Keywords Abstract
Cumming, Michael. "A Bottom-Up Approach to Design Coordination." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The design industry like any other industry could benefit from process support for its practitioners. However, what constitutes legitimate process support for designers is a difficult research question. In order to support designers in their processes, first one needs to know what designers do. This is not only a question of knowing what designers do in general, but also what particular designers do in their own individual design practice. How to find out what designers do, that is, how to acquire knowledge abouttheir design processes, is also a difficult research question. Providing process support for designers is seen as a task, which cannot be divorced from design process acquisition. That is, one is unlikely to provideprocess support, without acquiring an understanding, what individual designers actually do, and conversely, one is unlikely to acquire an understanding of what designers do, without providing process support for designers. An application whose goal it is to provide both design process support for designers working in collaborative design teams, and also acquires a particular type of design process representationof design processes, is described.
Kovács, L.B., I. Kotsis, and A. Dobosy. "A Generic Support Module to Site Planning with Road Access." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The aim of this paper is to present a generic module providing several support functions for site planning. The site will be composed of several building lots in harmony with each other and the surroundings. The site plan should satisfy the goals, conditions, rules and regulations explicitly orimplicitly indicated by the design brief. The maximum size and the placement area for the building on each of the lots are part of the plan. Proper road access should be provided for each of the building lots.A variety of ideas and patterns are used to create unified groups of building lots subject to certain restrictions on size, form and other attributes of the composition. Two basically different approachesfor the road planning will be compared. One of them is space planning first with some preconceptions on the structure of the road network, followed by the actual road formation. The other one starts with planning the road access first - provided that the site is properly divided into subareas. In the second phase of this approach the building lots are formed on each of the sites created by the road network. In both approaches several iterations might be necessary. A logic programming prototype with Prologimplementation is presented. Connection to earlier support modules and ideas for an integrated support system are outlined.
Conti, G., and G. Ucelli. "A Java3D Tool for Real-Time Collaboration in a Virtual Reality CAADEnvironment." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. Today the development of network-based virtual communities and the use of avatars have brought a new level of complexity to the meaning of virtuality, providing the technology for remote presence and collaborative experiences. In this project the intention was to pursue this articulated vision of VR in order to assist the design profession during the early stages of the design process. The objective was to provide a tool that is capable of creating 3D shapes in a shared VR environment, thus allowing thedesign and its evolution to be shared. The use of the Java programming language was a natural choice for this project. Because of Javais performance scalability and hardware independence the concept of CAAD has been extended, making it possible to create a VR environment that can co-exist between high-end supercomputers and standard PCs. The project is currently being tested using PCs and an SGI system running a Reality Centre. The research reported in this paper describes the architecture and application of software that aims to increase the opportunity for collaboration within virtual worlds and enable effective and transparent information exchange.
Nascimento, M.A.P., S.D. Francisco, L.C.L. Souza, and A.N.R. Silva. "A Multimedia Application to Support Professionals in an EnvironmentallyResponsible Building Design Process." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. One of the problems faced by the design professionals in trying to incorporate thermal and acoustic concerns when designing a building is the quantity and diversity of building materials that can be applied to improve a poor indoor environment and, in many cases, to later reduce energy consumption. The large amount of information on building materials usually provided as documents makes it almost impossible to the designer to compare products. In the light of the stated facts, the objective of this work was the development of a multimedia application, which was thought as a module of a more comprehensive system able to support professionals in an environmentally responsible building design process. The application takes advantage of the ability of computers to handle texts, images, sounds and movies to introduce several building materials and their characteristics to the designers, in an interactive way. The conclusion of this stage shows that rather than being a module of a larger system, the developed application can work as a powerful standalone multimedia catalogue of building materials that have special interest on thermal, acoustic, and thermal-acoustic applications. It is an application that are notonly fundamental in a support system for effective building design, but also a powerful tool for training architecture students as part of an environmentally responsible building design process.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, Georg Suter, and R Ries. "A Representation Scheme for Integrated Building Performance Analysis." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. This paper presents a representational scheme for integrated building performance analysis. The underlying research work was motivated by the need for seamless exchange of structured design information.A comprehensive and widely accepted industry standard suitable for exchanging design information among the various AEC (Architecture/Engineering/Construction) applications has yet to emerge. As a contribution to this on-going discussion, we present a specific approach to the integration problem in building product modelling. This approach can be viewed as pragmatic or bottom-up in the sense that itwas driven by the informational needs of related individual domains (particularly in the early stages of design) rather than by a quest for a universally applicable solution. In this paper, we describe a schemawhich emerged from the SEMPER effort, a multi-year project aimed at supporting detailed performance analysis for early design in the energy, life-cycle analysis, lighting, and thermal comfort domains. Thisschema relies on a representational division of labor between a shared building model, and various disciplinary (domain) models. Specifically, we present a documentation of the shared object model together with disciplinary models for the energy, light, acoustics, and life-cyle assessment domain.
Wen, Kuo-Chung, and Hsiang-Leng Chen. "A Study of Decision-Making Support System for Urban Renaissance." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. This study will apply GIS to build a tool to assist the process of Urban Renaissance. That is to build a Decision-Making Aided of Urban Renaissance approached by Spatial Information Systems. We will use a reality data in Kaoshiung to be the case of this study. First, we study the process of Urban Renaissance and collect the related data of city. Second, we will create the whole structure of conception model. Third, we operating the sequence of Urban Renaissance and build a database. Fourth, we integratesystem and test system by testing cases and show the results. Finally, we bring up the suggestion and conclusion.
Alkass, Sabah, and Ahmad Jrade. "A Web-Based Virtual Reality Model for Preliminary Estimates of Hi-Rise Building Projects." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. Cost estimating of a construction project at its early stage is considered to be very important task since it will be used as a base to commit or otherwise not to commit funds to that project. Preparation of a reliableand realistic preliminary estimate to aid the decision makers to commit funds for a specific project is a complicated assignment. Traditional methods and operations produced unsatisfactory aid due to lack ofaccuracy especially in the pre-design stage of a project. This participates in the increase of percentage of bankruptcy in the construction industry, which has dramatically climbed up and ranked as 15 percent of thewhole bankruptcies claimed in Canada (Statistic Canada 1998). This paper presents a methodology for developing and a Web-based model to automate preliminary cost estimates for hi-rise buildings. This is achieved by integrating a database with design drawings in a Virtual Reality (VR) environment. The model will automatically generate preliminary estimates after modifying a 3D CAD drawing. It provides the user the option to visualize and simulate the drawing and its cost data through VR environment. Having done that, it will allow owners, architects and cost engineers to view a constructed building project, change its geometric objects and shapes, and accordingly generate a new conceptual cost estimate.
Friedl, G., H.M.G.J. Trum, and P.G.S. Rutten. "An Innovative Model of the Building Development ProcessDesign as a Process of Crystallisation." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. In the past, models describing the development of artefacts, including buildings, usually were of a linear nature thereby suggesting a sequential path from conception of the artefact to its completion. This has consequences for the sequence of activities in the design and programming phase. However, designing is basically a thinking activity and is as such not bound to the same laws as e.g. the construction process. This must have repercussions for the way the design process is designed andmanaged. The proposed conceptual model of the artefact development process - in this case a building design process - is a kind of framework which is more in accordance with the nature of thinkingactivities. It should stimulate a non-sequential process. The development of a solution to a design problem thus should become a responsive search process driven by insights and creative leaps but guided by the framework the model provides. Furthermore, the model is meant to support the exploration and clarification of the problem as well as to extend the solution space by various means such as the development of scenarios and strategic values as a basis for the realisation of the building projectis goals. This model is an essential element in the development of an innovative approach towards the process design of the building design process. The creation of a building (conception, design and development) is not considered a sequential process but a process of crystallisation with the potential of developing in all directions, thus growing from a conceptual centre outwards.
Gowans, Scott, and John Graham. "Appropriate Collectives: a Contemporary Structure for Collaborative Working." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. This paper attempts to illustrate the importance of the conceptual initiative in the design process and how, through the development of a poetic narrative, it can inform the process of creative design andmanufacture. The argument outlined proposes the adoption of a poetic narrative as a mechanism for defining and clarifying the designersi intention with the use of metaphorical associations advocated as ameans of exploiting our innate ability for intuitive extrapolation. Our approach gives emphasis to the conceptual corollary or intellectual process that underpins all considered design work and challenges the traditionally accepted methods of project development where this phase of the process is seen as having a pre-prescribed beginning and end. The paper is also intended as a statement of intent that celebrates the unique nature of our interdisciplinary working practices and, as a contextualisingdocument that posits a realistic and contemporary vision for the future of collaborative endeavours. We illustrate how, through the adherence to a philosophy of creative realism and by the establishment of legitimate, ephemeral collectives, we can effectively instigate and address opportunities in many areas at any given time. In the paper we actively promote an expansive and creative engagement with the dynamics of project inception, development and control as a means of realising our collective aspirations and of ensuring project ownership in the widest sense. The paper discusses creatively critical architectural and new media projects that attempt to subvert a number of modern orthodoxies bysupplanting them with an affective internal logic.
Alexiou, K., and Theodore Zamenopoulos. "Artificial Design and Planning Support: Interactive Plan Generation andCoordination in Distributed Decision-Making." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. In this paper we discuss some basic issues pertaining to artificial plan design as a paradigm for architectural design and urban planning support. We present a model for artificial design generation based on learning control methodologies. Plan design is seen as a search for “coordinatedi solutions (changes) that satisfy distributed domain requirements and views expressed by human or artificial agents. Learning control is used as a method to search for solutions that direct partial descriptionsproduced by agents, to follow their dynamically defined targets -despite conflicting requirements. The model is simulated for land use and layout plan design, involving decisions for the location and physical configuration of a hypothetical housing and retail development.
Osaragi, Toshihiro. "Classification Methods for Spatial Data Representation." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. In the process of representing quantitative spatial data on a map, it is necessary to classify attribute values into some class divisions. When a number of classes are employed, the characteristics of spatial distribution of original data can be expressed faithfully. However, its legends might become rather complicated and the delicate color differences in the represented map would be difficult to distinguish. On the other hand, when employing a few classes, the information such as small vibrating factors or local peaks might be ignored, namely, much information of original data will be lost. Hence, we should discuss how many classes are necessary to represent spatial data. Furthermore, even if the same spatial data are represented using the same number of classes, we might obtain the quite different maps according to the choice of classification methods incorporated in existing geographic information systems. Namely, the characteristics of the original data might be overlooked, or there might be a risk of mistaking judgment, if we do not have enough knowledge about classification methods as well as the nature of original data. Hence, we should also discuss how the boundary value between each class should be set. In this paper, a new classification method using an evaluation function based on Akaikeis Information Criterion is proposed, and is applied to actual spatial data. Next, based on the consideration about its result, another classification method minimizing information loss of original data is proposed. Furthermore, numerical examples of its applications are achieved through the comparison with existing classification methods.
De Vries, B., A.J. Jessurun, and J. Dijkstra. "Conformance Checking by Capturing and Simulating Human Behaviour in the Built Environment." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. In order to model natural human behaviour, it is necessary to capture this behaviour. First, we will start out by modelling behaviour for specific situations, such as taking a seat in a theatre. To capture humanbehaviour, the following experiment is performed: Given a virtual environment, a sufficient number of subjects (real humans) are asked to execute a human task in this virtual environment (e.g. take a seat inthe theatre). Whenever the subject deviates from the shortest path, the system will ask for a clue why this is done. The hypothesis is that the combination of the motion paths and the clues for making/changing decisions will provide decision rules to make reliable predictions about human behaviour under the same conditions when using virtual persons. To test the hypothesis, we propose to use the universityis main conference and presentation hall as a test case. A 3D model and a motion pathgraph are constructed that enables a virtual person to find its way to a selected chair. The clues from the experiment are implemented as decision rules that determine a virtual personis behaviour. Running thesimulation will result in the following data: Time per person to find a chair, Deviation from the shortest path, Distance covered per person to find a chair, Distribution of seated persons over time and Relocation of persons. To validate the test case, the process of people entering the hall and finding a chair is recorded on videotape. The walking behaviour of the people observed on the video is analysed and compared with the data from the simulation.
Dickey, J.W., and Dennis Jones. "CyberQuest Prospector (CQP):A Guide for the Evolutionary Discovery Process." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. CyberQuest Prospector (CQP) is a tool to guide an individual or team through the evolutionary process of finding better approaches to a particular problem, project, program, plan, or design. This prospectingprocess can involve, for example, new definitions, different data, altered evaluation techniques and new ideas and actions on many other topics. CQP involves a five step process. At step zero all the requisite historical background knowledge is entered. This knowledge is divided into topical areas or statements. In step one the team updates the various knowledge statements in the system and then assigns a “maturity” to them. The team then adds any new statements (step two). Next, (step three) the team makes decisions on actions to be undertaken and also on the external factors likely to be “in play” in the upcoming time period. After that period (step four) the team records the results and rates the “success” achieved. CQP subsequently changes the associated knowledge statement confidences. In the last step the clock is advanced. The ultimate result is a set of definitions, data, relationships, experimental techniques, issues,implications, and even personality traits in which some degree of confidence has evolved. The CQP process is demonstrated here with an urban transportation planning example involving such diverse topics asplanning/analysis techniques, data collection methods, and procedures for working with advocacy coalition networks.
Batara, A., Bharat Dave, and I. Bishop. "Design Decision Support through Translation between Multiple Representations of Spatial Data." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. Urban planning and urban design involve collaboration of diverse participants with multiple agendas and multiple criteria. The participants typically use multiple representations of spatial data to derive inferences and insights about the planning problems, leading to a shared decision-making process. To support such multidisciplinary work, this paper proposes a new computational approach and technique for translation between multiple representations of spatial data. This approach is designed to supportdesign decision-making in the interrelated interests of design participants. Prototype implementation and evaluation are conducted to test and validate the proposals.
Maassen, W., E. De Groot, and J.E. Scholten. "Design of an Early Support Tool for Building Services Design:A Design Tool Study." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. There is a need for Dutch design support tools for building services that can be used in early design stages. TNO Building and Construction Research has therefore initiated the research project described here. The project will result in a model for a design support tool for early design of building services in the Netherlands. This tool should make it possible to quickly compare alternative conceptual design solutions and to visualize possible consequences of the underlying design decisions.
Mardjono, F., H.M.G.J. Trum, and J. Janssen. "Development of a Decision Support Tool for Bamboo Building Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The design process of a bamboo building is sometimes very complex for building designers, since there is no accepted design methodology for it. This process may be caused by a lack of relevant information provided to the designer. Based on this issue, this paper proposes a decision support system for application in bamboo building design that might be helpful for the designer in his/her design process. For this purpose, a decision support tool for bamboo building design process is being developed. Thedevelopment of the tool uses approaches, i.e. a taxonomy of bamboo building to identify the design problems, IDEFÆ to model the decision support tool, and develops a dedicated tool for Bamboo building design process. This tool has been tested in an international bamboo-housing workshop, hence results, suggestions, and recommendations from the workshop will be analysed. With this tool, the bamboo-building designer can make a bamboo building design in a systematic way. This tool also helpsthe designer to be as best informed, explicit, correct, and complete as possible during the design process.
De Groot, Ellie, and Bernard Paule. "DIAL-Europe: New Functionality s for an Integrated Daylighting Design Tool." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The European project DIAL-Europe started in April 2000 and intends to enhance and to enlarge the capabilities of the LesoDIAL software. The aim of this “Swiss” tool was to give architects relevant information regarding the use of daylight, at the very first stage of the design process. DIAL-Europe focuses on European standards and climatic data. Further, a Heating & Cooling evaluation module and an Artificial Lighting module will be added. The objective of the Heating & Cooling module is to indicate the implications of the useris design on heating and cooling energy and on thermal comfort.The objective of Artificial Lighting module is to develop a tool that will give an estimation of illuminance values on the work plane and provide guidance on qualitative aspects and visual comfort as well as on switching control and integration with daylight based on generic light sources and luminaires. Furthermore, the scope of the examples of simulated rooms will be increased in order to allow the user to compare their design with more similar cases. This paper will present the state of achievement and give an overview of the first version of the DIAL-Europe software, which will beavailable at the beginning of 2002.
Tomlinson, James, and Michael Holmes. "Digital Representational Tools Impact on the Design Decision Process." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. This paper presents two pilot studies that explore the impact of virtual reality representations on the evaluative judgements of trained designers and design students. These projects are intended to explore several aspects of spatial perception as impacted by the representational media in an attempt to identify the potential impact of this media on the development of design solutions. The participants were exposed todifferent representational media and modes of representation or simulation: traditional “physical media” (plan, elevations, and model), physical place and projected computer generated media including flat screen animation and hemispherical corrected animation for display on the VisionDome. The 4-meter VisionDome is an immersive, multi-user, single projection virtual reality environment. The results of theseefforts potentially indicate that when trained designers view a simulation of a space their perception of the space is, to some degree, affected by the representational media. The walk-through mode emphasized theperceptual differences between traditional and computer generated representations. A low level of detail in a computer-generated “walk-through” simulation provides perceptual elements, which allow the viewer todevelop an understanding of the spatial relationships of the design.
Krempi, A.P., N.C.M. Brondino, and A.N.R. Silva. "Evaluating Transportation Accessibility with Spatial Statistics Toolsin a GIS Environment." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. In several developing countries it is often assumed that low-income segments of the population living at the periphery of the cities are those affected the most by poor conditions of transportation accessibility. Inorder to gain a better understanding of the way transportation accessibility is distributed across different regions of an urban area, the main aim of this work is to analyze, making use of Spatial Statistics tools ina GIS (Geographical Information System) environment, the relationship between accessibility and geographical locations in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Data of an origin-destination (O-D) survey carried out in the city of Bauru, which brings information about four different transportation modes, were used in this study. Such data, grouped following the census tracts, were carefully examined in a Geographic Information System in order to look for spatial patterns of accessibility that are not visible inthe traditional approaches. One of the interesting outcomes of the application was the identification of regions with particular dynamics, which go against the pattern found in the overall urban area. This andother results of the case study clearly indicate that Spatial Statistics analyses in a GIS environment create a powerful tool to extend conventional transportation accessibility analysis.
Asanowicz, A.. "Evolution of Media for Early Design Stages." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. In this paper the evolution of media used at early design stages will be considered. In traditional methods of searching and presenting the design idea, the basic tool used was the graphic representation. Implementation of new digital techniques in 60s - 70s focused on the mathematical way ofrepresentation. These methods were “not architect friendlyi (lack of graphic representation traditionally used by architects). As a result, the development of methods for digital support of form searching was terminated. The computer was used as a tool for drafting. Creative usage of computers for form searching through sketching on the display was extremely difficult. The computer could be described as an “incompatible pencili. Only in recent years can we see new efforts in this area ofdesign methodology. Thanks to new technical possibilities we have a new chance for changing the process of designing. New kinds of software and hardware let us use the computer not as a pen, but as a medium. In this paper different new ways of form searching will be considered (from very simple method as the scansketches to very complicated ones, such as the generic algorithms). At the end, the influence of new media on the process of design will be presented.
Bax, M.F.Th., and H.M.G.J. Trum. "Faculties of Architecture." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. In order to be inscribed in the European Architectis register the study program leading to the diploma “Architecti has to meet the criteria of the EC Architectis Directive (1985). The criteria are enumerated in 11 principles of Article 3 of the Directive. The Advisory Committee, established by the European Council got the task to examine such diplomas in the case some doubts are raised by other Member States. To carry out this task a matrix was designed, as an independent interpreting framework that mediates between the principles of Article 3 and the actual study program of a faculty. Such a tool was needed because of inconsistencies in the list of principles, differences between linguistic versions ofthe Directive, and quantification problems with time, devoted to the principles in the study programs. The core of the matrix, its headings, is a categorisation of the principles on a higher level of abstractionin the form of a taxonomy of domains and corresponding concepts. Filling in the matrix means that each study element of the study programs is analysed according to their content in terms of domains, thesummation of study time devoted to the various domains results in a so-called “profile of a facultyi. Judgement of that profile takes place by committee of peers. The domains of the taxonomy are intrinsically the same as the concepts and categories, needed for the description of an architectural design object: the faculties of architecture. This correspondence relates the taxonomy to the field of design theory and philosophy. The taxonomy is an application of Domain theory. This theory,developed by the authors since 1977, takes as a view that the architectural object only can be described fully as an integration of all types of domains. The theory supports the idea of a participatory andinterdisciplinary approach to design, which proved to be awarding both from a scientific and a social point of view. All types of domains have in common that they are measured in three dimensions: form, function and process, connecting the material aspects of the object with its social and proceduralaspects. In the taxonomy the function dimension is emphasised. It will be argued in the paper that the taxonomy is a categorisation following the pragmatistic philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce. It will bedemonstrated as well that the taxonomy is easy to handle by giving examples of its application in various countries in the last 5 years. The taxonomy proved to be an adequate tool for judgement ofstudy programs and their subsequent improvement, as constituted by the faculties of a Faculty of Architecture. The matrix is described as the result of theoretical reflection and practical application of a matrix, already in use since 1995. The major improvement of the matrix is its direct connection with Peirceis universal categories and the self-explanatory character of its structure. The connection with Peirceis categories gave the matrix a more universal character, which enables application in other fieldswhere the term “architecturei is used as a metaphor for artefacts.
Kawakami, Mitsuhiko, and Shen Zhenjiang. "Formulation of an Urban and Regional Planning System Basedon a Geographical Information System and its Application- a Case Study of the Ishikawa Prefecture Area of Japan -." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. An Urban and Regional Planning System based on a geographical information system was developed using four sub-systems consisting of a digital map system, a database system, an analysis and forecast system and a planning system. In this case ARCVIEW GIS software was used as a development tool. The digital map system is formulated by the planar orthogonal coordinate system. The data is converted from digital maps issued by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan (GSI). The database system has layers of data sets, which consist of statistical data, attribute data of geographical points and characteristics of natural features and the built environment. Several sets of principal census data havebeen converted to mesh data. These kinds of data sets are also utilized to this system. LANDSAT TM data is converted into vector data and linked to the same coordinate system. The analysis and forecast system consists of statistical or mathematical analysis, forecasts and visual presentations of the results. The planning system consists of some planning models and reviewing techniques to evaluate alternatives. As an example, this paper examines the relationship between land use and the temperatureon the ground level in built-up areas.
Ruiz, Maurici, Antònia Fornés, Jerònia Ramon, Joan Alorda, Maria Goula, and Ricard Pié. "GIS Tools for Landscape Impact Assessment." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. This paper present the main results obtained by the development of the Artemis Project “Design and Evaluation of Residential Patterns in the Mediterranan Region appropiate to sustainable development of environmentally deteriorated rural areas” 4th European Framework Program. Call ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE. ENV4-CT97-0656.) As results of the project an Integrated Landscape Assessment Model (AIAM) was created. AIAM is a resource modelling system focusing on the generation of a decision support system application oriented to provide criteria in order to evaluate effects and to optimise location of low density residential settlements. The Model includes a Landscape multicriteria analysis merged with spatial analysis tools set in a GIS Environment. The A.I.A.M. provides data structures, user interface components, and output mechanism witch allows the user to apply the knowledge acquired for Artemis Project. One of the main goals of the A.I.A.M is to give a landscape view of the territory including variables that are usually not considered in planning and environmental impact assessment processes. Also the models gives a sustainable support both to planner and designers projects. A.I.A.M. gives the data structure to define a residential patterns, the parameters through which a pattern is adequately described. This pattern definition allows comparison between the oneis of the reference area and so, extract conclusions about divergence between them.
Ozsariyildiz, S.S., Sevil Sariyildiz, and Rudi Stouffs. "ICKT support for the Building Industry: a Virtual Partner." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. We are now at a stage in which ICKT techniques allows us to develop knowledge intensive systems, such as intelligent decision support systems, to support collaboration and cooperation. This paper describes a theoretical approach, in which collaborative agents take on the role as a partner during the decision making process, in order to support various actors in the building process. The group-decision making set-up will be discussed and we will give an overview on the state of art of this subject. We will give some insights into their application in the building practice. In addition, we will provide some examples of use-case-scenarios as inception and early design support and evaluate it.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Information Amount Measurement in Generative Systems:An Objective Approach to Termination." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. Termination in computational generative systems is linked increasingly to user intervention: the generative system concludes when the user chooses it to do so. The similarities between this approach to termination and the creative artistic process suggest that the products of generative systems are amenable to analysis in terms of well-formedness leading to a formal measure that acts as an automatic termination trigger. The paper proposes that such a measure can be derived from structural information theory. By applying the compression of structural information theory to meaningful principles of a design world we derive a consistent, universal description of the design result at any given state. This description expresses the correlation of the design with its formal constraints, as well as the general perception of the designis patterns.
Deguchi, A., Y. Tabira, H. Matsuura, H. Nakano, and T. Arima. "Integration System of Archaeological and Geographical Informationfor Planning in Historical Regions." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. This study aims to construct the GIS for supporting the planning process and archaeological analysis in the historical regions by integrating geographical data and archaeological data on the sites with ruinsand remains in various period from ancient through medieval which had been buried and was recently excavated in geologic layers and mounds. First, for understanding the trends of environmental condition the excavated sites, we analyze the relationship between the site location and the condition ofgeography and natural environment by using the constructed system.Secondary, we develop the system to make it possible to browse and operate the information on the GIS through the internet. This web GIS constructed by us supports sharing the information on planning for preservation of historical sites among city planners, archaeologists and citizens, and serve as a tool for the collaboration and the coordination of urban development and historical preservation. Finally, as the application with the GIS, we show the results of case studies and point out the merits and effects about usage of the GIS for archaeological analysis as well as learning the local history.
Fröst, Peter. "Interactive Tools for Collaborative Architectural Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. Today's rapidly changing society is continuously developing towards an increased demand for multistakeholder knowledge and influence in the architectural planning and design process. Accordingly, we are working with developing and setting up a partner engaged collaborative design process. It includes active collaboration between users, external partners and designers, and visualizations in conceptual design and scenario building. My research is focusing on integrating visualization technology in theseprocesses by application of digital tools. We have developed a working prototype for an interactive design tool. The prototype is an extremely “easy to use” digital modelling tool called “ForeSite Designer.” With this tool one builds oneis own spatial environment with elements on a 2D surface.With one command the 2D layout is exported to a lit-up 3D/Virtual Reality world in the computer game “Half-Life”. ForeSite Designer has lately been used in a series of workshops together with external users. In these processes ForeSite Designer has played a crucial role as an arena of building spatially arranged concepts of future environments. The results show that it works, and, importantly, promotes a collaborative engagement among the users.
Wakefield, John. "Invisible Design Safari." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The visually impaired on a daily basis have to undertake analysis of our buildings and cities to safely survive, and hopefully thrive. They have not been asked to create and design new buildings and or communities, this is normally the preserve of professionals. There is no real reason why they should not, and with this in mind the author organised four summer schools at the University of Bristol to explore these issues. The design proposals/results were of the highest quality and the students found the experience stimulating.
van Leeuwen, Jos. "Knowledge Sharing for Collaborative Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. This paper presents the preliminary results of a research project that aims to develop and apply Design Knowledge Servers (DesKs) in the building and construction industry. The paper starts with a view on where the development of computer application in design and construction might be heading. It briefly looks at the current situation concerning information modelling for design support and compares two alternative ways of developing standards in this area. After this sketch of its context, the DesKs project is introduced and its objectives, characteristics, implementations issues, and application scenarios are discussed. The paper concludes with a preview of the next steps we will attempt to take and with an explanation of why it all takes so long.
Datta, Sambit. "Managing Design Knowledge with Mixed-Initiative Dialogue." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002.

This paper is based on ongoing work in developing interactive interfaces to formal methods for encoding design knowledge. It reports on the development of a shared graphical notation to support user interaction with design knowledge based on mixed-initiative. Mixed-initiative provides a model of interaction where both the designer and the knowledge formalism may share responsibility over decisions. The paper discusses how a formal visual notation can support the mixed-initiative mode for developing and managing formal design knowledge. The notation addresses on the dialogue problem between the user and a knowledge based formalism and illustrates a model of interaction in which the user and the formalism can share and input data through a common shared resource, on a common shared task. The paper demonstrates the use of this notation in common decision tasks and the implications for seamless interaction with design support systems.

Tunçer, Bige, and Rudi Stouffs. "Modeling Cooperative Design Analyses." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The study of precedents plays an important role in design and design education. Architecture students prepare analyses of prominent precedents with respect to various criteria. Such design analyses arerepresented and communicated through abstractions. Collections of these abstractions are stored, related, managed, and presented in digital environments. Such web-based environments can serve as anextensible library of design precedent analyses. The use of an extensive library by a collection of students requires a flexible and extensible information model for relating and integrating the various contributions. We propose a methodology that establishes an information model for digital architectural analysis environments. This model facilitates a rich information structure of abstraction entities and their relationships, both structural and semantic, offering increased value for accessing and browsing this information. Specifically, a rich information structure allows one to access the information from alternative views to those that are expressed by the individual abstractions. In this paper, we start bydiscussing precedent-based learning, and describe the abstraction model currently used for precedent documentation and analysis. We then present our methodology for achieving a rich information structure. We end the paper with a description of an implementation of this methodology as anarchitectural analysis construction and presentation environment for a second year design studio.
Akin, Ömer, and Ipek Ö. zkaya. "Models of Design Requirement." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. Case studies show that significant proportions of design errors and failures are linked to poor requirement specification during both early stages of design and as changes occur. Computational requirements engineering as a front-end to design iterations is a promising area addressing theseproblems. In other design disciplines, such as in software engineering, requirement engineering has given significant product improvements. In this paper, we present a state-space representation of requirement models for architectural design. The purpose of requirement modelling in design is tocreate a process by which requirements can be converted into working design solutions through frontend validation. We suggest three models of requirement specification, co-evolutionary [CoM], multiple domain [MDM] and single domain [SDM] models, that can facilitate this effort. Taken together all three models provide a full set of logical permutations of requirement-solution “worldsi and “operations.i We compare each model against the others in terms of facilitating change management and computability.
Koshak, Nabeel, and Ulrich Flemming. "Object-Oriented Data Modeling and Warehousing to Support Urban Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. All over the world, local authorities are moving towards managing and storing urban data in digital form. But the data storage devices used are heterogeneous and typically include relational database managementsystems (DBMS), GIS and CAD files. As a result, data are present in different locations on different platforms and under different schemas. This poses a problem for software applications meant to supportdecision-making in urban design that require input from more than one data source. We demonstrate in our paper how data warehousing ? combined with object-oriented data modelling ? is able to provide a general solution for this problem. Data warehousing is a technique initially developed for businessapplications, but is equally useful for urban design: The data warehouse constitutes a communication layer between the urban design applications and data sources. It makes the data available through a unified interface that hides the sources themselves and represents that data in terms of a general-purpose, preferably object-oriented, model. We also describe an implementation prototype that supports different applications. The City of Makkah in Saudi Arabia provides us with real-world data and a context to test our prototype.
Achten, Henri. "Requirements for Collaborative Design in Architecture." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The concept of collaborative design has recently come under renewed attention in the field of computer aided architectural design support. Although collaborative design deals with the same aspects of cooperation by various participants in the design process as previously studiedin, for example, concurrent engineering and multi-disciplinary design, it nevertheless puts a different research emphasis. Collaborative design looks at how the process can be improved in such a way that collaboration -working together in a manner to enhance each participants contribution to the design- emerges from the process. In engineering design practice, this means a shift forward in the design process where engineers are asked earlier for their input in the design solution. For CAAD research, the phenomenon of collaborative design poses the question how design tools and environments can be made in such a way that collaboration will occur. In this paper, the aims is to describe the concept of collaborative design in architecture, and to give an outline of the perceived requirements in the organisation of design and Computer Aided Design Support to achieve collaborative design.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, and Beran Gurtekin. "Shapes, Numbers, Perception: Aspects and Dimensions of the Design-Performance Space." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The design-performance space denotes a virtual space that can be constructed based on discretized design variables and performance indicators. For an n-dimensional design-performance space, n = d + p,whereby d = the number of discrete design variables, and p = the number of discrete performance indicators. Once constructed, this space can be visualized and used by the designer to explore the relationship between design variables and corresponding performance attributes. We present, for the building design domain, an approach to generation and exploration of the design-performance space. In this approach, an initial design is used to generate a set of alternative designs that collectively constitutethe design space. One way of doing this relies on the “scalarizationi of design variables. The scalarization leads to the representation of a building as a point in a d-dimensional design space. Each coordinate ofsuch a space accommodates a salient (semantic or geometric) design variable. Subsequently, the entire corpus of design alternatives is subjected to performance modelling. Based on the modelling results, an ndimensionaldesign-performance space is constructed. We specifically address the potential for and limitations of describing building geometry in terms of a continuous scalar dimension of the design space. We introduce the concept of “Relative Compactnessi, which is derived by comparing the volume tosurface area ratio of a shape to that of a (compact) reference shape with the same volume. We present the results of an empirical study, which shows a significant correlation between the numeric values of relativecompactness and the subjective evaluation of the compactness of architectural shapes.
Hensen, Jan. "Simulation for Performance Based Building and Systems Design:Some Issues and Solution Directions." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. This paper is about adequate deployment of building performance simulation in decision support for integrated building and systems design. The underlying issues are sketched. The main thrust of the paper is to describe ongoing and future research in this area.
Hassan, Al, H.M.G.J. Trum, and P.G.S. Rutten. "Strategic Briefing a Conceptual Process Model for Building Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. Nowadays building design problems are divided in partial discipline related sub-problems. Through targeted and focused attention to sub problems however the awareness of the whole is lost. Each designparticipant gives his sub-problem first priority. In contrast in the past the master builder saw the whole problem as his problem first. Thus the process of seeing the design problem as a whole, as a result ofprioritizing, considering constraints, or strategizing, is lost in today's practice, basically because this process is a mental and implicit process, that occurred in the brain of the multi-disciplinary master builder.In most cases it is the task of no one in a design team today. The aim of this paper is modelling this conceptual mental implicit process design using System Theory and Cognitive Psychology, trying to determine the structure of the design problem as it occurs intuitively in the brain. The result will provide us with a mechanism that enables us each time to refine a unique common design problem representation. This leads to more effective use of design team capabilities, and forms an essential basis for organizing efforts toward collaborative solutions. Also some kind of clarity is provided as to how proposed solutions are to be judged.
Caratù, G., G. Concilio, and V. Monno. "Structuring Lay Knowledge in a GI Perspective: Problems and Pitfall." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The present contribution, starting from some considerations developed in environmental planning domain, discusses the representation of lay knowledge in a GIS environment. Two paths of exploration in dealing with representational problems are sketched. The first is concerned with the structuring of an acquired cognitive base and, the other is about the implementation of cognitive routines. In particular the structuring process of a lay cognitive base is discussed starting from recent developments in GIS technologies and information theories. Difficulties and pitfalls, which arouse during a case study related to an environmental planning experience being carried on for a national natural park, are presented. The experimentation work is discussed also in relation with a preliminary attempt of outputs validation carried out with people who, in a preliminary stage, were interviewed in order to acquire lay knowledge.
Shen, Z., M. Kawakami, and Tatsuya Kishimoto. "Study on the Development of an On-line Design Collaboration System for Public Participation - a Case Study of Public Park Planning and Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. As a result of reviewing existing research in the field of public participation, an on-line collaborative design system can be broken down into the following four sub-systems: the planning objectives system, the discussion system,the proposals system and the design game system. Using these systems, participants can exchange their ideas and concepts, experience the present situation and give their opinions on an interactive web site. Furthermore, in the design game system, the participants can design their park plan according to their preferences and save their design to a server database. Other participants can then access the database to review another participantis design for purposes of comparing and getting consensus. In order to evaluate our demonstration system, we carried out anexperiment using the design game in Yamanoue community where a park project was scheduled by the local government of the area. Through the participation of the residents and university students, we were able to analyze the design process of the park design workshop in an Internet environment. In particular we were able to examine the exchanging of participatesi ideas, the process they all used in creating VRML worlds of their park design and the effectiveness of VRML for plan presentation.
van der Waerden, P., R. Van de Voort, and A.N.R. Da Silva. "Studying Pedestrian Movements in Central Shopping and Business Areas with a Dedicated Geographical Information System." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. This paper pays attention to pedestriansi route choice behaviour in central shopping and business areas, and the various ways this behaviour can be investigated. One of the tools available to carry out this kind of analysis is currently offered by the GIS-software TransCAD. This dedicated GIS software offers a route system routine that is suitable to store and examine in details pedestrians” movements. In order to deeply explore the potential of these tools, they are used to investigate pedestriansi movements in the central shopping and business area of Montreal (Canada). More than 360 individual routes have been entered in the route system. These observed routes were compared with (shortest path) routes generated by TransCAD using different network settings. The first network was based on the length of links. A second network was based on both the length of links and the fact that a link was an underground link or not. The final network was based on the length of links in combination with several characteristics of the links (such as presence of shops, presence of restaurants, presence of offices, and located in Old Montreal). The investigation shows that it is very easy to generate alternative routes based on different network settings. The routes generated with the network based on several characteristics of the network links correspond best with the observed routes. This network is used to generate routes after some planning measures (opening of new network links and renewal of some existing network links) are implemented. The result of this exercise is presented in a map.
Kacher, S., Jean-Claude Bignon, Gilles Halin, and G. Duffing. "The Content-Based Image Retrieval as an Assistance Tool to the Architectural Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The architectural design requires a research of ideas and a documentation to help the designer in its creation work. It is a domain where the use of pictures (drawing, photography,) is essential, because the information transmitted by photographic images are often more easily to understand than the one transmitted by texts. The goal of this work is to show the help that can bring the research of pictures indexed by visuals criteria, as colour, texture and shape, in the architectural design domain. If weaccept the principle that “an image is better than 10000 words“, we can make the hypothesis that an image research indexed by visual criteria can bring a supplementary help to the designer when he tries to resolve design problems. We tested a research tool resting on image indexation with graphic attributes. Two types of corpora have been used. The first one contains images illustrating building products and the second one shows buildings or parts of buildings, which illustrate the wood architecture domain. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the relevance of this type of image indexing according to identified users needs. We try to determine which type of visual criteria is the most appropriate to help the designer in the various phases of the design process.
Jones, Dennis. "The Quantum Matrix:A Three Dimensional Data Integration and Collaboration ToolFor Virtual Environments." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. If a picture is worth a thousand words, what if they could walk and talk? How would you like to bring a whole new dimension to your ideas, to use visualization to convey a sense of time and motion, to use imagery to give your ideas vividness, to use sound to give them voice and view them threedimensionally. The Matrix allows you to do all of this and much more. The Matrix resembles Rubikis cube, but its purpose is to store, manage and access data of all types and to view them in three dimensions in virtual environments such as the CAVE and on your desktop. The current version can store, access and view almost anything that is in digital form, including:Text files Pictures Video Clips Sound Files Spreadsheets URLis HTML pages Databases CAD drawings Gantt Charts Business Graphics VRML modelsExecutable Programs OLE (Object Link & Embedded) The Matrix is a three-dimensional multimedia and document management tool. The Matrix anticipates the convergence of electronic media into one consistent environment for analysis and representation. the Matrix uses VMRL and OpenGL technologies to allow the user to be immersed in their data as withCinerama, IMAX and Virtual Reality Environments. The Matrix allows the user to exercise their creativity by interactively placing and organizing their data three dimensionally and navigating through and viewingdata and documents in 3D (monocular and binocular - stereo). The Matrix user interface is simple to use. Employing the now familiar “drag and dropi method to manage data and documents. Items can be placed into the matrix grid at a user selected matrix cube location. Upon dropping a document on a cube it appears as a mapped image onto the surface. Navigating through the 3D Matrix-space is fun. All navigation uses real-time animation giving you instant feed back as to where you are. Data drilling is as simple as mouse click on a Matrix cube. Double clicking the on an object in the matrix activates that object. Data dreams was an image that preexisted the program by several years. The dream was to create a new way oforganizing and exploring data. The Qube image was created using Microstation by Bentley Systems, Inc. The figure was modeled using Poser by MetaCreations and composited using Adobe Photoshop.
Geurts, K., G. Wets, T. Brijs, and K. Vanhoof. "The Use of Rule-Based Knowledge Discovery Techniques to Profile Black Spots." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. In Belgium, traffic safety is currently one of the highest topics on the list of priorities of the government. The identification of black spots and black zones and profiling them in terms of accident related data and location characteristics must provide new insights into the complexity and causes of road accidents which, in turn, provide valuable input for government actions. Data mining is the extraction of information from large amounts of data. The use of data mining algorithms is therefore particularly useful in the context of large datasets on road accidents. In this paper, association rules are used to identify accident circumstances that frequently occur together. The strength of this descriptive approach lies within the definition of different accident types and the identification of relevantvariables that make a strong contribution towards a better understanding of accident circumstances. An analysis of the produced set of rules, describing underlying patterns in the data, indicates that fiveaspects of traffic accidents can be discerned: collision with a pedestrian, collision in parallel, sideways collision, week/weekend accidents and weather conditions. For each of these accident types, different variables play an important role in the occurrence of the accidents.
Segers, Nicole. "Towards a Data-Structure that can Handle Ambiguous Information in a Computer-Aided Tool for the Early Phase of Architectural Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The goal of our research is to develop a computer system that supports an architect in the early phase of the design process. We envision a system that aids in three ways. It helps the architect in maintaining an overview of the development of his or her ideas over time. It shows the current state of the process in a restructured representation. It supports and stimulates the generation of new associations whenever required.The difficulty lies in linking up with the rich information structure of the architect and the various cognitive processes he or she uses to handle this information structure. The consequence is that the system must be able to include all design content, to interpret it, but not to restrict the architect in his or her creativity. Moreover, the system should stimulate creativity.We conducted an experiment to get better insight in what the architect provides as input for the system in the early phase of the design process. Several difficulties have been encountered, which we discuss along with possible solutions for managing the data. The system makes use of user-defined relations and system-defined relations. With these relations we can represent the design content in a comprehensive network that we call the Idea Space. This Idea Space is the basis for above-mentionedfunctionality. In this paper we focus on the (textual) input provided by the architect. In order to get better insight in the ideas and relations made by the architect, in other words the input for the system, we conducted an experiment. Several difficulties were encountered, which we discuss along with possible solutions for managing the data.
Pelizaro, C., Harry J. P. Timmermans, R. Laing, and D. Miller. "Towards a Decision Support System for the Planning, Design and Maintenance of Urban Green Space." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. As one of the domains of urban planning and design, that of green space is lagging behind in terms of the use of advanced computer technology, mo dels and design methodology compared to, for example, retail and transportation planning. However, recently, there is some evidence of the development and testing of tools such as visualization, GIS and conjoint analyses in this area, although not of more integrated Decision Support Systems. The purpose of this study is to outline ideas and needs for thedevelopment of a Decision Support System for the planning and design of green space. The objective is to provide planners with an integrated framework for the provision and management of these parts of urban areas.
Saarloos, D.J.M., Theo Arentze, Aloys Borgers, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Towards a Local Planning Support System,Introducing the MASQUE Framework." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. Urban planning is an important instrument for improving the quality of life, but it is hampered by the fact that the effects of many decisions, to be made by the planner, are practically unknown or at best unclear. The high level of complexity, uncertainty and subjectivity involved in urban plan development is seriously troubling the planner. One way of facilitating the plan development process, and potentially improving the decision-making, is developing a Planning Support System (PSS) that combines artificialintelligence with a gamut of computational tools that support the process. At the Eindhoven University of Technology a research program is conducted to develop such a system for local urban planning in the Netherlands. The system, named MASQUE (Multi-Agent System for supporting the Quest forUrban Excellence), applies Multi-Agent technology to incorporate multidisciplinary expertise on both tools and domains as well as to enable intelligent guidance and assistance towards the user. Strong emphasis is put on the scenario-based way of working that is common in urban planning. This paper puts forward the difficulties faced in local planning practice and discusses the possibilities for computer-assistance. This finally resolves into the introduction of the MASQUE framework, describing how the system is organized and how the agents will be involved.
Antoni, J.P.. "Urban Sprawl Modelling: Combining Models to Make Decision." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. Urban sprawl is frequently associated with the idea of an unsuitable development, leading to increasing economic, social and environmental problems. Moreover, its control is difficult because multiple patterns (concerning numerous traditional urban planning fields) overlap. In order to understand the sprawl process and to manage its consequences, it must be simplified. The construction of a decision making tool appears then interesting. The GIS-based tool presented here is being developed incollaboration between the urban planning agency of Belfort and the laboratory of geography of Strasbourg. It requires three steps: 1. quantification of the sprawl (how much areas are involved in theurban sprawl process?), 2. location of the sprawl (where are the areas defined in the first step?), 3. differentiation of the sprawl (what are the areas located in the second step?). Of course, the successionof the three stages makes the use of the complete model more complex. So, a global ergonomic user interface is being developed within the GIS, allowing to modify each parameter and to play easily numerous simulations.
Lolonis, P., D. Rokos, and M. Maragou. "Use of Cadastral Data for the Development of Spatial Decision Support Systemsfor Coping with the Consequences of Natural Disasters." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. This paper investigates the potential usefulness of cadastral data to form the core part of databases of Spatial Decision Support Systems [SDSS] that are capable to support decision-makers in dealing with emergency situations, such as earthquakes, floods and fires. Particular emphasis is given on how those data can be used to generate information that is necessary to planners and decision-makers when they cope with natural disasters at every stage of the development of the disaster: before the occurrence (planning and preventive measures), immediately after occurrence (short term measures), and well-after occurrence (medium and long term measures). This investigation is conducted using the Municipality of Magoula, Attica, Greece, as a case study area. This municipality is situated in the greater Athens area and was struck by the earthquake that occurred there in September 1999. Within the scope of the project, wehave used cadastral data about the study area and data recorded by the inspection teams in order to set-up a prototype SDSS database that could facilitate planning and decision-making in such a situation. Then, we have used that prototype to generate scenarios and information about typical tasks that are performed during emergency situations. The advantages that are realized from the integration of such data and information technologies are described and assessed, particularly, in comparison with the traditional approaches that are used in such situations.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Verbal Retrieval of Pictorial Information." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The proliferation of on-line image databases and the utility of these images have triggered the development of content-based techniques for indexing and retrieval. Most techniques are characterized by a verbal interpretation of visual patterns for query formulation. The paper describes the integration of such verbal terms for architectural pictorial information in AZILE, a natural language interface that operates through a dialogue with the user. In this dialogue the user expresses queries as normal everydayutterances. These are parsed and matched to a thesaurus of architectural terms and concepts. The meaning and associations of these terms result into a preliminary fuzzy classification of available pictorialinformation. The purpose of AZILE is three-fold. Firstly, it serves as an incremental refinement of the query. Secondly, it facilitates direct retrieval of suitable information in a browsing fashion. Thirdly, itsupports machine learning by automatically indexing of the images with the terms identified in the useris utterances.
Stouffs, Rudi, Bige Tunçer, and V. Sariyildiz. " Revisited: the Potential of Web-Based Design Communication with Future Clients." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002. The web offers the means to reach out to potential customers and clients. It enables the establishment of a communication link that allows designers to probe the preferences of their customers, and potential clients to be heard in the design process. It can also serve as a communication platform for customers and other interested parties to share and express ideas and concerns. Opening up the design process to future stakeholders and other concerned parties is particularly accommodating in the aspiration to aconsensus model, as is the case in Dutch architecture. In this paper, we present an example of a Dutch residential development project in which the web served to reach out to potential clients. It involved visitors through a sequence of design “games” in the site planning process. Resulting data were analyzed and provided to the design team, and consequent design decisions found their way into subsequent games. By supporting additional communication among visitors and users, including the design team, visitors would be able to assess their own ideas against others, potentially improving the overall quality of contributions. Such support was envisioned though not implemented in the example. In this paper, we present the actual communication model adopted and consider its extension to support a virtual community for design communication with interested clients in a residential development project.