Keywords Abstract
Kobayashi, Yoshihiro. "3D City Model Generator: the Application of Neuro-Fuzzy Systems in CAD." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 163-174. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper introduces a computer-aided design (CAD) system in which a neuro-fuzzy system isintegrated as a main engine for learning. Specifically, a computer system that generates 3D city modelsfrom satellite images is formulated, implemented, and tested. Techniques from neural networks, fuzzysystems, image processing, pattern recognition, and machine learning constitute the methodologicalfoundation of the system. The usability and flexibility of the system are evaluated in case studies.
Glymph, J., D. Shelden, C. Ceccato, J. Mussel, and H. Schober. "A Parametric Strategy for Freeform Glass Structures Using Quadrilateral Planar Facets." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 303-321. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. The design and construction of freeform glass roofing structures is generally accomplished through theuse of either planar triangular glass facets or curved (formed) glass panes. This paper describesongoing research on the constructability of such structures using planar quadrilateral glass facets for theJerusalem Museum of Tolerance project by Gehry Partners, in collaboration with Schlaich Bergermann& Partners, engineers. The challenge here lies not only in the development of a geometric strategy forgenerating quadrilateral planar facet solutions, but also in the fact that said solutions must closely matchthe designs created initially in physical model form by the architects.We describe a simple but robust geometric method for achieving the structure by incorporating thenecessary geometric principles into a computational parametric framework using the CATIA Version 5system. This generative system consists of a hierarchical set of geometric “control elementsi, that drivethe design toward constructible configurations. Optimization techniques for approximating the generatedstructural shape to the original created by the designers are also described. The paper presents theunderlying geometric principles to the strategy and the resulting computational approach.
Papamichael, Konstantinos, J. Lai, D. Fuller, and T. Tariq. "A Web-based Virtual Lighting Simulator." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 269-277. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper is about a web-based “virtual lighting simulator” that is intended to allow architects and lighting designers to quickly assess the effect of key parameters on the daylighting and lighting performance in various space types. The virtual lighting simulator consists of a web-based interfacethat allows navigation through a large database of images and data, which were generated through parametric lighting simulations. In its current form, the virtual lighting simulator has two main modules,one for daylighting and one for electric lighting.The daylighting module includes images and data for a small office space, varying most key daylighting parameters such as window size and orientation, glazing type, surface reflectance, sky conditions, andtime of the year. The electric lighting module includes images and data for five space types (classroom, small office, large open office, warehouse and small retail), varying key lighting parameters such as the electric lighting system, surface reflectance, and dimming/switching. The computed images include perspectives and plans and are displayed in various formats to support qualitative as well as quantitative assessment. The quantitative information is in the form of iso-contourlines super imposed on the images, as well as false color images and statistical information on workplane illuminance. The qualitative information includes images that are adjusted to account for the sensitivity and adaptation of the human eye. The paper also contains a section on the major technicalissues and their resolution.
Maher, Mary Lou, and John S. Gero. "Agent Models of 3D Virtual Worlds." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 125-135. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. Architectural design has relevance to the design of virtual worlds that create a sense of place through the metaphor of buildings, rooms, and in habitable spaces. The design and implementation of virtual worlds has focused on the design of 3D form for fast rendering to allow real time exploration of the world. Using platforms that were originally designed for computer games, some virtual worlds now contain pre-programmed interactive behaviours. We present an agent model of virtual worlds in which the objects in the world have agency, that is, the objects can sense their environment, reason about theirgoals, and make changes to the environment. This agent model is presented and illustrated using a wallagent. Following from the wall agent, we generalize how agency can be attached to any 3D model in a virtual world.
Kalisperis, L., G. Otto, Katsuhiko Muramoto, J. Gundrum, R. Masters, and B. Orland. "An Affordable Immersive Environment in Beginning Design Studio Education." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 47-54. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper presents work exploring the potential of virtual reality (VR) within an affordable environmentin the early years of architectural education has been limited. Through an immersive environmentsystem in the studio, students create space by manipulating solids and voids while evaluating theanthropometric relations of the proposed solution. The students are able to study and test conceptualdetails in a virtual environment from the very beginning of their architectural design project.We carried out a usability study in order to assess student perception of the usefulness of varioussystem attributes for diverse tasks. Thirty-five surveys were collected from the students who had usedthe system. Observations indicate that within the architectural context, virtual reality techniquesinvolving depth perception can convey relevant information to students more efficiently and with lessmisrepresentation than traditional techniques.
Head, J., R. Hoag, and K. Brooks. "An Evaluation of Urban Simulation Processes for the Elumens Vision Dome." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 55-63. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper reports an evaluation of the potential use and value of three digital urban simulationstechniques presented on a hemispheric display system made by Elumens -. The utility of this system toengage students and decision-makers in a process of envisioning alternative futures for a communitycollege campus in a Midwestern U.S. city is discussed. Visualization of alternative environments is acritical part of planning and design. The ability of designers, planners and their students to use media toengage and communicate proposals is essential to effective participatory design processes.
Boucard, D., S. Huot, Ch. Colin, G. Hégron, and D. Siret. "An Image-based and Knowledge-based System for Efficient Architectural and Urban Modeling." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 229-238. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. In this paper, we present two user-centered systems aiming at making easier the modelling ofarchitectural and urban scenes by using two different but complementary approaches. The first oneMArINa, an image-based modeler, allows the user to reconstruct urban scenes from one or moregraphical documents. This method focuses more on reconstructing models and is more dedicated tothe production of 3D sketches. The second modeler, MArCo is a knowledge-based modelercontaining the know-from and know-how on classical architecture. It allows the user to modelclassical architectural scenes verifying automatically all the domain rules. Finally, we show howMArINa and MArCo can cooperate providing the user a tool combining efficiently their respectivecapabilities.
Chitchian, D., and H. Bekkering. "An Urbanistic Design Tool." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 339-344. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. The existing CAD and CAAD programs and design applications hardly support the urbanistic designactivities. Although those applications are useful means to be utilized generally in design tasks, they arenot suitable tools as urbanism community needs. Most existing CAD programs are based on thearchitectural design process and therefore not suitable for urbanistic design. The conceptual differencebetween architecture and urbanism necessitates developing new CAD software based on the urbanisticdesign process. We believe that our developed Urban-CAD system assists designers with urbanisticdesign activities and overcomes the limitations of the already existing CAD applications.
Schira, Gretchen. "Analysis of Digital Image Properties and Human Preference." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 413-422. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. The three studies summarized in this paper present evidence that aesthetic preference for visual surface texture is closely correlated with spatial frequency and orientation. The stimul used were digital versions of real environments, in the sense that they originated in photographs of real surfaces.Correlations are significant, and robust, and they were not effected by identifiability of the images.Theoretically, this points to the possibility that aesthetic preferences for objects in the builtenvironment “virtual” and “real”  are not exclusively devoted to culture, memory and association, aspost-modern discourse would dictate. Although more work needs to be done, it nevertheless points tothe potential that preference for digital/virtual as well as real architectural environments be consideredthe visual stimuli to which human beings are neurologically tuned. Digital technology provides themeans to implement such research, and computer simulations of “real” environments will be the firstapplication. With an ability to adapt aesthetically to the changing human condition, the important questions are how should one adapt such surfaces and under what criteria or under what influence arethe adaptations made?
Heylighen, Ann, and Nicole Segers. "Crossing Two Thresholds with one Stepping Stone - Scenario for a More Comfortable Design Environment." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 145-153. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. In architecture, design ideas are developed as much through interaction as by individuals in isolation.This awareness inspired the development of a dynamic architectural memory online, an interactiveplatform to share ideas, knowledge and insights among architects/designers in different contexts and atdifferent levels of expertise. User interaction revealed this platform to suffer from at least two thresholds:First of all, consultation during design is impeded by a physical threshold that separates the platformfrom the designeris working environment. Secondly, designers tend to sense a psychological thresholdto share their ideas and insights with others. This paper proposes to cross both thresholds byconnecting the collective platform to a private design space, where designers can feel free to jot downand reflect on their ideas without fear for criticism, compromise or copying. This connection should allowthem to access the platform during the very act of designing, and to regulate to what extent they “giveaway” their own ideas. The latter regulation is literally meant as a stepping stone that if not primes, thenat least paves the way for a sincere shift in mentality.
Ozel, Filiz, and Niklaus Kohler. "Data Modeling Issues in Simulating the Dynamic Processes in Life Cycle Analysis of Buildings." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 187-195. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. Typically, in simulating the dynamic processes in buildings, data modelling efforts require the modellingof the building geometry, its components and the relationship between these components, as well asthe modelling of the process that is under study. For example, in simulating the life cycle of a building,one must simulate the flow of materials as well as the flow of information as part of the processmodelling, while a component model is needed to represent the building as an artifact. A third aspect ofthis modelling effort constitutes the simulation of human intervention, i.e. the decision process that mightaffect the nature of the building itself as well as the process that acts upon it. For example, the decisionto remodel a certain component clearly affects both the component itself as well as the process ofaging, when life cycle of buildings is simulated. This paper looks at the data modelling requirements ofthe simulation of building life cycle within the context of the three parameters mentioned above: datamodel for buildings, process models and decision models. Temporal issues in data modelling, such asversioning for components, keeping track of data that are related to change and remodelling, andbuildings as temporal-spatial entities for life cycle analysis purposes are also addressed.
Sarawgi, Tina, and Murali Paranandi. "Daylight Simulation: Examining its place during Conceptual Stages in a CAAD Studio." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 263-270. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper reports on our experiences using computer graphic visual simulations to encouragearchitecture students to examine daylighting aspects of their design solutions during conceptual stagesin undergraduate design studios. Using computers for conceptual design was the major thrust of theinvestigation of these studios where daylight was one of the issues students examined for a four-weekperiod. We present our experiences and student work with traditional CGI-based and physics-basedradiosity rendering techniques. Our experiences show that although radiosity based visual simulation iscapable of producing more realistic images, in the design process its success was limited to studyingclearly defined interior spaces. CGI-based visualization, particularly when used in conjunction withtraditional physical models, was more useful and effective in the design process, being closer to thefluid nature of the design process. Further work needs to be done to make the currently availableradiosity-based software suitable for use in the design decision-making process.
Liew, Haldane. "Descriptive Conventions for Shape Grammars." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 365-378. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper introduces a new set of descriptive conventions for shape grammars, and illustrates howthey can be used to address problems with user experience. The shape grammar formalism has beenshown to be capable of generating designs such as Palladian villas, Prairie houses and Queen Annehouses. The formalism can describe the process to develop a design through the use of rules, symbols,and lines.The useris experience in applying the rules is often neglected in the design of the grammars. Thiscreates four problems: 1) the user is unaware of the implicit sequencing of rules, 2) the user cangenerate invalid design states, 3) the user is forced to apply technical rules that do not change theoverall design, and 4) the user is only given a restricted set of design choices.To address these problems, a new set of descriptive conventions has been developed that provides alayer of abstraction built on top of the formalism. These conventions are currently being implementedusing the Visual LISP programming environment in AutoCAD. The program applies rules, whichincorporate the use of the new conventions, to produce a design.The conventions are based on two techniques. The first technique is an explicit control mechanism thatdetermines the sequencing of rules based on the success or failure of a rule application. Becausesome design changes require more than one rule, this allows the grammar to chain a sequence of rulesto create macros since. The second technique is a mechanism that demarcates an area of the drawingfor query. With this technique, a rule is able to recognize void spaces in a drawing.A comparison of the rules to construct a bi-laterally symmetrical grid in three grammars--Palladian,Yingzao Fashi, and Grid--will be used to demonstrate the advantages of the new conventions.
Martens, Bob, and Herbert Peter. "Developing Systematics Regarding Virtual Reconstruction of Synagogues." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 349-356. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. Computer-assisted reconstruction of no-longer existent (architectural) objects and their surroundingsamounts to a “virtual comebacki. Irreversible destruction having removed identity-establishing buildingsfrom the urban surface forever is the principal reason for re-creating them by imagination. Following thedestruction during the so-called “Reichskristall-Nighti of November 1938, the synagogues of the Jewishcommunity in Vienna will only survive by means of virtual reconstruction. Sixty years later, in the commemorativeyear of 1998, the first synagogue reconstruction was initiated. The medium-range goal,however, aims at the reconstruction of at least ten additional synagogues as a project to be carried outin stages over a period of several years. Changes in personnel also call for a structure to be trackeddown later on. This paper deals with handling of modelling in a systematic manner, taking into consideration personnel changes, aiming at a traceable data structure for subsequent use and follow-upwork.
Fischer, Thomas, Thomas Fischer, and C. Ceccato. "Distributed Agents for Morphologic and Behavioral Expression in Cellular Design Systems." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 111-121. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. After more than a century of domination by neo-Darwinian theory, biological thought is beginning to giveincreasing recognition to developmental theory. Amongst other reasons, this recent widening ofperspective is grounded on the incompleteness of the neo-Darwinian perspective in providing modelsfor the invention of novel forms or species and individual development. Evolutionary design theory hasdrawn much of its inspiration from evolutionary biology and consequently shows analogous flaws. Thispaper demonstrates an adoption of biological developmental theory to the field of design theory in orderto fill the corresponding gap. As natural developmental processes are based on the development ofcellular units, which form composite structures, this paper employs the cellular model as a means for thedevelopment of a corresponding design and construction theory. The discussion of this approachincludes possible linkages between morphologic and behavioural attributes of tissues with implicationsfor self-assembly, growth, healing and self-reproduction of man-made structures.
Woo, J., Mark Clayton, R. Johnson, B. Flores, and Ch. Ellis. "Dynamic Knowledge Map: Reusing Experts Tacit Knowledge in the AEC Industry." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 407-411. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. Much knowledge in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is experience-basedand tacit. Nevertheless, the typical strategy for knowledge management is focused on computer-basedapproaches for capturing and disseminating explicit knowledge. AEC firms have been successful atcollecting and storing explicit information in enterprise databases, but they are poor at knowledgeretrieval and exchange. Consequently, AEC professionals find it difficult to reuse core expertsiknowledge for highly knowledge-intensive AEC activities. This situation calls for a method fordisseminating tacit knowledge from expertsi brains to achieve higher quality AEC projects.The primary purpose of this paper is to set a theoretical foundation for clarifying the contribution ofexpertsi tacit knowledge in the AEC industry. The secondary purpose is to describe the concept forprototype software, Dynamic Knowledge Map, that can assist in the reuse of expertsi tacit knowledge.Dynamic Knowledge Map is a Web-based knowledge navigator that searches for experts and facilitatescommunication with those experts by using internet technology. Higher performance levels theoreticallycan be achieved while accelerating the knowledge transfer processes. Future research will test thesuitability of Dynamic Knowledge Map for tacit knowledge utilization in AEC organizations.
Barrow, Larry. "Elitism, IT and the Modern Architect Opportunity or Dilemma." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 97-109. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. Information Technology (IT) is impacting architecture dramatically in process and form. Often thecurrent transformation of architecture is difficult to analyze and frequently we see confusion and anxietyregarding uncertainties for the future of the architect as designer and project leader. The currentpotentiality for new exotic form (i.e. product) is mesmerizing, however, in the current context, lessobvious issues and pertinent questions are emerging for the profession. What is the mission of theprofession? What will keep us relevant in the mist of the new global society? In this paper, we will take an evolutionary perspective of technology in architecture and draw parallelsbetween the Renaissance, which is the genesis of the modern architect, and the contemporary state ofarchitecture. The modern architect was birthed during the Renaissance where we see the retraction ofthe architect from the building site and separation from direct involvement in the building process.Communications technology (i.e. representation in the form of free-hand drawings, mechanical 2D orthographic drawings and 3D perspectives) enabled the decomposition of the master builder into threecomponents (i.e. artist-designer, practicing_architect, and builder). Thus, we see technology enable thedenigration and ultimate dissolution of the centuries old craftsman guilds and the master builder. Thetechnology evolution of “drawings” enabled monumental change in the process of architecture over thepast five hundred years. The fission of the master builder, enabled by “drawings”,  resulted in disparatefactions which are the forerunners of the modern day litigious design-bid-build project delivery. We nowincreasingly see a return to the fusion of design and building where often the architect is not the projectmanager or leader. Thus, the question looms, will the 21st century architect lead or be led, and whatare the ramifications for the profession?The historical Master Builder is re-emerging as a dynamically networked team of design andconstruction knowledge specialists. Bi-lateral knowledge exchange, enhanced with emerging IT, isoccurring between owners, managers, architects, design specialists, engineers, builders and machines.Technology is disrupting architecture, resulting in increasing specialization and compressed timeframes, and may require reevaluation of the role of the architect as project-leader “integrat” vegeneralistior “design-specialist”.Conclusively, the concept of “cybernetic architecture” is proposed as an IT reference framework. Failureto appropriately respond to societal evolution, driven by technology, could result in the loss ofprofessional status for the modern architect. Herein lies our dilemma, or opportunity, depending on therole choice of the modern architect.
Kuenstle, Michael. "Escarpment Study in a Virtual Flow Environment: a Comparative Analysis of a Single Building Type Modeled in Varying Topological Situations." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 239-247. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper documents the progress of research to investigate the integration of 3-dimensionalcomputational modelling techniques into wind mitigation analysis and design for building structureslocated in high wind prone areas. Some of the basic mechanics and theoretical concepts of fluid flowand wind pressure as well as their translation into design criteria for structural analysis and design arereviewed, followed by a discussion of a detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application casestudy for a simulated “3-second gust” hurricane force wind flow over a low rectangular building locatedin a coastal region of south Florida. The case study project models the wind flow behaviour and pressuredistribution over the building structure when situated in three varying conditions within a single terrainexposure category. The simulations include three-dimensional modelling of the building type constructed(1) on-grade in a flat coastal area, (2) above grade with the building elevated on structural columns, and(3) on-grade downwind of an escarpment. The techniques and parameters for development of thesimulations are discussed and some preliminary interpretations of the results are evaluated bycomparing their predictions to existing experimental and analytical data, with special attention paid tothe numerical methods outlined in the American Society of Civil Engineers, Minimum Design Loads forBuildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-98.
Samareh, Behnam, and Kostas Terzidis. "Extreme Spatial Experience: Altering the Perception of Space." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 137-144. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper focuses on the development of a method for promoting alternative perceptions ofarchitectural space by exploring different ways of introducing computers in the space/occupant dynamic.
Kensek, K., L. Dodd, and N. Cipolla. "Fantastic Reconstructions or Reconstructions of the Fantastic? Tracking and Presenting Ambiguity, Alternatives, and Documentation in Virtual Worlds." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 289-302. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper considers the presence of ambiguity, evidence, and alternatives in virtual reconstructions ofancient, historic, and other no-longer-existing environments. Because the foundation of thesereconstructions is data coupled to interpretations, virtual intellectual products can be grounded throughcritique and citations. The real-world basis for a virtual world may include multiple sources of evidence.This paper will demonstrate a methodology for making ambiguity, the quality of the evidence, andalternative reconstructions dynamically transparent to a user. This methodology harnesses thedynamism and perceptual expectations of multimedia-literate users. In our experiments we have mainlyused Flash and rollovers to create a static version of a “self-touri that lets the viewer engage ambiguityand evidence in a virtual world dynamically and interactively so that the level of confidence can bemediated and adjusted as desired.By creating these tools, reconstructions can be explicitly linked to the real world while maintaining theflexibility, experience, and interactivity of the multimedia environment. Most importantly, the virtualrendition offers researchers the ability to show a complex set of variables dynamically, thereby allowingthem to be intuitively and interactively grasped in combination, a process that is not presently possibleusing standard techniques of static research presentation.
Landau, Steven, and Marc Grassi. "Immersive Real-Time Audio/Visual Architectural Simulations." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 401-406. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. The authors have developed an approach to creating real-time audio-visual architectural simulations that allow any viewer to virtually explore the spatial and acoustical implications of a buildingis design.Though somewhat limited in depth of the immersive experience, this investigation successfully demonstrated that architectural presentations can be augmented and enriched by incorporating sensory information other than the visual.
Bermudez, Julio, Jim Agutter, N. Syroid, B. Lilly, Y. Sharir, T. Lopez, D. Westenskow, and S. Foresti. "Interfacing Virtual and Physical Spaces through the Body: the cyberPRINT Project." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 395-400. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. The cyber PRINT is a fully immersive, interactive virtual environment that is being generated in real-time based on physiological data readings of a human body. In other words, the cyberPRINT is based oncreating interfaces between physical and digital spaces and between biology and information technologies. The cyber PRINT is also an event, wherein a performer is connected to the cyber PRINT generator to create a self-sustaining feedback mechanism. Although using the body to electronicallydrive music and media events is not new, most of these works have paid little or no attention to the potential of interactive 3D virtual environments. Nor have they been so technologically advanced, interdisciplinary intensive (involving architecture, choreography, modern dance, music, bioengineering,medicine and computer science), or architecturally focused as the cyberPRINT. This project covers a wide and fertile territory that goes from the very technical and design oriented to the very theoretical and interdisciplinary. This paper is intended to (1) expand what has been alreadypublished about this project (Bermudez et al 2000a) and (2) establish potential areas for discussion before and after the performance
Vassigh, Shahin. "Learning in Digital Space: Dynamic Visualization of Structural Behavior as a Teaching Strategy." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 37-45. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This article explores the problems with the existing models employed as a basis for teachingstructures effectively in architecture programs. As a solution, it outlines the development of a multimediaeducational software package as an alternative to the less effective traditional approach.The software described utilizes a wide range of high-quality graphics, computer-generated models,animations, Virtual reality models and audio to demonstrate the principles and applications ofstructural analysis. The development of the educational software aims to provide structural analysisinstruction that is better suited to the skills, disposition, and learning needs of architecture students.
Morozumi, Mitsuo, Y. Sueshige, T. Uchiyama, and S. Inoue. "Linked QTVR System for Simulating Citizens Strolling Around Activities." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 217-227. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper discusses a city model using the linked QTVR (cylinder-VR) technique to study relationshipsbetween peopleis behaviour while strolling around downtown shopping districts, and visual stimuli in eachpart of the district. At the beginning of the study, because a large city model was required, a majorobstacle was the necessity of taking a large number of photographic images of the area, especiallyimages with wide vertical view angles. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) discuss the major featuresof the simulation system and its uses for the study, (b) discuss a refined method of producing acylindrical image of QTVR allowing the operator to look up almost 56 degrees, and (c) evaluate theperformance of the developed system through experiment by 30 university students who know thedistrict well.
Linder, Mark, and McLain Clutter. "Modeling Urban Spaces: GIS and CAD Compared." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 345-348. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This research is producing digital cartographic models of the urban space of Rome, NY. Workingbetween two software packages for spatial visualization that are now ubiquitous in architecture (FormZ)and geography (ArcView), the project takes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding howavailable data sources and modes of visualization enable or discourage particular understandings ofurban space. The project is designed specifically to work within, and develop, a critique of theconstraints of the two software packages. Rather than encouraging a deceptively smooth integration ofwhat may be fundamentally incommensurable forms of knowledge, this project begins with the premisethat vocabularies and conceptions of space vary considerably in various disciplines, as do the modes ofvisualization that each has developed to represent, document, examine, and produce space.
Glaser, D, R Warfield, K Carrier, A Lam, Y Yong, J Canny, M Ubbelohde, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "Multi-Resolution Sky Visualization: Daylight Design and Design Tools." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 251-261. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper describes how building designers make sense of the sky and modern visualizationtechniques for representing them. The dialectic approach addresses technological innovation withrespect to existing social practices. This is done for two reasons ? to illustrate where practices are andhow they can be extended with innovative technologies. It is shown that building designers maintainvarious levels of expertise for managing daylight design. Visualization prototypes are introduced alsowith different degrees of precision. The paper concludes with implications for the development ofdesign tools and use by building designers.
Flemming, Ulrich, Halil Erhan, and Ipek Ö. zkaya. "Object-Oriented Application Development in CAD: a Graduate Course." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 25-36. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. The programming languages typically offered by CAD systems for third-party application developerswere procedural or functional. A major shift is currently occurring in that new versions of commercialCAD software will support object-oriented programming languages for application development.Developers who wish to take advantage of this new kind of environment must undergo a considerablecognitive “retoolingi and adopt new software engineering strategies. We describe a graduate coursethat aims at introducing students to effective object-oriented development strategies, especially usecase-driven development and the tools provided by the Unified Modelling Language (UML). Studentsgained experience with these tools by forming, together with the instructors, a single development teamwriting an application on top of MicroStation/J using JMDL as programming language. The paperdescribes the instructorsi experience with this approach.
Fowler, Thomas, and Brook Muller. "Physical and Digital Media Strategies for Exploring 'Imagined' Realities of Space, Skin and Light." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 13-23. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper will discuss an unconventional methodology for using physical and digital media strategies in a tightly structured framework for the integration of Environmental Control Systems (ECS) principles intoa third year design studio. An interchangeable use of digital media and physical material enabled architectural explorations of rich tactile and luminous engagement. The principles that provide the foundation for integrative strategies between a design studio and buildingtechnology course spring from the Bauhaus tradition where a systematic approach to craftsmanship andvisual perception is emphasized. Focusing particularly on color, light, texture and materials, Josef Albers explored the assemblage of found objects, transforming these materials into unexpected dynamiccompositions. Moholy-Nagy developed a technique called the photogram or camera-less photograph torecord the temporal movements of light. Wassily Kandinsky developed a method of analytical drawing that breaks a still life composition into diagrammatic forces to express tension and geometry. Theseschematic diagrams provide a method for students to examine and analyze the implications of element placements in space (Bermudez, Neiman 1997). Gyorgy Kepes's Language of Vision provides a primer for learning basic design principles. Kepes argued that the perception of a visual image needs aprocess of organization. According to Kepes, the experience of an image is “a creative act of integrationi. All of these principles provide the framework for the studio investigation. The quarter started with a series of intense short workshops that used an interchangeable use of digitaland physical media to focus on ECS topics such as day lighting, electric lighting, and skin vocabulary tolead students to consider these components as part of their form-making inspiration. In integrating ECS components with the design studio, an nine-step methodology was established toprovide students with a compelling and tangible framework for design:Examples of student work will be presented for the two times this course was offered (2001/02) to show how exercises were linked to allow for a clear design progression.
Donath, Dirk, Thorsten Lömker, and Katharina Richter. "Plausibility in the Planning Process - Reason and Confidence in the Computer-Aided Design and Planning of Buildings." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 155-162. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. Architecture is more than form. It must be more than form. It can be spectacular, it can be revolutionary, but it should also be comprehensible, reasoned and plausible and this should be reflected in its form.This very nature of architecture makes it different from other design disciplines. However, it is these central aspects that are not supported by current computer-aided planning systems. The development of digital models concentrates on the purely formal aspects.
Lee, Jaemin, and Ergun Akleman. "Practical Image Based Lighting." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 279-288. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. In this paper, we present a user-friendly and practical method for seamless integration of computergeneratedimages (CG) with real photographs and video. In general, such seamless integration isextremely difficult and requires recovery of real-world information to simulate the same environment forboth CG and real objects. This real-world information includes camera positions and parameters,shapes, material properties, and motion of real objects. Among these, one of the most important islighting.Image-based lighting that is developed to recover illumination information of the real world fromphotographs has recently become popular in computer graphics. In this paper we present a practicalimage-based lighting method that is based on a simple and easily constructable device: a square platewith a cylindrical stick. We have developed a user-guided system to approximately recover illuminationinformation (i.e. orientations, colors, and intensities of light sources) from a photograph of this device.Our approach also helps to recover surface colors of real objects based on reconstructed lightinginformation.
Hwang, Jie-Eun, and Jin-Won Choi. "SpaceCore: Metadata for Retrieving Spatial Information in Architecture." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 197-215. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This research investigates the spatial information retrieval in architecture focused on constructingefficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is “structured dataabout datai to describe the resources especially in a digital method. In this research, metadata is a sortof data object to be used in searching spatial information, such as describing a raw spatial data objectnot only as attribute data but also as content, structurally and semantically. There are two issues thatmotivate this research, 1) the materialization of the intangible space as a data object, and 2) thecontent-based information retrieval. In the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, we analyze spatialinformation on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then we extract the metadata items in astructured manner. To manage the items efficiently, we develop a data model for spatial informationaccording to the concept of “Structured Floor Plan”. For exploiting the metadata, this research showsseveral possibilities of query operations to present a set of sample queries about L-D-K (Living room -Dining room - Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) amodelling module, Vitruvis, 2) an indexing module, SpaceCore, and 3) a browsing module.
Miller, J.J., W. Wang, and G. Jenkins. "The Anthropometric Measurement and Modeling Project 2002." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 389-393. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper describes a project that has been on-going since 2000 and consists of the followingactivities:• specification of Digital Human Models (DHM) for the visualization of people seated in wheelchairs,• extension of commercial off the shelf (COTS) software to enable the development of dynamicvisualizations of “data that makes data”, and• subsequent construction of digital visualizations that are useful to designers in the creation ofartifacts and environments for human use.We have developed a process of “data that makes data” which allows the visualization of any potentialor hypothetical physical interface between a human and an environment or artifact.Preliminary validation is provided by comparison with findings of other researchers. This work clearlysuggests a need for design-oriented software that contains robust “dynamic” digital human modelscapable of creating visualization for any arbitrary context.
Fedeski, M., and B. Sidawi. "The Management of Internet Use, in UK Architectural Practices." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 357-364. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. The architectural profession has been slow to adopt new innovations in such areas as buildingtechnology, management, and CAD, as earlier research has shown. The Internet presents a particularchallenge. With even greater changes to the Internet expected in the near future, it is timely to ask howthe profession is adapting.Field research conducted by the author has found shortcomings in the way that architects use Internettechnology in the U.K. These involve the decisions to adopt the Internet, the management of its dailyuse, and forward planning for future adaptation. U.K. architects under-use the services available, andexperience problems with the services they do use. Their resultant dissatisfaction with what the Internetcan offer leads to a reluctance to adopt and use further Internet services.This paper discusses one aspect of that research, which is how architects are managing Internetresources in their practices. It argues that many of the difficulties that architects have are related topractice management. The paper presents these under the headings of the knowledge and attitude ofthe staff, and the decisions made by practice managers. The paper highlights features that needattention from practices and from the architects who guide them.
Martens, Bob, B.-Ch. Björk, and Z. Turk. "The SciX Project: Re-Engineering from Paper-based to Free Electronic Publishing." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 179-185. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. In the paper-based world, CAAD-associations, such as ACADIA, and scientific publishers aim at gettingthe right people together and for making sure their work gets distributed to their peers. Electronicnetworks, such as the Internet, are providing scientists with the means to pursue those activities on theirown. In this paper we present the goals of an EU project called SciX. The goal of SciX is to analyze thebusiness processes of scientific publishing, to invent new publication models and through a series ofpilots to demonstrate how this should work. In the envisioned scenarios, professional associations suchas ACADIA play an important role. Their members are the potential users of SciX's platforms, authorsand readers of the papers. Associations could also become the publishers and archivists of theknowledge created within their respective community. The objectives of this contribution focus oninvolving the ACADIA-community in the developments in SciX on fine-shaping the goals as well as ondefining the requirements and monitoring the usability of the pilots.
Senagala, Mahesh. "Time-like Architectures: the Emergence of Post-spatial Parametric Worlds." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 69-76. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. A new trend is emerging in architecture today: dynamic and time-like architectures (term derived from the language of Theory of Relativity) that are capable of moving, flexing and reconfiguring them selves through globally networked control mechanisms are emerging. Such buildings maybe “plugged into” the information networks and can be manipulated through remote interaction. Architecture canbe published, literally. At this time there is no one theoretical framework available to address sucharchitectural efforts and the paper is aimed at providing a framework under the rubric of “Time like Architectures”. The paper addresses the unprecedented transformation of the spatial and temporal foundations of architecture by a convergence of two technological developments: global real-time information networks and kinetic, pneumatic tectonics. Envisioned and in some cases built by agroup of avant-garde architects, time-like architectures are poised to become a norm in a nottoo distant future. The paper will identify, define and outline few time-like works. The paper will also outline the historical, theoretical and ethical relationships between post-spatial (authors term), post-modern and modern architectures using Charles Jencksi structuralist classification, Evolutionary Tree.
Liapi, Katherine A.. "Transformable Architecture Inspired by the Origami Art: Computer Visualization as a Tool for Form Exploration." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 381-388. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. Membrane packaging has been the main feature of the earliest prototypes of transformablearchitecture. Similar concepts of spatial transformation are encountered in the origami art where aplanar paper surface, after folding, transforms to a 3-dimentional object. The geometric configuration ofcreases on a sheet of paper before folding, as well as the topological properties of 3D origami papermodels, have been recently addressed, and can be used as a guide for the design of new forms.Because membranes in general can be considered surfaces of minimal thickness, principles of theorigami art and math can find applications in the conception and design of transformable membranestructures for architecture. This paper discusses how computer visualization can be used to explorethe potential application of ideas borrowed from the origami art in the conceptual design oftransformable structures. A two-case study that shows how origami math is integrated in the computervisualization of a potential architectural application is included. The same study also shows thatanimated simulations of the transformation process during folding can identify problems in the initialgeometric conception of an origami type structure, and can be used for further morphologicalexplorations.
More, G., L. Harvey, and Mark Burry. "Understanding Spatial Information with Integrated 3D Visual and Aural Design Applications." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 333-338. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. The ability to arrange information graphically in digitally represented Cartesian space offers obvious advantages over two-dimensional graphical reductions. Adding time to the spatial palette provides adynamic dimension. Cartesian space used for these purposes, however, reinforces an ocular-centricapproach to information delivery. We can include sound in order to seek a sensory balance, there by improving cognition and enhancing dimensionality within an “information space”, especially for complex material requiring greater interactivity or “audience” participation. Combined visual and audio synthesis offers multidimensional and multi-sensorial environments that challenge existing linear and two dimensional presentation orthodoxies - “audience”, for instance, presupposes a lecture to be listened to.This paper presents work in progress investigating the use of sonification as both a thematic and navigational vehicle in dynamic presentation environments.
Maze, John. "Virtual Tactility: Working to Overcome Perceptual and Conceptual Barriers in the Digital Design Studio." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 325-331. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. In the digital age, what is the role of tactility in the digital design process as it is taught in schools ofarchitecture today? Often, students are never taught to appeal to any sense other than sight,particularly now as digital media is embraced as a valuable design tool. Yet, are there some essentialcharacteristics of architecture and the phenomenology of place making that is being cast aside due tothe nature of the tools being used? However true or enigmatic this may be, there is a way of workingand teaching that exists somewhere between the digital and the tactile.This paper postulates a hybrid working environment in the design studio that not only takes advantageof the strengths of various design media, but also focuses on reinterpreting its limits and drawbacks. The ultimate outcome will be a new digital media (intermedia) pedagogy that can revolutionize the waythat we teach architecture and, moreover, computer “aided” design.
Johnson, Brian. "Virtuality and Place." In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 77-83. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002. This paper explores the relationship between place, computation, and experience. In particular, it seeksto understand the zone that exists between the digital world on the one hand, and the physical world onthe other. It is suggested that the ideal of “immersive virtual reality”, by focusing on technology systemsto replace the sensory world, misses the opportunity to explore a broader range of connections. Suchconnections involve combining physical and digital components to create blended environments. Anumber of examples of such environments are examined. The term “blended realityi is proposed todescribe such digitally augmented physical environments and to distinguish between them and virtualenvironments or cybrids. A design studio series formed around the exploration, design and experienceof blended physical and digital spaces is described and selected results presented.
Champion, Erik, and Bharat Dave. "Where is this place?" In Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 85-95. ACADIA. Pomona, California: Cal Poly, Pomona, 2002.

Place is arguably an essential component of most successful virtual environments, yet the concept of what is “place”, and what sort of “placeness” is required for digital environments, are seldom discussed. A reflexive argument such as here is a place because it was designed to be a place does not stimulate design guidelines for virtual places, and it certainly does not help us create and evaluate virtual places suitable for audiences who vary in intention or in available technology. To articulate useful distinctions between virtual places, this paper extends design guidelines proposed by Kalay and Marx, reshapes them with the help of Relphis definitions, into spatial visualisation and activity-based environments, and adds a further category, the hermeneutic. The paper also proposes a graduated matrix for selection of place making elements and for selecting a mode of representation appropriate to the design objective of the virtual environment, be it spatial, activity-based, or hermeneutic.