Keywords Abstract
Chung, Misun. "A Sacred Space in Cyberspace." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 74. Sometimes we hold an object in our hand or look at a 2D drawing and wonder what would be like to be inside that space? Mentally, we are able to transcend ourselves into another dimension. That is the reality of our physical space. But in this new cyberspace, we are able to share that experience with others. Through visual, sound, color, and spatial stimulation, we are able to share what used to be only an imaginable space with others in “real timei. The technology of multi-user 3D environment is still cumbersome and unstable but the future expansion and opportunities far weights its current limitations.
Chan, Chiu-Shui. "A Virtual Reality Tool to Implement City Building Codes on Capitol View Preservation." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 203-209. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. In urban planning, the urban environment is a very complicated system with many layers of building codes cross-referenced and interacting together to guide urban growth. Especially, if a new urban design is located in a historical area, additional restrictions will be imposed upon regular zoning regulations to maintain the area is historical characteristics. Often, urban regulations read as text are difficult to understand. A tool that generates adequate urban information and a quick visualization of the design will ease decision-making and enhance urban design processes. The goal of this research project is to develop a virtual reality (VR) tool with high resolution, speedy computation, and a user friendly environment. This project initiates an interactive visualization tool to enforce city-planning regulations on viewing access to the state capitol building in Des Moines, Iowa. The capitol building houses the Iowa Legislature and is a symbol of state power. Maintaining the view from surrounding areas will preserve the building’s monumental and symbolic meaning. To accomplish this, the City Community Development Department and the Capitol Planning Committee developed a Capitol View Corridor Project, which sets up seven visual corridors to prevent the view toward the capitol from being blocked by any future designs. Because city regulations are not easy for the public and designers to interpret and comprehend, this project intends to develop a VR tool to create a transparent environment for visualizing the city ordinances.
Pinet, Celine. "ACADIA'S Browser: Connect Link up Get a Buzz." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 21-22. Paul Petrunia designed ARCHINECT with one goal in mind: Use the Internet to make ARCHItecture become more conNECTed. The site did not make headlines with an amazing IPO. It is not the subject of a major dot.com ad campaign. Instead, it gets away from mass marketing to offer a vehicle for profound creative expressions. It brings designers together, generates ideas, asks questions, discusses philosophies, and leaves marks as if inevitable forces of nature caused it.  
Testa, P., U.-M. Reilly, and S. Greenwold. "AGENCY GP: Genetic Programming for Architectural Design." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 227-231. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. AGENCY GP is a prototype for a system using genetic programming (GP) for architectural design exploration. Its software structure is noteworthy for its integration into a high-end three-dimensional modelling environment, its allowance for direct user interruption of evolution and reintegration of phenotypically modified individuals, and its agent-based evaluation of fitness.
Papamichael, Konstantinos, V. Pal, N. Bourassa, J. Loffeld, and I.G. Capeluto. "An Expandable Software Model for Collaborative Decision-Making During the Whole Building Life Cycle ." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 19-28. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. Decisions throughout the life cycle of a building, from design through construction and commissioning to operation and demolition, require the involvement of multiple interested parties (e.g., architects, engineers, owners, occupants and facility managers). The performance of alternative designs and courses of action must be assessed with respect to multiple performance criteria, such as comfort, aesthetics, energy, cost and environmental impact. Several stand-alone computer tools are currently available that address specific performance issues during various stages of a buildingis life cycle. Some of these tools support collaboration by providing means for synchronous and asynchronous communications, performance simulations, and monitoring of a variety of performance parameters involved in decisions about a building during building operation. However, these tools are not linked in any way, so significant work is required to maintain and distribute information to all parties. In this paper we describe a software model that provides the data management and process control required for collaborative decision-making throughout a buildingis life cycle. The requirements for the model are delineated addressing data and process needs for decision making at different stages of a buildingis life cycle. The software model meets these requirements and allows addition of any number of processes and support databases over time. What makes the model infinitely expandable is that it is a very generic conceptualization (or abstraction) of processes as relations among data. The software model supports multiple concurrent users, and facilitates discussion and debate leading to decision-making. The software allows users to define rules and functions for automating tasks and alerting all participants to issues that need attention. It supports management of simulated as well as real data and continuously generates information useful for improving performance prediction and understanding of the effects of proposed technologies and strategies.
Dokonal, Wolfgang, Bob Martens, and R. Plösch. "Architectural Education: Students Creating a City Model." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 219-221. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. This paper describes experiences with the creation of a 3-D City Model at our University of Technology. It presents an innovative approach in establishing a city model with the support of the students in the study fields of Architecture and Surveying. The main goal of this work is directed at the implementation within the framework of architectural education. This contribution presents the concept in detail. It also discusses matters concerning the level of detail for different uses of such a 3-D model.
Senagala, Mahesh. "Architecture, Speed, and Relativity: on the Ethics of Eternity, Infinity, and Virtuality." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 29-37. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. The main purpose of this essay is to provide a critical framework and raise a debate to understand the spatial and temporal impact of information technologies on architecture. As the world moves from geopolitics to chronopolitics, architecture with its traditional boundaries still vociferously guarded is becoming further marginalized into sectors of mere infrastructure. The essay begins by clarifying the notions of space, time, and speed through a phenomenological interpretation of Minkowskian/ Einsteinian notion of relativistic space-time. Drawing from the cultural critiques offered by Paul Virilio, Marshall McLuhan, and Jacques Ellul, the essay argues that we are at the end of the reign of spacebased institutions and transitioning rapidly into a time-based culture.
Pinet, Celine. "As a Matter of Fact." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 28-29. Most of us (CAD loving architects) are thrill seekers. Though we ground ourselves in history, traditions and legacy, we also embrace novelties, high tech elixirs and liquid crystal. We love forward thinking juxtaposition and contrasts of ideas. As a matter of fact, we get bored when everything is understood and predictable. It is all about brain chemistry.  
Pinet, Celine. "Associate, Dissociate, Socio-Create." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 24-25. Is it Fall that makes me to want to surround myself with warmth, comfort and poetry? Like a friend who awakens in you the need for non-serious objects, Design Boom presents a Web Site that delights the senses (www.designboom.com). It holds up information that makes you reminisce, information that transforms memories and awakens your creativity.  
Johnson, Brian. "Between Friends: Support of Workgroup Communications." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 41-49. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. The web offers both business and academic users potential benefits from on-line collaboration. Online education presents universities with a means of handling the “baby boom echoi without expanding physical campuses (Carnevale 2000). Business “extranetsi allow greater coordination amongst team members on projects where the cast of players involves experts in different locations. Both involve substituting computer-mediated communications (CMC) for traditionally face-to-face communications. Over the past several years, the author has deployed several of the available CMC technologies in support of small group interaction in academic and administrative settings. These technologies include email, video conferencing, web publication, web bulletin boards, web databases, mailing lists, and hybrid web BBS/email combinations. This paper reflects on aspects of embodied human interaction and the affordances of current CMC technology, identifying opportunities for both exploitation and additional development. One important but under-supported aspect of work group behaviour is workspace awareness, or peripheral monitoring. The Compadres web-based system, which was developed to support workspace awareness among distributed workgroup members, is described. These findings are relevant to those seeking to create online communities: virtual design studios, community groups, distributed governance organizations, and workgroups formed as parts of virtual offices.
Johnson, Scott, and Volker Mueller. "Binary Oppositions: are Computers Yet Aids for Design?" ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 6-Ar. In the previous issue of the Quarterly, Dr. Ganapathy Mahalingam and I debated whether computers themselves would be able to design well in the foreseeable future. The topic for the current issue concerns computers aiding human designers. It is a separate goal from that considered in the previous issue, and it might be either easier or more difficult to achieve.  
Johnson, Scott, and Mark Clayton. "Binary Oppositions: Should Buildings Designed with a Computer “Look Like” They Were Designed with a Computer?" ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 19-21. This article marks the trial introduction of what I hope will become a regular feature in the ACADIA Quarterly, a forum for the debate of opposing viewpoints on various CAD issues. In each issue, I intend to present a controversial, CADrelated topic, and argue it, pro and con, with another ACADIAn. It is my hope that the discussions in this article will cause us all to form knowledgeable opinions on subjects we hadnit previously considered, examine our views on debatable subjects more critically, make us better informed about differing viewpoints, and perhaps even change a few minds.  
Johnson, Scott, and Brian Johnson. "Binary Oppositions: Should Designers Learn to Think Differently in order to Better Utilize Digital Design Tools?" ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 4-Feb. The development of information technology and its application to design disciplines has changed how buildings are described and even how they are built. Engineers, architects, contractors, and other parties often exchange files instead of paper drawings, and manufacturers can be sent numeric data to guide the fabrication of customized building components. The tools of the trade, even the things possible in the trade, are changing. This brings up the issue of how best to utilize this emerging technology. Should we mold this technology to fit the tasks and concepts we have in mind, or should we learn new ways of thinking about architecture and our role as architects? Do we need to get used to thinking in terms of RGB values, external file references, geometric transformations, and paper space vs. model space? In short, should designers learn to think differently in order to better utilize digital design tools? 
Johnson, Scott, and Ganapathy Mahalingam. "Binary Oppositions: Will Computers Be Able to Design as well as Human Designers in the Foreseeable Future?" ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 19-20. Research over the last few decades has suggested the possibility that computer-based systems may transcend their roles as media and tools for design, and actually adopt the role of designer. This prompted the topic for this debate: “Will computers be able to design as well as human designers in the foreseeable future?” Arguing to the affirmative is Ganapathy Mahalingam of North Dakota State University. I offer the argument to the negative. These arguments are presented below, so that you may weigh them and form your own opinions.  
Proctor, George. "Comments on Low-Polygon Modeling." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 26-27. The readers of this journal no doubt have a strong understanding of the variety and range of modelling and imaging tools available to architects and designers. Clearly the ability to use these tools often requires a substantial time investment to produce usable results. Modelling, constructing scenes, adjusting lights and materials, setting up camera angles and so forth can often amount to several hundred person-hours. Even with the shift to digital media in professional practice, the time required to model and create scenes for presentation purposes not to mention for design study and analysis is frequently not budgeted.  
Liapi, Katherine A.. "Computer Simulation and Visualization of Geometrically Changing Structures." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 267-271. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. The design of building structures that change shape and form to adapt to different functions or weather conditions requires the application of innovative building technologies, as well as the invention of a new architectural morphology. This morphology is directly related to the kinematic conception of the structure. A computer simulation of the motion of the structure and the display of the structure as an animation of moving parts can identify problems in its initial geometric and kinematic conception. It can also assess the effect of the changing geometry of the structure on space definition, building morphology, and functionality.
Streich, B., R. Oxman, and O. Fritz. "Computer-Simulated Growth Processes in Urban Planning and Architecture." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 233-237. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. Urban structures, developed and grown over a period of time, are created by processes that, due to the number of influential factors, are not longer comprehensible as a whole. Their development is very complex and depends on a big number of reciprocal factors that even architects or planners sometimes cannot recognize the formal, functional and rational processes of thinking behind it. The involved mechanisms however are particularly obvious in historical urban structures that came to exist over a period of centuries. The planned relationships within these conglomerates are governed by nearly indiscernible rules and show similarities in form and shape to living and non-living forms in nature. They are clearly analogous to fractals or systems with chaotic behaviour. In the course of the research project “media experimental design”, financed by the German Research Foundation, algorithms are sought that are able to simulate urban analogous structures digitally. To this effect the main rules of growth processes are researched and extracted. Then, by following these rules, virtual structures are developed and shown by using powerful three-dimensional techniques. The developed mechanisms allow urban planning to be process-oriented, interactive and flexible for permanently changing parameters. With an implemented set of rules the computer is able to create a design and to react to changing situations. In several experimental studies structures were successfully generated which have different forms and qualities depending on their set of rules. For example, structures were programmed which are similar to a big city while other look like a village in hilly landscape. Diverse rules and strategies have been used in order to reduce them to shape specific factors. The rules for growth are administered by a specifically developed databank with sophisticated search mechanisms using the Issue-Concept- Form tool as case-based-reasoning method.
Hsu, Ying-Chun. "Constraint Based Space Planning: a Case Study." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 3-Feb. The initial design process usually requires a long incubation time for architects to bring together form and function. In this exciting and painful process, architects use their professional training to adjust the relationship between spaces, and include the requirements from the clients. The computer has the potential to be the key and the most powerful tool in this long process. In the software market, the software packages for architecture now are mostly for computing values or drafting. They are not very helpful in the design process.  
Hsu, Ying-Chun. "Constraint Based Space Planning: a Case Study." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 3-Feb. The initial design process usually requires a long incubation time for architects to bring together form and function. In this exciting and painful process, architects use their professional training to adjust the relationship between spaces, and include the requirements from the clients. The computer has the potential to be the key and the most powerful tool in this long process. In the software market, the software packages for architecture now are mostly for computing values or drafting. They are not very helpful in the design process.
Bermudez, Julio, Jim Agutter, L. Brent, N. Syroid, D. Gondeck-Becker, D. Westenskow, S. Foresti, and Y. Sharir. "CyberprintToward an Architecture of Being." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 12-Aug. This project involves the design, construction and performance of an “architecture of being” that expresses selfhood in virtual space and real time using: (1) physiological data as its building material, (2) architectural design as its expressive intent, (3) digital space as its medium, (4) screen projection as its enveloping and viewing technique, (5) user interactivity and performance as its partner, and (6) interdisciplinary collaborations among Architecture, Choreography, Modern Dance, Music, Bioengineering, Medicine and Computer Science as its creative and technical contexts. The paper presents the implementation of the cyber PRINT during a series of techno-media performances at the Rose Wagner Performing Art Center in Salt Lake City, USA, in May 2000. This work is believed to be the first of its kind in the world. The cyberPRINT is building a new area of creative inquiry in Architecture by means of collaborations with the Arts and Sciences.
Rios-Castro, Lorena. "Cybrid Tectonics: a Panama Canal Exhibition." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 15-16. This article is a summary of a thesis project directed under the supervision of Wassim Jabi and Mehrdad Hadighi] This thesis is based on the premise that space can be created by the interaction of physical and ephemeral elements with the human body. The physical elements create a frame on which the ephemeral rely, but it is the interaction between them that produces a distinct experience of space and place. Extensive and diverse preliminary explorations range from the use of digital media in the design process, video and multimedia as a revolutionary element in 20th century art and light as a way of expression for architectural installations exploring new media. From this body of information it was conceived that certain new media add an important and particular dimension to the traditional physical medium of architecture. This constitutes a controversial and innovative approach to the creation of space and most importantly to the experience of place.
Bermudez, Julio, Jim Agutter, D. Westenskow, S. Foresti, Y. Zhang, D. Gondeck-Becker, N. Syroid, B. Lilly, .D. Strayer, and F. Drews. "Data Representation Architecture: Visualization Design Methods, Theory and Technology Applied to Anesthesiology." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 91-102. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. The explosive growth of scientific visualization in the past 10 years demonstrate a consistent and tacit agreement among scientists that visualization offers a better representation system for displaying complex data than traditional charting methods. However, most visualization works have not been unable to exploit the full potential of visualization techniques. The reason may be that these attempts have been largely executed by scientists. While they have the technical skills for conducting research, they do not have the design background that would allow them to display data in easy to understand formats. This paper presents the architectural methodology, theory, technology and products that are being employed in an ongoing multidisciplinary research in anesthesiology. The projectis main goal is to develop a new data representation technology to visualize physiologic information in real time. Using physiologic data, 3-D objects are generated in digital space that represent physiologic changes within the body and show functional relationships that aid in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of critical events. Preliminary testing results show statistically significant reduction in detection times. The research outcome, potential, and recently received NIH grant supporting the teamis scientific methods all point to the contributions that architecture may offer to the growing field of data visualization.
Anders, Peter. "Defining Architecture: Defining Information." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 3-7.

The rapid onset of information technologies has changed ways we do things and how we view the world. Computation already pervades many aspects of daily life through subtle augmentations and by changing our tools and our professions. Moreover, information technology accelerates the pace of our activities, its speed outstripping our capacity to digest its product. The changes brought on by this deluge force its chroniclers to create new terms. Neologisms spring up daily, often only adding to the confusion. Conversely, old terms take on new meanings. Their familiarity fading under the rush of new technologies, new disciplines. We are bombarded with a hasty terminology all delivered with the urgency - perhaps intent - reserved to advertising and propaganda.

Asojo, Abimbola. "Design Algorithms after Le Corbusier." ACADIA Quarterly 19, no. 4 (2000): 17-24.

Some views of design are the act as puzzle making, problem solving, evolutionary, and decision-making. All these focus on form generation as constructive, therefore characterizing design as a path-planning problem through a space of possibilities. Design problems consist sets of information divided into initial, intermediate, and goal states. Design in its simplest state consist of a set of operators, sequences (or paths) between initial and goals states. In this paper, I present design algorithms for Le Corbusier because of his distinct compositional techniques particularly for his “White Villasi in which some elements have been identified to recursively occur.

Papamichael, Konstantinos. "Desktop Radiance a New Tool for Computer-Aided Daylighting Design." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 11-Se. The use of daylight for the illumination of building interiors has the potential to enhance the quality of the environment while providing opportunities to save energy by replacing or supplementing electric lighting. Moreover, it has the potential to reduce heating and cooling loads, which offer additional energy saving opportunities, as well as reductions in HVAC equipment sizing and cost. All of these benefits, however, assume proper use of daylighting strategies and technologies, whose performance depends on the context of their application. On the other hand, improper use can have significant negative effects on both comfort and energy requirements, such as increased glare and cooling loads. To ensure proper use, designers need tools that model the dynamic nature of daylight and accurately predict performance with respect to a multitude of performance criteria, extending beyond comfort and energy to include aesthetics, cost, security, safety, etc.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Digital Architectures." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 251-256. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. This paper surveys different approaches in contemporary architectural design in which digital media is used not as a representational tool for visualization but as a generative tool for the derivation of form and its transformation. Such approaches are referred to as digital architectures - the computationally based processes of form origination and transformations. The paper examines the digital generative processes based on concepts such as topological space, motion dynamics, parametric design and genetic algorithms. It emphasizes the possibilities for the “finding of form,” which the emergence of various digitally based generative techniques seem to bring about.
Mahalingam, Ganapathy. "Enhanced Boundary Representation: a Lingua Franca for Computer-Based Building Performance Simulation?" ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 14-Dec. With the realistic visual representation of buildings on the computer having reached maturity, the emphasis has now shifted to the performance simulation of buildings on the computer. The challenge of performance simulation in computer-based models of buildings lies in the integration of various simulation techniques that require different kinds of building representations. Traditional simulation techniques for luminous, acoustic and thermal environments require different building representations. Thepaper proposes that an enhanced boundary representation is a viable, common building representation format for performance simulation of illumination levels, acoustical parameters and thermal comfort, thereby providing a building representation format for multi-domain performancesimulation on the computer. Simulation techniques that have been developed for radiosity-based modelling of illumination in buildings, radiation-based modelling of sound propagation in spatial enclosures, and the modelling of thermal comfort based on mean radiant temperatures, point to a convergence of techniques. These techniques can all work based on an enhanced boundary or surface representation of buildings. The paper suggests that an enhanced boundary representation format, and integrated performance simulation techniques based on radiation, can together serve as a core model for developers of computer-aided design analysis systems.
Chase, Scott C., and Paul Murty. "Evaluating the Complexity of CAD Models as a Measure for Student Assessment." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 173-182. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. The feasibility of a proposed CAD project is often judged in terms of two conceptions of complexity: design complexity, based on visible features of the object to be modeled, and CAD complexity, based on the actual CAD embodiment of the design. The latter is suggested as a more useful guide. Clearer articulation of this underutilized concept is proposed for use in both educational and industrial settings. A formal model of CAD complexity is introduced, and initial experiments to determine the complexity of CAD models are described.
Peri, Christopher. "Exercising Collaborative Design in a Virtual Environment." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 63-71. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. In the last few years remote collaborative design has been attracting interest, and with good reason: Almost everything we use today, whether it is the structure we inhabit, the vehicle we travel in, or the computer we work on, is the result of a number of participantsi contributions to a single design. At the same time, more and more design teams are working in remote locations from one another. In a distributed design situation with remote players, communication is key for successful and effective collaboration. Archville is a distributed, Web-based VR system that allows multiple users to interact with multiple models at the same time. We use it as a platform to exercise collaborative design by requiring students to build individual buildings as part of a city, or village and must share some common formal convention with their neighbors. The Archville exercise demonstrates to students how we can use computing and the Internet to design collaboratively. It also points out the need to have correct up-to-date information when working on collaborative projects because of the dynamic nature of the design process. In addition to architectural design and computer modelling, the exercise immerses students in the political and social aspects of designing within a community, where many of the design constraints must be negotiated, and where group work is often required. The paper describes both the pedagogical and the technical attributes of the Archville project.
Stach, Edgar. "EXPO 2000 Pavilion and Exposition: Precedent Studies." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 18-20. Included in this article are two second year architecture graduate student precedent studies to understand the complexity of a built project and its functional, structural and spatial design concept. Students were instructed to “disassemblei the building according to Form & Function, Structure & Construction, Materials, and Display Methods. Through the use of computer-generated models the students were able to understand the relationship between space and structure without having to physically travel to the pavilion sites. The computer offered the unique ability to explore a spatial study of buildings and places that no longer exist (such as the IBM Pavilion by Renzo Piano), as well as to anticipate the spatial qualities of spaces that are not yet built (similar to the Swiss Pavilion by Peter Zumthor). Final analysis drawings were created through manipulating the computer models to explain the Space & Form (spatial hierarchies), Spatial Sequence (circulation, path & place, and exhibition sequencing), and Space & Order (structure, proportion, and systems).  
Hotten, Robert, and Peter Diprose. "From Dreamtime to QuickTime: the Resurgence of the 360-Degree Panoramic View as a Form of Computer-Synthesised Architectural Representation." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 155-162. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. The conference theme “eternity, infinity and virtuality” may be considered in terms of time, space and the other. One form of representation that captures all three of these fundamental dimensions, at a glance, is the 360-degree panorama, a medium that is currently making a comeback in the architectural studio. This paper explores the use of the computer-synthesised panorama as a means of representing architectural space and landscape experience, and as a method of informing the design. The panoramic mural is differentiated from two subcategories of QTVR panorama, the subjective and the objective. The use of panoramic views enable landscape architecture students to design using a 2D image format which can be rendered to provide a 3D spatial effect. In summary, the paper contends that the process of design, in architectural practice and in architectural education, is significantly enhanced by the dynamic representations of time and/or space offered by the computer-synthesised panorama.
Donath, Dirk, and Thorsten Lömker. "Illusion, Frustration and Vision in Computer-Aided Project Planning: a Reflection and Outlook on the Use of Computing in Architecture ." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 9-Mar. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. This paper examines the progressive and pragmatic use of computers and CAAD systems in the architectural practice. With the aid of three scenarios, this paper will illustrate gainful implementation of computer aided project planning in architecture. The first scenario describes an actual situation of implementation and describes conceptual abortive developments in office organization as well as in software technology. Scenario two outlines the essential features of an integrated building design system and the efforts involved in its implementation in the architectural practice. It clearly defines preconditions for implementation and focuses on feasible concepts for the integration of different database management systems. A glance at paradigms of conceptual work currently under development will be taken. The third scenario deals with the structure and integration of innovative concepts and the responsibility the architect will bear with regard to necessary alterations in office and workgroup organization. A future-oriented building design system will be described that distinguishes itself from existing programs because of its modular, net-based structure. With reference to todayis situation in architectural offices and according to realizable improvements, this article will demonstrate courses for future IT-support on the basis of an ongoing research project. The presented project is part of the special research area 524 “Materials and Constructions for the Revitalization of Existing Buildings” which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. It deals with the integration of various parties that are involved in the revitalization process of existing buildings as well as with the provision of adequate information within the planning process resting upon the survey of existing building substance. Additional concepts that might change the way an architectis work is organized will also be presented. “Case-based-reasoning” methods will make informal knowledge available, leading to a digital memory of preservable solutions.
Jung, Thomas, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "Immersive Redliner: Collaborative Design in Cyberspace ." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 185-194. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. The Immersive Redliner supports annotation of three-dimensional artifacts in collaborative design. It enables team members to drop annotation markers in a VRML world that are linked to comment text stored on a server. Visitors to the world later can review the design annotations in the locations where they were made. We report on two phases of the Redliner project: the first involves a hypothetical design scenario, the second a real application on a rehabilitation in a residence building in Strasbourg.
Pal, Vineeta. "Integrated Decision-Making: the Building Design Advisor." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 14-17. In this paper we describe an integrated decision-making environment that brings together several different building simulation tools, and provides the data management and process control required for their integrated use, from the initial, schematic phases of building design. The output of one tool is easily used as input to another, either directly, or after appropriate manipulation to ensure compatibility, which makes the whole integrated environment more than the sum of its parts. A simple graphical user interface, common to all simulation tools, allows access to all building parameters and supports multicriterion judegment by allowing side-by-side comparison of multiple alternative designs with respect to multiple performance parameters.
Spodek, Jonathan. "Integrating Basic Technology: 3-D Modeling and the Internet in the Studio." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 6-Mar. One of the great challenges of architectural education is to teach students how to communicate with other project participants. Communication is critical not only within the design team, but also with outside participants. This year, 4th year architectural students at Ball State University engaged in a unique 12-week design problem on the remote island of Utila, Honduras.1 This project used basic computer technology to create a dynamic communication forum between the U.S. and Honduras. It also afforded an opportunity for students to use both computer generated and traditional architectural models to gain a deeper level of understanding of the relationship between design and construction.
Burry, Mark, Sambit Datta, and Simon Anson. "Introductory Computer Programming as a Means for Extending Spatial and Temporal Understanding." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 129-135. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000.

Should computer programming be taught within schools of architecture? Incorporating even low-level computer programming within architectural education curricula is a matter of debate but we have found it useful to do so for two reasons: as an introduction or at least a consolidation of the realm of descriptive geometry and in providing an environment for experimenting in morphological time-based change. Mathematics and descriptive geometry formed a significant proportion of architectural education until the end of the 19th century. This proportion has declined in contemporary curricula, possibly at some cost for despite major advances in automated manufacture, Cartesian measurement is still the principal ‘language’ with which to describe building for construction purposes. When computer programming is used as a platform for instruction in logic and spatial representation, the waning interest in mathematics as a basis for spatial description can be readdressed using a left-field approach. Students gain insights into topology, Cartesian space and morphology through programmatic form finding, as opposed to through direct manipulation. In this context, it matters to the architect-programmer how the program operates more than what it does. This paper describes an assignment where students are given a figurative conceptual space comprising the three Cartesian axes with a cube at its centre. Six Phileban solids mark the Cartesian axial limits to the space. Any point in this space represents a hybrid of one, two or three transformations from the central cube towards the various Phileban solids. Students are asked to predict the topological and morphological outcomes of the operations. Through programming, they become aware of morphogenesis and hybridisation. Here we articulate the hypothesis above and report on the outcome from a student group, whose work reveals wider learning opportunities for architecture students in computer programming than conventionally assumed.

Akleman, E., J. Chen, and B. Meric. "Intuitive and Effective Design of Periodic Symmetric Tiles." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 123-127. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. This paper presents a new approach for intuitive and effective design of periodic symmetric tiles. We observe that planar graphs can effectively represent symmetric tiles and graph drawing provides an intuitive paradigm for designing symmetric tiles. Moreover, based on our theoretical work to represent hexagonal symmetry by rectangular symmetry, we are able to present all symmetric tiles as graphs embedded on a torus and based on simple modulo operations. This approach enables us to develop a simple and efficient algorithm, which has been implemented in Java. By using this software, designers, architects and artists can create interesting symmetric tiles directly on the web. We also have designed a few examples of symmetric tiles to show the effectiveness of the approach.
Willer, B.. "Lightweight Structures in Technical Engineering." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 16-17. The model of the space shuttle was a precendent study given to help understand light weight structures and technical engineering and how they might be later applied to the design of a building. The project requested a three-dimensional model of the problem and further research into the technical matters of the problem. Structural analysis was requested both through the use of the model as a visual tool and in depth research as its counter. Materials and construction types were all looked at and researched for the precendent study, as well as, spacial relationships.
Ceccato, C., SA. Simondetti, and Mark Burry. "Mass-Customization in Design Using Evolutionary and Parametric Methods." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 239-244. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. This paper describes a project within the authors’s ongoing research in the field of Generative Design. The work is based on the premise that computer-aided design (CAD) should evolve beyond its current limitation of one-way interaction, and become a dynamic, intelligent, multi-user environment that encourages creativity and actively supports the evolution of individual, mass-customized designs which exhibit common features. The authors describe this idea by illustrating the implementation of a research project, which explores the notions of mass-customization in design by using evolutionary and parametric methods to generate families of simple objects, in our case a door handle. The project examines related approaches using both complex CAD/CAM packages (CADDS, CATIA) and a proprietary software tool for evolutionary design. The paper first gives a short historical and philosophical background to the work, then describes the technical and algorithmic requirements, and concludes with the implementations of the project.
Geva, Anat. "New Media in Teaching and Learning History of Building Technology." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 57-97. Numerous scholars in the field of education established that relevance is one of the important instructional components that influence studentsi interest and motivation to learn (Bergin, 1999, Frymier and Shulman, 1995, Schumm and Saumell, 1995). Relevance can be achieved by juxtaposing personal experiences with professional scientific principles (Pigford, 1995, Blanton, 1998). In addition to the relevancy of a course substance Blanton (1998) recommends that instructors should introduce the material in an organized system that is relevant to the learneris life.
Kilkelly, Michael. "Off the Page: Object-Oriented Construction Drawings." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 147-151. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. This paper discusses methods in which inefficiencies in the construction documentation process can be addressed through the application of digital technology. These inefficiencies are directly related to the time consuming nature of the construction documentation process, given that the majority of time is spent reformatting and redrawing previous details and specifications. The concepts of objectoriented programming are used as an organizational framework for construction documentation. Database structures are also used as a key component to information reuse in the documentation process. A prototype system is developed as an alternative to current Computer-Aided Drafting software. This prototype, the Drawing Assembler, functions as a graphic search engine for construction details. It links a building component database with a construction detail database through the intersection of dissimilar objects.
Anders, Peter. "Places of Mind: Implications of Narrative Space for the Architecture of Information Environments." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 85-89. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. Virtual reality and cyberspace are extended spaces of the mind different from, yet related to, the spaces of fiction and ancient myth. These earlier spaces reveal how electronic media, too, may come to define our selves and our culture. Indeed, a better understanding of how we use space to think can lead to the design of better information environments. This paper will describe a range of traditional narrative spaces, revealing their varied relationships with the physical world. It will demonstrate the purposes of such spaces and how their function changes with their level of abstraction. A concluding review of current technologies will show how electronic environments carry on the traditions of these spaces in serving our cultural and psychological needs.
Kensek, K., J. Leuppi, and D. Noble. "Plank Lines of Ribbed Timber Shell Structures." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 261-266. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. This paper discusses a method for determining the plank lines of ribbed timber shell structures. The information is necessary for the construction of the roof, but the information is usually not depicted accurately in three-dimensional modelling programs.
Proctor, George. "Reflections on the VDS, Pedagogy, Methods." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 15-16. After having conducted a Digital Media based design studio at Cal Poly for six years, we have developed a body of experience I feel is worth sharing. When the idea of conducting a studio with the exclusive use of digital tools was implemented at our college, it was still somewhat novel, and only 2 short years after the first VDS- Virtual Design Studio (UBC, UHK et.al.-1993). When we began, most of what we explored required a suspension of disbelief on the part of both the students and faculty reviewers of studio work. In a few short years the notions we examined have become ubiquitous in academic architectural discourse and are expanding into common use in practice. (For background, the digital media component of our curriculum owes much to my time at Harvard GSD [MAUD 1989-91] and the texts of: McCullough/Mitchell 1990, 1994, McCullough 1998, Mitchell 1990,1992,1996, Tufte 1990, Turkel 1995, and Wojtowicz 1993, and others.)  
Li, Fei, and Mary Lou Maher. "Representing Virtual Places - a Design Model for Metaphorical Design." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 103-111. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. The design of virtual places is metaphorical because it relies on references to the physical world. The use of a consistent metaphor provides a sense of place that combines functionality, familiarity, richness and an awareness of the presence of others. In this paper we consider such designs from a representational perspective. We discuss the characteristics and distinctions of a model of metaphorical design representation and propose a framework for the development of the representation of metaphorical design. We illustrate this framework with examples of designs of virtual places.
Zerefos, Stylianos, A.M. Kotsiopoulos, and A. Pombortsis. "Responsive Architecture: an Integrated Approach for the Future." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 245-249. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. An integrated approach towards a responsive architecture is presented. This new direction in architecture is based on recent scientific advances and on available technology in materials, telecommunications, electronics and sustainability principles. The integrated responsive architecture is not confined to offices or housing, but may well extend to intelligent neighborhoods and to intelligent cities. The dynamics of these future systems focus on security, comfort and health for the inhabitants.
Smith, Andrew. "Shared Architecture: Rapid-Modeling Techniques for Distribution via On-Line Multi User Environments." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 9-Aug. This paper explores techniques for the rapid modelling of local scale urbanenvironments. Multi user avatar based systems are utilized to enable theimport of traditional CAD models into a collaborative on-line environment.
Nir, Eyal. "Smart, Green and in Between - Rethinking the Office Tower." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 11-Oct. The towers that paint Montrealis skyline are relics of the 20th century. Towers that express the power of capital on the outside turn out to be almost empty from within. It looks like there was a race to reach the skies - to touch the Mount Royal peak. I remember an attorney working in one of those skyscrapers telling me “the windows are for the lawyers and here in the dark open space is where you can find the slaves.” His words took my imagination to think of a boat in the ancient times where slaves where rowing to the rhythm of the drums. But then I realized the contradiction here - I told him “you should place your “slaves” next to the windows if you want them to be able to row and bring your boat to safe land.”
Ataman, Osman. "Some Experimental Results in the Assessment of Architectural Media." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 163-171. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. The relationship between the media and architectural design can be an important factor and can influence the design outcome. However, the nature, direction and magnitude of this relationship are unknown. Consequently, there have been many speculative claims about this relationship and almost none of them are supported with empirical research studies. In order to investigate these claims and to provide a testable framework for their potential contributions to architectural education, this study aims to explore the effects of media on architectural design. During 1995-1997, a total of 90 students enrolling in First Year Design Studio and Introduction to Computing classes at Georgia Tech participated in the study. A set of quantitative measures was developed to assess the differences between the two media and the effects on the architectural design. The results suggested that media influenced certain aspects of studentsi designs. It is concluded that there is a strong relationship between the media and architectural design. The type of media not only changes some quantifiable design parameters but also affects the quality of design.
Abdelmawla, S., M. Elnimeiri, and Robert Krawczyk. "Structural Gizmos." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 115-121. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. Architects are visual learners. The Internet has enabled interactive learning tools that can be used to assist in visual thinking of structural concepts, especially at the introductory levels. Here, we propose a visual approach for understanding structures through a series of interactive learning modules, or “gizmos”. These gizmos, are the tools that the student may use to examine one structural concept at a time. Being interactive, they offer many more possibilities beyond what one static problem can show. The approach aims to enhance studentsi visual intuition, and hence understanding of structural concepts and the parameters affecting design. This paper will present selected structural gizmos, how they work, and how they can enhance structural education for architects.
Ataman, Osman. "Studio@temple." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 16-18. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. This paper describes our approach to the first year design studio and the way we employ, utilize and integrate digital media in the Architecture Program at Temple.  
Martens, Bob, M. Uhl, W.-M. Tschuppik, and A. Voigt. "Synagogue Neudeggergasse: a Virtual Reconstruction in Vienna." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 213-218. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. Issues associated with virtual reconstruction are first dealt within this paper. Visualizing of no longer existent (architecture-) objects and their surroundings practically amounts to a “virtual comeback”. Furthermore, special attention is given to the description of the working procedure for a case study of reconstruction sounding out the potentials of QuickTime VR. The paper ends up with a set of conclusions, taking a close look at the “pros” and “cons” of this type of re-construction. 1 Introduction Irreversible destruction having removed identity-establishing buildings from the urban surface for all times is the principal cause for the attempt of renewed “imaginating.” When dealing with such reconstruction first the problem of reliability concerning the existing basic material has to be tackled. Due to their two-dimensional recording photographs only supply us with restricted information content of the object under consideration. Thus the missing part has to be supplemented or substituted by additional sources. Within the process of assembling and overlaying of differing data sets the way of dealing with such fragmentations becomes of major importance. Priority is given to the choice of information. One of the most elementary items of information regarding perception of three-dimensional objects surely is the effect that color and material furnishes. It seems to suggest itself that black-and-white shots hardly will prove valid in this respect. The three-dimensional object doubtlessly provides us with a by far greater variety of possibilities in the following working process than the “cardboard model with pasted-on facade photography”. Only the completely designed model structure makes for visualizing the plastic representation form of architecture in a sustainable manner. Furthermore, a virtual model can be dismantled into part models without amounting to a destruction process thereof. Apart therefrom the virtual model permits the generation of differing reconstruction variants regarding color and material. Moreover, architecture models of a physical nature are inherently connected to locality as such.
Lonsway, Brian. "Testing the Space of the Virtual." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 51-61. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. Various modes of electronically mediated communication, perception, and immersive bodily engagement, generally categorized as “virtual experiences,” have offered the designer of space a new array of spatial conditions to address. Each of these modes of virtual experience, from text-based discussion forums to immersive virtual reality environments, presents challenges to traditional assumptions about space and its inhabitation. These challenges require design theorization which extends beyond the notions of design within the electronic space (the textual description of the chat forum, the appearance of the computer generated imagery, etc.), and require a reconsideration of the entire electronic and physical apparatus of the mediating devices (the physical spaces which facilitate the interaction, the manner of their connection to the virtual spaces, etc.). In light of the lack of spatial theorization in this area, this paper presents both an experimental framework for understanding this complete space of the virtual and outlines a current research project addressing these theoretical challenges through the spatial implementation of a synthetic environment.
Miller, J.J., W. Wang, and G.R. Jenkins. "The Anthropometric Measurement and Modeling Project." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 281-284. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. Disability is a product of the interactions between individuals and the environment they inhabit and the products they utilize. Disability is located on a continuum from enablement to disablement. Human physical characteristics as well as environmental factors will locate an individual on that continuum. The degree of disability or enablement will fluctuate, depending upon the attributes of the environment and the artifacts located there. The ability of designers and architects to create environments and products that enable all people is directly tied to their ability to: 1. understand the abilities and constraints of the human body and, 2. model the physics of the bodyis interactions with artifacts and spaces. // This project is developing an anthropometric measurement protocol and computer-based design tools focusing on people with disabilities and the aging. The areas of interest for measurement are guided by real-world design needs. The measurements generated are translated into three-dimensional datasets compatible with commercial off the shelf software extended by the programming of additional scripts, functions, plug-ins, behaviours, etc.
Harfmann, Anton, and Peter Akins. "The Composite Building Sketch." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 273-280. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. This works in progress paper describes the development of an alternative method for teaching building technology using the composite sketch concept borrowed from police forensics. The composite sketch utilizes individual components and assemblies of construction in various combinations to explore the design implications of materials and connections on form and surface. To enhance the usefulness of the composite sketch, in-depth case studies of specific buildings are linked to the digital assemblies of the composite sketch so that students can see the basic concepts in actual buildings. The project currently models more than 500 combinations of components and includes approximately 200 catalogued images of buildings under construction.
Martens, Bob, and Z. Turk. "The Creation of a Cumulative Index on CAD: "CUMINCAD"." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 18-19. To researchers in many disciplines, Internet is quickly becoming the dominating environment to search for publications. Commercial bibliographic databases tend to be too general, are not up-to-date and require special skills and efforts to be searched. On the other hand research is also published on the Web that also enables collaborative creation ofreferences by the specialists in the field. CUMINCAD is such a bibliographic database and compiles papers related to Computer Aided (Architectural) Design. The database is available on the Web and allows searching and browsing in the ways usual on the Web. It provides a “historical evolution” to learn from previous efforts and draws attention to older original works that could have been ignored because they could not be found on the Web. We believe that CUMINCAD will help focus future CAAD research andimprove the education.
Liu, Yu-Tung. "The Evolving Concept of Space: from Hsinchu Museum of Arts to the Digital City Art Center." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 11-Se. From a functional point of view, a museum of arts is a space used for collecting works of art. This is, however, a spatial concept held prior to the 20th century: the center of focus in spatial design is the collections (focusing on “objects” as opposed to “users”). In the 20th century, the museum has evolved into a space for the interactivity between the viewers and the objects, with the concept of design shifting to that of placing equal emphasis on both the user and the object? at times the role of the user is even given greater emphasis in the design process without a conscious intent on the part of the designer. The coming century is one that we believe will be confronted with incredible waves caused by the impact of computers, the ultimate machines of digitization. At this junction, we often say that we are going to have new ways of thinking, new cities and new concepts of space. However, what should these new things be? 
Johnson, Robert. "The Impact of E-Commerce on the Design and Construction Industry." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 75-83. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. Historically, the design and construction industry has been slow to innovate. As a result, productivity in the construction industry has declined substantially compared to other industries. Inefficiencies in this industry are well documented. However, the potential for cost savings and increased efficiency through the use of the Internet and e-commerce may not only increase the efficiency of the design and construction industry, but it may also significantly change the structure and composition of the industry. This is suggested because effective implementations of e-commerce technologies are not limited to one aspect of one industry. E-commerce may be most effective when it is thought of and applied to multi-industry enterprises and in a global context. This paper continues the exploration of a concept that we have been working on for several years, namely that “information technology is evolving from a tool that incrementally improves “backoffice” productivity to an essential component of strategic positioning that may alter the basic economics, organizational structure and operational practices of facility management organizations and their interactions with service providers (architects, engineers and constructors).” (Johnson and Clayton 1998) This paper will utilize the case study methodology to explore these issues as they are affecting the AEC/FM industry.
Bailey, Rohan. "The Intelligent Sketch: Developing a Conceptual Model for a Digital Design Assistant." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 137-145. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. The computer is a relatively new tool in the practice of Architecture. Since its introduction, there has been a desire amongst designers to use this new tool quite early in the design process. However, contrary to this desire, most Architects today use pen and paper in the very early stages of design to sketch. Architects solve problems by thinking visually. One of the most important tools that the Architect has at his disposal in the design process is the hand sketch. This iterative way of testing ideas and informing the design process with images fundamentally directs and aids the architectis decision making. It has been said (Schön and Wiggins 1992) that sketching is about the reflective conversation designers have with images and ideas conveyed by the act of drawing. It is highly dependent on feedback. This “conversation” is an area worthy of investigation. Understanding this “conversation” is significant to understanding how we might apply the computer to enhance the designeris ability to capture, manipulate and reflect on ideas during conceptual design. This paper discusses sketching and its relation to design thinking. It explores the conversations that designers engage in with the media they use. This is done through the explanation of a protocol analysis method. Protocol analysis used in the field of psychology, has been used extensively by Eastman et al (starting in the early 70s) as a method to elicit information about design thinking. In the pilot experiment described in this paper, two persons are used. One plays the role of the “handi while the other is the “mind”- the two elements that are involved in the design “conversation”. This variation on classical protocol analysis sets out to discover how “intelligent” the hand should be to enhance design by reflection. The paper describes the procedures entailed in the pilot experiment and the resulting data. The paper then concludes by discussing future intentions for research and the far reaching possibilities for use of the computer in architectural studio teaching (as teaching aids) as well as a digital design assistant in conceptual design.
Fischer, Thomas, Christiane Herr, and C. Ceccato. "Towards Real Time Interaction Visualization in NED." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 257-260. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. Where design education moves from the studio to computer networks, interaction information easily becomes unavailable for pedagogic analysis. In this paper we propose automated learning interaction visualization to solve this problem and show our progress in developing technical tools for this purpose.
Pinet, Celine. "Turn up the Volume, this is Good Music." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 24-26. I am listening and getting all revved up. Volume5 presents art, architecture, and construction like parts of a concert. Created by Eyespeak, the site is jam packed with excellent discussions, fun digital images, and the loud, wonderful voices of experts and up and coming talent (www.volume5.com).  
Zhou, Ming. "Use of Computers in Reconstruction of Ancient Buildings." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 223-225. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. Many cities in China today are in the midst of a profound architectural transformation. Among these rapidly developing cities, most of them are many centuries old, possessing rich historical architecture of distinct local traditions. However, the ancient buildings and the neighborhood are disappearing quickly, because of the wholesale demolition for urban development or many years of neglect. In this paper, the use of computers in reconstruction of ancient buildings is briefly discussed with some case studies. The advanced computer technology provides a powerful tool for the ancient architecture preservation and reproduction. It makes the reconstruction engineering more efficient, true to the original, and low cost.
Sariyildiz, Sevil, Rudi Stouffs, and Bige Tunçer. "Vision on ICT Developments for the Building Sector." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 18-Nov. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000.

The building sector is entering a new era. Developments in information and communication technology have an impact throughout the entire life cycle of a building, not only from a process and technical point of view but also from a creative design point of view. As a result of developments of advanced modelling software for architectural design, the gap between what the architect can envision and what the building technician or product architect can materialize is enlarging. Internet technology has already started to provide a closer link between the participants in the building process, their activities, knowledge, and information. Concurrent and collaborative engineering will be the future of building practice in respect to efficiency and quality improvement of this sector. The nature of the building process is complex, not only from a communication point of view, but also from the information of the number of participants, the spatial organization and the infrastructure etc. In the near future, soft computing techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms will make contributions to the problem solving aspects of the complex design process. This paper provides an overview of these and other future developments of information and communication technology (ICT) within the building sector.

Vassigh, Shahin. "Visualizing Load Distribution Paths." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 14-15. The following is a brief discussion of an alternative tool for teaching structural behaviour to architecture and introduc-tory level engineering students. The advanced computer modelling and animation can be utilized to teach structural behaviour in service condition in such a way that better meets the needs and capabilities of architecture students. It can provide a methodology and system, which develops an intuitive and conceptual understanding of structures before students can become overwhelmed with analytical and engineering mathematics. Coupled with appropriate technical instruction, these tools and methods facilitate a much stronger understanding of basic and advanced structures principles.
Jabi, Wassim. "WebOutliner: a Web-Based Tool for Collaborative Space Programming and Design." In Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 195-201. ACADIA. Washington D.C.: Catholic University, 2000. This paper discusses a web-based tool that allows members of a design team to collaboratively specify a hierarchical spatial program for an architectural project. Given its object orientation, the represented artifacts have built-in data and methods that allow them to respond to user actions and manage their own sub-artifacts. Given that these components are hierarchical allows users to filter information, analyze and compare design parameters and aggregate hierarchical amounts in realtime. Furthermore, the software goes beyond outlining functions to support synchronous collaborative design by linking each item in the spatial program to a detail page that allows file uploading, realtime group marking of images, and textual chat. Thus, the software offers a seamless transition from the largely asynchronous definition of an architectural program to synchronous collaboration. In addition, and in contrast to commercially available groupware, the software allows multiple collaboration sessions to run at the same time. These sessions are artifact-based in the sense that they get automatically initiated once participants visit the same architectural space in the program hierarchy. The software employs a three-tier object-oriented, web-based scheme for a richer representation of hierarchical artifacts coupled with a relational database for server-side storage. The prototype integrates this technology with Java-based tools for synchronous web-based collaboration.
Campbell, Dace. "What Have We Done?!? Design Media and Processes in the Creation of Cybrids." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 2-Jan. This panel will discuss the use of design media and processes in the generation of recent cybrid design projects. These projects, realized by teams of experts in various design and technical fields, represent the forefront of thought in the creation of hybrid physical-virtual solutions to design programs. The panel members are experts in architecture, interface design, and dramatic scenarios. The panelists were asked to define their positions for the discussion by answering four questions. Below are excerpts from their replies to these questions, which will be expanded upon in the panel discussion.
Martens, Bob, and Z. Turk. "Work in Progress on CUMINCAD." ACADIA Quarterly 19 (2000): 25-26. This article follows up an earler publication in the ACADIA Quarterly (19:3 2000), in which the intial development of a “Cumulative Index on CAD” is presented.