Keywords Abstract
Smeltzer, Geert. "A CAAD Curriculum." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 551-5512. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. This paper is about the backgrounds, the present state, the results and the future expectations of the curriculum of Calibre, at the Faculty of Architecture and Building Science of the Eindhoven University of Technology. It will also touch upon the relationships with project work in our field but also in other fields of our Architectural (and Building) education. In the paper it is emphasised that teachers need to create a need for the use of certain features of computer systems. To make students aware of the (possible) CAD needs and answering to those needs at a more or less individual way asks a high level of understanding of the underlying concept and features of the CAD systems. Because of the flexibility (amongst other qualities), we, and so many others, have made a choice to use AutoCAD as 8 kind of thread that runs through our curriculum continuously and that exists out of 6 main parts. These parts vary from an introduction to Integrated Data Processing via CADD, Graphics and Data Structures and Expert Systems to System Development Methods. Half of our curriculum Is compulsory for all the faculty students, the other half is facultative but very well attended. 
Sastre, R., J. Puigdomènech, J. Jorge, and A. Cusido. "A Comprehensive Approach to the Tensile Structures Design." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 971-978. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989.

We present an integrated set of programs as CAD-tools for the design of shapes, evaluation of stress field and displacements of tensile membrane structures as well as a way to find out their surface patterns. In early times simulation of physical small models has been used to obtain a phenomenological view rather than quantitative information about these structures. A progressive way has been thought to make a comprehensive an practical approach to this kind of structure, characterized by its ability to offer displacements of long range. We propose like a first steep a rough simulation through elastic member models or elastic-surface models. An iterative process starts, based on visualizations through different peripheric devices (screened and plottered graphic outputs). This first steep ends by the formulation of an optimum geometric performances of the structure. The resulting geometry serves like a source structure for a more accurate calculus achieved by the Finite Element Method. Discretization of the continues structure is carried out in a network of tiny triangular elements. Finally, 3-D realism techniques has been used to represent the form adopted or stress field calculated or both at the same time, by an adequate use of the color attributes of the finite elements.

Mark, Earl. "A Contrast in Pedagogy: the M.l.T. Versus Harvard Approach to Computer Aided Design." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 511-519. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989.

This is a period of relative detente among academics in the field of computers and architecture, advocating the use of computers in a design studio is today received more politely than, as in the past, when it was received like a declaration of war. Among some research groups at M.I.T. and Harvard to first engage In this field, the approaches were so dissimilar to one another that they could be considered as constituting separate schools of thought. Over time, however, a number of paths have led to a similar direction, if not agreement among principal investigators. The lack of sharply competing ideologies today may be a little less exciting: however, the enormous growth of the academic discipline seems now to allow for a fruitful exchange of ideas between positions that no longer seem mutually exclusive. Two views are important, among others, at M.I.T. and Harvard. The classic M.I.T. view looks upon the AI Lab as a microcosm for examining how architects think. Underlying this view is the position of'lets examine the way architects think about design and build tools which can reflect that process'. Another point of view, as expressed at Harvard, is speculative on what architects seem to do in design practice and education, rather than speculative on the nature of thinking per se. Both views seem ultimately to be concerned with representing architectural design knowledge within computers. And in the rob of computers as a design medium. This paper examines how the M.I.T. view and the Harvard view have superficially been associated with separate research directions. As these contrasting points of view incorporate many common themes. The author finds that it may be possible to take an eclectic position in teaching computer aided design.

Shaviv, Edna. "A Direct Generative CAD Tool for the Site Layout of Communities with Solar Access to Each Building." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 9171-9179. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. A method for the design of communities with solar access to each building is presented. The method allows the determination of the minimum possible distance between the buildings that enables insolation, the maximum height allowed for a given building without violating the “Solar Rightsi of its neighbors, and how low the window or the passive solar collector can be placed on the wall and still be insolated in winter. The fundamental idea is to use a computer and CRT to generate the entire envelope of the families of design solutions. These solutions provide the required open space between buildings to sustain the “Solar Rights” of the building under consideration. This envelope of solutions serves as a nomogram on the basis of which the location of each building in the solar communities is determined. The method creates an unlimited space of solutions, leaving the final design to the architect's imagination.
Mollaert, M.. "A Kernel Reference Model for Computer Aided Architectural Deslgn." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 911-917. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. For the architectural practice drawings are the most important medium to transfer information. Other documents concerning planning, quantities, calculations or descriptions are complements to the drawn construction data. The automatisation made it possible to spent less time to obtain drawings of higher quality, and to handle the administrative data in a more efficient manner.  
Paoluzzi, Alberto, and Claudio Sansoni. "A Programming Language for Architectural Symbolic Modeling." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 841-8416. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. In this paper a software project supporting architectural design is outlined. Such a project aims to develop the new design language PLASM (a Programming Language for Architectural Symbolic Modelling), which is planned to be a very high-level, user-oriented language, belonging to the class of constraint languages. The language PLASM will support a small set of abstract data types which are significant in various outstanding problems of architectural design, and will offer both procedural features and non-procedural constraints satisfaction. It will allow the designer to make use of a large set of computing tools in any phase of architectural design, in order to explore a wider set of design solutions. Customizable evaluation functions will be available in the language. The execution of a PLASM program may result either in generating or in updating a semantic network over a set of data objects solving the geometric problem under consideration. The proposed language will support both abstract data types significant in the design domain, and tools performing automatized data generation and transformations between different data types. The modification of any object in such a system, both performed by editing a daemon program and/or by interactively modifying a data object, will result in the immediate propagation of changes into the problem network, by activating a message passing mechanism. 
Wood, D.J., Andre Brown, and G.Z. Brown. "A Sunlight Design Tool." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 931-937. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. Computer-based techniques for Environmental design tend to be analytical. They are aimed at the engineer who takes a previously designed building and then analyses the environmental performance of the building so as to be able to give performance requirements for servicing plant. Thus the building has been designed by an architect using experience and some broad background knowledge of environmental performance, but it is usually not until the analysis stage is reached that the building's environmental performance is accurately assessed. A sunlight design program (application) has been written to address this problem. This program is aimed at the designer and should allow them to assess quickly the sunlight characteristics of'their building. The intention has been to produce a tool which is easy to understand and use: a tool which is interactive and in which data can be changed easily. Thus the tool can be used: to check the effect of design changes on sunlight performance. The tool is meant to the both an aid to design itself and to the understanding of the environmental performance of buildings. This paper describes the application and the use of it by architectural students. We describe the application, assess it and evaluate its educational value by comparing students'estimations of sunlight performance in their own buildings with performance predicted by it. We look at how students interact with the program to modify their design in response to this interaction and report on their evaluation of the application during a controlled exercise. 
Longhi, Domenico. "A System for Building Design Information Management." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 9111-9118. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. Computer assistants to building process management are not able nowadays to efficiently work out the problems generated by the increased complexity of designing. Actual difficulties depend, on one hand, on the fact D.B.M.S. that have been developed on other environments than CAAD, and on the other hand, on the fact that architectural design process is scarcely formalized. At the Department of T.E.C.A., at the University of Rome, a PhD research program is aimed to overcome difficulties, working out techniques of information management based on Knowledge Engineering and particularly on Knowledge Base Management Systems and Expert Database Systems. At present a prototype system is being developed, that can manage existing technical information, connected with buiIding process.
Lawson, Bryan, and Peter Scott. "An Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching CAD." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 311-3113. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The paper raises some general problems concerning the teaching of CAAD both in schools of architecture and in practice. A new, less'system-oriented'approach is suggested and some ideas for the design of a computer based intelligent tutoring system are advanced. Some prototype elements of the tutor will be described.
Cottone, Antonio, and Maria Buscemi. "And if We Take a Bacxward Step..." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 91519158. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. In these years the researches on the computer science applied to the building have had a considerable development. The applications concern the whole design process, from the programming to the design and from the execution control to the programmed maintenance with a great deal of problems solved using expert systems. It doesn't seem that the same care of men and means has been dedicated to the architectural design theory, to its deep roots which motivate it and to its peculiarity in comparison with other fields in which now the design, with the aid of the computer, is the only one possible. The designer of architectural objects has been always helped by design assistants: it is enough to think that the sixteenth century treatises are a group of rules, descriptions, solutions to design problems and that they represent the “knowledge” of the age. As the knowledge increased those treatises amplified to the encyclopaedic dimensions of the nineteenth-century handbooks and of those of the first years of this century, while new professional figures rose, the teaching developed and the building art became more and more complex.
Jenkinson, L., Andre Brown, and F. Horton. "Architectural Design and Drawing." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 651-6517. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989.

This paper focuses on the function of drawing in architectural design. It does so by taking an in- depth look at the drawing material produced for the design of the chapel at Ronchamp. Within architectural design there is more than one type of drawing. The objective therefore is to determine what exactly these different types of drawing are and furthermore what their function is for the architect. For we believe that questioning, at this basic level, the function of drawing within the design process provides the basis from which it is possible to go on to question the function of computer-based drawing within the design process, and consequently it's function in CAAD.

Glaser, Migges. "ART + COM Lab Report - BERKOM Project "New Media in Urban Planning"." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 611-616. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The highly developed glasfiber technology of the Berlin ISDN-B prototype network will make it possible to test a future benefit of the possibilities of real time visual communication for architects and planers in their home office. In the project an external user will be able to share high end visual outputs of a Service Center for Visualisation with his own low end CAAD workstation via ISDN-B. The capabilities of these services will range from a still picture archive, real time access to video film archive, a variety of conventional database services to special postproduction for his own 3D data models. The transferred 3D model can be rendered an animated on the Center's systems, if requested also integrated into a video background film. The production will than be available on his workstation screen. These new means will be evaluated in the view of the architects new possibilities for the design process.
Tascini, Guido, and Paolo Puliti. "Automatic Recognition of Graphic Documentation in Building Design." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 761-766. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. Automatic image recognition by means of Artificial Intelligence techniques poses some unsolved problems but it can be viable in technical drawing because standards allow the problem to be managed in terms of knowledge. The paper deals with the feasibility of a knowledge-based design. A semantic network is employed to model knowledge and an expectation-driven recognition strategy is used.  
Pittioni, Gernot. "CAAD at the Technical University of Munich - Features of Education and Research." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 441-447. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The educational outlines used by the German, and most other European schools of architecture, have certain differences in comparison to an American school. This is partly due to the different tasks each group has to fulfill. Our architects not only plan their projects in detail, but in many cases they have to supervise the site as well. Most importantly, they also check on all communications between those participating in the design process. Skills of architects leaving their schools and entering into practical life generally need further training. Since CAAD is becoming more and more involved in architectural design studios of various sizes, the development of skills in this area should be shifted towards the period of studies. Thus, schools and staffs have to react to meet the needs of the present facts.
Waerum, Jens, and Bjarne Kristiansen. "CAAD Education at the School of Architecture Copenhagen." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 451-459. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The establishment of Datacentret (the Data Centre) in summer 1985 was preceded by 15 years slow- moving, arduous work from the early experiments in what was then the computing laboratory under the supervision of architect Per Jacobi, author of the Danish 3D drawing system MONSTER, until 1984, when a special committee was commissioned to draw up proposals for the introduction of teaching in computing at the Architects School. In spring 1985 the school administrators decided that a central computer workshop should be set up and in cooperation with the school's institutes placed jointly in charge of instructing teachers and students, carrying out research and development within the field of architecture and taking steps to work out a curriculum of supplementary training for practising architects. With the aid of a special grant, 12 PC's were successfully acquired in the 2 years that followed, as well as a screen projector and other peripherals.
Kulcke, Richard. "CAAD in the Architectural Education of the Fachhochschulen in the Federal Republic of Germany." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 431. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. For over 10 years the author has been a teacher in the field of “computer application in architecturei at the Fachhochschule. Since 1985 he regularly has been taking part in the conferences of A.I.I.D.A. (Arbeitskreis INFORMATIK IN DER ARCHlTEKTENAUSBILDUNG). All the faculties of architecture at the Fachhochschulen (about 10) can send their representatives of CAAD to the conferences. A.I.I.D.A. has been having 2 conferences a year since 1985. At the last conference in Wiesbaden a paper with statements of A.I.I.D.A. for the further education in CAAD was finished. The author presents and explains this paper. On the other hand he shows the actual education program of CAAD of his faculty. The education in CAAD started in 1972 with basic information without practical elements. Now the practical work with the workstation is talking most of the time. The computer application is available for subjects like Building Economics, Building and Structure Design and others. With his assistant the author developed programs of the field of Building Economics. In 1986 he started introduce CAD with AutoCAD in the education program. Now also other colleagues start to integrate CAAD into their subjects. 
Penttila, Hannu. "Computer Aided Building Modeling." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 321-3211. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The subject of computer-aided building modelling is often discussed in various contexts, sometimes without clear explanation of what is modelled. Usually modelling refers to 3-dimensional geometric modelling, but nowadays also conceptual modelling and mathematical simulation aspects are more and more evident. Building modelling should though be considered more widely than just plain geometric visualization. This paper establishes one common framework for discussion about different building modelling viewpoints arranging discipline viewpoints, approach methods, existing standards and application tools within one context. Although several viewpoints are declared conceptual building modelling is regarded the main emphasis of this paper, since it definitely will be one of the key issues in developing methods and tools for computer integrated construction (CIC) in the future.
Van Zutphen, R.H.M.. "Computer Aids in Education of CAAD." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 521-527. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. This paper focuses on the first years of the CAAD curriculum of Calibre - Computer Application Laboratory in Building Research and Education - at the Eindhoven University of Technology. It describes the use of computer systems as a modern aid to learning and some aspects of the development of the educational program CALinCAD.
Maver, Thomas W.. "Computer Graphics in Architectural Education - the Strathclyde Experience." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 541-5414. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The following paper describes the teaching and research activities of the Department of Architecture and Building Science at the University of Strathclyde and highlights the role of CAAD and, more specifically, of Computer Graphics in the curriculum. The presentation during the Conference will deal in greater depth with how students use increasingly sophisticated hardware and software in their investigation of the formal qualities of buildings and of how best they can be visualised on site.
Galle, Per. "Computer Methods in Architectural Problem Solving: Critique and Proposals." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 641-6421. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. While the development of modelling and drafting tools for computer-aided design has reached a state of considerable maturity, computerized decision support in architectural sketch design is still in its infancy after more than 20 years. The paper analyzes the difficulties of developing computer tools for architectural problem solving in the early stages of design where decisions of major importance are made. The potentials of computer methods are discussed in relation to design as a static system of information and to design as a dynamic creative process. Two key problems are identified, and on this background current computer methods intended for use in architectural sketch design are critically reviewed. As a result some guidelines are suggested for future research into computer- aided architectural problem solving. The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to encourage research that will take this field into a state of maturity and acceptance by practitioners, and (2) to provoke further debate on the question of how to do it.
Fridqvist, Sverker. "Computers as a Creative Tool in Architecture." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 961-964. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The School of Architecture at Lund Institute of Technology was augmented by the establishment of the Computer Studio in 1987. As a result the school now has a device for teaching and research in the architects'use of computers. We are now conducting several research projects as well as courses and an education project. The third and fourth years of the education at the school of architecture are arranged as education projects instead of traditional lecturing. The students choose from projects that are organised by different departments at the School of Architecture. The issue is that the students will ask for instruction when felt needed, and that learning will therefore be more efficient. The Computer Studio has conducted such a project during the first half of 1989. We have tried to encourage the students to use our different computers and programs in new and creative ways. One of the issues of the computer project is to teach the students how computers are used at the architects offices today as well as expected future developments. The students shall be acquainted well enough with present and future possibilities to make good choices when deciding upon buying computers for architectural use. Another issue is to develop new ways of making and presenting architecture by using computers. As a group the teachers at the school of architecture have a very restrictive attitude towards the use of computers. We hope that our project will open their minds for the possibilities of computers, and to engage them in the development of new ways to use computers creatively in architecture. An interesting question is if the use of computers will yield different outcomes of he students'work than traditional methods. An object for research is whether the added possibilities of considering different aspects of he design by using a computer will make for higher quality of the results. 
Lemma, Massimo, and Andrea Fornarelli. "Decisional Problems in the Building Process. Contextual Evaluation of Performance and Cost Parameters: “Reasoner C" in the Castorp System." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 741-748. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The study contains the provisional results of investigations currently in progress on the application of CAD and Design Management techniques to building design. The research aims at showing the feasibility of decisional procedures and economic analyses in current design practice, even referring to rather complex buildings, by exploring the possibility to know in full detail the technical and economic feasibility of a project already at its early stages.
Ferrari, Carlo, and Berardo Naticchia. "Definition of Spatial Elements of the Building System: “Reasoner A” in the Castorp System." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 721-7210. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. This paper tackles the problem of the functional and morphological definition of elementary spaces (in relation to the overall definition of the building object) through the study and the modelization of the designer's knowledge and of the cognitive processes which use it. An interactive automatic system which solves the problem of the placing of objects within a predefined environment is then described. This is the first element in a more general system which is meant as an intelligent aid to building design.  
Fregier, Marius. "Do You Need Weapons to Keep out of "Artichaud Melanie" - Or How to Teach Prolog Programming to CAD System Design Students." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 811-819. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. A course aimed on the use of prolog for studying, prototyping and developing CAD systems is presented. This course is based on a practical training. Its objectives, topics, teaching method and applications are briefly introduced. Exercises focussed on interests and.capabilities of CAD designers are presented. These exercises follow a progression which integrate Step by step, different aspects of the application fields. At list these exercises lead to a single application concerned with intelligent graphics.
Saggio, Antonino. "Extrusion, Assemblage, Joint and Connection in the Workshop for Gas Production by Giuseppe Terragni." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 9161-9169. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. Turning over the catalogues'pages of the first show of rational architecture, the strongly contrasting pictures of the model presented by Terragni remain impressive. The project for a “Workshop for Gas Production”, designed by the 23 year old architect from Como, reveals the presence of an early talent and the originality of his research. Although inspired by the contemporary European architecture, the work of Terragni does not attempt to academically repeat former precedents. Although Terragni's project and many among the other exhibited works share an analogy of forms, the syntax of the Como architect appears more mature and complex. This essay and the accompanying original drawings are dedicated to the de-constructivist nature of the design operations as well as to the clarification of the messages embodied in the specific program.
Asanowicz, Alexander. "Four Easy Questions ." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 9-181-9184. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. Should we teach CAAD? - yes, but why? Answer to this question is clear too. Question three - “when?” - on the 5, 6 and 7 term. Why so rate? - it is a compromise because “Architecture is an art” and students of architecture should know how to make a project without computers. How to teach CAAD? - we should teach haw to use professional computer programs and not programming. We must work out a new manual for architects. It should be constructed in such a way as to correspond to consecutive steps of the architectural design process.
Shaviv, Edna. "Implementation of Solid Modeling in High Hierarchy Architectural Language (HHAL)." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 8218221. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. This work illustrates the use of solid modelling for the representation and analysis of complex architectural structures and details. While the approach is a general one it is demonstrated and implemented on the visual representation and evaluation of Mediaeval Age basilican structures. Basilican structures have the advantage that rules of composition for defining their form are well formulated. These rules are imposed on the solid modeler as high hierarchy architectural language (HHALL). It is within this language that the basilican structures are described and analyzed.
Colajanni, Benedetto, and Mario De Grassi. "Inferential Mechanisms to be Employed in CAAD: the Castorp System." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 711-719. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The paper presents an approach to the problems of architectural design aided by Artificial Intelligence techniques that can solve the difficulties related to combinatorial explosion, often encountered in the past. Three expert systems, dubbed “reasoners”, capable of some elementary design work and a hypothesis for their interaction have been developed. Reasoner A has an “analogical” view of space. A notion of conflict, managed by means of fuzzy logic, has been introduced. It corresponds, in an intuitive and straightforward fashion, to the common notion of conflict or contradiction in real space as a consequence of improper overlapping of actual physical objects or of their functional pertinence. Reasoner B works on formalized models of building objects. It designs new patterns from given patterns taken as defaults. Reasoner C picks up from an archive of patterns the one which best suits a list of given goals. Design is the result of interaction between the three reasoners. Finally, the proposed schema raises questions about formal structures (“images”) and about the nature of culturally-linked options (“memory”) on which some preliminary considerations are made. Prototypes of the reasoners are operating at the Instituto di Edilizia of the University of Ancona, Italy.
Gilleard, John. "Integrating Microcomputer CADr and Bill of Material Routines Using AutoCad." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 921-9210. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. Through the integration of microcomputer-aided draughting (CADr), and in particular with AutoCAD, the industries most extensively used CADr program, and automated routines for the production of bills of materials, a dramatic incr-ease in productivity is possible in the architectural design domain. Working from a variety of material take off methods complete cost estimates may be achieved through the manipulation of drawing data and exchanging the information with third-party estimating software. However, the area of study is currently at a formative stage of development and full integration, although technically feasible, is rarely attempted. Therefore, the paper comments on the development of'in-house'routines using AutoCAD's data extraction features and AutoLISP, reviews current commercial systems of interfacing AutoCAD with bills of materials and automated specification routines, and, finally, discusses possible future advances in this major area of study.
Klercker, Af. "Interactive Animation on the Macintosh II." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 951-956. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989.

The efficiency of images in communication between humans has so far been used almost exclusively by TV and other mass medias. The costs have been too great to encourage the use of images in the financially restricted everyday practice of architecture. With a range of application programs for the Apple Macintosh II the vision has come close to reality. It is now possible to create guided walks with the chance to choose different routes and views in a model of buildings and surroundings in 256 colour graphics. The makers of these programs may not have foreseen this use for their products and that is why it takes quite a lot of effort to make all the necessary images. With some supplementary routines however, this will be made much easier. Animation can also be used to visualize different processes inside a building. We have been studying the working environment in mechanical industry. The goal of this project is to make communication possible between the workers at all levels of an organization in planning changes and has so far been very successful. The use of this technique is only limited by our imagination and funding. Some examples to be tested in the near future are “Escape at a fire”, “Animation of a Dairy”, “Traffic situations in a parking lot”, “CAD-working place” and others. One of the difficulties in interactive planning with users has been to come close enough to their reality. With animated images it is possible to visualize what is going to happen and what it is going to look like in a more understandable way. In education this must be a challenging possibility. Changes and processes are some of the most difficult subjects to describe and explain! The software used is a handful of individual programs which, thanks to the graphics standards of the Macintosh, can exchange data with each other.

Danahy, John. "Intuition and Computer Visualization in an Urban Design Studio." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 421-426. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. This paper will present prototypical software being used in the teaching of urban design to students and for use by professionals in the early stages of a project. The system is intended to support a heuristic approach to design. That is, it supports a process of refining ideas and understandings through a process of trial and error. The support or aid to design comes in the form of a didactic real-time programme. Its power lies in its ability to provide instantaneous response to operations on the data that can allow one to develop three-dimensional spatial ideas in an intuitively driven manner. This condition appears to occur for both novice and expert computer operators. The presentation will present our experience to-date in using conventional computer graphic tools to represent design ideas and contrast it with a video demonstration of ow prototypical dynamic urban design modelling software for the Silicon Graphics IRIS computers.
Oliva, Caterina. "Management System about Building Retrofitting." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 9101-9106. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The system will be constituted by a central core (a “super expert”) which co-ordinates a data-base, a thermal building behaviour simulating software and the “single expert system” that evaluate the damages of the buildings. One of these “single expert system” is worked out at the University “La Sapienza” of Rome. Its knowledge domains applied to enquiring into the causes of dampnes in building structures. Such a system will be able to simulate the knowledge required in the various stages of the building process, aiding the design process of building retrofitting.
Gerken, H.. "Performance and Problems of Software Surveys." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 631-634. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The general purpose of surveys of products and services is to give a first information on a special market segment to the potential buyer. Therefore such surveys have an important transmitting and at the same time objectifying task. There is a lot of software surveys in West Germany and German-speaking neighboring countries, for instance the well known Nomina Reports. Besides these general, many application fields and computer classes comprising surveys there are special ones which are sometimes part of a larger publication. In the field of architecture there are two special software surveys available: the survey of the Swiss engineers and architects association (SIA) and the survey of the Institute of Architecture and Planning Theory (IAP) of the University of Hannover.
Bossan, Mario, and Alfredo Ronchi. "Presentazione Esperienza Didattica del Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali - Politecnico di Milano." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 981-9819. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989.

Didactic and research experience developed at the “Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali del Politecnico di Milanoi in the environment of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD). From the early part of the 1980's, using initially at an experimental level the resources available at the departmental centre of calculation various applications of CAD techniques in the building sector have been effected at DISET (Dipartimento di Ingegneria del Politecnico di Milano). During 1983, after a three year period of experimenting with these systems, it was decided to organise and activate a small computer aided design centre, within the department, the use of which was reserved for dissertation and research students.

Decri, Anna. "Some Exercises for a First Approach in Architectural Design and CAAD in Macintosh World." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 9131-91310. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. Approaching CAAD with Apple Macintosh, an example of some steps with an appropriate software for young students of architecture: (-) an heading for presentation (-) symmetry and bidimensional relationships (-) famous architectures (-) usual buildings (-) environmental impact (-) complementary exercises for their projects.
Cipriani, Roberto. "Teaching Architectural Design and CAAD." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 9121-9126. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. In the following notes I explain the theoretical foundations on which I base our teaching work on Computer Aided Architectural Design in the course I held at Facolta di Architettura di Genova, concerning Architectural Design (Composizione Architettonica) at second year and which are the future trends in the research field.
McCartney, Allan. "Terrain Modelling Using AutoCad." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 941-948. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. This paper describes the use of a widely-used CAD drafting system, in conjunction with a specialist contouring package, to provide a low-cost facility for terrain modelling, volumetric calculation, and landscape visualisation. One such system is in use at the Department of Architecture & Landscape, Manchester Polytechnic, to enable graduate students on the Landscape Design course to explore the visual and quantitative implications of design proposals, particularly when related to large scale landscape modelling. It is also in commercial use by professional surveyors, waste management contractors, local authorities etc. In addition to AutoCAD, two further packages are employed, one to recover coordinates from existing AutoCAD drawings, and the other to generate contours and volumes from those, or other coordinate data files. The first known as BADGER (Basic AutoCAD Data Grabber & Exchange Routine), and the other is SURVCAD CONTOURS - a contouring program capable of converting large coordinate data files (2500 + points) to a 2.5D terrain model.
De Grassi, Mario, and Mauro Di Manzo. "The Design of Buildings as Changes of Known Solutions: a Model for “Reasoner B”, Reasoner B" in the Castorp System." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 731-739. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The paper presents a study aimed at the modelization of a design operation of perturbation of an architectural framework in order to comply with a series of given design specifications. A formalized representation of the building object is assumed, Artificial Intelligence techniques are adopted to work on it. It is assumed that the computer carries out deformations starting from one of these structures in order to attain to a solution consistent with project specifications. A description of the structures employed for the representation of the building body (matroids) is firstly proposed. A planning theme is then assumed, as an example, whose main feature is to maintain the outer perimeter of a dwelling, to change its internal distribution in such a way as to resemble as closely as possible to the original and yet meaningfully alter its typology.
Mortola, Elena. "The Interface for Designing." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 851-8515. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. A case which supports the use of computer graphics in design process is presented in this paper. The case is put forward in three stages: the first stage analyzes the relationship between drawing and design (design-by-drawing) and explores the transformations generated by the computer graphics. The second stage describes a didactic experience in the Faculty of Architecture of Rome. The third stage describes a project related to design interface.
Oxman, Robert, and Rivka Oxman. "The Joy of Syntax." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 531-5326. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The article describes an approach to teaching syntactical aspects of design and architectural composition by means of exercises utilizing various computer graphics programs. The theoretical assumptions and the background of formal studies are reviewed as sources of this approach. A working definition of Architectural Knowledge and Design Knowledge is postulated as the theoretical foundation of Computer- Aided Learning. The term, Architectural Syntax, is proposed as the formalization of this knowledge. The pedagogical significance of computers as a medium of design education is analyzed, and the particular role of syntactical knowledge in design, the computation of design and in C A.L. in design is identified. An outline of the course, The Joy of Syntax, is described and future research and development in these fields discussed.
Rahman, Shama. "The Realities of Introducing IT/CAD in Architectural and Interior Design Education: a Case Study at the Polytechnic of North London." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 411-419. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. This paper is an attempt to illustrate the realities of introducing Information Technology at a school of Architecture and Interior Design. The department, under the auspicies of the Polytechnic of North London, comprises of 520 full/part time students working towards various professional and postgraduate degrees and diplomas in Architecture and Interior Design. For the last 18 months, the department has undertaken a rapid IT/CAD implementation programme. This has involved developing a strategy, formulating resource needs and implementing teaching. The strategy is based on the concept of application of IT as a tool for design and a medium for representation, management, use and exchange of design information. A course outline has been developed suggesting what could be taught and who could be taught what, how, when and for how long. At the same time, different types of teaching methods are being experimented upon. On the basis of these factors, attempts are being made to meet resource needs for software, hardware, teaching and technical support. Various issues and problems have been brought to light e.g. overcoming cost of hardware and software, lack of teaching and technical support, finding time slots in overloaded curriculums, changing existing attitudes towards IT,etc. We have approached these problems in various ways. We liaise closely with architects'offices, and try to use student skills and expertise within the polytechnic. We try to overcome time-slot problems by joint teaching and assessment with other subjects and try to integrate IT/CAD with studio-based design projects by locating computlng facilities inside studios. This paper is a story of how we have set for ourselves a path to follow. This path is by no means rigid and will continuously change with new experiences and the demands of a volatile industry. We have only just begun.
Valenti, Elisabetta. "The Teaching of CAAD: from ''Elite'' to the Mass Teaching Method." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 9141-9146. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. In the following notes I explain the development of CAAD teaching method from the initially “elite” to the finally mass teaching method in my experience during the courses of Composizione Architettonica at the university of Genoa.
Cajati, Claudio. "Towards a KB System / Image-Databases - Integrated Interface: a Tool for Architectural Education." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 991-997. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. Focusing on the tasks of university architectural education, a special stress is first laid on the possibility of going beyond some limits of traditional CAAD. as coming out from the recent debate, and on the opportunities offered by knowledge based systems as metadesign supports in architectural domains. Particularly, with regard to image-databases, their importance for explaining and exemplifying the knowledge representation in KB Systems, and their integration via intelligent interface are discussed. At last, some possible uses of the whole as an educational tool in the daily university training are proposed.
Carrara, G., A. Fioravanti, and G. Novembri. "Towards a New Generation of Computer Assistants for Architectural Design: an Existing Scenario." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 8318310. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The context in which designers operate is becoming more and more complex, owing to the large number of codes, new materials, technologies and professional figures, new instruments are needed, therefore, to support and verify design activity. The results obtained in the first years of'computer era'were barely sufficient. The hardware and software available today is capable of producing a new generation of CAD systems which can aid the designer in the process of conceiving and defining building objects. At the CAD Laboratory in the Department of Building and Environmental Control Techniques at the'La Sapienza'University of Rome, research is being carried out with the aim of defining a new kind of Knowledge-based assistant for architectural design. To this purpose a partnership has been established whit a private firm called CARTESIANA, whose partners are software houses, designing and building associations.
Cocchioni, Cristina, and Saverio Mecca. "Utilization of Rules for Modular Coordination in Relational Models to Be Employed in CAAD." In CAAD: Education - Research and Practice: eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 751-7511. eCAADe: Conferences. Aarhus, Denmark, 1989. The paper deals with the structure of experimental software to be used for the interactive relational database and a graphic package. Proposed is the development that considers the main implications of a modular space grid for the projectis development already from the stage of preliminary wire-frame design.