Keywords Abstract
Chen, Chien-Tung, and Teng-Wen Chang. "1:1 Spatially Augmented Reality Design Environment." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 487-499. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. With the development of ubiquitous computing (Weiser, 1991), what will become of the traditional media such as pen and sketches, especially in the design education environment? Or what will they be transformed into? In this research, we focus on the interior design process with a particular type of media-1:1 spatially augmented reality design environment (SARDE). In this research, we tried to implement SARDE and have a scenario experiment to check how designers interact with such design media. Furthermore, through this research, we have come to know more about how designers use design media to represent their design dream.
Zhou, K., A. Kondo, Cartagena Gordillo, and K. Watanabe. "A Comparison Study of the Allocation Problem of Undesirable Facilities Based on Residential Awareness - a case study on waste disposal facility in ChengDu City, Sichuan China." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 235-250. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model, which can be used for allocation planning of undesirable facilities by analysing citizen's awareness. As the endurance distance is regarded as a variable, the relation between the distance from the residential location to a waste facility and residential endurance rate is a problem of probability and statistics. Three kinds of stochastic methods are compared in this study.
Lee, Yi-Chia, and Yi-Shin Deng. "A Design System Integrating TRIZ Method and Case-Based Reasoning Approach." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 387-402. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Today's industrials are facing numerous product development challenges and pressures as a result of an increasingly competitive market. It creates an enormous need for a constantly growing supply of new ideas and solutions. The computer support used by designers still lacks the ability to use experiential knowledge in a rational way. Therefore, pursuit of designer is utilizing innovative design methods and problem-solving approaches to systematically simplify design problem, and hence accelerate the design process. This paper proposed to integrate TRIZ method into CBR process and aims at exploring the possibility to use TRIZ method as a complement to enhance performance of CBR in product design. Wall lighting design problem is used as example, and an interactive CBR system is not only built to provide designers a computational tool to efficiently retrieve usefulness design cases but also assist designers systematically in finding creative ideas.
Gero, John S., and Udo Kannengiesser. "A Framework for Situated Design Optimization." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 309-324. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper presents a framework for situated design optimization that expands the traditional view of design optimization. It is based on the notion of interaction providing the potential for modifications of various aspects of the optimization process: problem formulation, the optimization tool, the designer and ultimately the result. In contrast to other approaches, these modifications can drive further interactions within the same optimization process. We use parts of the situated function-behaviour-structure (FBS) framework as an ontological basis to describe the effects of intertwined interactions and modifications on the state space of ongoing optimization processes.
Arentze, Theo, Aloys Borgers, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "A Heuristic Method for Land-Use Plan Generation in Planning Support Systems." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 135-151. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Existing land-use allocation methods assume that the suitability of a spatial distribution of land-uses can be measured as the sum of suitability scores across parcels. Although this may be plausible for some land-uses, facilities such as retailing, schools, medical services, etc., intend to serve the needs of a local population and should be evaluated at the level of a facility network, instead. The purpose of the present paper is to develop a method that combines a suitable heuristic for facility-location planning with an existing mechanism for land-use allocation, to solve this shortcoming of existing models. In specific, the proposed method combines the interchange heuristic for locating facilities and a swapping heuristic for area-type land-use allocation in a multi-agent framework. A case study shows that the method generates plausible land-use plans in reasonable computation time.
Osaragi, Toshihiro, and Yoshitsugu Aoki. "A Method for Estimating Land Use Transition Probability Using Raster Data - Considerations about apatial unit of transition, fixed state of locations, and time-varying probability." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 69-84. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In the field of urban and regional planning, several Markov chain models for land use conversion have been proposed. However, some problems have been encountered when estimating land use transition probabilities. In this paper, a new estimation method to determine land use transition probability is proposed by taking into account spatial units of land use transition, fixed state of locations, and varying transition probabilities. The effectiveness of the proposed methods and some new findings on land use conversion are presented using numerical examples.
Anggraini, Renni, Theo Arentze, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "A Model of Within-Households Travel Activity Decisions Capturing Interactions between Household Heads." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 19-33. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper describes a conceptual framework for modelling activity interactions between household heads in conducting out-of-home maintenance activities. It is comprised of several steps, generation of household activities, task allocation of household activities, trip-chaining choices, resource allocation and mode choice. The models are specified for different household types: worker and non-worker households, with or without children. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the modelling framework for household travel activity decision making processes so that it can capture interactions between household heads.
Ma, Linda, Theo Arentze, Aloys Borgers, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "A Multi-Agent Model for Generating Local Land-Use Plans in the Context of an Urban Planning Support System." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 153-168. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In a multi-player urban planning process, the outcome of any individual decision of the actors is uncertain until a state where the plan is satisfactory for all. To support the plan generation phase, this paper develops a generic multi-agent system, in which agents represent particular land-uses. In the system, agents higher in the hierarchy have priority over agents lower in the hierarchy to claim units of land. This one-direction claim process may result in a plan that is not optimal for every agent. The system, therefore, allows agents to revise their plans in an iterative procedure. A case study illustrates centralized, semi-centralized and decentralized solutions for a plan area based on the outcomes of different strategies used by facility agents (retail, green, schools) and a housing agent. The results show that the proposed system is able to generate rational and realistic plan alternatives for new residential areas.
Wetzel, Jean-Paul, Salim Belblidia, and Jean-Claude Bignon. "A Proposal for Morphological Operators to Assist Architectural Design." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 409-418. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In this paper, we make the assumption that a shape modelling process can rely on the application of a set of morphological operators to initial shapes. We refer to several researches which have attempted to identify such operators. We also attempt to validate this design approach through the analysis of some buildings. A design system based on the combination of these operators could enable the designer to quickly explore a great number of spatial solutions.
Huang, I-Chieh, and Teng-Wen Chang. "A Study of Using Oversized Display in Supporting Design Communication - Focus on interior design problems." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 289-301. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper focuses on using oversized display for supporting design communication process between designers and clients. The interactive behaviours are analyzed and testified with a prototype developed in this research. Based on interviews with designers and clients, focus of the communication process in this research is onto developing an immersive environment for exchanging and negotiating the design artifacts. Several immersive virtual environment as well as visualization method (display) is reviewed. Furthermore, three over-sized display projects (ShadowLight, CaveUT and Blue-c) with immersive perception at full-scale or near full-scale design artifacts are studied as the inspiration of this research. Designers identify what kinds of influence they had on the design of client's interior space and to what extent they are aware that they can design and influence their perception. An over-sized display environment with direct manipulation interface is developed for evaluation platform.
Petri, Massimiliano, Alessandra Lapucci, Diana Poletti, and Silvana Lombardo. "An Internet Survey for an Activity-Based Model - an urban transportation analysis integrated in a G.I.S. environment." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 17-Mar. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. The current research deals with the development of an Activity-Based Multi Agent System fully implemented in a G.I.S. framework and applied to the case study of the historical centre of Pisa. The objective is to create a simulation tool for Pisa population transfers in order to verify how transport demand varies because of interventions on traffic plan (e.g. creating urban areas subject to a toll access for vehicles), or on public transport lines, or on new activities location (e.g. supermarkets, public services etc.). Three different parts of the System have been simultaneously carried out: the first concerns a population sample survey, the second deals with geographical data structuring and the last one, still in elaboration progress, tests the model reliability to estract and implement behavioural rules. The results obtained till now show how the Database itself, containing temporal data about agents activities (extracted by the population sample questionnaire) and urban services the city offers, already represents an important instrument to support decision making process.
van Loon, P.P., and E. Wilms. "An Urban Decision Room Based on Mathematical Optimisation - a pilot study supporting complex urban decision questions." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 359-374. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In general the Urban Decision Room is an interactive computer system based around a digital model for the simulation of complex urban decision questions. Such questions involve various parties with often differing interests. The UDR can assist in finding collective solutions. The UDR is a useful instrument for making the great variety in interests and ideas of the participants manageable. Furthermore, insight is quickly and clearly provided into the results. This enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of processes of urban development. A pilot of the Urban Decision Room based on mathematical optimisation has been made for Schieoevers, an industrial area on the bank of the river Schie to the south of Delft. This pilot is based on a feasibility study for a new urban development in this area which has been carried out by a consultancy firm (Adecs BV) under commission from the municipality of Delft.
Boussier, Jean-Marie, P. Estraillier, D. Sarramia, and M. Augeraud. "Approach to Design Behavioural Models for Traffic Network Users - Choice of transport mode." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 151-166. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Our research work concerns the development of a multimodal urban traffic simulator designed to be a tool of decision-making aid similar to a game where in the user-player can test different scenarios by immersion in a 3D virtual city. Our approach is based on the activity-based model and the multi-agent technology. The implemented result is a hybrid simulator connecting numerical simulation and behavioural aspects coming from real data. This paper is focused on two points: firstly, we introduce how a final user (the traffic regulator) instantiates and assembles components so as to model a city and its urban traffic network, secondly, we present the use of Dempster-Shafer theory in the context of discrete choice modelling. Our approach manipulates input variables in order to test realistic representations of behaviours of agent categories in a decision-making process. The traffic modelling is based on a questionnaire elaborated from standard arrays of Taguchi. The significant variables and interactions are determined with the analysis of variance which suggests a reduced model describing the behaviour of a particular social category. The belief theory is used to take into account the doubt of some respondents as well as for the preferences redistribution if the number of alternatives changes. The effects of external traffic conditions are also quantified to choose a'robust'alternative and to use the agents'memory.
Kubicki, Sylvain, Gilles Halin, and Jean-Claude Bignon. "Assistance to Coordination in the AEC Sector - a multi-view interface dedicated to building construction activity." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 325-339. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector, cooperation between actors is essential for projects success. During the building construction activity, organization is both hierarchical and adhocratic. Decision assistance tools have to integrate these heterogeneous parameters. The proposition described here consists of the design of a coordination assistance tool providing synthetic indicators on the statement of the activity and also allowing the user to navigate in the cooperative context through multiple views. This proposition is based on a model architecture allowing us to manage cooperative context information and its visualization.
Arthaud, G., and J.C. Lombardo. "Automatic Semantic Comparison of STEP Product Models - Application to IFC product models." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 447-463. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper introduces an original method to compare IFC models and more generally any STEP models. Unlike common'diff-like'tools which compare textual files by proceeding line against line, our approach compares actual graphs created from STEP-files. Therefore added, removed, and changed objects can be tracked between two versions of the model. Besides, this standalone tool does not need any heavy database to work so it is fully adapted to design methods of construction projects, where actors are free to modify a local version of their project without any dependence on the database. Moreover it is reusable for other industrial fields thanks to its compatibility with any STEP model. This tool is a part from a more global project which tends to improve accessibility and sustainability of IFC therefore it can be used as a support for VR based design tools.
Emberger, Guenter, Nikolaus Ibesich, and Paul Pfaffenbichler. "Can Decision Making Processes Benefit from a User Friendly Land Use and Transport Interaction Model?" In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 18-Mar. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Urban regions today face serious challenges caused by past and ongoing transport and land use developments. Decision making in this context is a challenging task which was explored in detail in a series of research projects. To support decision making, tools were developed to reduce the risk of inappropriate decisions in the land use and transport context. One of these tools is MARS (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator), an integrated dynamic land use and transport model. The paper presented here focuses therefore on two main issues: 1) the introduction of the decision support tool MARS and of the cause-effect relations between the land-use and the transport system implemented within MARS, and 2) the design and application of the MARS flight simulator (MARS FS) as a graphical user interface for MARS especially designed to the needs of decision makers.
Deshpande, Nishchal, B. De Vries, and Jos van Leeuwen. "Collaborative Design Knowledge Construction and Measuring Shared Understanding." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 303-312. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper describes a pilot test conducted as part of the ongoing research project. The performed pilot test describes the collaborative knowledge construction under two conditions: i) Collaborative knowledge construction  in a traditional brainstorm setting ii) Collaborative knowledge construction in a proposed method (section number) described further in the paper. The pilot test focuses on measuring the shared mental model of a multi-disciplinary design team involved in a problem solving session. The approach to the study to predict shared understanding was to measure overlapping of mental models on a set of concept construct pairs of individuals during the design session. The findings of the pilot test were that the shared understanding in the proposed condition was better compared to the traditional means of brain storming.
Peng, Wei, and John S. Gero. "Concept Formation in a Design Optimization Tool." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 293-308. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper presents how a situated agent model can wrap around a design optimization tool and construct concepts from interaction between the agent, the design problem and the use of the tool. The agent develops its structure and behaviour specific to what it is confronted with - its experience. As a consequence, designers can integrate their expertise with the learning results from the agent to develop design solutions. We present preliminary results.
Bandini, Stefania, Sara Manzoni, and Giuseppe Vizzari. "Crowd Modeling and Simulation - the role of multi-agent simulation in design support systems." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 105-120. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. The paper presents a Multi Agent Systems (MAS) approach to crowd modelling, based on the Situated Cellular Agents (SCA) model. This is a special class of Multilayered Multi Agent Situated System (MMASS), a model providing an explicit representation of the environment which has a relevant role in supplying agents a context allowing them to act and interact (among themselves and with the environment). The paper will briefly introduce the model and a methodology for the analysis of a crowd scenario and the design of SCA based crowd simulations. The adoption of this kind of system allows evaluating an architectural design with reference to the behaviour of pedestrian that will act in it, given a behavioural specification for these entities. The system is also able to produce a realistic visualization of the simulation, in order to facilitate the communication with involved actors (e.g. in case of participatory decisions).
Fiky, Usama, and Mark Cox. "Culturally Accepted Green Architecture Toolbox - Pre-design helping tool and rating system for new built environment in Egypt." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 341-356. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper describes and analyses the process of developing computer software to incorporate both green architecture design strategies and their cultural indicators in one easy tool to help a designer to match his / her design with green architectural principles in the pre-design stage. The three resources of architectural identity in Egyptian, current and past green building practices with the up to date foreign knowledge of green architecture were combined in one toolbox with their building cultural indicators in Egypt. Using the toolbox in primary design stage helps the designer by providing more information about each green design strategy, how to use it effectively. Finally, the toolbox provides indicators about how much the whole project will be accepted in Egyptian society and to what extend it applies green architectural principles. For verification reason, the toolbox was tested with two groups of students in Egypt and The Netherlands as well as professional architects from both countries.
Heurkens, E.W.T.M.. "Decision-Making on Olympic Urban Development - a multi-actor decision support tool." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 251-262. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Subject of study is the possible organisation of the Olympic Games of 2028 in the Netherlands, as seen from an urban development viewpoint. The project focuses on the decision-making process in the initiative phase. Aim of the project is the development of a decision support tool for the complex, interdisciplinary decision-making process which should result in an optimum interorganisational design. The methodology used to find the optimum choice is the combination of sub-solutions. Preference Measurement modelling based on a multi-criteria decision analysis is the technique employed. The group decision is a choice out of a number of Olympic urban development combinations, which is made in such a way that the preferred combination is the'best'among the possible candidates for all relevant stakeholders.
Schieck, Fatah A., A. Penn, V. Kostakos, E. O'Neill, T. Kindberg, Stanton Fraser, and T. Jones. "Design Tools for Pervasive Computing in Urban Environments." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 467-486. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In this paper we report on ongoing research in which the implications of urban scale pervasive computing (always and everywhere present) are investigated for urban life and urban design in the heritage environment of the city of Bath. We explore a theoretical framework for understanding and designing pervasive systems as an integral part of the urban landscape. We develop a framework based on Hillier's Space Syntax theories and Kostakos'PSP framework which encompasses the analysis of space and spatial patterns, alongside the consideration of personal, social and public interaction spaces to capture the complex relationship between pervasive systems, urban space in general and the impact of the deployment of pervasive systems on people's relationships to heritage and to each other. We describe these methodological issues in detail before giving examples from early studies of the types of result we are beginning to find.
Lertlakkhanakul, Jumphon, Sangrae Do, and Jinwon Choi. "Developing a Spatial Context-Aware Building Model and System to Construct a Virtual Place." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 343-358. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. The current notion of space seems to be inappropriate to deal with contemporary and future CAAD applications because it lacks of user and social values. Instead of using a general term called'space', our approach is to consider the common unit in architectural design process as a place composed of space, user and activity information. Our research focuses on developing a novel intelligent building data model carrying the essence of place. Through our research, the needs of using virtual architectural models among various architectural applications are investigated at first step. Second, key characteristics of spatial information are summarized and systematically classified. The third step is to construct a semantically-rich building data model based on structured floor plan and the semantic location modelling. Then intermediate functions are created providing an interface between the model and future applications.  Finally, a prototype system, PlaceMaker, is developed to demonstrate how to apply our building data model to construct virtual architectural models embodying the essences of place.
Han, Sooyeon, Jinwon Choi, and Jumphon Lertlakkhanakul. "Developing a Virtual Test-Bed to Design Human-Centered Ubiquitous Space." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 359-369. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Future space is currently getting a great deal of attention to apply ubiquitous computing technology. To design these spaces, the need to make a physical test-bed, a real building model, is essential for human-centered design. However building a physical test-bed generally is economically expensive and even if the test-bed could be settled, it must be carefully designed before it is built. In this paper, we suggest a virtual smart test-bed, called'V-PlaceLab'. This system allows not only to research a human behaviour with the aid of computer simulation on a virtual environment, but also to design a human-centered ubiquitous space mentioned above.
Pfaffenbichler, Paul, Andrés Monzón, Ana Pardeiro, and Paula Vieira. "Development of a Hierarchical Approach to Assess the Impacts of Transport Policies - the Madrid case study." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 19-34. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. To make our cities sustainable is one of today's major challenges. The complexity of this task requires suitable planning tools. The aim of this paper is to present a hierarchical modelling approach to assess the effects of transport and land use projects and instruments. First a brief definition of the overall objective sustainability is given. This is followed by the description of the suggested hierarchical approach. A strategic, dynamic land use and transport interaction model builds the basis and is linked to models on a different spatial and functional level. A case study covering the Spanish region of Madrid ('Comunidad de Madrid') was selected to demonstrate the applicability. In particular the effects of the public transport infrastructure projects, the extension of the metro line number 9 and bus lanes on all radial highways, should be assessed. It is demonstrated that the suggested approach is applicable and suitable. The overall effect of the metro line extension and the bus lanes is positive. Nevertheless their contribution to a sustainable urban region is limited. Comprehensive strategies are needed to achieve the objective of sustainability. It could be shown that the projects can even have some negative local effects in the long term.
Gohnai, Y., A. Ohgai, S. Ikaruga, T. Kato, K. Hitaka, M. Murakami, and K. Watanabe. "Development of a Support System for Community-Based Disaster Mitigation Planning Integrated with a Fire Spread Simulation Model Using CA - the results of an experimentation for verification of its usefulness." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 35-51. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This research carried out an experiment to verify the usefulness of a WebGIS-based system that we have been developing (A support system for community-based disaster mitigation planning integrated with a fire spread simulation model using CA) BEFORE, DURING and AFTER Workshops. Based on the data collected from the experiment, the usefulness and advantages of the system were verified from various angles. As a result, it was found that even though there are still some issues to be solved, the system is useful and effective as a support tool and also in enhancing awareness before and after Workshops.
Beetz, Jakob, Jos van Leeuwen, and B. De Vries. "Distributed Collaboration in the Context of the Semantic Web." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 313-323. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In this paper we are proposing a Multi Agent System (MAS) framework for the facilitation of distributed collaboration in the AEC/FM domain. We are showing how the stack of technologies developed in the Semantic Web community can be put to use for the specific requirements of the building industry. Based on our earlier findings and developments in the area of logic based knowledge representations for the Design and Construction industry, we are outlining how these can form the semantic foundations of internal agent representations and their interconnection using speech acts.
Zhu, Wei, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Exploring Heuristics Underlying Pedestrian Shopping Decision Processes - an application of gene expression programming." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 121-136. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Most analytical pedestrian behaviour researches use utility-maximizing models and have paid less attention to models based on alternative behavioural theories such as bounded rationality. Consequently, there is a lack of deeper explorations into the decision processes of pedestrians. This lack of such alternative models may also be the result of inappropriate methods to estimate such models. For this reason, the paper first introduces a modelling platform GEPAT which has the ability to estimate parallel functions using a multi-gene-sectional chromosome structure and to facilitate building models using processors emulating simple decision mechanisms. The going-home decision of pedestrians in Wang Fujing Street is taken as an example to illustrate the use of GEPAT. The most important conclusion from a comparison of the MNL, hard cut-off, soft cut-off and hybrid model is that the satisficing heuristic fits better to the problem structure, at least in this case, than the utility-maximizing rule does. This example also shows the flexibility of GEPAT as a modelling toolbox and the power of estimating complex models.
Hunt, John. "Forms of Participation in Urban Redevelopment Projects - the differing roles of public and stakeholder contributions to design decision making processes." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 375-390. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper examines how political commitment to participatory design within the context of a major urban redevelopment project was translated into a strategy and a course of action for achieving effective participation within a demanding project timeframe. The project in question involves a new transport interchange for the city of Auckland (New Zealand), the redevelopment of a number of heritage buildings, and the introduction of new buildings to create a mixed use precinct covering three city blocks. The project, currently being implemented, has involved extensive public consultation and stakeholder participation as it has proceeded through the stages of project visioning, an open public design competition, and the development of the competition winning design. The paper draws a distinction between the contributions of stakeholders versus the public at large to the decision-making process, outlines the different kinds of participatory processes adopted by the local authority (Auckland City Council) to effectively engage and involve these two different groups and the stages in the evolution of the project at which these different contributions were introduced. The model of'open design'proposed by van Gunsteren and van Loon is used as a basis for explaining the success of multi-stakeholder inputs at a crucial stage in project development. The paper concludes by examining the limits of applicability of the'open design'model in the context of urban redevelopment projects in which there is broad public interest, and by suggesting a number of design decision support guidelines for the management of participatory processes.
Cheng, Hung-Ming. "Generative Design in an Evolutionary Procedure - an approach of genetic programming." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 419-431. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This study describes a procedural design studio using Genetic Programming as the evolutionary mechanism and formal generation. This procedural design is integrated with a visualisation interface, which allows designers to interact and select from instances for design evolution. Evolutionary design facilitates designers in three areas: 1) diversify instances of design options, 2) inspect specific goals, 3) and enhance the possibility of discovering various potential solutions.
Diappi, Lidia, and Paola Bolchi. "Gentrification Waves in the Inner-City of Milan - a multi agent / cellular automata model based on Smith's Rent Gap theory." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 187-201. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. The aim of this paper is to investigate the gentrification process by applying an urban spatial model of gentrification, based on Smith's (1979, 1987, 1996) Rent Gap theory. The rich sociological literature on the topic mainly assumes gentrification to be a cultural phenomenon, namely the result of a demand pressure of the suburban middle and upper class, willing to return to the city (Ley, 1980, Lipton, 1977, May, 1996). Little attempt has been made to investigate and build a sound economic explanation on the causes of the process. The Rent Gap theory (RGT) of Neil Smith still represents an important contribution in this direction. At the heart of Smith's argument there is the assumption that gentrification takes place because capitals return to the inner city, creating opportunities for residential relocation and profit. This paper illustrates a dynamic model of Smith's theory through a multi-agent/ cellular automata system approach (Batty, 2005) developed on a Netlogo platform. A set of behavioural rules for each agent involved (homeowner, landlord, tenant and developer, and the passive'dwelling'agent with their rent and level of decay) are formalised. The simulations show the surge of neighbouring degradation or renovation and population turn over, starting with different initial states of decay and estate rent values. Consistent with a Self Organized Criticality approach, the model shows that non linear interactions at local level may produce different configurations of the system at macro level. This paper represents a further development of a previous version of the model (Diappi, Bolchi, 2005). The model proposed here includes some more realistic factors inspired by the features of housing market dynamics in the city of Milan. It includes the shape of the potential rent according to city form and functions, the subdivision in areal submarkets according to the current rents, and their maintenance levels. The model has a more realistic visualisation of the city and its form, and is able to show the different dynamics of the emergent neighbourhoods in the last ten years in Milan.
Christopher, Noriel, and C. Tiglao. "Improving Social Policy through Spatial Information - Application of small area estimation and spatial microsimulation methods in geographical targeting." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 69-84. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. The major goal of social policy in most developing countries is poverty alleviation. The ultimate challenge for policymakers is to use the available resources of the Government in order to provide the greatest possible assistance to those who need it most. Geographical targeting has emerged as one of the more feasible and efficient targeting methods. However, its full utilization is seriously hampered by the lack of the needed data sets. On the other hand, new computational approaches have great potential in providing spatially-disaggregate information. The paper explores the application of small area estimation and spatial microsimulation methods in geographical targeting.
Landreneau, Eric, Ozan Ö. Özener, Burak Pak, Ergun Akleman, and John Keyser. "Interactive Rule-Based Design - an experimental interface for conceptual design." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 433-446. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In this paper, we present a method that allows designers to interactively create partially self-similar manifold surfaces without relying on shape grammars or fractal methods. The modellers that are based on traditional fractal methods or shape grammars usually create disconnected surfaces and restrict the creative freedom of users. In most cases, the shapes through conventional fractal or shape grammar methods are defined by hard coded schemes that allow limited interactivity for the design process. We present a new approach for modelling such shapes. With this approach, we have developed a simple generative tool with given adjustable parameters to achieve variety of conceptual forms. Using this tool, designers can interactively create a variety of partially self-similar manifold surfaces.
Di Giulio, R., M Coccagna, and G Tonelli. "IT Tools for the Valorisation of the Building Heritage - Analysis and reuse of rural buildings to improve cultural-tourism activities." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 253-268. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. According to the valorisation of sustainable policies, many European countries developed common or individual strategies to preserve and exploit their environmental and building heritage. Through the VILLAS transnational project it has been possible to create a set of specific tools, focused on different user types and needs that are easy to be combined and applied to assess and valorise private and public building heritage.
Pinelo, João. "Land Use Location and Urban Topology - Exploring this relationships' relevance and an approach methodology." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 85-100. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This work's first aim is to analyse the relationship between urban axes'topological properties and urban land use location. The second aim is to do it in a straightforward reliable way. A bottom-top methodology is proposed and explored. It is commonly accepted that land use searches within the city for a convenient location, concerning their business. Location is influenced by several factors. These factors and their relative importance differ among land uses. Accessibility is usually recognised as an important factor. This work analyses some land uses in the city of Lisbon in relation to the location parameter: topological accessibility. The exploratory work made clearer it worth studying topology's role in the location of urban land use. Although short on land use types, its wide spectrum in relation to service level confirms both urban topology as an important location parameter and the proposed method as promising.
Oh, Jean, Jie-Eun Hwang, Stephen Smith, and Kimberle Koile. "Learning from Main Streets - a machine learning approach identifying neighborhood commercial districts." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 325-340. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In this paper we explore possibilities for using Artificial Intelligence techniques to boost the performance of urban design tools by providing large scale data analysis and inference capability. As a proof of concept experiment we showcase a novel application that learns to identify a certain type of urban setting, Main Streets, based on architectural and socioeconomic features of its vicinity. Our preliminary experimental results show the promising potential for the use of machine learning in the solving of urban planning problems.
van Beurden, J.A.M., R.J.A. van Lammeren, T. Hoogerwerf, and A.A. Bouwman. "Linking Land Use Modelling and 3D Visualisation - a mission impossible?" In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 85-101. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Additional to the traditional land use maps 3D visualisation could provide valuable information for applications in the field of spatial planning, related to ecological and agricultural policy issues. Maps of future land use do not always reveal the appearance of the physical environment (the perceived landscape) as a result of land use changes. This means that 3D visualisations might shed light on other aspects of changed land use, such as expected differences in height or densities of new volume objects, or the compatibility of these changes with particular characteristics of the landscape or urban built environment. The Land Use Scanner model was applied for the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency's'Sustainability Outlook'to explore land use changes, followed by GIS analyses  to asses both the development of  nature areas and  the degree of urbanisation within protected national landscapes. Since it was felt that 3D visualisation could complement the resulting land use maps, the land use model output was coupled to 3D visualisation software in two different ways: 1) through Studio Max software in combination with iconic representation of the concerned land use types and 2) through 3D components of GIS software. However, the use of these techniques on a national scale level for the generation of semi-realistic 3D animations raised a number of conceptual and technical problems. These could be partly ascribed to the particular format and of the Land Use Scanner output. This paper discusses the methods and techniques which have been used to couple the output of the land use model to 3D software, the results of both approaches, and possible solutions for these problems.
Devisch, O.T.J., Harry J. P. Timmermans, Theo Arentze, and Aloys Borgers. "Modelling Residential Search and Location Choice - Framework and Numerical Experiments." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 185-200. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. People only move a limited number of times during their lifetime. Factors such as high financial costs, local social networks, emotional bounds, etc. make that people typically postpone this decision as long as possible, up to the point where the benefit of alternative housing outperforms all these factors. Then things generally have to go fast. This combination of time-pressure, high costs and lack in experience turn residential search and location choice into a complex decision process. This paper presents a model developed to grasp some of this complexity. Households are approached as autonomous decision-makers continuously evaluating whether to search for information, to visit houses for inspection, to start negotiating with the owner of a house for sale or to do nothing and stay in the current house. Households make these evaluations on the basis of beliefs regarding their environment and update these beliefs each time they collect new information on this environment.
Zimmermann, Gerhard. "Multi-Agent Model to Multi-Process Transformation - a housing market case study." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 203-219. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Simulation is a means to help urban planners and investors to optimize inhabitant satisfaction and return on investment. An example is the optimal match between household preferences and property profiles. The problem is that not enough knowledge exists yet about dynamic user activity models to build reliable and realistic simulators. Therefore, we propose a modelling and software technique that produces simulator prototypes very efficiently for the development, test, and evaluation of many different user activity models, using executable models, code generation, and a domain specific software process. As a specific feature, the model is based on many agents acting independently from each other and that are mapped in several refinement steps into the same number of concurrent processes. The housing example is used as a case study to explain the process and show performance results.
Borri, Dino, Giovanni Circella, Michele Ottomanelli, and Domenico Sassanelli. "Optimization of Choice Modelling in Complex Urban Contexts - Applications in planning for sustainable development." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 51-66. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper focuses on the capabilities of choice models in assisting planners in the development of transport policies and interventions for strategic transport planning for urban systems. Models are looked at as part of a decision support system for the development of transport measures for sustainable mobility. The use of participation is looked at as a tool for the understanding of the real needs in terms of mobility in the complex contemporary society and for the construction of the future transport scenarios and transport alternatives.
Brömmelstroet, M.C.G.. "Properly Equip Planners, Instead of Just Manning Equipment - a first step in a user-oriented PSS development approach as support for the integration of land use and transport planning." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 35-50. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. There is a growing need for planning support in planning practice, especially in land use and transport integration. Recent studies have shown that instruments that provide such are seldom implemented. Building on recommendations of those studies, this paper explores how to develop a planning support system (PSS) for this specific field of planning and shows some preliminary results of the first steps towards such a PSS. An qualitative assessment on the strengths and weaknesses of two recently developed instruments that share this goal, the VPR and the SDS+STE. Due to time constraints, the focus is on the background and framework of the study.
Celikyay, Selma. "Research on New Residential Areas Using GIS - a case study." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 221-233. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Planning is a decision-making process which is about'the future'. In each scale of planning process, spatial rules of the social life are formed. In this process, firstly series of spatial analyses should be practised. Throughout the world, spatial planning strategies which focus on the sustainable development adapt an ecological approach and both the regional and urban planning processes are based upon ecological bases. Under the guidance of this notion, also in Turkey, spatial planning strategies should be urgently reviewed and any level of planning process should be directed to ecological bases. Furthermore, in all these steps, natural resources and ecological characteristics should be taken into consideration. In the city of Bartin, where Bartin River flows through, a case study has been carried out regarding the above mentioned planning strategies. The case study has three stages. These stages also frame the data, analysis and evaluation stages. In the case study, a combination of McHarg's ecological evaluation method and Kiemstedt's usage value analysis in planning has been employed. With the help of ecological analyses, in the rural areas that have not been settled yet, the potential of the natural resources has been examined for the new residential areas. As a result, in the city of Bartin, the potential residential areas have been defined on the unsettled regions. What is more, concerning the subject, a map has been formed on the scale of 1/25 000. As a result of the case study, it has been concluded that in Bartin city because of the physical planning which ignores the potential of the natural resources, some of the existing residential areas have been chosen improperly.
Chen, Chiung-Hui, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "SCALE - a street case library for environmental design with agent interfaces." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 137-150. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Urban space provides a context for human interaction. Recently, urban planning has largely placed the user at the street as the centre of infrastructural design, with significant implications for the perceived attractiveness of user environments. However, visual observation is often difficult for verifying planning goals. The simulation of pedestrian behaviour is important for physical planning, but such research is scarce. In this study, we adopt an empirical approach for generating reactive path following. Further, we implement scenarios as computer scripts with agent-based interfaces to identify navigational patterns. Moreover, we built a hierarchy of individual behavioural models and define a behaviour production system to control the agent. Key attributes of streets such as rest space, utilities, landmarks, and buildings have space tags as identifiers to associate streets with related activities.
Balmer, Michael, and Kai Nagel. "Shape Morphing of Intersection Layouts Using Curb Side Oriented Driver Simulation." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 167-183. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In a traffic network, capacities of parts of the network restrict the amount of transport that can be handled by this network. The capacity of a given traffic network element is not fixed, but influenced by parameters such as number of lanes, maximum speed, weather, view horizon, and so on. These parameters also define the maximum capacity of complicated intersections. Special shapes of intersections, particularly in urban regions, may further increase or decrease their capacity. This paper investigates an evolutionary algorithm to automatically improve the geometrical layout of parts of an urban network according to externally specified criteria. The paper consists of two main parts.  In the first part, a simulation model is described which is able to produce realistically behaving vehicles only by using information about the curb side locations of the roads. This avoids the need to use lane connectivity, signal plans, etc. - which are details that would change during a change of the intersection layout. In the second part of the paper, the simulation changes the road and intersection layouts based on the behaviour of the vehicles. Using a feedback loop allows one to optimize the capacity of the modelled road system while its spatial extents are minimized. As a case study, a special roundabout is examined:'Central'in downtown Zurich, Switzerland. The particularity of this roundabout is that it partially behaves like a roundabout but also contains two uncontrolled intersections. Due to its central position in the city, the roundabout is very busy with both individual cars and public transport vehicles.
Cerulli, Cristina. "Sieving Pebbles and Growing Profiles - Capitalising on knowledge embodied in design practice." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 277-291. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper discusses tools and strategies to support the capturing and use of knowledge embodied in design practice. The tools described are part of a system conceived as a suite of modular tools, KMan, to be developed and adopted incrementally and independently, in the framework of a wider organizational knowledge management strategy. The concept of knowledge pebbles is introduced to describe collections of heterogeneous data formats to form a unit of potential knowledge In the final section of the paper an overview of all the tools part of the system is presented and some of the tools described and illustrated in more detail. In particular the Brief Management Tool, the Generic Search Tool and the Pebble Creation Tool are discussed.
Borgers, Aloys W. J., I.M.E Smeets, A.D.A.M Kemperman, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Simulation of Micro Pedestrian Behaviour in Shopping Streets." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 101-116. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006.

Over the years, scholars have developed various models of pedestrian movement. These models can be used to assess the effects of detailed design decisions or to predict pedestrian behaviour under conditions of crowding. To date, not much attention has been paid to pedestrians'shopping behaviour at the micro level. Therefore, the main purpose of this project is to test a model that aims at simulating micro pedestrian behaviour in shopping streets, including entering shops. The model assumes a detailed network of links to represent the structure of street segments and entrances to the shops. The basic principle underlying the model is that a pedestrian moves from one link in the network to another, adjacent link. In fact, a pedestrian enters a segment at one side, heading for the other side of the segment. However, a pedestrian might enter the segment by leaving a shop as well. Then, the pedestrian might be heading for either side of the segment. While transferring from the current link to the next link, the pedestrian will be attracted by the shops along both sides of the street. The study area is Antwerp's main shopping street. During a one-week workshop in July 2004, students observed pedestrian movement in this shopping street. An inventory of some physical characteristics of the shopping street was made and pedestrians were tracked through two separate segments of the shopping street. In total, 334 pedestrians were tracked. A conventional multinomial logit model is used to simulate pedestrians'micro behaviour. The process of consecutively selecting links continues until the pedestrian has reached one of the terminal links or a shop. The model performs very well. Simulated routes were used to assess the validity of the model. Observed and simulated link loading correspond fairly well, however, the model seems to slightly mispredict the attraction of a number of shops.

Tang, Ching-Shun. "Smart Structure: Designs with Rapid Prototyping." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 415-429. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This research presents the new orientation of the combination of digital modelling with generative programming and joint method of traditional wood structure for manipulating Rapid Prototyping to explore the assembling of free form objects. The presenting of the example indicates that the edition of Maya scripts defines the purpose of design. Through the discussion on scripts developing the assembly of the free-form objects of frames and surfaces and through the achievement that RP produces and examines objects, we bring out the possibilities of the new form developed from the old structure and illustrate how to develop our hypothesis. The developed result could provide the possible new way for free-form assembly. We expatiate our research process and final achievement and provide a new thinking direction in the education field.
Yen, Ting-Hau. "Space Cube: a 3D Puzzle for Study Model." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 403-414. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In the process of architecture design, the manufacture of study model acts a procedure of swift transformation from concept to a visible model. Since the era of CAD/CAM approaches, the tool of constructing the model evolves from the traditional physical model to digital model in the mode of the manufacture of study model. The virtual model, which is utilized in the incipient concept discussion by the designer, has become a new intermediary material. However, the virtual model or physical model respectively acts its role that may not be substituted now. TUIS (Tangible User Interfaces) is the intuitional interface system of discussion on striding these two intermediary materials. By the information interchange between the physical model and virtual model, a designer can dedicate to the procedure of design development rather than be restricted to the operation and usage of these interfaces. However, there are many problems existing in applying such a system to the solid geometry model stack. This essay will discuss that a designer explores the incipient design application by manipulating physical model and virtual model.
Shen, Zhenjiang, Mitsuhiko Kawakami, and Ping Chen. "Study on a Decision Support System for Large-Scale Shopping Centre Location Planning Using a Multi-Agent System." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 169-184. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Multi-agent system as a bottom-up approach has been shown powerful in better understanding processes of urban development and growth. Most of them are approaching from economic theory and social behaviours but urban planning. This paper proposes an alternative approach to urban simulation that combines urban planning with agents'behaviour in multi-agent modelling thus to make scenarios analysis more reasonable particularly for decision based on urban land use plan. This paper discusses the approach as a computer simulative solution of a new large-scale shopping centre location for most regional cities in Japan where commercial heart of inner city is facing decline. We postulate that policy decision makers can get better understanding of the policies'impact on inner city commercial environment under different scenarios through computer experimentation.
Kawakami, Mitsuhiko, and Shen Zhenjiang. "Study on Decision Support System for District Planning in Public Participation - a case study in Kanazawa City, Japan." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 203-218. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In this paper a design tool for promoting consensus between people within a decision support planning system at a district level in Japan is proposed. While opening necessary planning information to the public using WEGIS, VRML and other medias, the design tool is employed to exchange design elements in VRML world. These design elements are likely to be adopted by a local planning committee on making a decision of a district plan according to the Japanese legal system.
Lee, Ji-Hyun, and Huai-Wei Liu. "The Art of Communication: a Collaborative Decision-Making System among Different Industrial Design Stakeholders - the case of the company ASUS." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 271-288. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Collaboration benefits the process of complex design. However, there are many communication problems among different stakeholders in the domain of industrial design, because the situation of communication and decision-makings for stakeholders is so complicated. To deal with the complexity requires both a web-based collaborative system to communicate and share information immediately, and a multi-agent system (MAS) integrated with KW architecture to possess different levels of competence at performing a particular task. The goal of our system is to integrate a variety of representational methods of transferring knowledge and to communicate among different stakeholders using a single platform. To demonstrate our proposed concepts, we focus on a prototype system for notebook design for the company ASUS, a leading notebook manufacturer based in Taiwan.
van Leeuwen, Jos, and Léon van Berlo. "The Neighbourhood Wizard - Cause and effect of changes in urban neighbourhoods." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 391-406. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. The Neighbourhood Wizard is a website that makes citizens aware of the consequences of the changes that they would like to realise in their neighbourhood. Users of the website can suggest changes to their neighbourhood. A Bayesian Belief Network is used to predict the effects of the changes on several indicators of liveability as experienced by the community. The Neighbourhood Wizard also shows what would be the optimal experience of liveability for different sections of the population.
Yamaguchi, Gyosuke, Takashi Kobayashi, and Yasuo Hibata. "The Relationship of Citizens' Participatory Channels in Real and Cyber Meetings through the Planning Process - Case study, the information management planning process in Yamato city, Japan." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 219-234. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In the planning process, Yamato city set up four citizens'participatory channels, two in the real space and the other two in the cyber space. The channels in each space are divided into two types, one restricts membership and the other does not. This paper aims to clarify the functions of these four channels through protocol analysis and draws the following two findings. (1) In the channels with the restricted membership, the theme of the discussion continues between the real space and the cyber space mutually. Consequently, close communication became possible. (2) The other finding is that the continuity of discussions exists almost one-way from the restricted channels to the unrestricted, so the unrestricted channels are regarded as functioning to enhance the validity of the citizen discussions in the member-restricted channels. For closer communication, however, the continuity from the unrestricted to the restricted channels should be ensured, hence it is necessary to establish some systems for the continual communication.
Bailey, Rohan. "Towards a Digital Design Teaching Tool - a look at the ideas that should define a digital design primer." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 373-386. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Architecture in the 21st century has become an increasingly complex affair. In addition to new social and cultural norms, architects are inundated with constantly changing information regarding new materials, sustainable processes, and complex building types. This state of affairs has also affected the expectations placed on architectural education. Critics (in diverse spheres) have expressed concerns about the lack of requisite skills of graduates that characterise good design thinking strategies as well as promote responsible design. It has been proposed by this author in other forums that by using digital technology to empower design learning, we can allow students to confidently use (through reading and analysis) their sketches to develop conceptual ideas that reconcile disparate elements into a habitable, environmentally friendly and architecturally responsible whole that is fit for purpose, cost effective, sustainable and a delight to clients and users. This paper will seek to discuss one of the concepts that govern such a tool. It will start by delineating the problem (discussed earlier in the abstract) before outlining the concepts or principles that a design teaching tool should adhere to. These concepts acknowledge the importance for the tool to reflect the nature of design tasks, facilitate learning and be accessible to all learning types. The paper will then focus on one concept - the nature of design tasks. The subsequent sections will describe an information structure borne from this idea and make mention of a current prototype of the tool. The paper will conclude with a discussion of the strengths of considering this concept.
Jiao, Junfeng, and Luc Boerboom. "Transition Rule Elicitation Methods for Urban Cellular Automata Models." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 53-68. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. In this chapter, transition rules used in urban CA models are reviewed and classified into two categories: transition potential rules and conflict resolution rules. Then, four widely used rule elicitation methods: Regression analysis, Artificial Neural network (ANN), Visual calibration, and Analytical Hierarchy Processing - Multi Criteria Evaluation (AHP-MCE) are discussed. Most of these methods are data driven methods and can be used to elicit the transition potential rules in the urban CA models. In the following, three possible rule elicitation methods:  Interview, Document analysis, and Card sorting are explained and demonstrated. These three methods are driven by knowledge and can be used to elicit conflict resolution rules as well as transition potential rules in urban CA models.
Caneparo, Luca, Francesco Guerra, and Elena Masala. "UrbanLab - Generative platform for urban and regional design." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 235-251. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. UrbanLab is a computer system supporting urban and regional design. The papers outlines two leading aspects of this large research project, aimed respectively to make explicit the dynamic of the design in its time and geographic dimensions, and to interactively represent the interplay of some, explicitly, recognised factors, for instance the role of a multitude of different (local) actors in the design process. UrbanLab has been applied to several projects at different scales. We consider the applications to dynamically and interactively generating models of an Alpine valley. The modelling in the spatial and temporal dimensions provided us with the elements to study the evolution over the next twenty years.
Vonk, Guido, Stan Geertman, and Paul Schot. "Usage of Planning Support Systems - Combining three approaches." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 263-274. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. Although a wide range of Planning Support Systems (PSS) exists, their actual utilization in planning practice, to support planners in doing their planning tasks, stays behind. This is problematic since many see PSS capable of aiding planners to handle the complexity of their planning tasks. Our current study explains under usage of PSS from three different angles: the instrument, the user and the transfer of the instrument towards the user. The main conclusion is that usage of PSS is hampered by lack of awareness of and experience with PSS in planning practice as well as by instrumental quality problems and hampered user acceptance and diffusion. The main recommendation to enhance usage of PSS is that it should be made transparent which PSS types should be used for what planning tasks, by which kinds of users, in which kinds of organizations and under which external conditions.
Tabak, Vincent, B. De Vries, Jan Dijkstra, and Joran Jessurun. "User Simulation Model: Overview and Validation - Capturing human behaviour in the built environment using RFID." In Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 117-132. DDSS. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. This paper presents the validation setup for the user simulation model as part of the ongoing research project called “User Simulation of Space Utilisation (USSU)”. The aim of this research project is to develop an overall model for the simulation of human movement and utilization of space capacity in office buildings. In this model, two aspects are essential: the interaction between the building occupants while performing their activities and the way to model these activities in space.