. It surveys recent experimental efforts in material production and presents student projects aimed at designing and manufacturing surface effects using increasingly accessible digital fabrication technologies.
Bechthold, Martin. "Digital Design and Fabrication of Surface Structures." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 88-99. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. This paper presents a study in digital design and manufacturing of shells, which are material-efficient systems that generate their load-bearing capacity through curvature. Their complex shapes are challenging to build, and the few current shell projects employ the same shape repetitively in order to reduce the cost of concrete formwork. Can digital design and manufacturing technology make these systems suitable for the needs of the 21st century? The research developed new digitally-driven fabrication processes for Wood-Foam Sandwich Shells and Ferrocement-Concrete Sandwich Shells. These are partially pre-fabricated in order to allow for the application of Computer-Numerically Controlled (CNC) technology. Sandwich systems offer advantages for the digitally-enabled construction of shells, while at the same time improving their structural and thermal performance. The research defines design and manufacturing processes that reduce the need for repetition in order to save costs. Wood-Foam Sandwich shells are made by laminating wood-strips over a CNC-milled foam mold that eventually becomes the structural sandwich core. For Ferrocement-Concrete sandwich shells, a two-stage process is presented: pre-fabricated ferrocement panels become the permanent formwork for a cast-in-place concrete shell. The design and engineering process is facilitated through the use of parametric solid modelling environments. Modelling macros and integrated Finite-Element Analysis tools streamline the design process. Accuracy in fabrication is maintained by using CNC techniques for the majority of the shaping processes. The digital design and manufacturing parameters for each process are verified through design and fabrication studies that include prototypes, mockups and physical scale models. 
Bell, Bradley. "Digital Tectonics: Structural Patterning of Surface Morphology." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, ,186-201. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. The computer in architectural design has shifted from its role as a merely representational device to that of a tool for instrumentalized simulation and fabrication. The desire to make buildings look like a rendering, or to produce photo-realistic images and walkthroughs has given way to an opening of the potentials of software to assist the designer with managing complex geometries, parametric organizational diagrams, structural analysis, and integrated building systems. Simulation has become the means by which virtual space becomes more than just a mirror of reality. It becomes the space within which different potential realities can be tested and evaluated before they are materially implemented. In architecture, information derived from material constraints to site conditions can be constantly fed into the computer models to provide an accurate update, which in turn introduces feedback into the overall design, and change can then be registered in the detail.
Jabi, Wassim. "Digital Tectonics: the intersection of the physical and the virtual." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 256-269. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. The advent of automated manufacturing processes and the possibility of directly translating virtual creations into physical artifacts brought forth the possibility of exploring a digital tectonic: the poetics of digitally conceived, structurally clarified and directly manufactured architecture. CAD/CAM equipment is being rapidly installed in schools of architecture without much thought given to its effect on the tradition of tectonics. To investigate these effects, this paper includes discussions of the tradition of architectural tectonics and of more recent works that illustrate the possibilities of digital tectonics. This discussion is followed by a brief survey of some of the research in the area of analog/digital pedagogy. Additionally, two experiments were conducted in an academic course setting that explored analog, digital, and hybrid approaches to the creation of architectural artifacts. The physical and virtual artifacts from the two experiments were analyzed and commonalities and differences were discerned. The research project reported in this paper further clarifies the notion of digital tectonics as the poetics of digitally constructed assemblages, and points to possible pitfalls of using CAD/CAM equipment that disregard the materiality of components and their interconnectedness.
Iwamoto, Lisa. "Embodied Fabrication: Computer Aided Spacemaking." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 270-281. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. This paper discusses work from two digital fabrication seminars taught at the University of California Berkeley: Fabricating Space and Thick Skinned. The full-scale installations explore relationships among the body, digital design, and making. They combine investigations of perceptual and spatial effects with digital modelling processes and full-scale CNC fabrication, focusing in particular on how new media practices forge alternative methods of representing and constructing corporeal and sensorial experience. 
Oosterhuis, Kas. "File to Factory and Real Time Behavior in Architecture." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 294-305. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. ONL (Oosterhuis and Lénárd) architecture is based on digital design and fabrication, whereas the design merges into fabrication in a process of direct transfer of data from a 3D modelling software to a CNC (Computer Numerically Controlled) machine. This paper describes ONL design and fabrication processes referring to three main aspects: (1) Form-Finding, (2) File to Factory, and (3) Real-Time Behavior.
Harfmann, Anton. "Implementation of Component Based Design: a Pedagogical and Actual Case Study." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 220-229. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. This paper explores pedagogical and practical ramifications of implementing the component-based design paradigm through the actual construction process of a simple wood frame house for Habitat for Humanity. The house was digitally-modeled as part of an elective construction class, then physically constructed by students and faculty of the College of DAAP at the University of Cincinnati as part of a community service exercise. The digital model and a detailed database of individual components were mined in order to explore and exploit the complete and accurate electronic modelling of building, prior to actual construction.
Johnson, Scott. "Linking Analysis and Architectural Data: Why It's Harder than We Thought." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 230-243. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. This paper considers high-level, architecturally oriented representations, like Building Information Models (BIMs), and examines the difficulty of integrating analyses with such representations. Structural analysis is selected as a sample analysis domain, and is examined by integrating a structural analysis into the test implementation of a program that utilizes architecturally oriented elements. A fundamental problem is found to be that architecturally oriented elements are inappropriate for structural analysis. Methods for sequentially analyzing architectural elements are discussed, but are found to be inadequate. Accurate analysis requires analyzing the entire structure at once using a representation specific to structural analysis. A method for generating a structural representation based on the architectural representation is discussed, but the process is not simple. The process is complicated by the fact that architectural elements and structural elements do not correspond in a one-to-one or even a one-to-many manner. An accurate structural representation may even require semi-fictitious elements not corresponding to actual physical components. These findings are believed to be true for other analysis domains, as well.
Kilian, Axel. "Linking Digital Hanging Chain Models to Fabrication." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 110-125. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. The paper traces the development of a digital hanging chain modeler in Java inspired by Antonio Gaudiis physical hanging chain models. More importantly, it demonstrates how fabrication schemas for physical mockups of the digitally simulated hanging chain can be linked to the real time form finding simulation. Fabrication output is an integral part of the iterative process and not a post-design process. The current implementation is still limited and currently requires programming for reconfiguration. The paper proposes the link of form-finding and fabrication finding and lays out several examples and first steps of how to do so.
Stacey, Michael. "Manufacturing Architecture." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 40-45. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. This paper will introduce the Digital Fabricators Exhibition, which I have had the pleasure of curating. The exhibition runs in parallel with the conference and was previously exhibited at the Royal Institute of British Architectis Architecture Pavilion, in Birmingham and the Building Centre, London, during the spring and summer of 2004. The exhibition explores the relationship between architecture, manufacturing techniques and digital technology. The case studies demonstrate the use of digital design to inform the built environment from citywide scale to component assemblies of current and future architecture. The emphasis within the exhibition is on experiential and tactile architecture. The exhibition features an shortlist of projects from international leaders. Each project has been selected for the excellence of the architecture and to illustrate the relevance of wide range of digital fabrication techniques. The exhibition is site specific and the design and content has evolved with each location.
Hanna, Sean. "Modularity and Flexibility at the Small Scale: Evolving Continuous Material Variation with Stereolithography." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 76-87. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. In this paper, we introduce a technique by which the internal material properties of an object can be optimised at a microstructural level (5x10-5m) to counteract the forces that are applied to it. These can then be fabricated using the rapid prototyping method of stere• olithography. The proposed technique is analogous to principles of mass customization and takes advantage of a flexible module to create complex structures in a manner that is computationally efficient and effective. The process is two-staged, in which a genetic algorithm evolves the topology of the microstructure and a second algorithm incorporating Finite Element Analysis then optimises the geometry. The examples shown are designed specifically for the fabrication technique, but the method and general principles are applicable to structural problems at any scale.
Eastman, Charles. "New Methods of Architecture and Building." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 20-27. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. Three conditions exist that are likely to lead to significant restructuringof the construction industry. These are (1): the recognition that traditional contracting practices are inefficient and costly to the client, (2) the growing availability of information-rich 3D parametric modelling, and (3) the strong interest in integrating the issues of design and fabrication. Some aspects of these conditions are examined using two examples: parametric design and integration in steel structural design, and in fabrication-level modelling of precast concrete. The implications of these changes are explored.
Loukissas, Yanni, and Lawrence Sass. "Rulebuilding (3D Printing: Operators, Constraints, Scripts)." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 176-185. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. 3-D printers alter the speed, cost, complexity, and consistency with which physical architecture models can be crafted. If architects are to harness the unique abilities of this modelling process, it is necessary to find a complementary means of conceptualizing designs and generating the geometric data necessary for 3-D printing. This paper introduces a novel combination of 3-D printing and scripting through three examples of architectural surface models. In these examples, VBScript is used to write generative scripts for execution within the Rhinoceros modelling environment. The scripts produce digital geometric models which, in turn, are exported to a Z-Corp 3-D printer. The merits of this methodology are demonstrated, in one example, through models of an architectural surface composed of light-modulating conical components. The design intent in this example is a grid of responsive components which ride on a complex curved surface and steer toward a light. The written script is an explicit representation of this intention. Methods in the script use external parameters to generate a digital geometric model. The form of the subsequent printed model is calculated as a function of the initial parameters, two boundary splines and a vector indicating the orientation of the light. By varying these parameters, a set of design options can be generated and 3-D printed for comparison. The combination of scripting and 3-D printing allows complex design intentions to be managed in a concise, sharable format and modeled iteratively without manual intervention.
Timberlake, James. "SmartWrap Pavilion." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 46-49. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. The combination of new materials and digital design has a transformative potential, providing building products and architecture tailored specifically to the clientsi needs and site requirements. This is the essence of the architecture of mass costumisation or personalised production. How can one demonstrate this physically when in essence the product is significantly ahead of current production capabilities? This was the dilemma faced by architects James Timberlake and Stephen Kieran of KieranTimberlake Associates, when asked to design a pavilion for the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in the autumn of 2003. Their response is the SmartWrap Pavilion. The SmartWrap concept will deliver shelter, climate control, lighting, information display and power with a printed and layered polymer composite. The aluminium-framed pavilion is clad in a printed skin based on a combination of polyester and its derivative polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which was developed with DuPont. The pavilion was designed using a single project model, and all the aluminium extrusions of the frame were barcoded. This coding defined their structural and construction properties.
Olsson, Pierre. "Static eigenvalue analysis as an aid in furniture design." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 126-137. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. In the design process, knowledge of structural mechanics is often reduced to its being used to determine whether the object that has been designed is sufficiently strong. Strength testing indicates this directly on a yes or no basis, whereas computations are able to compare the level of stress with the strength of the material. Understanding the interplay between load, form, and material which structural mechanics is able to provide can be of considerable and far-reaching importance, both at an early conceptual design stage and while developing parts and details. The aim of this paper is to show how structural mechanics (in particular, static eigenvalue analysis) can be used to create work methods that provide a common language between the designer and the engineer during the design process. A case study is presented in which the Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to perform static eigenvalue analyses aimed at facilitating a collaborative furniture design process in the creation of a shell-shaped chair. Analysis of this sort was chosen because it can be used in a sketch-like manner. The designer found it easy to incorporate the results of the analysis into his own sketching work. It also enabled him to see how different design changes affected the overall structural behaviour of the chair without him having to create a full-scale prototype for physical testing.
Daubmann, Karl. "Teaching Digital Fabrication through Design." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 244-255. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. This paper explains the development of a digital fabrication graduate seminar that has evolved over four semesters. The class attempts to teach at various levels between “how toi considerations of learning hardware and software, while exploring a deeper understanding of the technological implications on design and digital fabrication. At the heart of the course is the belief that the limitations of hardware, software, and materials can be viewed as opportunities during the making of any artifact. A number of teaching models have been employed over the four semesters that include short, abstract, directed mini-projects, which teach one skill to the opposite extreme that develops longer, open-ended research / design projects focused on a technology or technique. The products of the class are used to compare the benefits and deficiencies of various pedagogies. The work is also used to further define the desires of the course related to strategies for materials and making.
Matsushima, Shiro. "Technology-mediated process: case study--MIT Stata Center." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 202-219. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. Gehry Partners (GP) sculptural approach to tectonic form, with its dramatic curves, complex geometry, and idiosyncratic application of materials, seems to have redefined the limits of architecture. The development of a strong formal vocabulary has been achieved by advanced use of information technologies, including CATIA, which allows translation among various tectonic representations, both in physical and digital forms. In addition, the nature of the office has much to do with other changes in the project delivery system, such as the relationships with associate architect, manufacturers, and subcontractors. This paper discusses how new technology changes the design and fabrication process, which has evolved from GP's milestone project, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, and how organizational efforts to involve the industry in the design process facilitate the project. Unlike at Bilbao, in the newly-completed Stata Center GP produced all the construction documents. This shift coincided with a gradual change in which GP was becoming involved in the technical aspects of their projects much earlier in the design process. Therefore they had to invest in new working relationships with the construction team, including fabricators, manufacturers, and contractors. The approach of Gehry and his team suggests that architectural practice can be liberated from its conventional arrangements. Although it is still evolving, Gehry has achieved a holistically integrated organizational system where the architect has far more direct interaction with all aspects of design and fabrication.
Riese, Martin, and Marc Simmons. "The Glass Office - SCL office and showroom in Brisbane, Australia." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 28-33. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. FRONT is a collaborative of Architects and Engineers based in New York City. Following is a brief description of an example project designed by Front which demonstrates the type of work that the firm is involved in.The project is an office and showroom adjacent to a glass manufacturing plant in Queensland, Australia. The client required a design vocabulary that would optimally demonstrate the production capabilities of the factory. The resultant design features a 70ft x 130ft continuous enclosure composed of overlapping, curved ribs of toughened, laminated glass. All the panels of the building envelope are composed of multiple layers of glass, fabricated in the adjacent factory, directly from digital shop drawings produced using Gehry Technologiesi CATIA/Digital Project.
Burry, Mark. "The Sagrada Famìlia - west transept rose window, a rapid prototype." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 14-19. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. The recently completed design and construction in a little over twelve months of the west transept rose window (Passion Façade) of Antoni Gaudi's unfinished major work and Barcelona icon, the Sagrada Familia church, is a notable example of “lean construction”. The processes involved include traditional stone masonry, actual employment of the traits discussed in Evanis “The Projective Cast”, and semi-automated construction methods.
Clarke, Cory. "The Siren's Call." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 150-161. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. This paper presents an account of our research and development of processes providing seamless transition from design to fabrication. The narrative of our design, development, and prototyping experiments spans seven years, including our current project, the Trusset software/structural system. Trusset is a combined building system and agent-based software design tool. The building system is based on a differential space-truss designed for fabrication entirely with computer numerically controlled (CNC) linear cutting devices, such as laser cutters or three-axis mills. The software component is a set of agent-based design tools for developing surfaces and envelopes formally suitable to be built using the space-truss structure. Developed in parallel, the software and building components combine within the Trusset system to provide a seamless pipeline from design to fabrication and assembly. The story of the development of software components and structural system, leading to the Trusset, act as a means of discussing the larger issues framing the research: the potential pitfalls and benefits of design and fabrication integration via the computer.
Perez, Santiago. "The Synthetic Sublime." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 162-175. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. The distinction between the artificial and the natural has been increasingly challenged as a result of advances in genetics, microbiology, and robotics. Beginning with the molecular assemblage of organic systems into complex micro-surfaces and structures, and expanding into the realm of the macro landscape, our understanding of the term Synthetic must be revised. What is the relationship between the component (or part) and the whole, when confronted with the Synthetic? Digitally mediated fabrication technologies, combined with a renewed interest in topology and (bio)logical form, serve to challenge our preconceived notions of space and form. This inquiry will attempt to explore the relationship between traditional assemblies produced by hand, and the production of complex forms through digital rapid prototyping. The impact of D'Arcy Thompson's On Growth and Form will be considered both as a historical juncture and a contemporary source of knowledge for the exploration of new assemblages inspired by topology and biology. In particular, the organic micro-surfaces depicted in France Bourély's Hidden Beauty will be explored, in comparison with the mathematical development of organic forms inspired by Periodic Minimal Surfaces. The analysis of emerging forms and assemblages based on the notion of the Synthetic will be compared with the Organic, and considered within the context of twentieth century art and sculpture. An attempt will be made to establish new modes of inquiry for combining digital and physical explorations of space and form, influenced by advances in micro-scale structures, complex surfaces, and the history of organic form in art. 
Sliwka, Ryszard. "Untimely Fabrications." In Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community, 52-65. ACADIA. Cambridge and Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Cambridge and University of Toronto, 2004. The value of material in architectural practice is determined not by its character but by functional performance and economy. In early modernist thought, part of this motivation was to liberate construction from the “burden” of aesthetic speculations and return it simply to the concerns of building. Any artistic agenda became embedded in the economic and productive processes of the project. Authenticity emerged out of the need to focus on the essentials and reject the superfluous. However, this demand for truth in materials has long since been compromised by the climatic requirements of building enclosure. Most contemporary practice in architecture is derived from principles of cladding where the “essential nature” of a complex building requires concealment. The communication of the building is expressed in the refinement of the layers that make up the surface. This shift from the emphasis on making and the idea of “material” in architecture, to one of perception and “materiality,” has an important corporeal dimension that parallels the material aesthetic practices developed in art and sculpture in the 1960s. In this sense, Fabrication carries an “untimely” dimension. This paper proposes to look at the work of a broad range of architects, both well-known and not so well-known, in light of these artistic-based approaches to materiality. Digital fabrication opens a new chapter on this debate and it remains to be seen how this economically useful approach to construction changes, once architects investigate the visual characteristics of materials and methods of fabrication.