Keywords Abstract
Neema, M.N., and A. Ohgai. "A GA-based Multi-Objective Optimization Model for Location Planning of Urban Parks and Open Spaces a Case Study on Dhaka City." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. In this paper, we present a new multi-objective location model for urban parks and open spaces (POSs) planning. We developed a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based multi-objective optimization model (GAMOOM) to derive optimum locations of POSs by considering four incommensurable objectives with the provision of POSs near: 1) densely populated areas, 2) air polluted areas, 3) noisy areas, and 4) areas without open spaces. The success of the model is presented through its application as a case study on Dhaka City. Obtained results indicate that the model can successfully provide optimum location of required POSs. The findings from this study also signify that optimum location of POSs obtained by utilizing only the second objective is substantially different than that of others. Moreover, there is also difference in optimum location of POSs by taking into account only the third objective when compared with others. Therefore, considering single objective cannot give optimum results for good POSs planning. So, it is verified that POSs should be planned by optimizing multiple objectives instead of single objective. The outcome of this multi-objective GAMOOM model does have an implication on how POSs should be designed and managed by the planning authority for not only sustainable environment but also better quality of life in a city. 
Gohnai, Y., A. Ohgai, and K. Watanabe. "A simulation model development of firefightingactivity by community residents against coseismic firespread using multi-agent systemAs a support tool for community-based disaster preventionplanning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This paper attempted to develop a simulation model of residentsi firefighting activity against coseismic fire spread using multi-agent system. The developed model was applied to a case study area. In the application, the simulations were carried out to the existing area and eleven cases of the assumption (virtual conditions) of the area where are implemented various non-physical and physical measures. As a result, the measures with only physical and haphazard multitude of measures did not show a remarked effect of disaster prevention performance. And, it is confirmed that the model can visually, dynamically and quantitatively output results. From these outputs, the possibility of contribution for enhancing residentsi awareness and drafting a plan of disaster prevention was confirmed. However, there are still some problems to be solved for the practical use of the model. 
Charlton, James, Bob Giddings, and Margaret Horne. "A survey of computer software for the urban designprocess." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Urban design is concerned with the shape, the surface and the physical arrangement of all kinds of urban elements, the basic components that make up the built environment, at the level of buildings, spaces and human activities. It is also concerned with the non-visual aspects of the environment, such as noise, wind and temperature and humidity. The city square is a particular urban element which can take many forms and its geometrical relationships such as maximum dimensions, ratio of width to length and building height to length have been analysed for centuries (Alberti 1475), (Vitruvius 1550), (Sitte 1889), (Corbett 2004). Within the current urban design process there are increasing examples of three dimensional computer representations which allow the user to experience a visual sense of the geometry of city squares in an urban landscape. Computer-aided design and Virtual Reality technologies have recently contributed to this visual assessment, but there have been limited attempts at 3D computer representations which allow the user to experience a greater sense of the urban space. This paper will describe a survey of computer tools which could support a more holistic approach to urban design and which could be used to simulate a number of urban texture and urban quality aspects. It will provide a systematic overview of currently available software that could support the simulation of building density, height, colour and style as well as conditions relating to noise, shading, heat, natural and artificial light. It will describe a methodology for the selection and filtering of appropriate computer applications and offer an initial evaluation of these tools for the analysis and representation of the three-dimensional geometry, urban texture and urban quality of city centre spaces. The paper is structured to include an introduction to the design criteria relating to city centre spaces which underpins this research. Next the systematic review of computer software will be described, and selected tools will undergo initial evaluation. Finally conclusions will be drawn and areas for future research identified. 
Varano, Sandro, Jean-Claude Bignon, and Gilles Halin. "A three-dimensional map to help exploration andunderstanding of a buildingVisibility of the process of knowledge construction through traces." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Through the use of existing digital tools, the research work consists of proposing a new 3D navigation mode based on systemic, practical and graphic assumptions. During the exploration of the Vianden Castle, we outline a graphic representation system as an aid to representation and memorization of archaeological and architectural knowledge. For this, we recompose some concepts related to video games, we materialize the “mental mapi described by Patricia Marks Greenfield and we take into account the cognitive capacities of the learner. 
Manzato, Gustavo, Theo Arentze, Harry J. P. Timmermans, and Dick Ettema. "An Agent for Supporting and Simulating Locations Decisions of Firms." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. The objective of this paper is to present the scope and the contents of an agent for supporting and simulating location decisions of firms. An application of one of its features, which is related to finding a location for a given firm, is developed here as an illustration of the approach. We can conclude that the agent is able to perform an evaluation of suitable locations in space given a set of firmis characteristics or requirements. Other features may also be derived, for example, finding firms that meet the environmental characteristics and also an attempt to simulate the allocation of firms, seeking a location, to the set of available locations. 
Koshak, Nabeel, and Abdullah Fouda. "Analyzing Pedestrian Movement in Mataf Using GPSand GIS to Support Space Redesign." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Evaluating the use of architectural and urban spaces is an important issue for architects and urban designers who wish to enhance space usability. Space usability is crucial in crowded spaces such as Mataf areas. Millions of people come to the city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia every year to perform Hajj (Islamic Pilgrimage) and Umrah. A cornerstone of Hajj and Umrah spirituals is to perform Tawaf, which is the circumambulation of the Ka'bah in the center of the Holy Mosque in Makkah. The areas of performing Tawaf (called Mataf) become very crowded during Hajj and the last ten days of Ramadan. This paper demonstrates how we utilized Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze pedestrian movement while performing Tawaf. During the Hajj of 1424 H (2004 in the Georgian Calendar), several GPS devices were used to collect pedestrian movement coordinates at specific time intervals. Computer software for tracking analysis is used to visualize and analyze the pattern of pedestrian movement in Tawaf. The software allows users to view temporal data, which can be set up with past time windows for historical data analysis. The findings of this research show levels of service and flow rates throughout different zones and times of Mataf. They indicate the most critical zones and times for Tawaf during Hajj. They also visually demonstrate the track pattern of pedestrian movement at different locations in the Tawaf area. The paper concludes with some redesign recommendations to remove obstacles and facilitate pedestrian movement in Tawaf. The approach described in this paper can be implemented in architectural and urban design space modifications to improve pedestrian movement in open spaces. 
Osaragi, Toshihiro, and Kenichi Ogawa. "Brand Value of Area-Images Extracted from SpatialDistribution of Building Names." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Our area-images are composed of evaluations derived from the various kinds of elements or activities within different regions. In quantitative terms, the extraction of area-images is difficult. In this paper, we focus on a phenomenon in which a part of peopleis area-image can be observed in the names of buildings. In the first instance, a model based on the random utility theory is constructed to describe the spatial distribution of building names. Secondly, the proposed model is calibrated using actual data from the city of Tokyo (Setagaya Ward), and effects of such area-elements or activities on area-images are then estimated. Finally, values for the area-images are quantitatively estimated and their spatial distribution is represented on a map. 
Vreenegoor, Rona, B. De Vries, and J.L.M. Hensen. "Comparing district designsScreening analysis of the critical factors at the building level." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. More and more urban designs show the appliance of low-energy techniques. Unfortunately, it is difficult to determine which one of these urban designs has the best results for energy consumption and CO2-emissions because of a lack of methods and techniques at district level. A new energy performance calculation method at district level including aspects like houses, transport and households is presented. In this paper we focus on the critical factors at the building level that should be included in a district data model. Therefore we have executed a screening analysis to indicate what the critical factors are. 
Rodrigues, Daniel, Rui Ramos, and José Mendes. "Decision support system for university campus qualityof life evaluation based on users perception a case study applied to the Campus of the University of Minho." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This paper presents the work that conduced to the development of an information system to evaluate and monitor university campi quality of life. The system embodies two main functions: to provide information to the community and to support campus planning and management. Using a scenario describing possible actions, some users evaluated how its implementation would interfere with the quality of life on the campus. Results showed that it would produce a global improvement, in comparison to the year of the study. 
Hemmerling, Marco. "Digital MaterialPerception, Interaction and Immersion in Virtual Environments." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This paper outlines two major aspects of virtual environments for architectural design. On the one hand it focusses on how to use virtual reality as an extended tool to generate spatial design by building up and interacting with a three-dimensional digital model. On the other hand it describes - based on a case study - the relation between perception, interaction and immersion in virtual environments. Both approaches can be interconnected to a continues design process, that allows the designer to create, manipulate, visualize and decide on spatial concepts in a holistic three-dimensional simulation.
Burger, J., R.P. de Graaf, and G.J. Helmerhorst. "Dynamic Actor Network Steering and ControlManaging Actor Networks in the Construction Process." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008.
Zekri, Elyes, Gerard Hegron, and Alain Legendre. "Environmental Classification of Urban PedestrianWalkways." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This work is developed in the framework of urban design where we try to understand, to characterize then to qualify the environmental quality of urban open spaces along pedestrian walkways. So, we propose an analysis and a classification method applied to pedestrian walkways, taking into account their environmental characteristics. Analysis method is based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in which we exploit the detailed version of the signal representing the evolution of a physical factor of environment along the walkway. This method leads to a segmentation of the signal. Then, a classification technique called Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) is performed to identify classes of walkways in terms of environmental features. 
Niemeyer, R.A., and J. Beetz. "Identifying technical obstacles for aconstraint-based mass customization system." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Flexible mass customization of buildings is still in its infancy. Current systems for the automated support of owner-driven configuration management are limited with regard to the degree of freedom they offer to end-users. In this paper we present and discuss a constraint definition and verification system that allows the architect to specify boundary conditions within which the client can vary the design. The required constraint grammar is presented and applied to a real-world building code. A 2D floor plan prototype is tested to reveal the methodological and technical issues to be solved to make a step forward. 
Yoshida, Takumi, and Toshiyuki Kaneda. "Improvement of Pedestrian Shop-around BehaviourAgent Model: Design and Implementation of 'Erratic Visit Behaviour Model." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. We presented the following three research results: 1) we classified pedestrian shop-around behaviour in a commercial district by the phase axis and process axis, and defined “Erratic Visiti. Next, we constructed an Erratic Visit Model where all facilities and routes are known. Then, we simulated the shop-around behaviour in the Osu district using ASSA2.0 with an implemented Erratic Visit Module, and confirmed that the performance of ASSA was improved. 
Zhu, Wei, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Incorporating Principles of Bounded Rationality intoModels of Pedestrian Shopping BehaviorTheory and Example." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. The modeling and simulation of pedestrian behavior has been dominantly relied on rational choice models in which pedestrians are assumed to be capable of processing a large number of choice alternatives and trade off attribute utilities. In reality, however, pedestrian behaivor shows the evidence of bounded rationality. They simplify the decision problem by considering a limited number of factors as well alternatives, using heuristics to arrive at satisfactory as opposed to optimal choices. Incorporating principles of bounded rationality in pedestrian modeling will benefit the understanding of individual decision processes and planning practice. This paper proposes an approach that models the cognitive processes such as filtering factors, constructing preference structures, deriving heterogeneous decision heuristics, and selecting decision strategies. The approach is also exemplified through estimating the model on pedestrian store patronage behavior data, collected in a shopping center in Shanghai, China. The results show the estimated probabilities of usage of decision strategies and the sequences of factor search. Compared with the conventional multinomial logit models, the results indicate the statistical advantages of the new approach. 
Zimmermann, Gerhard. "Individual Comfort in Open-Plan OfficesA Case Study." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Although it was proven by many field studies of office environments that complete thermal user satisfaction can only be achieved by setting the indoor climate to individual user preferences, open-plan offices do not support this requirement. In addition, irregular occupancy of such offices leads to suboptimal energy usage. This paper will show how the design of such offices can be supported by tools that integrate individual thermal user preferences and schedules into performance simulations to test and evaluate different partitioning structures, HVAC equipment, and control strategies in regard to satisfaction and energy consumption. A case study is used as demonstrator. 
Marin, Ph., Jean-Claude Bignon, and H. Lequay. "Integral evolutionary design, integrated to early stageof architectural design process Generative exploration of architectural envelope responding tosolar passive qualities." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This paper tackles the exploration of generative digital tools in the field of architectural design. Evolutionary mechanisms are expected to help the designer and to support his creativity. Our purpose is to implement a digital tool based on a genetic algorithm, which uses environmental parameters and human interplay to evolve an architectural form. The analysis of design processes and CAD use lead us to mark a transformation of design process at a cognitive level. 
de Holanda, Frederico, Valério Medeiros, and Ana Barros. "Integration through city space-formUsing space syntax, traffic modelling and geoprocessing tools forevaluating new urban developments." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. New boroughs are continuously being built in Brasilia, Brazilis Capital City. The paper deals with the performance of such boroughs concerning sociospatial segregation. A comparison is made between two proposals for a new borough to the West of the North Wing of the Pilot Plan, which was originally designed by Lucio Costa. The first proposal was made by a wellknown architectural studio in Brasilia and is beginning to be implemented. The second proposal is an exercise made by undergraduate students from the School of Architecture of the University of Brasilia, under the supervision of one the authors of the paper. The two proposals present very different performances. In the first case, the borough is set apart from the immediate urban surroundings, there is no direct connection between inner roads and the main arteries that surround the site. In the second case, the students have proposed a scheme that connects the interior areas of the borough to the vicinity, we hardly know where the new borough begins vis--vis the neighbouring areas. We argue that there are serious traffic implications in the first case, as well as sociological implications. We deal with traffic modelling, space syntax techniques and geoprocessing tools to prove so. Furthermore, we will show how the building types are as well socially inadequate, for they will imply homogeneous social layers among the inhabitants - namely exclusively high-middle class living in the new area. 
Horeni, Oliver, Theo Arentze, Harry J. P. Timmermans, and B.G.C. Dellaert. "Interview techniques for measuring individuals mental representations space-time choices an outline of three IT-based survey methods." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. A better exploration of human decision making is a necessary condition to understand individual activity-travel choices. With the advent of mental model theory a conceptual framework of individualsi causal knowledge of the environment and its links to the behavioural choice outcome was available. Accordingly, interview techniques had been developed in order to elicit mental representations from individualsi mind. Although these techniques delivered reliable and useful results, it turned out quickly, that they could not be applied to large-scale surveys. Hence, this paper will report on the development of three IT-based interview techniques, which are promising avenues to measure mental representations in an efficient and flexible way. 
Chaabouni, S., Jean-Claude Bignon, and Gilles Halin. "Luminous ambience designNavigation and reasoning by photographic images forformulation of intentions." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. In order to assist daylight ambience design by referential procedures, we propose in this article an analysis of the modalities of reference activity in the field of architectural design. We have identified three different activities: selecting a potential reference, projection of the reference in the project, integration of the reference into the project, allowing intentions formulation. We have used the results of this analysis to propose navigation modes adapted to an exploitation of image references in design, in order to develop a tool supporting the formulation of luminous ambience intention. The purpose here is to inform on exploratory progress more than to communicate attested results. 
Chiaradia, Alain, Christian Schwander, Jorge Gil, and Eva Friedrich. "Mapping the intangible value of urban layout (i-VALUL): Developing a tool kit for the socio-economic valuation of urbanarea, for designers and decision makers." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. In this paper we present the development of a GIS tool kit for the socioeconomic valuation of urban areas towards the creation of sustainable communities, describing the project context, development process, the tool kitis structure, its main tools and initial feedback from its use. We then present the plan for training sessions and pilot projects where the tool kit is going to be used, and conclude with the discussion of the development of a single integrated tool to be used beyond the life of the “i-VALUL” project. This project was supported by the UCL led UrbanBuzz programme within which UEL is a prime partner. 
Schieck, Ava, Alan Penn, and Eamonn Neill. "Mapping, sensing and visualising the digitalco-presence in the public arena." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This paper reports on work carried out within the Cityware project using mobile technologies to map, visualise and project the digital co-presence in the city. This paper focuses on two pilot studies exploring the Bluetooth landscape in the city of Bath. Here we apply adapted and “digitally augmented” methods for spatial observation and analysis based on established methods used extensively in the space syntax approach to urban design. We map the physical and digital flows at a macro level and observe static space use at the micro level. In addition we look at social and mobile behaviour from an individualis point of view. We apply a method based on intervention through “Sensing and projecting” Bluetooth names and digital identity in the public arena. We present early findings in terms of patterns of Bluetooth flow and presence, and outline initial observations about how peopleis reaction towards the projection of their Bluetooth names practices in public. In particular we note the importance of constructing socially meaningful relations between people mediated by these technologies. We discuss initial results and outline issues raised in detail before finally describing ongoing work. 
Sun, Chengyu, B. De Vries, and Qi Zhao. "Measure the Evacuees Preference on ArchitecturalCues by CAVE." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. An evacueesi preference prediction function on architectural cues are described here as a crucial part of the evacuation model to simulate how the evacuees search the route to exit according to the architectural information in the public underground space. The model is developed to evaluate the egress design in the initial space design stage and to provide the existing compositive evacuation models a support on the usage of architectural information. First the over simplification on the architectural information in the existing evacuation models is discussed. Then a list of so-called architectural cues and the related evacuation model are introduced, in which the evacuees always egress to the seen or remembered architectural cue with the highest preference in every step. The emphasis of the paper is put on the analysis of the preference function including the CAVE-based conjoint analysis research method, the experiment design and implementation of the virtual drill, and the estimation of the parameters from the collected choices. The preference function for five architectural cue pairs, Doorway-Doorway, Stair-Stair, Exit- Exit, Doorway-Stair, Exit-Stair is built from the choice data of nearly one hundred Chinese subjects. 
Slager, C.T.J., A.K. de Vries, and A.J. Jessurun. "Methodology to generate landscape configurations foruse in multi-actor plan-making processes." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. In this paper, we investigate an approach to generate landscape configurations for use in multi-actor plan-making processes. Using the information from predefined lot typologies, a heuristic allocation method, consisting of a suitability function and an allocation mechanism of lot components is explained. The suitability function is primarily based on adjacency and distance parameters as found in landscape design literature. The allocation mechanism starts from a random but constrained initial situation, and generates a plausible lot configuration by orderly swapping pairs of cells thereby increasing the overall suitability of the plan. From the results, the limitations of this approach are concluded and the concepts are presented for an improved landscape generation algorithm. 
Ronald, Nicole, Theo Arentze, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Modelling social aspects of travel behaviourA preliminary review." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Recent travel forecasting models have focussed strongly upon the fact that travel is derived from the activities in which people participate, such as work, school, shopping, sport, leisure, and social events. Participation in social activities is determined by one's friends and the groups that one is a member of, i.e., their household, their workplace/school, sporting groups, voluntary organisations and clubs. These acquaintances form part of an individual's social network: a representation of the people one interacts with. This paper presents a review of the intersection between social networks and travel behaviour, identifies the key concepts, and discusses how agent-based models could be used to explore the effects of social networks on travel behaviour. 
Keim, Christian. "Modelling urban dynamics through cellular automata: an empirical application." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Actual developments of digital maps and tools given by GIS-systems provide the possibility to develop new methodologies to handle land-cover data for modelling purposes. At any rate empirical applications are still rare within the Geosimulation studies and yet there is not an established methodology. The aim of the work has been to construct a cellular automata (CA) model of a sprawling city region within the German context, based on empirical data. The urban land-use classes (LUC) are considered as a higher organisation level of different building typologies and relative functions. These define the land-use patterns as self-organized from their complex spatial iterations, based on limited local information exchange. On the one hand the synthesis capacity of the CA models has been verified, even without socio-economical variables. On the other hand, it has been seen that the still early evolutional state of digital land-cover datasets are too premature to fully suite the modelling purposes. 
Zeiler, Wim, and Perica Savanovic. "Morphologic C-K reflection for collaborative buildingdesign." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Design involves multi-disciplinary design teams to support this highly complex process. A reflective design approach is developed: Integral Desig. This design process approach results in transparency of the design steps and the design decisions. We regard the activities which make these changes obvious to an external observer as the core elements of designing (design as process). The results of these activities are combined with the C-K theory by Hatchuel and Weil, which defines design as a process generating co-expansion of two spaces, space of concepts C and space of knowledge K. Within the design process, the prescriptive methodology of Integral Design is used as a framework for reflection on the design process itself by the use Morphological Overviews (MO). Morphology provides a structure to give an overview and to structure the communication and reflection between design team members. 
Zeiler, Wim. "Morphologic Multi Criteria Decision support for conceptual Integral Design of Flex(ible En)ergyInfrastructures." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008.

To ensure a good information exchange between different disciplines during the conceptual phase of design a functional design process structuring technique can be used, Integral Design. The design phases and abstraction levels form the dimensions of Integral Design method/contents matrix. Integral Design method is developed based on the combination of a prescriptive approach, Methodical Design, and a descriptive approach, Reflective practice. This design methodology uses morphology to provide an overview of the consider functions/aspects and their solution alternatives. This morphological approach is combined with the Kesselring method a visualization technique, where the different design variants can be compared with each other. It forms an excellent method for Multi Criteria Decision Making in the conceptual phase of design. This paper investigates the application of Integral Design and Multi Criteria Decision Making for design of Flex(ible En)ergy infrastructure for the built environment. 

Nijland, Linda, Theo Arentze, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Multi-Day Activity Scheduling Reactions to FutureEvents in a Dynamic Agent-Based Model of Activity-Travel Behaviour." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. In the context of activity-based transport simulation models, multi-day activity planning is receiving increasing attention. The aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an extension of a needs-based model of activity generation that takes into account possible influences of pre-planned activities and events. This paper describes the theory and shows the results of simulations of the extension. The simulation was done for six different activities and different parameter values. The results show that the model works well and the influences of the parameters are clear and seem logical. 
van den Berg, Pauline, Theo Arentze, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Pauline E.W. van den Berg, Theo A. Arentze and Harry J.P. Timmermans." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. New information and communication technologies (ICTis), gain importance and are changing peopleis daily lives. With the introduction of new ICTis, alternatives for face-to-face contacts and physical presence are provided. In that sense, ICT may offer a substitute to physical travel. Other potential relationships between telecommunication and travel are neutrality, complementation or modification. The relationship between ICT and activity travel patterns has received a substantial amount of attention recently. However, a link with the wider activity patterns of individuals and households and environmental characteristics is missing in existing studies. The spatial and mobility impacts of social networks are not well known either. However, social networks are crucial to an understanding of travel behaviour. The most important part of travel demand for non-work purposes in terms of distance travelled is for socializing with network members. Hence, individualsi social network characteristics are relevant for their propensity to perform social activities. The study of social networks can provide new insights to understand the generation of social activities and travel involved. In order to increase our understanding of the interrelationships between properties of the built environment, ICT-use, social networks and activity-travel patterns, these links should be the starting point for analysis. This paper presents a data collection instrument that was developed to study these links and the results of an application of the instrument in a survey among a large sample of households in the Eindhoven region, and discusses the implications of the findings for planning support models. 
Rügemer, Jörg. "Pimp my Box - Architecture of TransformationInterdisciplinary Collaboration and Various Media as DesignDecision and Support Tools." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. The paper describes an interdisciplinary architectural design studio setting at the graduate level, which explores the notion of “transformationi in architecture. By collaborating with a group of modern dance students, the studio approaches the creation of space from a different perspective, using dynamic movement coupled with digital tools as a space generator. 
van der Waerden, Peter, Antônio Nélson Ro Silva, Harry J. P. Timmermans, Mike Bérénos, and Gustavo Rennó Rocha. "Public Transport Planning Evaluation Tools and their Data Requirements and Availability." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This paper describes two different public transport planning evaluation tools that are used to support planning activities in The Netherlands and Brazil. In the paper extra attention is paid to data requirements and availability. The Dutch tool generates so-called Public Transport Potential Maps that present the potential of public transport at the level of 6-digit postal code zones based on area and public transport related characteristics. With the Brazilian tool, existing and new implemented public transport routes can be evaluated. To identify urban features that influence the performance of the public transport system, the tool compares characteristics of the urban spaces with the different typologies of public transport routes. Examples of the use of both tools including data requirement and availability are shown in this paper, stressing the fact that GIS is currently an essential and universal tool for public transportation planning, despite the conditions of the site and the complexity of the model under analysis. 
Sharma, Shrikant, and Vincent Tabak. "Rapid Agent Based Simulation of People Flow forDesign of SpacesAnalysis, Design and Optimisation." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This paper presents a novel static-dynamic network based people flow simulation model applied to design optimisation of circulation spaces within buildings and urban areas. In the current state of art the majority of existing people flow simulation models are driven by analysis rather than design. This is fine for simpler, evacuation type scenarios where a single or a few analyses runs are sufficient to determine the evacuation time. For more complex scenarios such as crowd circulation with complex multi-directional flow, one is as interested in the sensitivity of various design and stochastic behavioural parameters, so the rapid modelling simulations together with design capability become important. This paper presents a simplified network based people flow model that enables rapid simulations and therefore iterative design optimization of circulation space. The work integrates the techniques of graph-theory based network analysis with an origin-destination matrix model of crowd flow, to provide a rapid, parametric model. The resulting model can be analysed in a static as well as dynamic state. In the static state, the model analyses space based on connectivity of nodes, superimposed with the origin-destination matrix of population to provide valuable information such as footfalls, density maps, as well as quasi-static parameters such as mean flow rates. In the dynamic state, the model allows time-dependent analysis of flow using a detailed agent based simulation that also incorporates dynamic route-choice modelling, agent behaviours and interaction, and stochastic variations. The paper presents the integrated modelling technique and its implementation into simulation software SMART Move. 
Otter, Ad, and H.J. Pels. "Rivalry between the collective use of IT tools and working methods of design teams Comparison of research outcomes." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Nowadays a high variety of IT tools is available for communication purposes in design processes on individual and group level. Despite this, the exchange and sharing of design documents collectively in design and engineering teams might be limited mainly, due to habits, preferences, working methods and rivalry between the collective use of IT tools in such product development. Changes in habits and preferences for collective use of IT tools might be realized by training and management power. However, adoption of collectively to be used tools, like project websites, is depending heavenly on the attractiveness for users in daily work. Based on empirical research outcomes it is indicated that rivalry between collective used tools and differences in working methods of users might be main barriers for attractiveness of these tools in daily work. Applying a framework for analyzing and categorizing of the frequency of use of IT tools for team communication, the authors explain the appearance of rivalry between tools, limiting the effectiveness in daily work and not affecting team communication and performance. By comparison of working methods in different sectors authors explain the necessity of changes in working methods in design and engineering in the building & construction industry on organizational and inter-organizational level for successful adoption of collectively to be used IT tools in team communication. 
Barros, Ana, Valério de Medeiros, Paulo da Silva, and Frederico de Holanda. "Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasilia, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax - a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) - incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theoryis axiality method - used in this study - analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the systemis integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002, Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models - well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006, Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasilia was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes, 
De Vries, B., Yuzhong Lin, and Joran Jessurun. "Sense-of-the-City." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Sense-of-the-City was a project that was executed in the city centre of Eindhoven using mobile phones with GPS. Ten persons carried this equipment during the working day for a period of one week. While carrying their route was traced and projected on a map that could be viewed on the internet. The citizens were asked to pictures of places of interest. These pictures are uploaded to the server and attached to the route. Later on text can be added to each picture through the website. All participants showed a high level of engagement in the project. Although the logbooks of the routes that were created on the web provided very personal insights, it was very hard to draw conclusions from these data. 
Hagen-Zanker, Alex. "Sensititivity analysis of a cellular automata land usemodel through multiple metrics of goodness-of-fit." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. The complexity and self-organizing behaviour of Cellular Automata models makes them attractive instruments for investigating urban change processes. That same complexity, however, obscures the relation between model parameters and model results and poses problems for the calibration of the models as well as the interpretation of results. This paper introduces an approach to sensitivity analysis that untangles much of the complex relation between parameters and outputs. The key of the approach is to find compartments in parameter space on the basis of the relation between multiple metrics of goodness-of-fit. Within individual compartments the relation between parameters and model outputs is less chaotic and open for investigation by more traditional means. The method offers prospects for model calibration and parameter reduction, further steps in these directions are outlined and discussed. 
Antoni, Jean-Philippe, P. Frankhauser, C. Tannier, and S. Youssoufi. "Simulating and assessing prospective scenariosA comparative approach in urban planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. The first part of the paper is centred on the phenomena of urban growth, in order to set the rules for a sustainable scenario of urban development. Then we enter the core of the paper that is the comparison of models. For each of the three compared models, we describe its main theoretical characteristics, the chosen parameters, and the obtained results. In section 6, heterogeneity of the produced results is discussed, and we highlight the points of interest and the lacks of the three models. Here we show that results we obtained feed debates about urban growth management. Finally, concluding remarks at the end of the paper address the general topic of the evaluation of the quality of simulation results. 
Katoshevski, Rachel, Theo Arentze, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Simulating Urban Dynamics Using a Combination of CellularAutomata and Activity-Based Models." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Cellular automata models of urban change have been criticised for their lack of behavioural theory and representation in simulating urban change. It has led to a plea for developing multi-agent models. As a first step into this direction, this paper discusses the formulation of a combination of a cellular automata representation for an initial configuration of land use. This is linked to an activity-based model of travel demand, which generates varying demand for facilities across space. Agents, representing facility providers respond to this demand in locating and resizing their facilities. The interplay between these components then results in urban dynamics. The model is illustrated using a hypothetical example of urban forms. 
García, Pablo, and Christian Keim. "Simulation model of heat and power demand in a German region until 2030 Stuttgart Metropolitan Region as case study." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. Energy demand is a major concern for the future of European Cities. Resource availability and costs, climate change, and their consequences are directly related with the energy consumption in our cities. In 2007 already more than half of the world population live in cities, and cities are the main consumers of energy. The model presented in this paper explores the possibility of estimate the demand of end energy (heat and power) by simulating with a cellular automaton land use changes in a German region, in this case, Stuttgart Metropolitan Region. Several approaches deal with problems due to data availability, non-spatial information sources, aggregation levels, quality and consistence of data, among others. This case study shows that a non-deterministic simulation model of energy demand related to urban growth is already feasible, with several constraints. Otherwise, the energy demand calculations differ in great manner depending on consumption sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, transport) and all these calculation models should be further improved. Software and hardware constraints have been as well identified, and stressed in the conclusions. 
Wetzel, Jean-Paul, Salim Belblidia, and Jean-Claude Bignon. "Specification and implementation of a parametricoperator: Folding." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. In the early stage of creation, the architect tests his working hypotheses by making many adjustments while designing. During the sketching phase, the existing modelling tools are not compatible with the iterative nature of this process. So the challenge lies in the definition of a model which will allow the whole creative process with its various coming and frowing during the phase of conception. We will illustrate this model by implementing a parametric operator allowing the action of folding. Its parametric specificity will enable the architect, in the design phase, to make the numerous moves alterations required to obtain an optimal shape. 
Meshitsuka, Yusuke, and Yoshitsugu Aoki. "Stochastic Transition of Fire-prevention Performanceof Urban Area." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. The aim of this study is to analyze the tendency of building renewal in order to understand the fire prevention performance of the Tokyo metropolitan area. To this end, firstly, the Tokyo metropolitan area was divided into small areas of 250,000 square meters, and the following stochastic transition matrix of each small area was estimated, 1. Stochastic matrix of state transition between the building use types, 2. Stochastic matrix of state transition between the structures of buildings. Secondly, the converged state of each small area was estimated with a Markov chain model. Finally, small areas where fire prevention performance will change for the better/constant/worse were pointed out from their converged states. The results suggest that in small areas where percentage of housing and commerce are increasing, the fire prevention performance will become worse. 
Heurkens, Erwin. "The Urban Decision RoomApplication and Evaluation of an Urban Management Instrument." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. The Urban Decision Room (UDR) should be placed in the tradition of urban design and planning discipline that is taught, and into which research is carried out, at the Faculty of Architecture at the Delft University of Technology. The UDR was developed at the faculty as one of the new design and planning methods with its own specific features. The UDR is specifically aimed at decision-making processes in the practice of urban planning, and particularly at complex urban area development projects. The background to the design enables the UDR to support planning decisions that are made at urban planning element level. The participants in the interactive UDR sessions are asked to provide concrete solutions for urban planning design problems (in terms of preferences for particular functions, number of plots, etc.) and to enter them in a simulation model. A computer network is then used to calculate the common solution space of all the proposals, which is then projected onto a central screen. This outcome generally provides the basis for further discussions and negotiations, after which another round as described above can be held. The paper first focuses on the background and the main features of the UDR system. Secondly, the decision-making issue and a description of a specific Urban Decision Room model, the UDR Heijsehaven will be explained. Thirdly the structure of, and the experiences from, the experimental sessions with the Urban Decision Room Heijsehaven are described. After that the results of the evaluation of the UDR system by participants is presented and finally the follow-up assignment for the UDR system is carried out. 
Bates-Brkljac, N.. "Towards client-focused architectural representationsas a facilitator for improved design decision-makingprocess." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This paper focuses on architectural representations as a means of communicating design schemes in the process of decision-making. It reports on the study, which investigated peopleis responses to different forms of architectural representations. The paper starts with the discussion about participation in decision-making process and the potential benefits of using computer generated representations. Then, it describes the research study and examines results of the investigation. In the final section it is argued that client focused architectural representations are needed to support the exchange of views and discussion amongst different stakeholders in order to reduce the requirement for trained interpretation and encourage the participation in the decision making process. 
Fujii, Haruyuki, Hideyuki Nakashima, and Masaki Suwa. "Types of Intelligence in Architectural Design ProcessesOn the basis of a Phenomenological and Dialectic Model ofDesign Processes." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This study aims at establishing a constructive methodology of architectural activity. This paper investigates the types of intelligence employed in the activity. The types are derived from a phenomenological and dialectic point of view. The model employs Endo-system view with which a system is observed from the inside of the system. It describes architectural activity from a cognitive point of view of the actor principle involved in the activity. 
Emanuel, Leleito, Akira Ohgai, Motoya Koga, and Yoshimizu Gohnai. "Using WebGIS and Videoconferencing to SupportDistributed Concurrent Urban Planning Workshops a case supporting a collaborative community "Treasure MapCreation” workshop." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This study focuses on an experimental method that employs the internet, WebGIS and videoconference systems to enable gathering and sharing of information from concurrently hosted multiple distributed participatory planning workshops. The method is expected to contribute to time, effort and economic savings while enabling greater grassroots participation as well as promoting the whole participatory planning process through more efficient information collection, sharing and updating. The authors present as a case study a distributed WS supported by videoconferencing and WebGIS systems reporting on the challenges and the implications for use in supporting participatory planning from the community scale to the larger scale regional planning levels are discussed. 
Tabak, Vincent, and Dijkstra de Vries. "Validating an office simulation model using RFIDtechnology." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, CD Rom. DDSS. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2008. This paper presents the validation of an office utilisation model for the research project called “User Simulation of Space Utilisation (USSU)”. The result of this research is a system that can be used for analysing and evaluating the space utilisation of a building for any given organisation. A system for building usage simulation that produces data about activities of members of an organisation can substantially improve the relevance and performance of building simulation tools. This is relevant for engineering domains as well as for architects to evaluate the performance of a building design. For a thorough evaluation of the system an experiment was executed for assessing its predictive quality in the context of a real building, organisation and actual human behaviour, this experiment was executed using RFID technology. The result of the experiment was observed data about the space utilisation of the selected organisation. These data were compared with the space utilisation predicted by the USSU system to evaluate the simulation model. The validation of USSU showed that there were no significant differences between the predicated and observed activity behaviour. As a consequence, the output of USSU is considered to be valid.