Keywords Abstract
Kühn, Christian, and Marcus Herzog. "A "Language Game"." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. This paper examines the role of natural language in architectural design methods. It first investigates the role of language in decomposition and synthesis of architectural design problems giving special attention to Christopher Alexanderis theories. Then the notion of ideal types in architectural design is compared with empirical typologies that regard types as groupings of objects which have certain attributes in common. It is shown that Ludwig Wittgensteinis game theory of language may serve as a method to cope with an underlying paradoxon of this empirical approach. Finally we present an attempt to use the “language-game “ approach to describe and analyze architectural types.
Ballheim, F., and J. Leppert. "Architecture with Machines, Principles and Examples of CAAD-Education at the Technische Universitát München." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. Design tools affect the results of the design process'- this is the starting point of our considerations about the efficient use of CAAD within architecture. To give you a short overview about what we want to say with this thesis lets have a short - an surely incomplete - trip through the fourth dimension back into the early time of civil engineering. As CAD in our faculty is integrated in the “Lehrstuhl für Hochbaustatik und Tragwerksplanung” (if we try to say it in English it would approximately be “institute of structural design”), we chose an example we are very familiar with because of its mathematical background - the cone sections: Circle, ellipse, parabola and hyperbola. If we start our trip two thousand years ago we only find the circle - or in very few cases the ellipse - in their use for the ground plan of greek or roman theaters - if you think of Greek amphitheaters or the Colosseum in Rome - or for the design of the cross section of a building - for example the Pantheon, roman aqueducts or bridges. With the rediscovery of the perspective during the Renaissance the handling of the ellipse was brought to perfection. May be the most famous example is the Capitol in Rome designed by Michelangelo Buonarotti with its elliptical ground plan that looks like a circle if the visitor comes up the famous stairway. During the following centuries - caused by the further development of the natural sciences and the use of new construction materials, i.e. cast-iron, steel or concrete - new design ideas could be realized. With the growing influence of mathematics on the design of buildings we got the division into two professions: Civil engineering and architecture. To the regret of the architects the most innovative constructions were designed by civil engineers, e.g. the early iron bridges in Britain or the famous bridges of Robert Maillard. Nowadays we are in the situation that we try to reintegrate the divided professions. We will return to that point later discussing possible solutions of this problem. But let us continue our'historical survey'demonstrating the state of the art we have today. As the logical consequence of the parabolic and hyperbolic arcs the hyperbolic parabolic shells were developed using traditional design techniques like models and orthogonal sections. Now we reach the point where the question comes up whether complex structures can be completely described by using traditional methods. A question that can be answered by “noi if we take the final step to the completely irregular geometry of cable- net-constructions or deconstructivistic designs. What we see - and what seems to support our thesis of the connection between design tools and the results of the design process - is, that on the one hand new tools enabled the designer to realize new ideas and on the other hand new ideas affected the development of new tools to realize them.
Oxman, R., and R. Oxman. "Building Form Modelling in Architectural Design Education." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. The paper describes an approach to architectural design education within the tradition of grammatical studies. It exploits certain attributes of computer modelling and computer graphics programs as an environment to convey architectural knowledge. The formal representation of designs and the manipulation of these representations are proposed as architectural knowledge and one of the foundations of design. Computer-based three-dimensional formal analysis of designs is employed as a technique for the acquisition of knowledge of classes of designs. Through formal analysis certain general models of building form are postulated. The classes of building form models in architecture are elaborated, and their relation to the concept of architectural syntax is discussed. The computational significance of building form modelling is considered, and the relevance of formal modelling in design education is discussed.
Ronchi, Alfredo. "CAAD Technical Information Management by Hypertext." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. The research of applications concerning design, sizing and building of computer models have been, during the last years, undoubtedly of great importance and interest. Therefore, analyzing in detail the graphic packages concerning drafting and solid modelling we can undoubtedly say that these are nowadays an integral part of our daily work. In the near future, we can of course expect from those applications, new studies and research mainly concerning an easier start up and the standardization of the graphic interface, if we analyze, for example the well known package AutoCAD we can consider a new real data-base and the redesign of the interface on a graphic base (graphic choice of drawings and blocks, icons for commands, better capability of text editing, pattern editing and stretching, loading capability and visualization of various drawings in graphic windows, full compatibility with MS WINDOWS, etc. etc.). As above mentioned, these studies work on updating well known existing applications aiming to consolidate their uses, one specific section of design not yet supported by computer application is that related to the management of technical and non-technical information, nowadays still written and stored on paper.
Korte, Michael. "CASOB - Simultaneous Surveying and Drawing." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. Accurate planning and economical building within an existing structure require a complex building analysis based upon detailed scale plans. Work has shown unsatisfactory of measuring tools: (1.) Recording of measurements with meterrule and measuring tape often results in mistakes and wasted time. Since the data is not digitalized the measurements cannot be used by a CAD system. (2.) Commercially available CAD software is made only for new planning but not for planning with an existing structure. Up till now architects who predominantly work with existing structures were not able to take advantage of products in the software- and hardware market which would satisfy their needs. The problems already begin with the search for appropriate tools for the surveying of existing structures and the simplest possible transfer of the data to a CAD System. There is an increased demand for quality surveying of existing structures. In Germany, far more than 60 % of all construction planning is related to existing structures. Due to the special situation in the five new states this percentage will grow significantly. Other countries will find themselves in a similar situation. A large number of precise and analytical surveys of existing structures will be needed in a relative short time. Time pressure and stress factors at construction sites call for quality planning and economical construction which can only be accomplished with reliable and exact surveying of structures. Frustrating experiences in the field have led me to develop systems for the surveying of existing structures. With CASOB (Computer Aided Surveying of Buildings) we have a tool today that simultaneously surveys and creates a CAD compatible drawing. 
Bridges, Alan. "Computer Exercises in Architectural Design Theory." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. This paper discusses how architectural theory may be taught using computer based exercises to explore the practical application of those theories. The particular view of architecture developed is, necessarily, a restricted one but the objectives behind the exercises are slightly different to those that a pure architectural theorist or historian might have The formal teaching of architectural theory and composition has not been very fashionable in Schools of Architecture for several years now: indeed there is a considerable inbuilt resistance in students to the application of any form of rules or procedures. There is however a general interest in computing and this can be utilised to advantage. In concentrating on computer applications in design eclectic use has been made of a number of architectural examples ranging from Greek temples to the work of modern deconstructionists. Architectural theory since Vitruvius is littered with attempts to define universal theories of design and this paper certainly does not presume to anything so grand: I have merely looked at buildings, compared them and noted what they have in common and how that might relate to computer-aided design. I have ignored completely any sociological, philosophical or phenomenological questions but would readily agree with the criticism that Cartesian rationality is not, on its own, a sufficient base upon which to build a theory of design. However I believe there is merit in articulating design by separating it from other concerns and making it a subject of study in its own right. Work in design research will provide the models and intellectual structures to facilitate discourse about design and might be expected to benefit the development of design skills by providing material that could be formally taught and debated in a way that is removed from the ephemeral “fashionable designeri debate. Of course, some of the ideas discussed here may prove to be equally ephemeral but that does not entirely negate their value.  
Neilson, I., C. Tweed, and S. Vergopoulos. "Computer Literacy and Architectural Education." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. The importance of some degree of computer literacy to the practice of architecture is constantly being emphasised yet what constitutes computer literacy in the context of architectural education has yet to be defined and appropriate guidelines for the teaching of CAD established. Currently the course structure of a CAD option is simply decided by the staff involved in teaching the option. Many course designs are possible, not all of which are likely to give equal educational returns. There is thus a need for empirical evaluation of existing course structures in order that the relative merits of the various possible designs may be usefully compared. This paper reports the outcome of one such study which focussed on student evaluation of the structure of the CAD option taught at Edinburgh.
Ayrle, Hartmut. "Computers for Architects - Only a Tool?" In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. The paper states that, as a result of the schism between architecture as art and engineering as rationalism, the architectural community underestimates the computer as tool with a potential to substantially enlarge the possibilities of building design. It is claimed that the computer could serve as coordination tool for the ruptured design process, as a virtual workbench where all design disciplines sit together and develop their designs in enhanced conscience of what the whole design demands. The paper then concludes, that to develop such software tools, architects must participate in the development of software and may no longer be restricted to the role of applicants, especially during their universitary instruction. The corresponding research and training facilities at the University of Karlsruhe, Faculty of Architecture are described. 
Smeltzer, Geert. "Design Model Image Presentation." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. CAD systems offer new and improved techniques for the presentation of designs. This paper presents several of these techniques that are based upon computer-generated images of a 3-dimensional computer model of a design. These new techniques include holography, animating and virtual reality. Some of the techniques that can be improved by CAD systems are paper scale modelling and stereoscopy.
Richter, Peter. "Integrating Planning Systems." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. Goals and concepts of integrating different computeraided design and administration systems for many tasks in design and management of buildings were reported from the viewpoint of research and software development. They are presented by example of the ISYBAU-project. 
Sabater, Txatxo. "Learning from Volume Processing." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. We will expose a kind of chosen curriculum about the activities we have been working on, basically at the Politechnical University of Barcelona Valles School of Architecture. Our activities, in the realm of Apple Macintosh, involve undergraduate students and a Master degree as well. The way we use graphic computers and 3D software has been formulated gradually through a continuous and progressive use. Dedicating work with Apple Macintosh computers doesn't concern to teaching drawing programmes, but we try to “normalizei its use. How? Integrating it in different tasks and suggesting its use in a range of programmes. And, sometimes, letting the visual transcriptions suggest new arguments. The visual system of values developed by the Modernists (now history) and through the mass media, especially photography, cinema, video, are, nowadays, part of our visual language. 
Strauss, Wolfgang. "Organization Principles in Virtual Space - Digital Casa in Media City." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. Omitting the “virtual”: the organization of the space - that is architecture. How the design process itself has been changed by the new media, is the topic of this discussion - the process of designing in its penetration and extension into other techniques and media, for example video montage or image data banks. The process of designing becomes an electronic working of images differing substantially from the traditional process by the employed electronic devices.
Steinhage, Volker. "POLYOC: Photogrammetric Measurements of Buildings and Architectural Models via Multi-View Steoreovision." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. We present a new method to derive a reliable 3D description of buildings and architectural models based on stereo vision using multiple camera views. This multi-view stereo technique has been successfully applied to many objects and has proved to be more reliable and more accurate than the well known binocular and even trinocular stereo techniques. The method has the following attractive features: (-) Flexibility: Arbitrary positions of an arbitrary amount of different camera views are allowed. (-) Automatic Calibration of each camera view is obtained by a simple procedure. (-) Reliable Stereo Analysis: The matching of corresponding image features of different images relies on a basic paradigm of Hypothesis Prediction and Validation. (-) Knowledge Base: Heuristics can be applied to correct the object reconstruction. (-) CAD-lnterface: The 3D description of the reconstructed object can automatically transferred via DXF to a CAD-system. (-) Low Costs: No special and expensive technical equipment like a laser or an UV rangefinder is necessary. A camera, a PC with CAD-system and a digitizing device like a digitizing tablet with a pointing pen are sufficient.
Brown, Andre. "Review of Building IT 2000." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. Building IT2000 is a Building and Information Technology database which is presented in Hypertextformat. Its production has been co-ordinated by the CICA (the Construction Industry Computer Association), an independent association serving the needs of computer users, specifiers and suppliers in the Construction Industry. The stack is a collection of structured information prepared by a group of experts in computing and the construction industry. As such it represents an interesting advance from two points of view: (1.) It is a valuable source of information in its own right. It could provide a resource for students of architecture which could be used as a self-teaching package. (2.) It points a possible way forward for the development of similar hypertext based teaching packages which could be developed by academics within the European teaching community.
Daru, Roel. "Sketch as Sketch Can - Design Sketching with Imperfect Aids and Sketchpads of the Future." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. Sketching plays a manifold role in design and design education now as much as it did in the computerless days. Design sketching is indispensable during the early phases of the architectural design process. But if we ask architects and design educators alike what they are doing with computers, idea sketching is the least mentioned answer if not left out entirely. It is not because they are computer-illiterates, as the computer industry would tend to imply, but because their computers are not offering an adequate environment for design sketching. In education this means that those trying to create computeraided design sketching courses are confronted with the choice of either working with imperfect tools, or waiting for better tools. But by exploring the possibilities in available surrogates we will build the necessary experiences for specifying what is really useful for idea-sketching. Without such exercises, we will never go beyond the electronic metaphor of the sketchbook with pencil or marker. 
Leclercq, Pierre. "Students in Efficient Energy Management." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. The LEMA presents Strategy II, the new version of his CAL software in thermal design of building. Based on his latest experiences using the first prototypes, the present programme provides an complete human interface and interesting tools for decision taking. A first educational experience with this software is described. Strategy II has been studied in 1990 by two twin teams: one is the LEMA (Laboratoire d'Etudes Méthodologiques Architecturales) and the other one is the CTE (Centre des Technologies de l'Education), parts of the University of Lige, in Belgium. 
Pittioni, Gernot. "Support of Structural Design." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. The tendency of using CAD-systems in the early phases of architectural design involve the need of advice tools to support the design process. Many influences have to be managed by the designer. This paper catches a glance on an experiment presently running, aiming at the support of structural design. The system is implemented on AutoCAD 10.0, using AutoLISP with the outlook on future C-interfacing with AutoCAD.
Streich, Bernd. "The Conception of Education in CAD." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. In February 1990 the University of Kaiserslautern founded the new teaching and research department “Computer-Aided Design and Construction in Environmental Planning and Architecture”. Unlike other German universities, the speciality of the new teaching department is in the common education of architects and environmental planners (including urban planning), so that a wide range of computer systems is at their disposal: computer-aided architectural design systems just as geographic information systems, picture processing or information systems to support urban planning etc. No other German university disposes of this kind of common education in a single teaching department. The following aspects will be discussed: (-) The general concept of education in three dimensions, viz. a dimension of application concerning architecture and urban planning, a dimension of technical features concerning computer applications and a dimension of critical judgement. (-) Contents of education and teaching concept including examples and students'resonance. (-) Research fields in urban planning and architecture which are necessary for a practical-oriented education concept. (-) Experience with the educational background furnished by the students of architecture and environmental planning and general consequences for the teaching concept.
Hacfoort, E.J.H.. "The COSMOS Building Design Tool." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. This paper describes the development of a method to bring expert knowledge forward in the preliminary stage of the design process. We are focusing on the use of a graphic interface which makes it possible, in an easy and for a designer, familiar way, to state explicitly about the technical and economical impact of his design proposals. The first problem to overcome was to provide the designer with a design tool that combines the capability to reflect the geometry of the design and at the same time generate systematically, for computing and evaluation, a usable database. To fulfil this task we developed the program COSMOS, it receives the basic geometry of a design and produces a set of data which can be partly evaluated inside the program and furthermore function for design and computation in specialized programs. In this paper COSMOS is presented as the design tool developed so far and which we are now are introducing and testing in the education of building design and building physics at our faculty.
Asanowicz, Alexander. "Unde et Quo." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. To begin with, I would like to say a few words about the problem of alienation of modern technologies which we also inevitably faced while starting teaching CAD at our department. Quite often nowadays a technology becomes a fetish as a result of lack of clear goals in human mind. There are multiple technologies without sense of purpose which turned into pure experiments. There is always the danger of losing purposeness and drifting toward alienation. The cause of the danger lies in forgetting about original goals while mastering and developing the technology. Eventually the original idea is ignored and a great gap appears between technical factors and creativity. We had the danger of alienation in mind when preparing the CAAD curriculum. Trying to avoid the tension between technical and creative elements we agreed not to introduce CAD too soon then the fourth year of studies and continue it for two semesters. One thing was clear - we should not teach the technique of CAD but how to design using a computer as a medium. Then we specified projects. The first was called “The bathroom I dream ofi and meant to be a 2D drawing. The four introductory meetings were in fact teaching foundations of DOS, then a specific design followed with the help of AutoCAD program. In the IX semester, for example, it was “A family housei (plans, facades, perspective). “I have to follow them - I am their leader” said L.J. Peter in “The Peter's Prescription”. This quotation reflects exactly the situation we find ourselves in teaching CAAD at our department. It means that ever growing students interest in CAAD made us introduce changes in the curriculum. According to the popular saying, “The more one gets the more one wants”, so did we and the students feel after the first semester of teaching CAD. From autumn 1991 CAAD classes will be carried from the third year of studying for two consecutive years. But before further planning one major steep had to be done - we decided to reverse the typical of the seventies approach to the problem when teaching programming languages preceded practical goals hence discouraging many learners.
Simovic, Dejan. "URBIS: a Tool for City-Planners." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. URBIS is a computer program built for AutoCAD environment (AutoLisp) which purpose is to help in urban planning's education and practice. Motives for program creation are: (1) Needs of education at the Faculty of Architecture of the Belgrade University. (2) Exploring the AutoCAD's capabilities in managing urban planning data bases. (3) Providing a tool for creation and manipulation of urban environment computer model. (4) Making a base for knowledge based system creation. (5) Computer based evaluation of the results of the competition “Future of New Belgrade”. // The program consists of: (1) Module for model creation. (2) Module for model manipulation - remodelling. (3) Module for obtaining data from the model. // Some commands and procedures from these three modules are organized as ARCHIGAME module - a kind of game for architects. The computer model of New Belgrade was created using this program, and three remodelations were done on the model, as the test-examples. 
Schallhammer, J., and F. Wenz. "Workshop Report: from CAD Graphics to an Art Exhibition." In Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Munich, Germany, 1991. The results that will be outlined have been reached at the University of Munich, Faculty of Architecture, Institute for Structural Analysis of Buildings. It started in September 1990 when a group of students decided to focus on questions raised by CAD generated renderings and plots. At that point it seemed to be obvious that CAD systems were about to fundamentally change architectural representation as we know it, which relies heavily on formal, visual and aesthetic qualities, and was developed over hundreds of years. At the same time computers are creating new realities as in high-resolution realistic renderings, animation or virtual reality systems. It was necessary to explore the resulting new techniques and possibilities while applying them to architectural projects.