Keywords Abstract
Göttig, R., J. Newton, and S. Kaufmann. "A comparison of 3D visualization technologies and their user interfaces with data specific to architecture." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 99-111. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. Contemporary advanced virtual reality systems use different stereoscopic  3D visualization technologies. In this study, VR systems from one projection  wall up to VR systems with six projection walls have been evaluated. Besides  the optical properties tested with architectural 3D models, the user interfaces  have been analyzed with reference to exact and intuitive control abilities.  Additionally, the workflow of an early architectural design process with  CAAD generated 3D models and VR visualization techniques was analyzed. It  turns out that current VR systems exhibit shortcomings in visual and spatial  representations, as well as tools for an early design process.  
Kacher, S., Jean-Claude Bignon, and Gilles Halin. "A Method to Index Images in the Wooden Architecture Domain." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 233-245. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.
Tisma, A.. "A new computer supported design tool: Rasterplan." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 311-324. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. By developing framework plans on a large scale such as a country or a region,  planners use economic prognoses which show future needs for space for new  spatial developments expressed in units of surfaces. Planners and designers  make drawings and sketches to show where those new areas will be situated,  but they do not really measure the surfaces of spaces they created. This often  leads to incorrect images which can be wrongly understood by actors in  decision making. To avoid this problem the Netherlands Institute for Spatial  Research developed mapmaking software called RasterPlan. The purpose of  this tool is to make design decisions quantitatively checkable and transparent. The maps which result from the RasterPlan are precise in geographical  positioning and defining the surfaces of designed areas. RasterPlan allows  realization of a quantitative program for future spatial needs for various  functions such as housing, green and water areas working, and recreation. In  addition to quantitative calculations, qualitative criteria for location choice can  be also expressed in a form of suitability maps or buffers. This paper presents  an experimental implementation of RasterPlan for the design of the future  development of the Province North Brabant.  
Pelizaro, C., Theo Arentze, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "A Spatial Decision Support System for Provision and Monitoring of Urban Green Space." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 33-48. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. A spatial decision support system for the planning, design and maintenance of  urban green space is presented. The objective of the system under  development is to assist local authorities and green space administrators to  strategically enhance the supply of urban greening with the right type and  variety of green space that maximizes public welfare. The system is being  developed starting from a modelling perspective and GIS functionalities are  added conform the needed analysis and subroutines within the system. The  system has been written in the C++ Borland Builder 5 programming  environment. GIS capabilities and dynamic mapping are added using  MapObjects 2.0.  
Barton, J., B. Parolin, and V. Weiley. "A Spatial Decision Support System for the Management of Public Housing." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 69-84. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This paper is reporting on a research project undertaken jointly between the  University of New South Wales (UNSW) and the NSW Department of  Housing (DoH) to develop a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to assist  planning, management and evaluation in areas of high public housing  concentration. In the paper we will describe the development of the SDSS, the  specific spatial problems challenging the DoH and the potential for the system  to incorporate a range of social, financial and physical data, both internal and  from other sources, for interaction and presentation in a three dimensional  environment. The prototype SDSS attempts to address the specific challenges  of providing better service for clients of the DoH. An information audit and  survey has been conducted of the departmentis resources and needs. Issues  identified include the management of high-rise and superlot areas, crime  mapping, community interactivity, internal and intergovernmental information  sharing, interoperability and maintaining confidentiality and security of data.  Interactive 3D visualisation of the model is facilitated by use of the 3map free  geospace platform. Use of open source code and open standards such as X3D  for 3D graphics interchange allow the project to explore advanced  visualisation techniques while ensuring interoperability and data longevity.  
Van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H., L.G.H. Koren, and C.E.E. Pernot. "Adapting Epidemiological Methodologies to the Prediction of Health Effects of Built Environment Interventions." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 283-290. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. The influence of built environments on vitality and productivity of users is  paramount. Since the introduction of Industrial, Flexible and Demountable  Building, domotics, smart buildings, in general: mass-produced, intelligent and  learning built environments, tailored built environments are within reach. This  has resulted in the need for methodologies to predict short-term and long-term  health effects of different built-environment constellations. Epidemiology has  developed and validated methods to assess changes in prevalence of inflictions  and other unhealthy conditions, as well as the number of healthy and vital  years in a life span. After analysing the relationships among building  (services) parts and its combinations, health determinants (exposures) and  health outcomes, we could adapt the healthy years assessment (DALY) to  changes in construction (insulation, air tightness) and building services  engineering (ventilation, heating) for dwellings under Dutch conditions. The  most important conclusion is that natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation  and balanced ventilation not only differ in their average health effect, but even  more so in the size of the ranges of these effects. Other systems, such as heat  pumps or photo voltaic cells are expensive but will become economically  applicable when healthcare costs are taken into account. These outcomes gave  valuable clues for product innovation and opened the possibility to model  health in relation to built environments. The method could also be applied to  quality classification systems for dwellings. 
Akamine, A., and Nélson da Silva. "An Evaluation of Neural Spatial Interaction Models Based on a Practical Application." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 19-32. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. One of the serious problems faced by the Brazilian municipalities is the  scarcity of resources for building education infrastructure. This asks for an  optimal allocation of the available resources that includes, among other things, a rational spatial arrangement of the supply points (i.e., schools) in order to  increase the demand coverage (i.e., students). If it is possible to foresee the  regions where the demand is going to be concentrated, it is then possible to  plan the location of new facilities and to assess the impact on the future level  of service of the entire system. Considering that one of the consequences of  the location-allocation process is the distribution of trips from demand points  to supply points throughout the city, therefore affecting the overall intraurban  accessibility conditions to essential services such as education, there is a  strong need of models that planners can rely on to predict the future trip  distribution patterns. As a result, the objective of this work was to evaluate the  performance of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) when applied to spatial  interaction models, the so-called Neural Spatial Interaction Models. This was  done in a practical context, in contrast to the more theoretical works  commonly found in literature. The practical application showed that the neural  spatial interaction model had different performances when compared to the  traditional gravity models. In one case the neural models outperformed the  gravity models, while on the other case it was just the opposite. The  explanation for this may be in the data or in the ANN model formulation, as  discussed in the conclusions. 
Yesilnacar, E., and G.J. Hunter. "Application of Neural Networks for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Turkey." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 18-Mar. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.  Landslides are a major natural hazard in many areas of the world, and globally  they cause hundreds of billions of dollars of damage, and hundreds of  thousands of deaths and injuries each year. Landslides are the second most  common natural hazard in Turkey, and the Black Sea region of that country is  particularly affected. Therefore, landslide susceptibility mapping is one of the  important issues for urban and rural planning in Turkey. The reliability of  these maps depends mostly on the amount and quality of available data used,  as well as the selection of a robust methodology. Although statistical methods  generally have been implemented and used for evaluating landslide  susceptibility and risk in medium scale studies, they are distribution-based and  cannot handle multi-source data that are commonly collected from nature.  These drawbacks are responsible for the on-going investigations into slope  instability. To overcome these weaknesses, the desired technique must be able  to handle multi-type data and its superiority should increase as the  dimensionality and/or non-linearity of the problem increases - which is when  traditional regression often fails to produce accurate approximations. Although  neural networks have some problems with the creation of architectures,  processing time, and the negative “black boxi syndrome, they still have an  advantage over traditional methods in that they can deal with the problem  comprehensively and are insensitive to uncertain data and measurement errors.  Therefore, it is expected that the application of neural networks will bring new  perspectives to the assessment of landslide susceptibility in Turkey. In this  paper, the application of neural networks for landslide susceptibility mapping  will be examined and their performance as a component of spatial decision  support systems will be discussed.
Wen, K.-C., and W.-L. Chen. "Applying Genetic Algorithms to Establish Disaster Decision Support System for Flooding Evacuation Path of Hsichih Area in Taiwan." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 63-75. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. Because of the special geography features and subtropics weather in Taiwan,  we need to provide correct information to help people making decision when  they are in disaster. So the disaster decision support system must offer proper  information of evacuation path to people. This research has shown the  difficulties associated with the GIS and the flooding evacuation path search  through the huge searching space generated during the network analysis  process. This research also presents an approach to these problems by utilizing  a search process whose concept is derived from natural genetics. Genetic  algorithms (GAs) have been introduced in the optimization problem solving  area by Holland (1975) and Goldberg (1989) and have shown their usefulness  through numerous applications. We apply GA and GIS to choice flooding  evacuation path in metropolitan area in this study. We take the region of Shiji  city in Taiwan for case. Firstly, we establish the node relationship of GA  calculation, the level of the weight is the standard of the date that is exported  by Disaster Database. Secondly, we apply GA to calculate different  evacuation path in different time series. Finally, we build the model of  choosing flooding evacuation path.    
Penn, A.C., A. Mottram, Fatah A. Schieck, M. Wittkämper, M. Störring, O. Romell, A. Strothmann, and F. Aish. "Augmented reality meeting table: a novel multi-user interface for architectural design." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 213-231. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. Immersive virtual environments have received widespread attention as  providing possible replacements for the media and systems that designers  traditionally use, as well as, more generally, in providing support for  collaborative work. Relatively little attention has been given to date however  to the problem of how to merge immersive virtual environments into real  world work settings, and so to add to the media at the disposal of the designer  and the design team, rather than to replace it. In this paper we report on a  research project in which optical see-through augmented reality displays have  been developed together with prototype decision support software for  architectural and urban design. We suggest that a critical characteristic of  multi user augmented reality is its ability to generate visualisations from a first  person perspective in which the scale of rendition of the design model follows  many of the conventions that designers are used to. Different scales of model  appear to allow designers to focus on different aspects of the design under  consideration. Augmenting the scene with simulations of pedestrian  movement appears to assist both in scale recognition, and in moving from a  first person to a third person understanding of the design. This research project  is funded by the European Commission IST program (IST-2000-28559). 
Deshpande, N., B. De Vries, and Jos van Leeuwen. "Collocated, Multi-Disciplinary, Collaborative Designspace." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 253-268. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This review identifies the research findings in the area of computer mediated, collocated, multi-disciplinary collaborative design. After a general look into  this and related research areas, three influencing aspects of collaborative  design are reviewed. Design activities, working together, and collaborative  systems that fit into various work practices. Finally, we note missing points of  research in the area of collocated, multi-disciplinary, collaborative design.  
Lee, J.-H., and W. Qian. "Color Your Feeling." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 113-125. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. Color selection plays a vitally important role in creating impressions of  individuals or companies because colors have sensibility aspects and relate to  some images or associations. Based on both the theory of color harmony and  the sensibility ergonomics, some quantitative and systematic researches on the  color image have been developed. In this paper, we suggest a color coordinate  system that supports the color analysis and the color harmony functions using  color images, which can be captured by corresponding adjective words. We  focus on a system prototype for interior design domain to exemplify our  concepts in this paper, even though this system can be applied for all design  domains.  
Bandini, S., S. Manzoni, and G. Vizzari. "Crowd Modeling and Simulation." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 161-175. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. The paper introduces a Multi Agent Systems (MAS) approach to crowd  modelling and simulation, based on the Situated Cellular Agents (SCA) model. This is a special class of Multilayered Multi Agent Situated System (MMASS), exploiting basic elements of Cellular Automata. In particular SCA  model provides an explicit spatial representation and the definition of  adjacency geometries, but also a concept of autonomous agent, provided with  an internal architecture, an individual state and behaviour. The latter provides  different means of space-mediated interaction among agents: synchronous, between adjacent agents, and asynchronous among at-a-distance entities. Heterogeneous entities may be modelled through the specification of different  agent types, defining different behaviours and perceptive capabilities. After a  brief description of the model, its application to simple crowd behaviours will  be given, and an application providing the integration of a bidimensional  simulator based on this model and a 3D modelling application (3D Studio) will  also be described. The adoption of this kind of system allows the specification  and simulation of an architectural design with reference to the behaviour of  entities that will act in it. The system is also able to easily produce a realistic  visualization of the simulation, in order to facilitate the evaluation of the  design and the communication with involved decision-makers. In fact, while  experts often require only abstract and analytical results deriving from a  quantitative analysis of simulation results, other people involved in the  decision-making process related to the design may be helped by qualitative  aspects better represented by other forms of graphical visualization. 
Dijkstra, J., Harry J. P. Timmermans, and B. De Vries. "Data Requirements for the Amanda Model System." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 127-139. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. The Amanda model system uses a multi-agent approach in an attempt to  simulate pedestrian dynamic destination and route choice. Data collecting  efforts are needed to calibrate the model. This paper discusses these data  requirements.  
Lai, I.-C.. "Dynamic Linkages between Ideas and Cases." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 225-238. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This research makes use of a cognitive study to explore a mechanism for  associating ideas in a brainstorming session. Firstly, we propose a linking  model integrating three principles of idea association (similarity, contrast and  contiguity) with two processes of case-based reasoning (retrieval and adaptation). For identifying the types and mechanisms of linkages within the  linking model, a design experiment and its protocol analysis was conducted. Finally, a framework for case-based reasoning to support idea association  called  Dynamic  Idea-Maps (DIM) is proposed, and its components and  mechanisms are elucidated.   
Rodrigues, D.S., L.C.L. Souza, and J.F.G. Mendes. "Enhancing 3DSkyView Extension Performance." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 325-340. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This paper presents a second version of the 3DSkyView extension. The  purpose of that extension was to implement a calculation algorithm for  assessment and visualization of sky view factors (SVF) by means of tools  available in a Geographical Information System (GIS). The sky view factor is  a thermal and geometric parameter pointed out in the specialized literature as  one of the main causes of urban heat islands. A 3D-GIS is a powerful tool for  reaching the goal of this research because it allows the storage, treatment and  analysis of tri-dimensional urban data, in addition to a high level of flexibility  for incorporating calculation algorithms. The objective in the 3DSkyView  extension is to optimize the determination of that factor, not only reducing its  demanding calculation and graphical representation time, but also generating a  simplified tool for replacing expensive photographic equipment usually  applied on this matter. Enhancing functions of ArcView GIS 3.2, the first  version of that extension showed a very good performance allowing the  automatic delineation and determination of SVF. That performance was  although limited to a single observer point. The simulation of SVF for several  view points in urban canyons was only possible by applying the extension as  many times as the number of observers considered. Therefore, this second  version was now developed in order to allow simultaneous determination of  SVF for many view points. In addition, the 3DSkyView new interface is more  flexible, in a way that the user may choose the kind of output wanted  (graphical and/or tabular). With this new feature it is then easier to create a  continuous SVF map for an entire area. 
Polidori, M., and R. Krafta. "Environment - Urban Interface within Urban Growth." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 49-62. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This work presents the synthesis of a model of urban growth dedicated to  accomplish simulations of urban spatial dynamics, based on integrated urban  and environmental factors and promoting simultaneity among external and  internal growth. The city and surrounding environment are captured and  modeled in computational ambient, by application of the centrality / potential  model (Krafta, 1994 and 1999), with support of graph theory, cellular  automata, GIS and geocomputation. The model assumes the city as a field of  opportunities for obtaining income, mediated by the space, which is composed  of urban and environmental attributes, that work as attractors or as resistances  for the urban growth. The space configuration and the distribution of those  attributes generate tensions that differentiate qualitatively and quantitatively  the space, through the centrality measure (built with the support of graphs  techniques), coming to provoke growth in places with larger potential of  development (built with the help of techniques of CA - cellular automata).  Growths above environmental thresholds are considered problems, generated  and overcome in the same process of production of the urban space. Iterations  of that process offer a dynamic behaviour to the model, allowing to observe  the growth process along the time. The model presents several possibilities: a)  urban - natural environment integration, b) internal and external growth  integration, c) variety in the scale, d) GIS integration and geocomputation, e)  user interface, f) calibration, g) theoretical possibilities, and h) practical  possibilities.  
Bi, G., and B. Medjdoub. "Hybrid Approach to Solve Space Planning Problems in Building Services." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 247-261. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. In this paper an object-based CAD programming is used to take advantage of  standardization to handle the schematic design, sizing, layout for services in a  building ceiling void. From the specification of the building 3D model, our  software proceeds through different steps, from the determination of the  standard number and size of fan coils to the generation of 3D solutions. In  order to deal with more complex geometry and larger problems, we have used  a hybrid approach: Case Based Reasoning (CBR) within Constraint  Satisfaction Problem (CSP) approaches. In practice, engineers in building  services use previous solutions and adapt them to new problems. CBR mirrors  this practical approach and does help us to deal with increasingly complex  geometry effectively, and meanwhile CSP has been used for layout adaptation.  The results have shown that it is possible to define and implement standard  solutions to produce designs comparable with current practice. The  benchmarking exercise has underlined many advantages and made some  suggestions for further development. This project is funded by The  Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) in UK.  
Diappi, L., P. Bolchim, and M. Buscema. "Improved Understanding of Urban Sprawl Using Neural Networks." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 33-49. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. It is widely accepted that the spatial pattern of settlements is a crucial factor affecting quality of life and environmental sustainability, but few recent  studies have attempted to examine the phenomenon of sprawl by modelling the  process rather than adopting a descriptive approach. The issue was partly  addressed by models of land use and transportation which were mainly  developed in the UK and US in the 1970s and 1980s, but the major advances  were made in the area of modelling transportation, while very little was  achieved in the area of spatial and temporal land use. Models of land use and  transportation are well-established tools, based on explicit, exogenouslyformulated rules within a theoretical framework. The new approaches of  artificial intelligence, and in particular, systems involving parallel processing, (Neural Networks, Cellular Automata and Multi-Agent Systems) defined by  the expression “Neurocomputing”,  allow problems to be approached in the  reverse, bottom-up, direction by discovering rules, relationships and scenarios  from a database. In this article we examine the hypothesis that territorial  micro-transformations occur according to a local logic, i.e. according to use,  accessibility, the presence of services and conditions of centrality, periphericity or isolation of each territorial “cell” relative to its surroundings.  The prediction capabilities of different architectures of supervised Neural  networks are implemented to the south Metropolitan area of Milan at two  different temporal thresholds and discussed. Starting from data on land use in  1980 and 1994 and by subdividing the area into square cells on an orthogonal  grid, the model produces a spatial and functional map of urbanisation in 2008.  An implementation of the SOM (Self Organizing Map) processing to the Data  Base allows the typologies of transformation to be identified, i.e. the classes of  area which are transformed in the same way and which give rise to territorial  morphologies, this is an interesting by-product of the approach. 
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, Hoai Nam, Jin Woo, and W. Lau. "InnotiveBrowser." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 177-191. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This paper explains the results of a collaborative research project between  Multimedia University (Malaysia) and Innotive Corporation (Korea) to  manage, design a multimedia archiving system and visualising knowledge for  the students or the users in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia  University. This research introduces InnotiveBrowser technology, a high  performance multimedia display software that enhances the ability of user to  search and discover digital content. The unique result of this method is that the  images to be viewed are not limited to available RAM, instead the content  utilises the available storage directly from the disk (hard drives). In other  words, the larger the size of the hard disk, the greater the number of content  information can be stored and displayed. This system is employed with Virtual  Reality (VR) techniques particularly imparting viewing technology (pixel-ondemand) and navigation strategy to increase the viewing speed of multimedia  information in real-time over the Internet, broadband and even via PDA  platforms.  This research hopes to set the benchmark for multimedia archiving  system that can be applied in other CAD, CAAD or most of the design or  production-based teaching and learning environment. The early findings of  this research have been patented and this paper will demonstrate the research  ideas and explain how we implement and customise the technology and  content development in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia  University. 
Shih, S.-C.. "Interoperable Co-Design Supporting System." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 241-251. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. The interoperable model of Co-design process and systems characteristics that  is   required to reduce the adversarial nature of most construction projects.  Interoperable Co-Design System was used successfully to complete the Si-soft  Research Center of Taiwan. This project-alliancing project was analyzed as a  case  study to evaluate the validity of the system. Main paradigms of the CoDesign were reviewed and numerous examples from the management  of this  project were cited that support the theoretical recommendations  of this model.  It was concluded that the system use wild client/server network architecture  embedded with peer-to-peer agent technology to provide an open, familiar and  easily extended co-design system.  
Ohgai, A., Y. Gohnai, S. Ikaruga, M. Murakami, and K. Watanabe. "Japan Cellular Automata Modeling for Fire Spreading as a Tool to Aid CommunityBased Planning for Disaster Mitigation." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 193-209. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. As a tool to support collaboration in community-based planning for disaster  mitigation in Japanese old wooden built-up areas, we attempt to develop a fire spreading simulation model incorporated a fire fighting activity using Cellular  Automata (CA). The proposed model can deal with the process of fire  spreading in a building that traditional models can not represent. Whether or not fire can spread is based on a stochastic calculation process to reproduce  uncertain fire spreading. The errors caused by the stochastic factor are  analyzed by carrying out simulation two or more times under the same  condition. Moreover, the reproductivity of the model is examined by  comparing simulation results with actual fire records.  
Saarloos, Dick, Theo Arentze, Aloys Borgers, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Multi-Agents Generating Alternative Plans in Local Land-Use Planning." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 95-110. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.

This paper addresses the MASQUE multi-agent framework for generating alternative plans in local land-use planning, In this framework agents represent land-use experts and initiate the development of plan proposals and request each other to express their claims in order to incrementally draw up these proposals. Presented is a probabilistic approach to the implementation of those agents to enable them to make decisions under uncertainty. It is described what personal and collective beliefs they construct and use in order to strategically choose their actions. Negotiation takes place between the initiating agent and the others in order to reach agreement on the incorporation of the claims. The negotiation is organized as an iterative process in which both parties consider conciliatory adjustments of their strategies, and thus their decisions, in order to try to find mutually accepted solutions.

Cerovsek, T., Tomo Cerovsek, and Bob Martens. "On the Extended Use of Citations in CAAD." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 17-Jan. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This paper discusses the extended use of the Cumulative Index of CAAD  (CUMINCAD) - a digital library set up in 1998 serving the CAAD-community  as an important source of scientific information with over 6.000 recorded  entries published on-line. The aim of this paper is to elaborate a related  Citation Index to CUMINCAD - with over 20.000 references - and to provide  information on entries with an exceptional high impact in the CUMINCAD  database. The importance is determined through its use (citing) in the  framework of afterwards published scientific materials. By utilizing graph  theory methods extensive citation analyses will be presented illustrating the  impact of particular contributions in different research topics.  
Bax, M.F.Th., and H.M.G.J. Trum. "On the Notion of Level in Architecture." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 279-292. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. The notion of Level (in a scale of Levels) is probably the most authentic  notion in Architecture. Already in the work of Vitruvius the notion is  implicitly present in the triad “ordinatio - symmetria - eurythmiai. In more  recent times, the notion always appears in relation with hierarchical  organization as a means of control of quality. However used in drawings and  in architectural discourse, the term lacks precision, there are many types of  level like abstraction, specification, dependency, resolution levels etc., but no  operational definition can be found as a notion that structures architectural  objects and design processes simultaneously in a consistent way. Defining this  notion of Level is the purpose of this paper. An example of application in an  architectural decision-making process completes the paper.  
Kitazawa, K., and M. Batty. "Pedestrian Behaviour Modelling." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 111-126. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This paper introduces a study of pedestrian behaviour modelling which  incorporates ideas about agent-based systems and the traffic models based on  the utility-maximization theory. The aim of this study is to examine the  applicable scope of one of the basic assumptions in existing spatial behaviour  models, the route with shortest distance maximizes the utility of each  pedestrianis travel. Although shortest-path models have been widely used in  the field of Traffic management to predict routing behaviour, there can be seen  a lot of erratic behaviour in urban areas, shopping migration behaviour for  instance, which can not be explained by them. Thus, it is important to identify  other possible influential factors on their utility maximization process in order  to develop more explicable models of pedestrian movements. In this study, we  implemented a simulation model using the shortest-path model as one of  evaluation criteria of Genetic Algorithms (GA) to computationally emulate  retail movements of shoppers in a big shopping centre and to test the accuracy  of the model by comparison between the routes estimated by the model and  actual trajectories of shoppers. This simulation system will be used as a  platform for further modelling.   
Lindekens, J., and A. Heylighen. "Re-Using Re-Design Knowledge." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 209-224. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. Addressing the issue of building re-use, this paper reports on the development  of a re-design tool, which aims at helping students and novices (and even  experienced architects) in understanding design decisions that have steered  existing re-design projects. Furthermore the tool tries to support designers in  using this understanding in their own design projects. The paper starts by  situating the re-design tool within the overall research setup, and continues by  motivating the observations that have led to developing this tool. The core of  the paper describes the re-design tool itself and illustrates it with a concrete  example. Finally, the tool is framed within the wider context of (architectural)  design research, so as to explore where the tool accords or collides with  generally accepted design theories.  
Lindekens, J.. "Reduction mechanisms explored in architectural re-design." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 263-278. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. Observation of the design process of an architect shows that, while building up  an argumentation for taking a design decision, different mechanisms of data  transformation are used. The paper argues that this transformation is a key  element in understanding architectural design processes. A theoretical  description of these mechanisms forms the framework to discus a sequence of  design decisions derived from a real-world design situation. After outlining  how this can be implemented in a case-based design supporting tool, the paper  concludes with a discussion of advantages and downsides the use of the tool  might entail.  
Murakami, M., K. Higuchi, and A. Shibayama. "Relationship between Convenience Store Robberies and Road Environment." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 341-356. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This study focuses on road environment around robbed convenience stores and  elucidates the road characteristics that are conducive to convenience store  robberies by using GIS and indexes of graphs and networks. The method of  this study is as follows: Five convenience store robberies, which occurred in  Metropolitan Tokyo, were selected from newspaper reports. Then, road  networks within a 1-kilometer radius of the robbed convenience stores were  extracted from digital maps with a scale of one-twenty five hundredth  (Geographical Survey Institute and Bureau of City Planning Tokyo  Metropolitan Government). After adding the road networks and the attributes  such as road width, we investigate the road characteristics using GIS and  indexes of graphs and networks. Finally, we demonstrate several factors  associated with convenience store robberies based on this compiled  information.  
Krafta, R.. "Space is the Machine, with a Ghost Inside ." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 157-173. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. The purpose of this paper is to report efforts towards the construction of a  model for urban spatial dynamics simulation, based on multi-agents and space.  The underlying idea is to have urban space producers and consumers operating  in a two-layer, two-circuit model. The first layer holds urban space and its  successive transformations, a second layer contains agents related to space, the  first circuit simulates space production, and a second one simulates space  consumption. Relationship between layers is represented as objective spatial  features that agents are submitted to (the machine) and subjective meanings  agents attach to each spatial feature (the ghost). While space works always in  the same way, meanings vary according to each agentis background and  context. Relationships between circuits are represented by means of a market  game in which producers try to maximize their profits by gambling with their  risks, whereas consumers try to foresee the spatial distribution of local  externalities that maximizes their utilities and investments. Urban Spatial  Features are captured through centrality and land use patterns, every single  agentis action leads to changes in both patterns. Producersi profit is a function  of built form location. Consumersi local externalities are concerned basically  with present and future services. The model iteration is twofold: first it  generates and allocates a number of built forms within a previously determined  spatial system (a cellular matrix, for example), and second it allocates users to  built forms. Population of users have its social profile and growth rate  externally determined. Built form allocation is decided on the basis of a  combination of profit Xrisk perspectives. Usersi locational choice is supported  by accessibility to services and present/future neighbourhood profile. Built  form allocation works as parameter for usersi locational assessment, whereas  users choices are used as parameters for developers. The model tends to  adjust itself, in terms of quantities and types of built forms to be erected,  although through a market lag of some iterations. Allocations are always made  through weighted draws, so that mutations (non deterministic allocations) do  occur. 
Chang, Teng-Wen. "Supporting Design Learning with Design Puzzles." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 293-307. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. The design process is a puzzle-solving process. Two groups of researches that  share many similarities with Puzzle-solving design process are the process of  game-playing and playful learning. The main argument is using the “playing”  characteristics to amplify and explore the learning process, furthermore the  design process. In addition, puzzles imply playful exploration that utilizes the  characteristics of “playing a game” as “solving a puzzle”. Puzzle making and  puzzle solving provides an incremental exploration mechanism that is more  intuitive for design learning. For understanding and realizing puzzles in design  learning, this research is divided into two stages of researches “ manual design  puzzles and interactive design puzzles. By analysing the outcome from manual  design puzzles, this research proposes a framework called (interactive) “design  puzzles”. The conceptual and implementation framework of this view of  design is elaborated in this paper as well as a particular design puzzle called  puzzle collage is described as the realization of design puzzles.  
Tangari, L., M. Ottomanelli, and D. Sassanelli. "The Project Planning of Urban Decongestion." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 77-92. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This study introduces a methodology for the evaluation, among a set of  possible plans and/or policies, of a transport system which could reduce the  effects of the network congestion on an urban area. Hence it is proposed a  procedure which contains a new element compared with the current  methodologies that is the final useris evaluation of the examined system by  turning to the application of the contingent valuation method, a technique like  stated preferences. The approach we propose is based on the necessity for a  determination of an optimal solution to the urban congestion to be established  on the politic acceptability by the final user. Solutions which result virtually  feasible for a public administration both on a technique and economic point of  view often meet hostility by individuals. Consequently, it would be interesting  for policy makers to adopt a process of valuation which could let to  understand the useris sensitivity and hostility towards specific configurations  of the system, chosen as solution to decongestion (traffic calming, roadpricing, auto-free zones) and consequently to make less unpleasant the  strategy to be carried out to control congestion (Harrington et al., 2001). In  this way, a user does not judge the implementation of a set of projects made  by a decision-maker as imposition and he is willing to pay in order to fulfil the  chosen scenario. Finally we describe an application of the proposed  methodology relating the definition of the integrated transport system in the  metropolitan area of Bari, chief town of Apulia.  
Devisch, O.T.J., Harry J. P. Timmermans, Theo Arentze, and Aloys Borgers. "Towards a Generic MultiAgent Engine for the Simulation of Spatial Behavioural Processes." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 145-160. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. SwarmCity is being developed as a micro-simulation model, simulating the  location-choice behaviour of a population of households, retailers, firms, developers, etc. reacting to an urban plan. The focus of SwarmCity lies -in a  first phase- on the decision-making procedures of households, conceptualised  as a series of three processes: awakening, search and choice. The methodology  used to implement these processes makes use of life-time utility and decisionanalysis trees. The final model should work as a scenario-analysis tool,  allowing planners, developers, retailers and municipalities to test interventionproposals, to evaluate legislations, to measure the attractiveness of services, to  quantify residential mobility, etc. This paper illustrates the state of the art in household location-choice  modelling and introduces a first attempt in developing a conceptual  framework.  
Beetz, J., Jos van Leeuwen, and B. De Vries. "Towards a Multi Agent System for the Support of Collaborative Design." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 269-280. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. In this paper we are drafting the outline of a framework for a Multi Agent  System (MAS) for the support of Collaborative Design in the architectural  domain. The system we are proposing makes use of Machine Learning (ML)  techniques to infer personalized knowledge from observing a usersi action in a  generic working environment using standard tools such as CAD packages. We  introduce and discuss possible strategies to combine Concept Modelling  (CM)-based approaches using existing ontologies with statistical analysis of  action sequences within a domain specific application. In a later step, Agent  technologies will be used to gather additional related information from  external resources such as examples of similar problems on the users hard  disk, from corresponding work of team-members within an intranet or from  advises of expert from different knowledge domains, themselves represented  by agents. As users deny or reward resulting proposals offered by the agent(s)  through an interface the system will be enhanced over time using methods like  Reinforced Learning.  
Hensen, J.L.M.. "Towards More Effective Use of Building Performance Simulation in Design." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 291-306. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This paper discusses some issues which hinder effective use of building  performance simulation in building design, and some approaches towards  better and more efficient use of this important but underutilized technology.  In particular, the paper discusses the issues of quality assurance, the relative  slow software developments and the limited use (usability) of building  performance simulation mainly during the final stages of the building design  process.  
Fantini, F., U Schiavoni, and B. Barboni. "Urban Planning as Project Management." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 21-32. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. We consider program proposals as separate projects and use an incremental decision process (Incremental Functional Formulation) backed by methods of optimisation through incremental and interactive decision processes which have been developed in operations research. These methods fit the illstructured problems in planning better than the conventional optimisation methods. We'll conclude showing one of the possible concrete applications of our model to a real-life case, where one of the main results was a suggested expense of € 4 millions leading to the 90% of the result possible with the cost of € 10 millions (but with just a 40% expenditure).
Tabak, Vincent, B. De Vries, and J. Dijkstra. "User Behaviour Modelling." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 141-156. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. The aim of the proposed project is to develop methods for the simulation of  space utilisation. Up to now no methods for building performance evaluation  are available which involve the occupants of the building. Instead,  assumptions are made about peopleis movement through space and their  responses to the environment. These assumptions are input for important  design decisions (e.g. capacity of elevators, width of corridors, escape routing)  sophisticated calculations (e.g. cooling and lighting calculations) and  simulations (e.g. airflow simulation, evacuation simulation). Reliable data on  human movement are very scarce and can be valuable input to research in  other research areas. New computer technologies allow for dynamic  simulations that will provide insight into the building to be built. The research  project builds upon existing methods that need to be tailored and/or extended  to apply them to the building domain and to support real-time simulation.  
Ballas, D., R. Kingston, and J. Stillwell. "Using a Spatial Microsimulation Decision Support System for Policy Scenario Analysis." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 177-191. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This paper discusses the potential of a spatial microsimulation-based decision  support system for policy analysis. The system can be used to describe current  conditions and issues in neighbourhoods, predict future trends in the  composition and health of neighbourhoods and conduct modelling and  predictive analysis to measure the likely impact of policy interventions at the  local level. A large dynamic spatial micro-simulation model is being  constructed for the population of Leeds (approximately 715,000 individuals)  based on spatial microsimulation techniques in conjunction with a range of  data, including 2001 Census data for Output Areas and sample data from the  British Household Panel Survey. The project has three main aims as follows:  (i) to develop a static microsimulation model to describe current conditions in  Leeds, (ii) to enable the performance of “What if?” analysis on a range of  policy scenarios, and (iii) to develop a dynamic microsimulation model to  predict future conditions in Leeds under different policy scenarios.  The paper  reports progress in meeting the above aims and outlines the associated  difficulties and data issues. One of the significant advantages of the spatial  microsimulation approach adopted by this project is that it enables the user to  query any combination of variables that is deemed desirable for policy  analysis. The paper will illustrate the software tool being developed in the  context of this project that is capable of carrying out queries of this type and of  mapping their results. The decision support tool is being developed to support  policy-makers concerned with urban regeneration and neighbourhood renewal. 
Ma, Linda, Theo Arentze, Aloys Borgers, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Using Bayesian Decision Networks for Knowledge Representation under Conditions of Uncertainty in Multi-Agent Land Use Simulation Models." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 129-144. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.

Land suitability analysis typically involves the assessment of the suitability of land units without knowing the future spatial distribution of land use. Traditional planning techniques have used “algebraic equations” to express land suitability as a weighted function of suitability scores across multiple criteria. However, the existing multi-criteria evaluation methods do not systematically account for uncertainty about the land use in adjacent and other cells. This paper proposes an alternative approach to land suitability analysis that does address the problem of uncertainty. In particular, Bayesian decision networks are suggested as a means of knowledge representation for agents in a multi-agent land use simulation system. Bayesian decision networks model the uncertainty in terms of probabilities specified in the network representing the expertise of specialists with respect to specific land uses. This paper discusses the approach and illustrates its use in the context of a retail agent.

Pettit, C., A. Nelson, and W. Cartwright. "Using On-Line Geographical Visualisation Tools to Improve Land Use Decision-Making with a Bottom-Up Community Participatory Approach." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 53-68. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. This paper examines the development of a prototype suite of on-line integrated  multimedia-GIS tools to assist in bottom up decision-making. These tools are  being developed in the context of scenario planning to enable the community  to actively explore different land use options and the implication of  government structure and strategic plans. A case study approach is undertaken,  focusing on the Jewell Station Neighbourhood, situated in the City of  Moreland, Greater Melbourne Region, Australia. The paper documents the  first stage of the project, in developing three land use scenarios delivered  through a range of technologies including: VRML, HTML, GIS, Pixmaker and  Flash. The paper concludes by outlining the future directions of this research  that include: the construction of a virtual sandbox, usability testing, and  community consultation.  
Burkhard, R.. "Visual Knowledge Transfer between Planners and Business Decision Makers." In Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 193-208. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. The transfer of knowledge between planners and business decision makers can  be improved when planners combine traditional visualizations with business  knowledge visualizations. Today architects and urban planners use  visualization methods such as sketches, diagrams, drawings, renderings, models and animations to illustrate their projects. While spending an  enormous amount of time to illustrate a project, almost no time is used to  illustrate business relevant information that decision makers need (i.e., revenue models, risks, return on investments, project phases). Consequences  are information overload, misinterpretation or even misuse of information. Juxtaposing the visualizations that planners and decision makers use reveals a  major gap: Both groups use different visualization types and are not familiar  with the visualization types of each other. This paper stresses the importance  to expand the visualization types of planners with business knowledge  visualizations. First, it discusses the functioning of visual representations for  the transfer of knowledge. Second, it introduces a general knowledge  visualization framework. Third, it illustrates examples from an innovative  office that improved knowledge transfer with decision makers in urban planning projects. We found that combining traditional visualizations with  business knowledge visualizations reduces the information overload, prevents  misinterpretation, increases the information quality, improves communication  and as a consequence improves decision making. We found that decision  makers pay extra for these visualization types, which therefore is a new source  of income for planners. The results have implications for the education of  future architects. 
Shen, Z.J., and M. Kawakami. "Visualization of Usable Building Space According to Planning Permission Ordinances for Public Participation in District Plan in Japan." In Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, 85-98. DDSS. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. The district plan in Japan is designed and implemented through public  participation, which is based on the zone restrictions of land use system. The  usable space of a building can be generated according to the zone restrictions  implemented in a district plan, which include the planning controls of high  altitude, oblique line and so on. Residents can choose control items as their  preference in order to control the urban physical environment of the district. In  this paper, we discuss how to generate the virtual world according to the data  set of GIS including planning control items and how it can work for net  participation. In the future, we would like to conduct an Internet social  experiment with the cooperation of a city government and residents in order to  support the district plan in a local city.