Keywords Abstract
Liapi, Katherine A., and Jinman Kim. "A Parametric Approach to the Design of a Tensegrity Vaulted Dome for an Ephemeral Structure for the 2004 Olympics." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 301-309. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Tensegrity, defined as “tensional integrity,i is central to the design of a semi-open exhibition space that was submitted as an entry to the international competition for the design of “Ephemeral Structures for the City of Athens,i in the context of the 2004 Olympic Games. The main feature of the proposed exhibition space is a vaulted dome composed of interconnected detachable and deployable tensegrity units. The most challenging aspect in the design of the tensegrity vault was the generation of alternative spatial configurations for form exploration and study. For this purpose a mathematical code has been developed that links all the parameters that affect the design of tensegrity vaults. The code also allows for the parametric graphical generation of the vault by displaying geometric information in a 3D environment. This paper discusses the geometric basis of the code and its usefulness in the morphological study of the tensegrity vaulted dome for the proposed ephemeral structure. The mathematical code has been shown to significantly facilitate the study of various preliminary configurations of tensegrity vaulted structures.
Talbott, Kyle. "An Inductive Approach to Digital Modeling Instruction." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 151-157. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. An argument is presented for respecting the studentis process of inductive reasoning in introductory digital modelling instruction. The inductive education methods of Montessori and VanDamme are reviewed, and relevant portions are applied to the problem of digital modelling instruction. Two primary concerns are presented: 1) the need to systematically reorient the student from the physical world to the digital world and 2) the need to sequence the presentation of introductory concepts according to logical dependencies inherent in these concepts. Five principles of inductive digital modelling instruction are established, which could act as the basis for a teaching method that reduces alienation among apprehensive students, eases the transition from traditional media for veteran designers, and speeds comprehension of core concepts of digital making.
Lim, Chor-Kheng. "An Insight into the Freedom of Using a Pen: Pen-based System and Pen-and-paper." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 385-393. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. In earlier researches on freehand sketching, the cognitive behaviour of designers was studied. In recent years, some researchers began to look into this area from the design media aspect. The pen-based system, developed by Gross, Landay and other researchers, used the pen as an input device, allowing sketches to be freely drawn in a computer environment. The importance of the freehand sketch lies in its ability to freely represent various drawing projections using ambiguous sketches. However, as for the various drawing projections, such as diagrams, symbols, plans, elevations, sections, perspectives, etc., how are they interrelated to a designeris thinking process and the cognitive behaviour? Different media have different abilities to represent different projections. Would they affect the designeris design thinking as well? Targeting different media, i.e., conventional freehand sketches vs. the computer pen-based system, this research uses case studies and think-aloud protocol analysis to present an analysis and discussion. Research results show that there is a relationship of gradual embodiment that is mutually complementary, going from a whole perspective to being the dissected into sections between the different projections. In addition, these projections restrict the designeris various design thinking processes, while the use of different media may somewhat change the actual design thinking of the designer
Bernhardt, Matthew, and Beth Blostein. "Appropriate levels of access: an empirical study on the availability of computers in studio." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 119-127. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. One of the most significant technological challenges facing architecture schools today is how to provide an appropriate level of access to computing resources. As the computer has become a significant tool in the study and practice of architecture, students need to have access to that tool in order to further their studies. But in facing this question of access, what is “appropriate”? Is there such a thing as too much access? Is 1:1 access “ a computer for every student “ the minimum level of access that schools and students should accept? Or is there a point beyond which more resources just means more waste, computers sitting idle and unused, or students using the computer for unproductive ends? These questions were the subject of an experimental series of studios in the spring of 2002, wherein three studios were given varying numbers of computers for a term. The use of these computers was then tracked, and compared with previous terms. In tandem, the quality of work produced by these three studios was compared. While additional experiments are most likely needed to draw firm conclusions, the results of this experiment seem to support defining “an appropriate level of access” at less than 1:1.
Anzalone, Phillip, and Cory Clarke. "Architectural Applications of Complex Adaptive Systems." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 325-335. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This paper presents methods and case studies of approaching architectural design and fabrication utilizing Complex Adaptive Systems (CASs). The case studies and observations described here are findings from a continuing body of research investigating applications of computational systems to architectural practice. CASs are computational mechanisms from the computer science field of Artificial Life that provide frameworks for managing large numbers of elements and their inter-relationships. The ability of the CASs to handle complexity at a scale unavailable through non-digital means provides new ways of approaching architectural design, fabrication, and practice.
Fiamma, Paolo. "Architectural Design and Digital Paradigm: from Renaissance Models to Digital Architecture." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 247-253. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Means of expression have always affected our ways of thinking. Designers, who have to interpret signs, languages, and evolution in order to translate into an organised “formi the recurring problems and values of mankind, have left thoughts, projects and wishes to the study of representational techniques. In this way, they have also disclosed a unique view of reality and at the same time a “way of being” towards the meaning of design itself. In the relationship between architecture and representational techniques, Brunelleschi said that “perspicerei was no longer just the science of optics, but also the science that contained the lines of research on geometry and shape that he was the first to exploit in design. Centuries later, in the axonometric representation advocated by De Stijl and intended for factories and industries, the object, shown in all its parts, easy to reconstruct even in the space to which it referred, revealed with extreme clarity the mass-production building and assembly materials and systems. Digital representational media make a great entrance in the heuristic process, invalidate all signs, and promote its quality. The result is an ever-changing, computerised architecture, dominated by curvilinear, wavy shapes that flow from a generative process made of the deformations, additions, and interference of different volumes.
Martens, Bob, A. Brown, and Z. Turk. "Automated Classification of CAAD-related Publications: Conditions for Setting-Up a Keywording System." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 365-371. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This paper deals with the CUMINCAD-repository (Cumulative Index on CAD), which was set up in 1998 and has served the CAAD-community since then as an important source of archived domain related information. CUMINCAD contains over 5,000 entries in the form of publications in the field of Computer Aided Architectural Design. The number has been growing steadily over the years. To date only advanced search mechanisms have been provided to access these works. This may work out well for a just-in-time location of a reference, but is inadequate for just in case browsing through the history of CAAD. For such applications, a hierarchical browsing interface, like one in Yahoo or DMOZ.org is envisioned. This paper describes how the keyword categories were defined and how a moderate, distributed effort in defining the categories will allow machine-identified classification of the entire data set. The aim of the paper is to contribute to building up a wide spread consensus on what the appropriate keyword categories in CAAD are, and what sub-topics should sit below the main keyword categories.
Garofalo, D., J. Morgan, and J. Popma. "Block 37." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 433. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. The proposal for Block 37 was envisioned to anchor the north end of State Street, forming an implied axis between the Harold Washington Library and the New Media Center. The two buildings share similar educational responsibilities for the public, offering a variety of programs and facilities. In addition, they also assume a related physical presence on their respective sites, due to a similarity in the size of the building programs.
Woo, J.-H., Mark Clayton, R. Johnson, and B. Flores. "Case Study of Tacit Knowledge Sharing in a Distributed Design Studio." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 107-116. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This paper demonstrates the effects of expertsi tacit knowledge on improving architectural studentsi design artifacts in a distributed design studio. In geographically distributed design environments, the Internet is an important medium by which architects can share tacit knowledge in the form of dialogue via online communication technologies, such as online chat and Instant Messaging (IM). In spring 2003, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and 8 schools conducted a collaborative design studio to develop a crew restraint system for space flights. Online chat software was used as a primary communication channel. Throughout the entire design studio, NASA professionals served as knowledge holders while undergraduate students participated as knowledge seekers. An interpretive content analysis and case study methodology were used in this study. We qualitatively observed the interactions between NASA and the students based upon two aspects: knowledge reflection and design improvement. Data were collected using document analysis of all knowledge sources and studentsi design artifacts. The findings of this study indicate that the online chat system is useful in sharing tacit knowledge for the early part of design processes in a distributed design environment. Expertsi tacit knowledge appears to not only influence how students understand problems, but how they initiate conceptual design. This study provides empirical evidence regarding tacit knowledge sharing, and strengthens Schonis (1983) claim about knowledge reflection in design studio. Furthermore, this study introduces architectural practitioners to the practical necessity of tacit knowledge sharing. This study is significant because its findings indicate the appropriate knowledge management strategy for architectural practitioners.
Kalay, Yehuda, and Yongwook Jeong. "Collaborative Design Process Simulation Game." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 133-141. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Collaboration is an important aspect of the architectis education. However, it is not amenable to the traditional project-based learning pedagogy that works so well for developing form-making skills. Being a process, rather than a product, it cannot be revealed by judging the results alone, which is often how form-making skills are taught and judged. Rather, the process of collaboration is only evident when the number of the participants exceeds a certain threshold, and when actions taken by other participants affect an individualis on-going design decisions. The advent of on-line, multi-player simulation games provides an analogy and an opportunity to explore interactive collaborative design pedagogies. Their abstract nature helps focus attention on the core issues of the simulated phenomenon, while the playful nature of a game, as opposed to “work,” encourages immersion and role playing that contribute to the learning process. This paper describes an on-line game for simulating the design collaboration process. It espouses to simulate, exercise, and provide a feel for the social dimension of collaboration, by embedding mutual dependencies that encourage players to engage each other ? in adversarial or collaborative manners ? to accomplish their goals. Specifically, it is intended to help students understand what collaboration is, why it is necessary, and how it is done. The game is modeled after popular board games like Scrabble and Monopoly: players build “housesi made of colored cubes on a site shared with other players. Actions taken by one player immediately affect his/her neighbors. A carefully constructed set of rules awards or deducts points for every action taken by a player and by his/her neighbors. The rules were constructed in such a manner that players who collaborate (in a variety of ways) stand to gain more points than those who do not. The player with the most points “wins.”
Seebohm, Thomas, and Aron Temkin. "Connected courses: methods of network communications." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 94-98. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Where are we now? In the recent NJIT survey of digital media in the design schools twenty-eight out of twenty-nine architecture schools reported to have networked design studios (NJIT, 2003). This would seem to indicate a ubiquity of digital media tools. While the use of these tools is still often limited to design presentation (computer aided drawing and modelling) rather than design generation, the studio is historically a place of discovery and experimentation: with computers so available in this fertile environment we are poised to evolve the medium forward towards improved design development. This evolution is initially apparent in the way presentation methods and presentation processes are shifting. Not only are students becoming increasingly digital in their approach to design, but methods of working and presentation are also changing.
Clayton, Mark. "Connecting Digital Tools." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 299. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. A decade ago, Bill Mitchell wrote “Chroniclers of our era may one day write “What was computer-aided design?” To them, it will just be design.” Because of the proliferation of digital tools for design, we are rapidly forgetting that there was ever design before computing. Ask an undergraduate student to describe the design process. There is a good chance that the student will mention using CAD and 3D modelling. Ask a contractor how to practice the profession of building.
Anders, Peter. "Cynergies: Technologies that Hybridize Physical and Cyberspaces." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 289-297. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This paper presents ways in which cybrids depend for their technology upon three existing models of architectural hybrid: display space, environmental computing, and augmented/mixed reality. Cybrids bring these techniques together into a synergistic whole that depends as much on the observer for its consistency as it does on its comprising technologies. This synergy is a product of corroborative behaviour between different modes, which provide cybrid users with a coherent social/spatial experience. The paper notes cybrids similarity to theater, not only for their technological dependency, but also for the tacit yet vital role of the observer in their effect.
Luhan, Gregory A., S. Bhavsar, and B.L. Walcott. "Deep-Time ProbeInvestigations in Light Architecture." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 258-266. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This paper presentation presents an interdisciplinary research project conducted by a design team comprised of faculty from the Colleges of Architecture, Engineering, and Astrophysics. The title of the project, Deep-Time Probe, Investigations in Light-Architecture, explores the use of an optically active-SETI experiment that centers on the thematic of time, vision, and movement through space. The realm of architecture was the digital glue that united the varied disciplines. The core of the project is broken down into three intrinsically linked components ? data representation ? collection, storage, and modulation, the Project Mission Wall, and the resultant Light Architecture or Deep-Time Probe. A small team of architecture students under the direction of one architecture faculty member designed the Mission Wall while the Robotics Department provided CNC machinery to digitally mill and fabricate its components. This same team assembled the 40ix60ix15i structure in one day. The site of the launch created an adequate interface for the public art structure at the scale of an urban park. The scale of the Mission Wall addressed a variety of places, paces, and scales that mediated between the laser, the context of the surrounding plaza, and pedestrian and vehicular circulation, all while concealing the laser from direct view. The Mission Wall served three functions. It provided a housing for the Deep-Time Probe laser. It created windows and scaffolding for lighting. Moreover, it established a series of “View Corridorsi that provided the onlooker with multiple vantage points and thus multiple-readings of information as architecture. Nearly fifty “Time Probe Reporters” gathered information through oral interviews. In addition to messages linked to the interviews, the Deep-Time Probe contained verbal and graphic information, images depicting the design and fabrication processes. At the time of the launch, the design team digitized, specially formatted, converted, and modulated the data into a special high-powered laser that was “launchedi into space. An advanced civilization in the universe could theoretically receive and decode this information. The Deep-Time Probe project visualized the strengths of each profession, fostered the creative aspects of each team member, and resulted in a unique and dynamic experience. The deep time probe is right now passing through the Oort Cloud, the debris left over from the formation of our Sun and planets, present as a halo surrounding our solar system... a distance of nearly 1.5 trillion miles.
Eastman, C., G. Lee, and R. Sacks. "Development of a Knowledge-Rich CAD System for the North American Precast Concrete Industry." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 207-215. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. The downstream production sectors of the construction industry are developing powerful parametric modelling design and engineering tools for fabrication modelling. This paper reports an effort by the North American precast concrete industry toward developing such tools. Some implications for architectural design and practice are outlined.
Shih, Naai-Jung. "Digital Architecture - What Would 6000 Points Turn Out to Be?" In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 67-73. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This paper presents students's fulfillment of an assignment that explored the concepts of digital architecture using rapid prototyping (RP) process. A point cloud was given to students, and different representational data were substantiated as real 3D physical models. The presence of RP models and the sequential illustration of working steps in their reports revealed that the control of shapes often differed from what students perceived in VR worlds. The results thus confirm that physical models are useful for visualization as well as in design pedagogy.
Cheng, Nancy. "Digital Curricula: Effective Integration of Digital Courses - a Delicate Balance." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 129-130. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. One of the challenges faced by digital design teachers is how to fit our piece into the larger puzzle of architectural education. How can we make computing support architectureis varied endeavors and thinking modes? Students must be able to explore and communicate design ideas fluidly using digital or traditional media, as suitable to specific queries. We need to expose students to a palette of current and emerging techniques and help them develop a personal set of media skills.
Luhan, Gregory A.. "Digital Curricula: Effective Integration of Digital Courses. Stitched-spaces and Digital Permutations." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 128-129. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. If, “the purpose of art is to awaken reality” as Paul Klee writes, what then, is the generative purpose of the digital as it relates to architecture? By uniting the traditional ways of knowing with the more contemporary and technologically advanced ways of knowing, the architect then would be able to develop the capacity to visualize and to understand unseen spatial relationships and exploit their latent characteristics. The computer consequently allows a direct synthesis to occur between the original idea and its formal application, in a sense providing new questions to old answers.
Jabi, Wassim. "Digital Design ." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 16. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Describing design as a sequence of steps cannot convey the complexity of social interactions that it embodies. Design is not merely a process, but a co-evolution of efforts and events in various places and times ? both synchronous and asynchronous. Designers share their values, effort and expertise within design settings via artifacts that further the design process. Increasingly, these design settings in academia, research, and professional practice combine physical and virtual modalities such as immersion, projection, and a range of interaction technologies. Peter Anders has described such spaces as cybrids: hybrids that integrate virtual and physical space. In these settings, designers use overlapping physical and virtual artifacts and tools to arrive at a co-operative design resolution. Within collaborative design, these artifacts take on an additional role. As embodiments of design ideas and actions, they become media for communication. Donald Schon asserts that design should be considered a form of making, rather than primarily a form of problem solving, information processing or research. Indeed the line separating creation from design is becoming increasingly blurred. For the design artifact itself may become a part of the design proposal ? its virtual presence incorporated within a cybrid structure or object. We may in the future see a proliferation of cybrid settings that support collaborative, digital design. The technologies for this already exist in collaborative tools, networked computing, scanning and immersive media. However, it will take a creative vision to see how these disparate tools and devices can integrate within the ideal design setting.
Sirbu, Daniela. "Digital Exploration of Unbuilt Architecture: a Non-Photorealistic Approach." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 235-245. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This paper presents a new approach to the digital investigation of unbuilt architecture. A navigable world, emulating the architectis graphic style, is built as a 3D non-photorealistic reconstruction of the unbuilt project. A cinematic journey through this world intermediates the exploration of the architectis possible mental visualizations during the creative stages. The goals of the proposed approach are: to open new avenues for investigating the conception of architecture, to help architectural students visualize and experience important unbuilt projects that have shaped the practice of architecture, and to popularize lesser-known architects to the general public. The approach stems from the idea that architectural drawings are the artifacts reflecting most accurately the architectis creative and thinking processes. Anchored in the concept of multi-dimensional space developed by the author, the proposed method uses the original drawing of the artist as the main artifact on which the reconstruction process is based. The present paper concentrates on those aspects related to extracting information from the architectis drawing and embedding historic knowledge in the 3D reconstruction of the unbuilt project. It calls to attention the idea that technological progress creates tools that the Architect uses to operate with the fundamental concepts of place, space, and time.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Digital Fabrication: from Digital to Material." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 54-55. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. In the past, architects drew what they could build, and built what they could draw, as observed by Bill Mitchell. This reciprocity between the means of representation and production has not disappeared entirely in the digital age. Knowing the production capabilities and availability of particular digitally-driven fabrication equipment enables architects to design specifically for the capabilities of those machines. The consequence is that architects are becoming much more directly involved in the fabrication processes, as they create the information that is translated by fabricators directly into the control data that drives the digital fabrication equipment.
Johnson, Robert, and Eberhard Laepple. "Digital Innovation and Organizational Change in Design Practice." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 179-183. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. The real estate and construction industry is among the largest industries in the world. It also is one of the most fragmented industries, with few economies of scale and historically low productivity. Recent technological advances in the use of information and communication technology have the potential for dramatically improving construction productivity. But substantial organizational barriers exist that inhibit the effective adoption of these technologies. This research project (in progress) examines the practices of selected, innovative firms in order to develop an in-depth understanding of the factors that have influenced the effective adoption of information and communications technology in the design and construction industry, and, potentially, provide examples that may provide prototype models for an alternative, future organization of the AEC industry.
Marx, John, and Raffi Tomassian. "Digital Practice." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 158. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Technical competence in computer technology has become a conditio sine qua non of landing a job at a respectable architectural practice. By itself, though, this does not imply that all architectural practices are now doing their work in a revolutionary way. In their overwhelming majority they have been forced into the digital domain by the ubiquity of technology itself. The digital file has replaced the drawing as the information backbone in building profession. However, the common convertible currency of this information down the construction process is still lines on paper, albeit physically produced by incredibly sophisticated devices.
Senagala, Mahesh. "Digital Theory." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 254. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. The computer has gone from being an isolated box to become part of a gigantic digital network of networks that shapes our collective future. The way and pace at which we connect, communicate, memorize, imagine and control the flows of valuable information have changed forever. There are at least six digital phenomena that directly affect the architectural world: miniaturization (of all that can be shrunk), ubiquity (being everywhere, global), realtime (communing globally in realtime, which is 1/10th of a second), noospherization (networking every-thing), virtuality (all that is solid melts into knowledge), and anamnesia (inability to forget). Temporal contiguity and temporal connectivity have taken precedence over spatial and geographical contiguity. The strands that animate our life today emanate from spatially distant but temporally contiguous/connected places. These phenomena have squeezed, stretched, restructured, reconfigured, and redistributed most major human institutions. Consequently, the built worldis role, importance and nature have changed. Architecture as traditionally understood has become more marginalized than before. Many practices, however, have been repositioning themselves to take advantage of the new opportunities beyond the bounds of traditional architectural practice. Design, practice, fabrication and construction are increasingly becoming networked affairs. The new measures of architecture are connectivity and speed. The architecture of a new world needs to recognize these transformations and think differently.
Cerone, J., and S. Johnston. "Elementary School: the Design Process." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 430. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Although the final presentation documents were all either generated or processed by computer, the steps leading to a final product were theresult of constant interaction between computer and paper. The processbegan on paper with quick sketches of the main grid elements - the mostfundamental pieces of the “kit of parts”.
Hoon, Michael, and Michael Kehoe. "Enhancing Architectural Communication with Gaming Engines." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 349-355. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This paper makes a case for exploring the feasibility of utilizing the advanced graphics and sound systems of contemporary gaming engines to promote architecturally relevant work. Gaming engines, while developed largely for the PC entertainment industry, have vast potential for application in architecture. This paper will explore the depth of this potential and will outline work demonstrating the advantages and the limitations of this technology. The supporting research and observations examine the technology and reveal its potential usefulness as an instructional or depictive authoring tool. Game engines were selected that had appropriate graphical prowess, but were customizable as to allow the removal of game-specific features (to create a “professional” user interface). Projects were authored that expressed complex building details using the engine for visual depiction. The details, which included constructional components, structural assemblies, or simple design nuances, were modeled with 3D geometry and realistically textured and lighted. The game engine allowed one user or many remote simultaneous users in the virtual environment to interactively explore the presentation in real time. Scripts were developed to encourage end-users to interactively disassemble or reassemble building components as desired. Audile and/or text-based information regarding the assembly sequence were provided by exploiting the game interface features. Furthermore, interactive object scaling was provided to facilitate analysis of component relationships.
Wu, Pei-Ling. "Exploring Playful and Effective Digital Design Process with Games: a Framework for Digital Design Studio Teaching and Learning." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 143-149. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. The idea of developing a framework, to integrate design studios and computer graphics, is derived from the nature of architectural design, which has always combined creativity and technology. Furthermore, as computers are being increasingly used in design studios, a systematic digital pedagogy, which can take advantage of the strengths of computers in all stages of design, should be developed simultaneously to facilitate learning. This paper attempts to propose a playful and effective digital design process that can be flexibly applied to computer-based design studios and design-based computer graphics courses. The pedagogical framework is based on a set of digital design games that follows a general design process presented by the author. First, the components of digital design games will be defined and the relations of those game components will be clearly depicted. Then, a framework will be proposed, followed by the use of an example demonstrating applications of the framework. Continual advancements in digital technology have created generation gaps among teachers at architectural schools. A structured digital design process can help teachers, with varying levels of computer-capabilities know what, when, and how, adjustments should be made to achieve the goal of digital design education.
Kilian, Axel. "Fabrication of Partially Double-Curved Surfaces out of Flat Sheet Material Through a 3D Puzzle Approach." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 75-83. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. The topic of this paper is the connection of digital modelling with generative programming and rapid prototyping, to produce physical sketch surface models. The physical surface models are assembled out of developable strips connected through a puzzle-like detail. The use of programming as a design approach allows the generation of connection details that corresponds to the rules of flat sheet rapid prototyping techniques of laser cutting and water jet cutting. With numerically controlled cutting, there is no need to keep the joint detail related to manually achievable forms or to apply a standardized dimension. This paper demonstrates the possibilities of programming to generate cutting geometries that adapt to the local surface properties. The larger perspective of the research approach is the question of how to formulate and capture design intention through programming. What influence does the use of generative modelling in combination with rapid prototyping have on the design language of physical objects?
Maze, J., M. McGlothlin, and K. Tanzer. "Fluid (in)form:Influencing Design Through Dynamic Particle Simulation." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 357-363. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. “My earliest childhood memories are related to a ranch my family owned near the village of Mazamitla. It was a pueblo with hills, formed by houses with tile roofs and immense eaves to shield passersby from the heavy rains which fall in that area. Even the earthis color was interesting because it was red earth. In this village, the water distribution system consisted of great gutted logs, in the form of troughs, which ran on a support structure of tree forks, five meters high, above the roofs. The aqueduct crossed over the town, reaching the patios, where there were great stone fountains to receive the water. The patios outside the stables, with cows and chickens, all together. Outside, in the street, there were iron rings to tie the horses. The channeled logs, covered with moss, dripped water all over town, of course. It gave this village the ambience of a fairy tale.”(Luis Barragan,qtd in Ambasz 1976)
Serriano, Pierluigi. "Form Follows Software." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 185-205. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Software selection affects design outcome. Computer applications externalize in their graphical interface and in their internal logic a set of assumptions about how objects are constructed and space is represented. Accessibility of tools is in direct correlation with their rate of use. Depending on how user-friendly particular functions are, their use will appear with higher frequency than those foreign to the technological frames of the user groups for which software is designed. As each software is geared towards the needs of specific communities, it replicates in digital fashion those disciplinary practices already present in the analog world. However, modelling results are bracketed at its inception the very moment a particular 3D package is chosen from a diverse array of digital offerings. If the application adopted is designed to appeal to the computer animation industry, the modelling results will bear the imprint of those organic qualities: buildings will appear character-like. Since computer programs have built-in slant meant to aid disciplinary specific users, they yield families of designs with formal commonalities. Unquestionably, proficiency of software use also broadens inventiveness of design. Nevertheless some applications make particular transformations harder to achieve, and as a result will be likely to exclude those modelling options from architectsi imaginary world.
Anders, Peter. "Four Degrees of Freedom." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 17. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Letting go is hard to do. Remember back to when, after months of trying, you let go of the handlebars of your bicycle and sailed down the street, effortless and assured. It was a freedom born of mastery, balance and technique. You had let go, but were in control. Technique extends to other devices as well and we are here to discuss architectural computation. Here too, as we will see, mastery is shown by letting go. These papers explore new degrees of freedom in design computation. Each is on a separate aspect of architecture, whether it be aesthetics, process, or structure. Two papers inquire into the entities of design and the processes by which they are manifested. They pose important questions. If we can affect the course of design going forward, are we free to change its past? By defining the characteristics of objects at the outset, are we through automation free to choose from a refined spectrum of outcomes? From the evidence of these papers, the answer to both questions is yes. Through the agency of parametric design we can affect the future and past of architectural processes and their products. Rather than being locked into rigid, linear decisions we are temporally free to choose, tweak and modify. Choice and chance play an important role in aesthetics as well. This has become emblematic of design trends as we have seen in recent years. One of our papers addresses the indeterminacy of particle systems in the design of a monument to the victims of 9/11. By letting go of the handlebars of the computer, the author has been freed to new, poetic forms and processes. Another paper opens urban design to its client community by use of a sophisticated web site. In the tradition of populist innovators like Charles Moore and Lucien Kroll, the authors have extended the design process beyond the office walls to the city itself. The designers, by loosening their grip on the project have made the effort democratic and participatory. Intriguingly, at the end of the paper, they note that this use of cyberspace opens the door to a non-physical architecture. Could architecture, then, let go its materialist biases as well? We hope to engage this and other questions shortly.We are pleased then, to share with you these insights and projects. Wassim and I hope that these presentations will be as liberating for you as they were for us.
Ceccato, Cristiano. "From Emergence of Form to the Forming of Logic." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 254-255. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Driven by digital design tools and production methods, the interplay of theory and practice in architecture is converging on the notion of process. Process definition and process tools are now an essential part of design, design development, fabrication and construction. The word process itself can be interpreted in different ways, as being deterministic or non-deterministic. Computer programming can be understood as a design process and a structuring mechanism. Rather than making finite designs (products), architects are beginning to understand their roles as toolmakers, developing algorithmic processes that incorporate constraints and intents into software / procedures / programming. New methodologies such as parametric-associative design hierarchies are a clear example of semantic design structuring (a form of grammatical ordering), the creation of hierarchical parametric models can be understood as a form of visual programming. In a deterministic sense, it can be argued that if a process is correct and critical, then by definition so will be the product.
Cabrinha, Mark. "Function Follows Form: 10 Sticks (and a Bench)." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 57-65. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. While the introduction of digital media in the design studio often emphasizes virtual realms, the effect of new fabrication technology on the architect brings the architect back to the realm of master-builder rather than distancing the architect from reality. While purely digital projects have pushed the development of form, they have also placed an emphasis on form over material. However, with the intention to physically build a project, the connections between process, form, and material become intertwined. The inception of this project also served as a clear reminder that the tools we use affect the way we think. This project began as a simple idea: how a column becomes animated to form an arch over time. The digitization of this idea took literally minutes in Maya. It was exported and further modeled in AutoCAD, and then rendered and reanimated in 3D Studio-Viz. This was a very brief, two-week introductory project, in a class on drafting and wood light-frame construction. It served to make a greater connection between digital media, the design process, analog drawing, and the role of craft and material.
Lim, Chor-Kheng. "G Pen: an Intelligent Designer s Playmate." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 403-409. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. In the field of design the pen-based system is a newly developed computer interface that provides the designer with the convenience of a pen in freehand sketches. But these pen-based systems only focus on an interface familiar to the designers and the application of the hardware and software that go with it, treating the pen only as a mouse-like input device. As pen and pad are devices for the pen-based system, the hope is that they can be endowed with more intelligent characteristics to let them interact with designeris gestures and become a creative source for the designers, while simultaneously preventing the design fixation encountered by designers during design process. This research utilizes the unintentional hand gestures made by designers, such as the designeris grip of the pen or movement involved in playing with the pen, putting it down, knocking it, twisting it or shaking it, during the thinking process or when running into a design fixation. From the interaction between the pen and the pad, certain actions may be generated to stimulate the designeris thinking process. This research uses a neural network as the main learning mechanism for the eventual development of a prototype of a pen-based drawing system that provides timely visual stimulation: a G Pen system.
Fure, Adam, and Karl Daubmann. "housemc - Mass-CraftingNumerical instructions for construction." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 434. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Craft oriented culture was eventually displaced by mass-production, and it was not until the early 1990is when a new paradigm began to emerge, one of infinite customer driven flexibility. Mass customization promises a flexible and efficient mode of production for customized parts or services at low cost. The catalyst for such a revolution has been computer-aided design and computer controlled manufacturing.
Bermudez, Julio, and Stefano Foresti. "Information Visualization." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 346. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Digital visualization addresses representational challenges from within and without architecture. “Disciplinary” digital visualization is used to explore, understand and communicate architectural information associated with the production of buildings. 3D modelling, rendering, animation and VR as well as the power of digital media to permit the seamless integration of various data types are unleashing completely new ways to display architecture. As digital power continues to increase and get cheaper, portability and wi-fi networks take root, and visualization work becomes even more main stream, we can expect growing changes in the way the design process is conducted, buildings are presented and documented, and the public and 3rd partyis demands from professional services. This demands a more conscious research/pedagogies aimed at developing new representation conventions.
Swackhamer, Marc. "Inscribe: Questions + Answers." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 428. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. What does it mean to generate activity? A: The majority of visitors to the Olympics are most commonly the spectatorsof the various competitions who not only observe the sports, but are also part ofthe larger experiences of the crowd and the activity associated with that venuein particular. By mapping the conglomeration of a multitude of experiences atdiffering sites, the visitor can be located within the larger collective dynamic ofthe city and the spectacle of the Olympic event. The mere act of documentationand recording text enables an inscription of a memory, thus translating a singularnotion into a tangible, visible object that is infi nitely linked to the city of Athens. While allowing for multiple variables of user groups and ranges of time, thisactivity encourages both individual and group patronage, as well as supportingthree levels of interaction varying from quickly citing a location to a more privatejournaling session. With an issued card, the visitor can electronically documentthemselves within the Olympic park at a multitude of sites by swiping the card,or have the option for journaling briefl y or for an extended period of time.
Colopy, Andrew, and Lisa Tilder. "Las Vegas Incorporated:experience +/- commodity = identity." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 431. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. In a society dominated by image and the production and consumption of fantasy, Vegas is a modern Mecca. It is in Las Vegas that the image-copy improves upon the referent - with increased entertainment value and merchandising opportunities. The image of Vegas is everything, an adult theme park super-sized menu, with no going back to the value meal.
Peng, J., B. Liao, D Glaser, J Canny, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "LiQuID: Lighting Quality for Design." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 337-345. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. In this paper, we present LiQuID, a tool for seeing lighting quality in design. Photographs are useful vehicles for both describing and making assessments of architectural lighting systems. A significant barrier to using photographs during the design process relates to the sheer volume of renderings that needs to be analyzed. Although there have been efforts to produce novel visualization systems to manage large sets of photographs, this research aims to reduce the complexity by classifying data into representative prototypes. A hypothetical case study is discussed.
Malnar, Joy. "Make No Little Plans: Designing the Chicago Lakefront in a Virtual Reality Environment." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 436. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Architects have always needed somewhere to draw. History has seen dirt, stone, wood, and paper each serve in turn as the architectis medium. Every technological advance has helped to manifest these exploratory visions in ever-increasing fidelity, while influencing the way in which the design process is conducted. Computer technology is the latest step in this progression, adding a third dimension to the architectis drawings. Programs like formiZ, 3DS max, etc. allow the architect to build lifelike models and take clients on fly-throughs. Now, virtual reality has advanced architectural drawing to “full body design”, letting architects experience their creations, rather than just seeing those creations in front of them. ShadowLight-Mirage offers a unique environment in virtual reality in which to create rich ambiances of vibrancy, vitality and vigor.
Hilleson, Zachary, and Stacy Norman. "Mountain Deflection Reflection." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 438. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. The focus of this studio was to understand the impact of digital media on the process of design, collaboration, and fabrication. This design studio brought together Ball State University and the University of Calgary in a joint venture opportunity. The use of digital tools provided fertile ground for the exploration of collaborative methods in design and fabrication.
More, G., L. Padgham, I. Mathieson, and Mark Burry. "Multidimensional Presentation Environments with IntegratedIntelligent Agents." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 421-425. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. A Multidimensional Presentation Environment (MPE) is defined here as a digital environment containing spatially located data that can be navigated by a presenter. Given an array of data types and the potential infinity of the associated datascapes, there is an opportunity to develop systems that assist the presenter in the navigation and analysis of complex information scenarios. This research reports on the utilisation of intelligentagent based software for a better understanding of spatial information representation within the MPE. This is achieved by utilising intelligent agent software to aid the presenter in the searching, retrieving, and articulation of datasets, and the application of such technologies in the generation of time based 3D graphical and audio presentations.
Tilder, Lisa, and Frederick Norman. "New Media." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 216-217. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. As digital technologies and connective systems begin to redefine traditional notions of place, space and time, how might architecture itself transform? Over the past century, extreme conceptual and spatial transformations have come about in relation to the introduction of mechanical reproduction, computer graphics and redundant systems, however architecture and representation have remained somewhat constant. This is evident in the continuity of traditional architectural representation methods that draw primarily from renaissance models - though the original impetus from which such projection methods evolved no longer bear the same significance to culture.
Gerzso, Michael. "On the Limitations of Shape Grammars: Comments on Aaron Fleisher s Article “Grammatical Architecture?”." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 279-287. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Shape grammars were introduced by Gips and Stiny in 1972. Since then, there have been many articles and books written by them and their associates. In 1992, Aaron Fleisher, a professor at the School of Planning, MIT, wrote a critique of their work in an article titled “Grammatical Architecture?i published in the journal Environment and Planning B. According to him, Gips, Stiny and later Mitchell, propose a hypothesis that states that shape grammars are presumed to represent knowledge of architectural form, that grammars are “formable,” and that there is a visual correspondence to verbal grammar. The strong version of “the hypothesis requires that an architectural form be equivalent to a grammar.i Fleisher considers these hypotheses unsustainable, and argues his case by analyzing the differences between language, and architecture, and by dealing with the concepts of lexicons, syntax and semantics. He concludes by stating that architectural design is negotiated in two modalities: the verbal and the visual, and that equivalences are not at issue, they do not exist. If there is such thing as a language for design, it would provide the means to maintain a discussion of the consequences in one mode, of the state and conditions of the other. Fleisheris observations serve as the basis of this paper, a tribute to him, and also an opportunity to present an outline to an alternate approach or hypothesis to shape grammars, which is “nonlinguistic” but “generative,” in the sense that it uses production rules. A basic aspect of this hypothesis is that the only similarity between syntactic rules in language and some rules in architecture is that they are recursive.
Pahle, Robert, and Friedhelm Stein. "Online Database for Structural Details - DeTra." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 373-381. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. DeTra is a research project that arose from the question: “How is it possible to assist students and professionals in architecture, dealing with structural details?i Our solution is a structural detail database, which assists by presenting example solutions of similar designs. This research was conducted in two overlapping parts. The first part of the research included the definition of a structure and a language to describe structural details “ flexible enough to enable complex computer based queries, simple enough to be understandable. Major problems were the inclusion of vague terms, different meanings for the same word, and different words for the same fact. The second part was to create internet-based computer software, which utilizes the developed concepts and allows their evaluation. Thereby the system can be used with different access methods to the same data collection. This approach intends to present both standard detail examples and project-related detail examples. For that reason the structural connections will be presented including all available project data. The information includes texts, sketches, drawings, photos, animations, and the database description. Our implementation handles this content. According to the holistic presentation of the search results a strong tool for evaluation is given to the user.
Schubert, Frieder, and Philipp Lurz. "Physical Simulation in a VR Tool for Urban Design." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 395-401. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Physical influences on a city, such as noise, light, air flow, and solar energy quantities, can already be simulated on computers, however, these simulations are usually not embedded into the urban planning process. Regarding a broad field of these influences and their correlations will improve the quality of the design. The use of simulations in the sketching stage provides the possibility of reacting accordingly for the urban planner, which is essential for sustainable design. This paper describes the development of a virtual reality tool for the early urban design process, in which we realized a network connection between a software package calculating noise propagation in urban spaces and a virtual reality design environment. In this dynamic VR design tool, it is possible to experiment with simple geometric forms and objects (these objects can be added to constructions, removed, and transformed). Interactively, with each action of the planner, simulations are generated and visualized in the VR environment in real-time. The last part of the paper describes our concept, how this VR design tool should be integrated in the study of urban planning, and how we want the students to get a sense for the impact of their design on physical phenomena in an urban scale.
Williamson, Shane. "Process and Individuation: Designing for Controlled Indeterminacy." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 29-37. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Through the presentation of the design of a memorial, this paper intends to introduce an iterative design process that incorporates particle-based animation, parametrically constrained operations, and a variety of rapid-prototyping techniques. This is a project rooted in the generation and interpretation of physical artifacts dependent upon both the generative potential of digital media and the subjective modifications associated with design authorship It is stated in the brief for this ACADIA topic node that “the maturity of design, modelling, visualization, manufacturing and collaboration tools has allowed them to be naturally and comfortably integrated into the design process at all stages.i As such, the design statement for this memorial makes no mention of the incorporation of digital media. Process is subordinate to its result. Simply, the victims families would not find the range of technology incorporated in this design pertinent to the matter at hand: the design of a memorial to honor the victims of the attack on the Pentagon. Within the context of this “Digital Designi topic node, though, it is my intention to expose the digital underpinnings of this project and position it within a discourse somewhere between ars accidentalis and the constraints of fully parametric and geometrically-associative design.
Mahalingam, Ganapathy. "Representing Architectural Design Using a Connections-Based Paradigm." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 269-277. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Any making, including a work of architecture, is synthetic in nature and is made by making connections. To base the core of a computational representation of architectural design on connections is to base it on the very core of making. The articulation of the core of architecture, its architectonics, should be based on articulating its connections. This paper probes how connections can serve to represent architectural design. A paradigm consists of a core cluster of concepts that, for a time period, provides a framework to articulate the issues and problems facing a field and to generate solutions. This paper offers a connections-based paradigm to represent architectural design computationally. A number of connections-based strategies for the representation of architectural design have emerged. Modelling frameworks that have been identified include dendograms, bipartite graphs, adjacency graphs, plan graphs, planar graphs, Hasse diagrams, Boolean lattices, and Bayesian networks. These modelling frameworks have enabled the representation of many aspects of architectural design. Is it possible to extract a uniform modelling framework from all these frameworks that enables the computation of architectural design in all its aspects? Using biological analogies, will an integration of these modelling frameworks provide the “molecular” structure of a “DNA” that makes up the architectural “genomei? This paper will attempt to answer these questions.
Jabi, Wassim, G. Goldman, and B. Johnson. "Requirements for an effective distributed design review." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 99-105. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. With the wider availability of high-bandwidth communication networks and the maturity of commercial collaboration software, schools of architecture are experimenting with computer-aided distributed design reviews. A distributed design review enables geographically-distant participants to discuss a common design project using computer-supported collaborative technologies such as videoconferencing, voice over IP, and shared applications. While potentially beneficial to students, and attractive to teachers, there are a number of challenges facing the integration of synchronous distributed design reviews into the design studio by technically inexperienced faculty without significant technical support. This paper seeks to make it easier for faculty to make routine utilization of such reviews by examining our own experiences with a number of such reviews, in a variety of contexts, distilling out a set of guidelines for future reviews.
Mahalingam, Ganapathy. "Return to Roots: Computational Modeling as a Tool for Architecture." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 298. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. In the early stages of their engagement of computer technology, architects approached the technology as an assistive technology that would enhance the practice of architecture. The scope of the engagement was captured in the phrase “computer-aided architectural design.i In the four decades since, the role of computer technology in architecture has gained a marked significance. The scope has now been extended for architects to contemplate “totally computer-mediated architectural design.” The key in the development of digital tools to enhance the practice of architecture has been the facility with which the various tasks involved in the practice of architecture have been represented, enabled or enhanced using computer technology. Tools have always been created for their instrumentality, that is, their ability to assist in performing desired tasks. Given the scope of the engagement of computer technology by architects in the early phases, the assistive nature of tools formed the focus of researchers. The focus on this assistive nature has continued to remain in the minds of researchers who see assistance as the proper role of computer technology in architecture.
Hume, Andrew, and Amy Schultz. "SANDbox Urbanism - suggestions for deserting the city." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 426. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This studio sought to examine the unique representational phenomena ofthe city through the design proposal of a Hotel + Experience for Las Vegas. Students were asked to craft their own “realities” - project and program- from research on a series of topics: From all-things-Disney to corporatebranding, from Worldis Fairs to themed environments and utopiancommunities, from simulation and synthetic environments to surface, skinand computer graphics concepts. Students drew upon Vegas culture andthe particularities of site (and non-site) to develop proposals which furtherexplored issues of identity construction, consumption and production, andimage in popular culture.
Temkin, Aron. "Seeing architecture with a filmmaker's eyes." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 227-233. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Where do the methods of architectural communication cross over to other disciplines? As digital tools provide greater opportunities to communicate pre-built design in both space and time, in motion and in video, how should our methods of presentation (and therefore our method of seeing) evolve to meet this need? While filmmaking is a much younger art form than architecture, it is already much wiser with regard to motion-based presentation. If we are to evolve beyond the unsophisticated motion of the average fly-through animation, we need to develop a process of seeing and composing in time that better relates to the way we perceive temporal space. A well-edited film detaches us from the confines of the medium: we do not think about how many cameras are used in a scene if it is filmed (and edited) in a manner that is natural to the way we see and perceive. Where can the filmmakeris art inform an architecture studentis processes of presentation and design? This paper will discuss ways that filmmaking can be used to inform the process of architectural design and animation with specific examples from the work of our advanced digital media course.
Juyal, M., K. Kensek, and R. Knowles. "SolCAD: 3D Spatial Design Tool Tool to Generate Solar Envelope." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 411-419. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. In this research the concept of Solar Envelope has been used to develop a 3D Spatial Design Tool tool, SolCAD, for generating an envelope over a given site based on various design parameters. The solar envelope can be imagined as a container, whose boundaries are derived from the sunis relative motion. Buildings within this container will not overshadow their surroundings during critical periods of solar access for passive and low-energy architecture. The solar envelope is a space-time construct. Its spatial limits are defined by the parameters of land parcel size, shape, orientation, topography and latitude. It also depends on the time or the period of the time for which it is designed. Its time limits are defined by the hours of each day and the season for which solar access is provided to the land parcel (Knowles 1981). This tool intends to generate an envelope over a site of any shape, size and orientation and for different boundary and height conditions of shadow lines. It is suitable for initial stages of building design process to determine the shape of the building even before the design has been conceptualized.
Lee, Ming-Chun, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "SpaceMaker - Creating Space by Sketching It." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 311-323. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Creating space is the essence of architectural design. Architects actually work with three-dimensional (3-D) space, although two-dimensional (2-D) drawings are perhaps the most commonly used design medium. It is thus valuable to help architects truly see 3-D space, while making drawings in 2-D. In addition, architects usually use symbols in their drawings to identify architectural concepts. By recognizing the symbols, it is possible to identify architectural configurations of the design. This paper introduces a symbol-based modelling tool “ SpaceMaker “ that allows architects to make freehand floor plans and apply symbols to identify different functional spaces. SpaceMaker then converts those floor plans into 3-D models according to the symbols.
Ibrahim, Magdy, and Robert Krawczyk. "The Level of Knowledge of CAD Objects within the Building Information Model." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 173-177. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. The first generation of CAD software depended on entity objects that were manipulated and interpreted by the user as meaningful graphics symbols. These entities only represented the geometrical properties of the architectural elements. With the present emerging generation of CAD systems, a new concept shifts a drawing-based model into a Building Information Model with the potential of modelling true architectural objects. Theoretically, these CAD objects will provide all related data to the designer describing the geometry, as well as any related data associated with how the object is actually used. The knowledge required to support an object should have structure to it. Different levels of knowledge need to be included, such as the geometrical information, which should be flexible enough to accommodate any type of shape and modification while keeping the objectis integrity as a unit and maintaining its relations to other objects. The CAD object concept, as remarkable as it is, might also have potential problems. It has some implications over the design process, as well as the architectural profession itself.
Maher, Andrew, and Mark Burry. "The Parametric Bridge: Connecting Digital Design Techniques in Architecture and Engineering." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 39-47. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. New design opportunities that are facilitated by cross-disciplinary collaboration in both practice and research are available through the use of high level design software that simultaneously offers real time access to both analysis and design geometry in shared three-dimensional digital models. Here we present a collaborative research project between architects and structural engineers for the design of a pedestrian bridge, conceived to test current digital design processes in architectural and structural engineering practice with those in research through the use of models of parametrically defined associative geometry. In this project, the digital modelis architectural design geometry was constrained by the bridgeis fabrication methods and linked with its engineering analysis. Iterations of the design geometry were then optimised or “solved” to produce variations according to the design parameters offered up for change. The shift of the professions from the plane to digital space exposes the possibilities of new design techniques with the exchange of design parameters potentially operating as a digital dialogue between the disciplines ? a kind of digital version of Antoni Gaudiis funicular hanging model ? a metaphor of the digital space that has been developed for this project.
Neidhardt, Lisa, and Gregory A. Luhan. "The Space of an IDEA: Ideas for Living." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 437. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Studio Issue: The space of an idea resides in the connection between thinking and making. The studio explorations reveal the tension between the private experience and the public perception and investigate new methods of architectural assemblage. By uniting thinking/drawing with seeing/making, an effectual palette engenders a new way of looking at the individual and thus narrows the normative boundaries associated with actualizing ideas.
Sanabria, Sergio, and Murali Puranandi. "The Tower of Babel a transformation of vladimir tatlin s monument to thethird international as a new headquarters for the united." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 427. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This studio, subsidized by a grant from the Havighurst Center for RussianStudies, focused on a collective investigation of a visionary early sovietproject of 1918-20 by Vladimir Tatlin for a Monument to the ThirdInternational. The twelve students in this studio decided to use Tatlinisproject as a starting point for a new and greatly expanded headquartersfor the United Nations, to be sited on the Upper Bay of New York City-as aclimactic intermediate between the Varrazano Narrows bridge, the Statueof Liberty, and the profi le of Lower Manhattan. The political aspirationsmetaphorically embodied in this monument seemed appropriate to thelofty goals of the United Nations.
Shih, Chien-Hung. "To Proceed Analysis of Dynamic Virtual Environment by Using Physical Model as a Protagonist." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 219-225. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This paper intends to combine architecture with state-of-the-art software technologies and operational methods of other domains to free architectural rendering from the restrictions of cold, still graphics or unrealistic computer pictures. The author transforms physical models into digital models through industrial design software, and synthesizes these digital models into motion pictures of the environment via film production software. This way, a designer can effectively turn the ideas of his mind into rough handmade models, instead of spending enormous amounts of time building computer models, and viewers will be able to quickly grasp the conditions of the site through the motion pictures.
Anders, Peter. "Towards Comprehensive Space: a context for the programming/design of cybrids." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 161-171. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Cybrids have been presented as mixed realities: spatial, architectural compositions comprised of physical and cyberspaces (Anders 1997). In order to create a rigorous approach to the design of architectural cybrids, this paper offers a model for programming their spaces. Other than accepting cyberspaces as part of architectureis domain, this approach is not radical. Indeed, many parts of program development resemble those of conventional practice. However, the proposition that cyberspaces should be integrated with material structures requires that their relationship be developed from the outset of a project. Hence, this paper provides a method for their integration from the projectis earliest stages, the establishment of its program. This study for an actual project, the Planetary Collegium, describes a distributed campus comprising buildings and cyberspaces in various locales across the globe. The programming for these cybrids merges them within a comprehensive space consisting not only of the physical and cyberspaces, but also in the cognitive spaces of its designers and users.
Chang, W., and Robert F. Woodbury. "Undo Reinterpreted." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 19-27. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. The class of operations known as “undo” has proven to be a valuable addition to most professional work tools. In practice though, its use is frustrating: undo often undoes too much. Its essential informal semantics are that it returns the user to a prior state by recapitulating all intervening states. Why not give the user greater control over which aspects of a design to undo? An alternative is to seek to reuse prior work in any logically-coherent pattern - user input is a precious commodity. The area of generative systems provides insights in a search for alternatives to undo, in particular that prior user and system actions can be changed and reused in new contexts. We contingently introduce a concept we label as design promotions to describe system designs that demonstrate a tight coupling between interactive authorship and system-led generation, that treat past user actions as valuable intentional statements, and that treat alternative user choices as first-class objects of concern. In practice these three properties emphasize reuse. We briefly survey the current state of undo-like operations and potential candidates for implementing design promotions strategies. Through examples, we demonstrate approaches to realizing undo-like operations over specific representations, especially that of constructive solid geometry.
Greinacher, Udo. "URBAN FURNITURE: from gazebo to digi-booth." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 429. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Recent years have seen the steady increase of automated kiosks and temporary structures that begin to replace traditional building types. In this course we studied and analyzed the development of the gazebo/kiosk in urban/rural settings both inside and outside over time, assessed its value for commerce and social equity, proposed a forward projection regarding the role digital info-booths/commercial kiosks will play in our urban environment, and developed new spatial models that can become an integral part of our daily experience.
Sterk, Tristan de Estree. "Using Actuated Tensegrity Structures to Produce a Responsive Architecture." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 85-93. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. The major theoretical roots of responsive architecture lie within the work of Nicholas Negroponte, and its most inspiring realization, to date, is found in the work of dECOi Architects. The work of NOX, and Diller & Scofidio provide two other built examples of responsive architectures. Each of these works is impressive within its own right. However, all of them have their shortcomings, suggesting that several possibilities for alternative visions still exist. While Negroponteis work identifies the characteristics of a responsive architecture, it does not propose a model that is suitable for implementation. On the other hand, the work of dECOi architects does not address the technical needs of a building envelope designed for real world conditions of weather and structural load. Diller & Scofidiois work, also does not have a functional envelope, and NOXis work lacks physical responsiveness, favoring a palate of virtual responses instead.This paper, after examining the four specific precedents of Negroponte, dECOi, Diller & Scofidio, and NOX, will examine how a fifth precedent ? that of Buckminster Fulleris model of tensegrity structures “ may be applied. The paper will propose that by actuating a tensegrity structure a responsive architectural envelope that addresses real world weather and structural loading conditions becomes feasible.
Wai, Lindsay, and Karl Daubmann. "Variations + Versioning." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 435. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. A major holdover from the previous culture of making is that of repetition and modularity. It is true that it is always cheaper and faster to make the same part, component, or building over and over again but then again cheaper is not necessarily better. 
Luhan, Gregory A.. "Virtual Raves in Synthetic LandscapesHybrid Rave Space." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 432. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. Project Description: The typology of public event spaces has transformed substantially over centuries. Ranges of spatial configurations have been developed with numerous instances and adaptations, many have occurred in our own century as the information needs of the modern society evolved. Bernard Tschumi denotes these phenomena as architectural urbanism where city-generators, functions, and programs combine and intersect in spaces of endless cross programming. Today, derelict industrial spaces [terrain vagues] have become social places that accommodate public activities. New technologies, particularly those associated with electronic media have radically influenced the program and typology of these event-spaces. Yet, in spite of social, technological, and material changes, the essence of the event-structure has not changed, it remains a place of interaction.
Dobson, Adrian, and Peter Lancaric. "VIRTUreALITY Digital Urban Modelling as a Community Design Form." In Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse: Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 49-53. ACADIA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Ball State University, 2003. This paper describes a practice-led research project that investigates the application of digital modelling and communication technologies in urban and architectural design. The project is being carried out by our team with the collaboration of the architecture and planning departments at local borough council and local community participation. The main methodology for the project revolves around the evolution of an interactive three-dimensional digital urban model, which incorporates a variety of visual, graphic and numeric data. This digital model is utilised within a web site to help facilitate a participatory approach to the physical and social regeneration of an inner urban zone, in terms of both the built environment and the attempted creation of a virtual community.