Keywords Abstract
Raposo, M., M. Sampio, and P. Raposo. "A City Simulator." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 052-061. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. This paper presents a new computer model for city skyline simulation. It works by shaping medium and high-rise buildings to their best performance. This new tool was conceived to simulate and analyze cities where tall buildings are emerging on pre-existing urban schemes with irregular geometry and where inter-building spacing is proportional to the height of built blocks. The model is based on two main inputs, namely: the description of the network formed by land subdivision of the actual or irregular urban schemes, and the building regulations quantitative parameters based on solar obstruction angles and maximum usability rates. By combining data from these inputs, the computer model presents the dimensions of the building envelop for maximum profitability of each plot. That way the architect will immediately know the number of floors that leads to the maximum built area, for certain plots. In addition to this, the built blocks images are presented in the screen, as well as corresponding tables and Cartesian graphs. Furthermore, this model can also be used for analyzing city skyline for large urban areas. This analysis can range from a mere visual inspection of the variety of images built blocks will take under different legal constraints, to a more intricate analysis of how city skyline and built area, amongst others, are affected by different the regulations.
Bailey, Rohan. "A Digital Design Coach for Young Designers." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 330-335. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The present use of digital media in architectural practice and education is primarily focused on representation, communication of ideas and production. Designers, however, still use pencil and paper to assist the early conception of ideas. Recently, research into providing digital tools for designers to use in conceptual designing has focused on enhancing or assisting the designer. Rarely has the computer been regarded as a potential teaching tool for design skills. Based on previous work by the author about visual thinking and the justification for a digital design assistant, the intention of this paper is to illustrate to the reader the feasibility of a digital design coach. Reference is made to recent advances in research about design computability. In particular, research by Mark Gross and Ellen Do with respect to their Electronic Cocktail Napkin project is used as a basis on which to determine what such a digital coach may look and feel like.
Wadhwa, Ashwan, and Brian Lonsway. "A Self-Organizing Neural System for Urban Design." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 386-391. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The focus of this research is the development of an urban simulation system and its use to analyze growth factors in an urban design proposal. Unlike predictive simulation models, which attempt to accurately simulate future conditions resulting from a proposal, our neural network model is tuned to creatively present socioeconomic deficiencies and requirements for proposed developments. The system is built using a novel variant of Kohonenis self-organizing neural map algorithm. Urban data of a simulated region is embedded in the neural net and correlated, in varying degrees, with data obtained from case study and/or other local regions. By projecting design ideas onto this network, designers gain an insight into the proposalis impact based on complex, non-linear relationships of socio-economic data, which are otherwise difficult to envision.
Apley, Julie. "A Virtual Reconstruction: Isthmia Roman Bath." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 410-411. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The Isthmia Roman Bath is located in Greece overlooking a great ravine on the Isthmus of Corinth. It was in use during the 2nd through the 4th centuries. I have created a 3D VRML walkthrough of the ancient bath. This interdisciplinary project utilizes the research of an archaeologist, architect, and art historian. Because the researchers live in different locations, it made sense to use the Internet as a research tool. When clicking on the numbers on the home page, you can see the process that I went through to model the Roman Bath. After seeing the images, the researchers were able to visualize their research, reply to questions, and re-evaluate their findings. VRML promises an accessible, highly visual, and interactive representation of difficult to see data, opening up new ways of presenting research. It is possible to walk within the bath by clicking on the Virtual Reconstruction link. When in the “Entrance viewi, click on the vase to see a map of the ruin. There are three places within the project that link to the existing excavated site. Links are also available to walk outside. The project runs best on Windows NT using Netscape. You must have the plug-ins for Cosmoplayer (VRML) and Quicktime (movie). Because the VRML plug-in doesn't work as well on a Mac, it is possible that you may only be able to view the images and movie from the project. 
Goulthorpe, M., Mark Burry, and G. Dunlop. "Aegis Hyposurface©: the Bordering of University and Practice." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 344-349. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Throughout history, profound technological shifts have been accompanied by significant cultural changes. The current shift from a technical paradigm based on physical, mechanical production to one based on electronic media impacts on forms of architectural practice in unexpected ways. The use of design software not only enhances graphic and modelling capacity but also reveals new possibilities for both form generation and fabrication. At a more subtle level it may influence the patterns of thought and creativity that have underpinned traditional forms of architectural practice. This paper examines the implications of the redefined praxis by considering the new role of “town and gowni in the production of the interactive hypersurface: the AegisHypersurface©, the first working prototype of which was unveiled in March 2001.
Akleman, E., J. Chen, and V. Sirinivasan. "An Interactive Shape Modeling System for Robust Design of Functional 3D Shapes." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 248-257. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. In Architecture, it is essential to design functional and topologically complicated 3D shapes (i.e. shapes with many holes, columns and handles). In this paper, we present a robust and interactive system for the design of functional and topologically complicated 3D shapes. Users of our system can easily change topology (i.e. they can create and delete holes and handles, connect and disconnect surfaces). Our system also provide smoothing operations (subdivision schemes) to create smooth surfaces. Moreover, the system provides automatic texture mapping during topology and smoothing operations. We also present new design approaches with the new modelling system. The new design approaches include blending surfaces, construction of crusts and opening holes on these crusts.
Kalay, Yehuda, and John Marx. "Architecture and the Internet: Designing Places in Cyberspace." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 230-241. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Cyberspace, as the information space is called, has become accessible in the past decade through the World Wide Web. And although it can only be experienced through the mediation of computers, it is quickly becoming an alternative stage for everyday economic, cultural, and other human activities. As such, there is a potential and a need to design it according to place-like principles. Making places for human inhabitation is, of course, what architects, landscape architects, town planners, and interior designers have been doing in physical space for thousands of years. It is curious, therefore, that Cyberspace designers have not capitalized on the theories, experiences, and practices that have been guiding physical place-making. Rather, they have adopted the woefully inadequate “document metaphor”: instead of “web-placesi we find “web-pages.” 3D environments that closely mimic physical space are not much better suited for making Cyber-places: they are, by and large, devoid of essential characteristics that make a “place” different from a mere “space,” and only rarely are they sensitive to, and take advantage of, the peculiarities of Cyberspace. We believe that this state of affairs is temporary, characteristic of early adoption stages of new technologies. As the Web matures, and as it assumes more fully its role as a space rather than as means of communication, there will be a growing need to design it according to place-making principles rather than document-making ones. By looking at physical architecture as a case study and metaphor for organizing space into meaningful places, this paper explores the possibility of organizing Cyberspace into spatial settings that not only afford social interaction, but, like physical places, also embody and express cultural values. At the same time, because Cyberspace lacks materiality, is free from physical constraints, and because it can only be “inhabited” by proxy, these “places” may not necessarily resemble their physical counterparts.
Donath, Dirk, J. Beetz, K. Grether, Frank Petzold, and Hartmut Seichter. "Augmented Reality Techniques for Design and Revitalisation in Existing Built Environments." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 322-329. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Building activity in Germany is moving increasingly toward combined new build and renovation projects. Essential for effective computer-aided planning within an existing context is not only the use of on-site computer-aided measurement tools but also an integrative cooperation between the different disciplines involved via an information and communication system. Interdisciplinary cooperation needs to be tailored to the integrative aspects in renovation and revitalisation work. Economic factors determine the viability of an architectural project, and reliable costing information is vital. Existing IT-approaches to this problem are not yet sufficiently exploited. In ongoing research at our university (collaborative research center “Materials and Structure in the Revitalisation of Buildings”) methods and techniques of revitalisation are being investigated. A special branch of the collaborative research center is investigating possibilities of computer-aided building measurement and communication platforms for professional disciplines (www.uni-weimar.de/sfb). The aim is to develop a general approach to the revitalisation of buildings. This paper discusses possible application areas of AR/VR techniques in the revitalisation of buildings from the point of view of the user and are based on the real project “Cooling factory Gera”. Based on the necessities of revitalisation projects, technical requirements are developed. The project is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft (DFG).
Gerzso, Michael. "Automatic Generation of Layouts of an Utzon Housing System via the Internet." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 202-211. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The article describes how architectural layouts can be automatically generated over the Internet. Instead of using a standard web server sending out HTML pages to browser client, the system described here uses an approach that has become common since 1998, known as three tier client/server applications. The server part of the system contains a layout generator using SPR(s), which stands for “Spatial Production Rule System, String Version”, a standard context-free string grammar. Each sentences of this language represents one valid Utzon house layout. Despite the fact that the system represents rules for laying out Utzon houses grammatically, there are important differences between SPR(s) and shape grammars. The layout generator communicates with Autocad clients by means of an application server, which is analogous to a web server. The point of this project is to demonstrate the idea that many hundreds or thousands of clients can request the generation of all of the Utzon layouts simultaneously over the Internet by the SPR(s) server, but the server never has to keep track when each client requested the generation of all of the layouts, or how many layouts each client has received.
Cimerman, Benjamin. "Clients, architects, houses and computers: Experiment and reflection on new roles and relationships in design." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 100-109. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. This paper reports on recent work that focused on the potential impact of standard computer technology on the relationship between client and architect in the context of residential design. A study of software applications a client could use to develop and evaluate ideas exposed the dearth of software available for the design of spatial complexity by individuals without advanced computer skills, and led to the design of a specific piece of software we call “Space Modeler.i It was prototyped using off-the-shelf virtual reality technology, and tested by a group of freshmen students. The paper discusses the specificities of the software and provides analysis and reflection based on the results of the test, both in terms of design artifacts and usersi comments. The paper concludes that the evolution of the interface to electronic environments is a matter of interest for those concerned with rethinking the training, role and activity of the architect. In the near future prospective homeowners may be able to experience and experiment with the space of their home before it is built. How can the profession embrace new information technology developments and appropriate them for the benefits of society at large?
Clayton, Mark, Y Song, K. Han, K. Darapureddy, H. Al-Kahaweh, and I. Soh. "Data for Reflection: Monitoring the Use of Web-Based Design Aids." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 142-152. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Web technology provides a new way of generating information about design processes. By monitoring student use of Web-based design aids, it is possible to collect empirical, quantitative evidence regarding the time and sequence of activities in design. The research team has undertaken several software development projects to explore these concepts. In one project, students can use a Web browser running alongside CAD software to access a cost database and evaluate their designs. In a second project, students use a browser to record their time expenditures. They can better document, plan and predict their time needs for a project and better manage their efforts. In a third project, students record the rationale supporting their design decisions. The information is stored in databases and HTML files and is hyperlinked into the CAD software. Each tool provides facilities to record key information about transactions. Interactions are documented with student identification, time of activity, and kind of activity. The databases of empirical information tracking student activity are a unique substantiation of design process that can feed back into teaching and the creation of ever better design tools.
Cheng, Nancy, and Edwin Lee. "Depicting Daylighting: Types of Multiple Image Display." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 282-291. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. This study looks at how interior daylighting can be understood through Web page representations. It examines how image size, sequence vs. simultaneity and interaction mode affect legibility. We formatted a set of daylighting images into different presentations using still images, animations and Quicktime Virtual Reality (QTVR). Querying architectural designers about the formats allowed us to identify usability issues, refine the alternatives, and characterize their attributes. Viewers generally preferred interactive selection of a single large image from multiple thumbnails over two or more smaller still, animated or interactive views. Smaller multiple images allow perusal of the range of lighting conditions and identification of situations for more detailed study. By rating and graphing interface, image and usability characteristics, we illustrate how photorealistic, symbolic and analytical images complement each other. We found that combining complementary representations in simultaneously or in sequence provides greatest legibility.
Heylighen, Ann, and Herman Neuckermans. "Destination: Practice - Towards a maintenance contract for the architect s degree." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 090-099. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Addressing the subject of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) in architectural design, we present a Web-based design assistant for student- and professional architects called DYNAMO. Its main objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by CBRis cognitive model. Rather than adopting this model as such, DYNAMO extrapolates it beyond the individual by stimulating and intensifying several modes of interaction. One mode - the focus of this paper - concerns the interaction between the realm of design education and the world of practice. DYNAMO offers a platform for exchanging design efforts and insights, in the form of cases, between both parties, which perfectly chimes with the current tendency towards life-long learning and continuing education. Just like our university advises graduates to “Take a maintenance contract with your degreei, architecture schools may encourage recently qualified architects to subscribe to DYNAMO. To what extent the tool can fulfill this role of maintenance contract is discussed at the end of the paper, which reports on how DYNAMO was used and appreciated by professional architects at different levels of expertise.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Digital Fabrication: Manufacturing Architecture in the Information Age." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 268-278. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. This paper addresses the recent digital technological advances in design and fabrication and the unprecedented opportunities they created for architectural design and production practices. It investigates the implications of new digital design and fabrication processes enabled by the use of rapid prototyping (RP) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies, which offer the production of small-scale models and full-scale building components directly from 3D digital models. It also addresses the development of repetitive non-standardized building systems through digitally controlled variation and serial differentiation, i.e. mass-customization, in contrast to the industrial-age paradigms of prefabrication and mass production. The paper also examines the implications of the recent developments in the architectural application of the latest digital design and fabrication technologies, which offer alternatives to the established understandings of architectural design and production processes and their material and economic constraints. Such critical examination should lead to a revised understanding of the historic relationship between architecture and its means of production.
Martens, Bob, and Ziga Turk. "Digital Proceedings: Making CAAD-Knowledge Widely Available." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 380-385. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. This paper deals with the efficiency of publication means within the scientific community. Scientists spend a substantial part of their total time in visiting meetings and conferences, reading publications, writing emails, etc. Thus any improvements in the communication processes, in particular technologies which minimize non-value adding activities such as tedious retrieving of source material from library shelves, could have far-reaching (positive) consequences. In this respect a customized solution for the digitalization of paper-based conference proceedings is presented. The process of creating electronic copies of papers - disseminating knowledge on CAAD - in pdf-format is described as well as the respective decisions which were taken in this context.
Angulo, A.H., R.J. Davidson, and Guillermo p Vasquez de Velasco. "Digital Visualization in the Teaching of Cognitive Visualization." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 292-301. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Professional design offices claim that our graduates have difficulties with their free-hand perspective drawing skills. This fact, which has become obvious over the last 5 years, is parallel to a clear tendency towards the use of 3-dimensional digital imagery in the projects of our students. Frequently, faculty tends to blame the computer for the shortcomings of our students in the use of traditional media, yet there is no clear evidence on the source of the blame. At a more fundamental level, the visualization skills of our students are questioned. This paper will explain how faculty teaching design communication techniques, with traditional and digital media, are working together in the development of a teaching methodology that makes use of computers in support of our studentis training on cognitive visualization skills, namely, “The Third-Eye Method”. The paper describes the Third-Eye Method as an alternative to traditional methods. As evidence of the benefits offered by the Third-Eye Method, the paper presents the results of testing it against traditional methods among freshman students. At the end, the paper draws as conclusion that computers are not the main source of the problem but a potential solution.
Snyder, Alison, and Samuel Paley. "Experiencing an Ancient Assyrian Palace: Methods for a Reconstruction." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 062-075. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The various forms of two and three-dimensional applications of Computer- Aided Design provide methods for analyzing, seeing, and presenting newly realized design work. It can be used to re-create building spaces unseen since their collapse centuries ago. In our project we blur the lines between the design of new architectural spaces and the re-conception of ancient spaces, thus merging the fields of architecture and archaeology using digital technology. Archaeologists and Architects are interested in similar goals concerning the depiction of space and form but archaeologists must deduce from historical, cultural and social comparisons as well as actual excavated remains. Our project is reconstructing the 9th-century BCE Palace of Ashurnasirpal II situated in Iraq. Though much of the palace has been excavated its architecture and full artistic program will never again be fully realized. Attempting to visualize partially preserved archaeological sites depends upon deductive reasoning, empirical wisdom and sound research. By modelling digitally and using “real-time” Java-based programming, the researchers have learned more quickly about the building than through traditional flat plans, cross-sections, drawn perspectives and constructed models. We are able to “inhabit” specific interior and exterior spaces in ways not possible before. Using the tools of digital archaeology allows a myriad of educational possibilities for the scholar, student or layperson.
Economou, Athanassios. "Four Algebraic Structures in Design." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 192-201. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. A constructive program for the generation of three-dimensional languages of designs based on nested group structures is outlined.
Serrato-Combe, Antonio. "From Aztec Pictograms to Digital Media - the Case of the Aztec Temple Square." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 034-043. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Virtual archaeology or re-creating ancient worlds digitally is not a new item. While the virtual reconstructions of Cahokia on the Mississippi or the Royal Cemetery at Ur in Iraq have provided us with glimpses of how those ancient sites might have looked, the “qualityi of the digital end product has been lacking. This is because virtual archaeology is in its infant stages. This paper makes the point that in order to truly develop the bases of a new cognitive science, virtual archaeology has to incorporate a willingness to achieve higher digital modelling and rendering qualities. In other words, our ability to explore, to interpret and to appropriately use digital tools needs to aspire to greater and more penetrating abilities to reconstruct the past. This paper presents the case of the digital reconstruction of the Aztec Temple Square. This is a unique project because, unlike other sites in antiquity where there is a substantial amount of archaeological evidence, the Aztec site contains little or almost no evidence. Most of what we know of the case comes from Indian manuscripts and Spanish chronicles.
Zhou, Qi, and Robert Krawczyk. "From CAD to iAD: a survey of Internet application in the AEC industry." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 392-397. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The internet is becoming increasingly more valuable in the field of architectural design that what we conventionally called CAD might soon be changed to iAD (internet Aided Design) (Zhou and Krawczyk 2000). In order to have a clear vision of what iAD will be or could be, we should first examine what is currently available. This research focuses on an investigation of selected web vendors, which are typical and most influential in providing internet related services for the AEC industry. Our purpose for doing this survey is: to understand the progress and development of internet application in the AEC industry, identify the technology used in this area, determine the advantages and deficiencies of current practice and develop a base for future research in proposing a evolutionary model of internet Aided Design for architecture.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Fuzzy Modeling of Floor Plan Layout." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 314-321. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Fuzzy modelling provides methods and techniques for qualifying and quantifying imprecise and uncertain information. The main advantages of fuzzy design representation are fluency, abstraction and continuity, at a level similar to that of analogue techniques, as well as the possibility of local autonomy, i.e. segmentation of a representation into self-regulating and cooperating components. The paper investigates the applicability of fuzziness to digital architectural sketching of floor plan layouts. Based on an analysis of the paradigmatic dimension in analogue floor plan sketches three alternative forms are proposed: (1) Canonical objects with tolerances, (2) objects described by minimal and maximal values, and (3) point sets which decompose the form of an object into a number of discrete, autonomous particles that describe the object by their position and spatial or structural relationships.
Liapi, Katherine A.. "Geometric Configuration and Graphical Representation of Spherical Tensegrity Networks." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 258-267. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The term “Tensegrity,” that describes mainly a structural concept, is used in building design to address a class of structures with very promising applications in architecture. Tensegrity structures are characterized by almost no separation between structural configuration and formal or architectural expression (Liapi 2000). In the last two decades structural and mechanical aspects in the design of these structures have been successfully addressed, while their intriguing morphology has inspired several artists and architects. Yet, very few real world applications of the tensegrity concept in architecture have been encountered. The geometric and topological complexity of tensegrity structures that is inherent to their structural and mechanical basis may account for significant difficulties in the study of their form and their limited application in building design. In this paper an efficient method for the generation of the geometry of spherical tensegrity networks is presented. The method is based on the integration of CAD tools with Descriptive Geometry procedures and allows designers to resolve and visualize the complex geometry of such structures.
Dave, Bharat. "Immersive Modeling Environments." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 242-247. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The paper describes development of a large-format panoramic display environment. Unlike the “window-on-the-world” metaphor associated with small displays, immersive environments foster a sense of “being-in-the-world”. That raises a question: Which aspects of human-computer interaction and information perception scale up or change substantially from small displays to immersive environments? The paper first describes implementation of our display environment, projects being explored in it, and motivates a focused research agenda. Finally, the paper describes an experiment to study differences in spatial judgments by subjects while working in traditional and immersive environments.
Tunçer, Bige, Rudi Stouffs, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Integrating Architectural Abstractions." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 110-121. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Building projects are communicated through project documents. A collection of these documents are stored, related, and managed within digital environments for various purposes. These environments are all concerned with the complexity of organizing an information space: how to organize the information and to relate the individual entities within this organization in order to support effective searching and browsing of the resulting information structure. We present a methodology to handle this complexity through integrating a number of design documents of different formats within a single information structure. When this integrated structure is highly intra-related, it provides support for effective searching and browsing of this information. To achieve such intra-relatedness, we consider a notion of types from architecture as a semantic structure for project document management in the AEC industry. We discuss specific techniques to support this use of types with respect to EDMSis and Web-based project management systems. We describe a prototype application, a presentation tool for architectural analyses, which combines these techniques.
Tsou, Jin-Yeu, S. Lam, and Theodore W. Hall. "Integrating Scientific Visualization with Studio Education - Developing Design Options by Applying CFD." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 302-310. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. To meet the urgent need of education in environmentally responsive architecture, the Architecture Department of The Chinese University of Hong Kong has organized lectures and studios to provide students with knowledge and hands-on experience in environmental design strategies. Considering the context of Hong Kong with a hot-humid sub-tropical climate and hyper-dense urban environment, the current approach in the design studio education has been mainly based on intuition with very limited supports in terms of technical know-how and scientific evidence. Many students of architecture tend to follow established paradigms that have evolved through experience with similar projects. In this paper, we report the research findings of a pilot study that applied advanced scientific simulation skills in studio education designed to help students explore environmental design strategies during early stages of project design development.
Sisting, John. "Kafka s Penal Colony." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 414-415. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Kafka's Penal Colony is about a colony that has a torture device that writes the crime in the criminals back. Kafka describes in detail the characteristics of the machine. He explains how the machine works.
Fukai, Dennis, and Ravi S. Srinivasan. "PCIS Revisited: a Visual Database for Design and Construction." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 372-379. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. This paper presents research on a piece-based construction information system called PCIS(pronounced “piecesi) first published as a visual information concept at ACADIAi96, Tucson. After more than five years of development it has evolved into a multidimensional visual information system for design and construction. It includes a piece-based anatomical construction model layered according to a work breakdown structure, a dataTheater that surrounds the model as an index to plans, elevations, sections, and details, and a dataWorld with cameras fixed to the intersections of its latitudes and longitudes to add context and perspective. A standard services matrix (SSM) controls layer visibility and camera settings. PCIS can be “playedi to access archived resources, support design development, analyze and resolve preconstruction conflicts, and coordinate construction activities. Current research will be used to demonstrate how PCIS might be valuable to increase the potential for technical cooperation, collaboration, and communication by literally aligning the points of view of architectural, engineering, and construction methodology.
De Valpine, John, and Benjamin Black. "Physically Based Daylight Simulation and Visualization." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 406-407. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. While architects typically agree that daylight is a powerful influence for design, architects rarely collect and use daylighting data to help make informed design decisions. This deficiency exists partially because there are no common tools available to provide useful and accessible data. The objective of this project is to provide accurate daylighting data of a prominent urban building site and present it in a clear way so that the architects can make well informed design decisions that respond to site daylighting conditions and improve architectural performance. An urban 3D computer model was created with AutoCad, a commercial CAD application. Daylight was simulated with Radiance, the physically based rendering engine developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The standard CIE model for clear sky and sun was used to produce over 500 images that represent daylight conditions for three different times of year at 10 minute intervals in both luminance and illuminance formats. The simulation data was packaged for analysis with a unique browser tool that enables the architect to easily cycle through the data to evaluate and compare behaviour by time of day and by season. The architect can also toggle between luminance and illuminance format to easily visualize both qualitative and quantitative data. The exploration and use of the simulation data can be applied with sensitivity to inform the design and decision making process for the exterior building site. 
Sass, Lawrence. "Reconstructing Palladio s Villas: a computational analysis of Palladio s villa design and construction process." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 212-226. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. This project is ongoing research focused on finding a method of reconstruction, using computational devices to build, represent and evaluate Palladiois un-built villas in three-dimensions. The first of The Four Books of Architecture contains text and images explaining Palladiois design and construction systems in the form of rules. These rules were written for masons and craftsmen of the 16th century, offering one and two-dimensional data on each of Palladiois villas, palaces and churches. The Four Books offers a general treatment of the villas, however, it is missing most of the physical construction data needed to execute a full reconstruction of an un-built building. Many architects and historians have attempted to reconstruct Palladiois work in drawings, wooden models and computer imagery. This project presents a new method of reconstruction through the definition of construction rules, in addition to shape and proportional rules defined by previous scholars. In also uses 3D printing and texture mapped renderings as design tools. This study uses the Villa Trissino in Meledo as a test case for the process. The end product is a presentation of a method for reconstruction in the form of a three-dimensional analysis of Palladiois design and construction rules. The goal is to recreate all 24 of the villas found in the Four Books with the same method and rules as a demonstration of qualitative and quantitative input and output from a computational device.
Burry, Mark, Jane Burry, and J. Faulí. "Sagrada Família Rosassa: Global Computeraided Dialogue between Designer and Craftsperson (Overcoming Differences in Age, Time and Distance)." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 76-086. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The rose window (“rosassa” in Catalan) recently completed between the two groups of towers that make up the Passion Façade of Gaudi“s Sagrada Familia Church in Barcelona measures eight metres wide and thirty-five metres in height [Figure 1]. There were four phases to the design based in three distinct geographical locations. The design was undertaken on site, design description in Australia some eighteen thousand kilometres distant, stone-cutting a thousand kilometres distant in Galicia, with the completion of the window in March 2001. The entire undertaking was achieved within a timeframe of fifteen months from the first design sketch. Within this relatively short period, the entire team achieved a new marriage between architecture and construction, a broader relationship between time-honoured craft technique with high technology, and evidence of leading the way in trans-global collaboration via the Internet. Together the various members of the project team combined to demonstrate that the technical office on site at the Sagrada Familia Church now has the capacity to use “just-in-timei project management in order to increase efficiency. The processes and dialogues developed help transcend the tyranny of distance, the difficult relationship between traditional craft based technique and innovative digitally enhanced production methods, and the three generational age differences between the youngest and more senior team members.
Babalola, Olubi, and Charles Eastman. "Semantic Interpretation of Architectural Drawings." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 166-179. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The paper reviews the needs and issues of automatically interpreting architectural drawings into building model representations. It distinguishes between recognition and semantic interpretation and reviews the steps involved in developing such a conversion capability, referring to the relevant literature and concepts. It identifies two potentially useful components, neither of which has received attention. One is the development of a syntactically defined drafting language. The other is a strategy for interpreting the semantic content of architectural drawings, based on the analogy of natural language interpretation
Anders, Peter, and Daniel Livingstone. "STARS: Shared Transatlantic Augmented Reality System." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 350-355. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Since October 2000 the authors have operated a laboratory, the Shared Transatlantic Augmented Reality System (STARS), for exploring telepresence in the domestic environment. The authors, an artist and an architect, are conducting a series of experiments to test their hypotheses concerning mixed reality and supportive environments. This paper describes these hypotheses, the purpose and construction of the lab, and preliminary results from the ongoing collaboration.
Terzidis, Kostas. "Teaching Sensor and Internet Technologies for Responsive Building Designs." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 356-362. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. This paper describes a research framework for the use of sensor and Internet technologies in design, monitoring, and control of building systems. Specifically, a course for architecture students that makes use of this research was designed and taught. A prototype system was implemented using sensors and micro servers that collect and forward the data to centralized web-accessible database tables. Students proposed and implemented various projects for responsive building designs by extending or modifying the prototype system.
Krawczyk, Robert. "The Art of Spirolaterals." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 408-409. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The web site includes a series of images which is part of a larger set investigating the formation of two-dimensional designs leading to three-dimensional architectural forms using basic mathematical concepts. While investigating fractals and space curves, a mathematical figure called a “spirolateral” was encountered. A spirolateral is based on a square spiral with increasing length of turns and the turns repeating themselves. The turns can be all in one direction or certain turns can go the opposite direction. Angles other than 90 degrees can be used. The most interesting of these are ones that close on themselves, not all do. Investigating a series of possible turning angles, number of turns, number of repeats, and trying all revered turns, I identified over 10,000 spirolaterals that closed. This web site displays over 300 such spirolateral designs. In addition to investigating spirolaterals composed of straight lines, a series was developed that curves them. These designs are based on spirolaterals that are curved by antiMercator, circular, and inversion transformations. Figure 1 displays the 460 spirolateral, 4 turns at 60 degrees. Figure 2 and 3 display the same spirolateral with the antiMercator and Circular transformations applied. This web site includes galleries displaying the great variety of spirolaterals, interactive JAVA routines to display a series of spirolaterals, as well as, developing your own design, a technical description of spirolaterals, and the data for all the displayed images. My overall interest is to investigate methods that can develop forms that are in one sense predictable, but have the strong element to generate the unexpected. Using custom software enables an approach that allows variations to be investigated in a repeatable way, this enabling me to fine tune an idea by repetition and experimentation. 
Seebohm, Thomas, and Dean Chan. "The Design Space of Schematic Palladian Plans for Two Villa Topologies." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 156-165. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Given the plan topology for the layout of the rooms of a Palladian villa, we ask what is the design space of possible Palladian plans. What does this space look like in terms of dimensions and proportions? Two plan topologies are examined to throw some light on this question. One is that of the Villa Angarano while the other is that of the Villa Badoer. A Maple program was written for each topology to solve the equations for room proportions, to cycle through the possible proportional spacing of the underlying Tartan grid, and to plot out the possible plans in the design space. The programs eliminate from the design space those alternatives that violate basic Palladian constraints, such as no room having an aspect ration greater than 2:1, and such additional constraints that we and other authors have found. A selection of the plotted output of plans in the design space for each topology is presented as well as threedimensional plots showing the number of plan alternatives in different regions of the critical parameter space, namely, the length and aspect ratio of the plan. We believe that this is the first instance of enumerated Palladian plans which goes beyond topology to examine issues of dimension and proportion. One conclusion is that one cannot scale a Palladian plan topology to fit any set of overall dimensions.
Senagala, Mahesh. "The Thoroughbred Pegasus Plaza." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 412-413. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The design project was a competition entry for the design of an urban plaza in Lexington, Kentucky. The brief called for “an innovative and practical solution” for the Lexington-Fayette County, KY courthouse plaza, a 475'x90'site with a level difference of 18'between both ends. The sponsors invited a solution that would “provide emotional content... and become a community icon.” An initial budget of $1.5 million has been allocated. The only rigid programmatic requirements were to accommodate performances and rallies of various sizes. 
Norman, Frederick. "Towards a Paperless Studio." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 336-343. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. The infusion of digital media into the practice of architecture is changing how we design as well as what we design. Digital media has altered the process of design and the culture of design education. The question before us is how does one transition from a completely analog system of representation to one of complete computer immersion or the “paperless studio”. Schools of Architecture have already begun to struggle with the physical issues of integration of new media (infrastructure and economics). But the pedagogical integration of new media should be of a greater concern. New media and its forms of representation are challenging traditional skills of communication and representation, (i.e., sketching, hand drawing and physical model making). The paradox facing architectural practice today is the integration of new media into a realm where traditional or manual forms of representation are ingrained into how we think, produce and communicate. We must ask ourselves, must new media be held to the traditional forms of representation?
Garza, Andres, and Mary Lou Maher. "Using Evolutionary Methods for Design Case Adaptation." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 180-191. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Case-based reasoning (CBR) provides a methodology for directly using previous designs in the development of a new design. An aspect of CBR that is not well developed for designing is the combination and adaptation of previous designs. The difficulty with this aspect of case-based design is partly due to the extensive amounts of specialised knowledge needed to select the appropriate features of a previous design to include in the new design and the adaptation of these features to fit the context of a new design problem. In this paper we present a design process model that combines ideas from CBR and genetic algorithms (GAis). The CBR paradigm provides a method for the overall process of case selection and adaptation. The GA paradigm provides a method for adapting design cases by combining and mutating their features until a set of new design requirements and constraints are satisfied. We have implemented the process model and illustrate the model for residential floor plan layout. We use a set of Frank Lloyd Wright prairie house layouts as the case base. The constraints used to determine whether new designs proposed by the process model are acceptable are taken from feng shui, the Chinese art of placement. This illustration not only clarifies how our process model for design through the evolutionary adaptation of cases works, but it also shows how knowledge sources with distinct origins can be used within the same design framework.
Tan, Beng-Kiang. "Visualizing Building Occupancy Pattern on Campus." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 398-404. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. This paper addresses the problem of information opacity that planners and university administrators have when they have multiple sets of data that are not interconnected and how these data can be visualized. The visualization of building occupancy pattern on campus is used as an example to illustrate how this general problem can be addressed through a database driven effective visualization that supports decision-making. This paper proposes a solution using web-based 3D Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) animation dynamically generated from a database and describes a prototype in progress. The prototype displays a broad overview of building occupancy patterns across campus through 3D animation of occupancy over time. From the overview, users can navigate further to find out the details of occupancy throughout the day for specific buildings on campus.
Ruffle, Simon, and Paul Richens. "Web Based Consultation for Cambridge University s Building Program." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 366-371. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. This two-year project is researching the web as a communications medium for better client-ship in the construction industry. The Martin Centre is developing a web site that presents Cambridge Universityis • £500 million ($700m) current building program to staff, students, alumni, and the citizens of Cambridge. Focussing on the University's master plans for the Sidgwick and West Cambridge teaching campuses, the project is in collaboration with the University Estate Management and Building Service (EMBS), General Board, West Cambridge Project Office, Sidgwick Site User Representatives, and the Press Office. The web site explains the Universityis development proposals in manner suited to readers with no building industry knowledge and offers an opportunity for consultative feedback. It is publicly available on the web at http:// www.cam.ac.uk/building.
Kang, H., S.D. Anderson, and Mark Clayton. "Web4D: Challenges and Practices for Construction Scheduling." In Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture: Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 132-141. ACADIA. Buffalo, New York: SUNY Buffalo, 2001. Research has demonstrated that four-dimensional computer aided design (4D CAD), in which a three-dimensional (3D) CAD model is animated through time, is useful in helping professionals understand the construction schedule. However, cumbersome processes to update a 4D CAD model, which involve changing geometry representations, changing schedules and bar charts, linking the geometry to the scheduling information, and generating animations, may discourage professionals from using 4D CAD in actual construction projects. A software prototype implementing 4D CAD in a Web environment overcomes limitations of current 4D CAD tools. This software permits editing of the construction schedule over the Internet and shows the revised construction sequence visually on a Web browser using 3D computer graphics. This software is composed of a database on a server, Active Server Pages (ASP) scripts, and a Java applet that was developed using Java 3D Application Programming Interface (API) and Java JDBC. The Java applet retrieves the 4D model at the appropriate level of completion over the Internet and allows users to navigate around the model on the Web browser. Web4D visualization software can help professionals to expedite the schedule updating process by involving designers and constructors in collaborative decision- making.