Keywords Abstract
Cooper, G., Y. Rezqui, M. Jackson, B. Lawson, C. Peng, and C. Cerulli. "A CAD-based decision support system for the design stage of a construction project." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Decisions made during the design process are multi-dimensional, combining together factors which range from the highly subjective to the perfectly objective. These decisions are made by many, often non co-located, actors belonging to different disciplines. Moreover, there is a high risk for misunderstandings, inappropriate changes, and decisions, which are not notified to all interested parties. The ADS project (Advanced Decision Support for Construction Design) builds on the results of the earlier COMMIT project to provide an information management system, which addresses these problems. It defines mechanisms to handle the proactive management of information to support decision-making in collaborative projects. Different aspects of the COMMIT system have already been widely published, and the team is now applying the results in the context of construction design. These are referenced in the present paper, which gives an overview of the results of the COMMIT project and discusses some of the issue involved in applying them to the design process in conjunction with an advanced CAD tool.

Steadman, Philip, and Linda Waddoups. "A catalogue of built forms, using a binary representation." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

A technique is described for the representation of a class of rectangular built forms. Each individual form is produced by applying a series of transformations to a single generic or “archetypal” form, which is designed to take care of the broad constraints, on built space, of close-packing and the requirements for natural light and views. Parts of the archetype which are selected for inclusion in any particular built form are then designated by 1s, and parts which are suppressed by 0s. This makes it possible to assign a unique binary code to each different (undimensioned) built form produced from the archetype. Binary codes corresponding to all legitimate forms may then be arranged in ascending order, to create a comprehensive catalogue. The paper describes such a catalogue comprising forms with up to four courtyards, described by 22-digit binary strings. Metric values may be assigned to the various dimensions of each form, making it a matter of simple arithmetic to compute such attributes as volume, surface area, minimum site area or floor space index. From logical operations on the binary strings it is possible to identify a series of configurational characteristics of the corresponding forms, such as their overall plan shapes, the number of courtyards or the potential for symmetry. The catalogue may thus be searched for built forms fulfilling some set of specifications, for example total floor area, site size and certain desired shape attributes. Worked examples are illustrated from the design of multi-storey office buildings. Possible applications are suggested for this approach, in architectural science and the early strategic stages of architectural design.

Segers, Nicole, Henri Achten, Harry J. P. Timmermans, and B. De Vries. "A comparison of computer-aided tools for architectural design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Several computer-aided tools could be used to support a broad area of architectural design. The intention of this paper is to give an overview of possible tools that support the analysis, synthesis, or evaluation processes underlying architectural design. We evaluate these tools and elicit their requirements as tools for computer-aided architectural design. Potential improvements are a broadening of the solution-space of the architect (stimulate inspiration), an increasing speed or ease of generating and evaluating design alternatives, a better accessibility of required information, and verification of the rules and demands of the brief. In developing a tool for the very early design stage, an overview of existing tools, including their potential advantages and drawbacks, that could somehow support these ideas is a necessary stepping-stone.

Smeets, Jos J. A. M., J. Jessurun, and R. van Zutphen. "An application of the REN manager in the field of housing management." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

There is a continuous and urgent need for standardisation of discussion about quality of real estate. On behalf of this discussion, a tool called REN Manager has been developed. REN is an abbreviation of Real Estate Norm, a client-oriented tool for measuring, planning and communication in the field of housing management. The development of the REN Manager is a continuation of REN research-project. In this paper we start with an introduction of the REN research project. Further we focus on the application of the REN tool in the field of housing management as part of a set of tools for strategic portfolio management. After this introduction we will elaborate more about the REN and the underlying analyses. One of the essential functions of REN is the match between the demanded and offered performance of a dwelling estate. By several surveys among tenants the relevant aspects and parameters are determined. These parameters are related to the performance level of a dwelling as well as to the weight of these levels. This part of the paper deals with the results of these analyses and the problems involved in the method used. The results are used as the input for the REN Manager. At the end we will discuss the functionality of the REN Manager as a decision support system on both operational level (matching) and strategic portfolio management (allocation of investment).

Bignon, Jean-Claude, Gilles Halin, and Walaiporn Nakapan. "Building product information search by images." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Building product information is required during the architectural design and technical design. The common access to the technical information system is the multi-criteria search mode. This search mode is adapted to the situation where an architect has a precise demand of information. But most of the time, the architect looks for ideas and wants to obtain many illustrations of product uses. Therefore, the system has to propose another search mode adapted to the situation where the demand is still fuzzy. Considering that the architect has the capacity to think with image and that an image can generate easily ideas, then a search by images seems to be suitable to the situation where an architect looks for ideas. The web is an inexhaustible resource of images we can exploit to provision an image database on a specific area. The system we propose allows making building product information search with images extracted from the web. This article presents the method used to extract images from web sites of French building product companies and how these images are used in an interactive and progressive image retrieval process.

Hensen, J.L.M., and J.A. Clarke. "Building systems and indoor environment: simulation for design decision support." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

This paper outlines the state-of-the-art in integrated building simulation for design support. The ESP-r system is used as an example where integrated simulation is a core philosophy behind the development. The paper finishes with indicating a number of barriers, which hinder routine application of simulation for building design.

van Leeuwen, Jos, and B. De Vries. "Capturing design knowledge in formal concept definitions." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

For support of creativity in architectural design, design systems must be provided with information models that are flexible enough to follow the dynamic way of designers in handling early design information. This paper discusses a framework for information modelling using Features that answers this need. One of the characteristics of the framework is that designers can define the formalisation of their own design concepts into types of Features. The definition of these Feature Types can be done in different manners, three scenarios for this procedure are presented and discussed.

Pohl, Art, and Kym Pohl. "Computer-aided design systems for the 21st century: some design guidelines." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

This paper proposes nine design principles for a new generation of computer-aided design (CAD) systems that actively support the decision making and problem solving activities of environmental design. Foremost among these are: a meaningful internal object-based representation of the artifact being designed within its environmental context, a collaborative problem solving paradigm in which the human designer and the computer form a complementary partnership, and, the notion of decision-support tools rather than predefined solutions. Two prototype computer-aided design systems implemented by the CAD Research Center that embody most of these concepts are described. ICADS (Intelligent Computer-Aided Design System) incorporates multiple expert agents in domains such as natural and artificial lighting, noise control, structural system selection, climatic determinants, and energy conservation. Given a particular building design context, the agents in ICADS draw upon their own expertise and several knowledgebases as they monitor the actions of the human designer and collaborate opportunistically. KOALA (Knowledge-Based Object-Agent Collaboration) builds on the multi-agent concepts embodied in ICADS by the addition of two kinds of agents. Mentor agents represent the interests of selected objects within the ontology of the design environment. In the implemented KOALA system building spaces are represented by agents capable of collaborating with each other, with domain agents for the provision of expert services, and with the human designer. Facilitator agents listen in on the communications among mentor agents to detect conflicts and moderate arguments. While both of these prototype systems are limited in scope by focussing on the earliest design stages and restricted in their understanding of the inherent complexity of a design state, they nevertheless promise a paradigm shift in computer-aided design.

Cheng, Nancy, and Thomas Kvan. "Design Collaboration Strategies." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture, 62-73. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

This paper explains the logistical and technical issues involved in design collaboration and how to address them strategically in projects for design, teaching and research. Five years of arranging projects, studying peer results and involving novices in exchanges point out the benefits and pitfalls of Internet partnering. Rather than a single universal technical solution, multiple solutions exist: Technical means must be tailored to specifics concerning the task and participants. The following factors need to be considered in finding the best fit between technology and group design: 1) Collaboratorsprofiles, 2) Mutual value of produced information, 3) Collaboration structure, and 4) Logistical opportunities. The success of a virtual studio depends upon clear task definition, aligned participant expectations and suitable engagement methods. We question the efforts required in the installation of expensive technologies for communication and visualization. Often technical systems support ancillary and non-beneficial activity.

Cheng, Nancy, and Thomas Kvan. "Design collaboration strategies." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

How can we best use computer technology to facilitate remote design teamwork? From looking at virtual studio collaborations, we propose that multiple solutions exist rather than a single one. In examining both published results and own student projects, we identify the following factors to be considered in finding the best fit between technology and group design: 1) Collaborators' profiles, 2) Mutual value of produced information, 3) Collaboration structure and 4) Logistical opportunities

Mardjono, Fitri. "Development of a decision support system for bamboo building design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Bamboo, the fastest growing woody plant, is used as a common building material in bamboo-growing countries and recently also in non-bamboo-growing countries. In spite of this fact, building designers or users of a building have problems using bamboo as a building material since they lack information and guidance in how to use bamboo. This paper proposes a decision support system (DSS) that might be useful for designers when they design a bamboo building. It presents an early-stage design process of bamboo building and the development of a DSS. The architecture of this system is based on the theory of DSS and knowledge of bamboo that should be integrated in the design process of bamboo building. So there are three components: a DSS, design process, and knowledge of bamboo. The process starts with determination of the building system, database construction of bamboo building parts, and the rule for using bamboo in each building part. The process focuses on systematisation of each design stage and integration of the building parts to construct a monolith bamboo building. The purpose of systematisation is to offer designers a means of categorising problem solving during the design process in terms of, for example, assumption, criteria, alternatives, and acceptable solutions.

De Vries, B., J. Jessurun, and M. Engeli. "Development of an intuitive 3D sketching tool." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

3D sketching is a confusing description of an architectural design means. It is confusing, or even worse apparently wrong, because traditional sketching is inherently a two dimensional activity. Though the final stages of design are currently well support by CAD packages, almost every architect prefers paper and pencil for the early sketching phases. The challenge is to develop a (computer supported) design tool that is as direct and intuitive as paper and pencil. The computer enables us to directly map our spatial mental model into 3D rendered images. As such a new kind of design means is created which is best indicated as an intuitive 3D sketching tool. Within the VR-DIS research programme of the Design Systems group of the Eindhoven University of Technology a tool named DDDoolz has been developed as an experimental 3D sketching tool. This paper will report on the preliminary phase in which several input devices such as mouse, bird and voice were tested. For this purpose simple prototype applications were implemented. Building upon these experiences a functional brief was defined for the sketching tool. The system design will be elaborated in this paper using OO schema techniques. Because of its limited yet powerful functionality, a comprehensive system description can be presented. The application has been used in a first years CAD course. Studentsi experiences will be discussed demonstrating the strengths and weaknesses of DDDoolz. In conclusion, a list of improvements will be presented and the future directions are indicated that will be followed in regard of the continuing research on design and decision support tools.

Coyne, R., J. Lee, and S. Ofluoglu. "E-commerce and on-line product information." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

The spread of the Internet has spurred the recent growth in e-commerce. E-commerce impinges on design in many ways, not least in encouraging the development of new tools for the presentation of product information: that is, information about the products that are used in design projects. (In the case of building design this might include information about standard doors, windows and fittings). In this paper we present our development of three experimental tools for presenting and organising product information. The tools represent stages in the evolution of a prototype we call PLA(id) (Product Library Assistant - Intranet for Designers) involving the use of multimedia authoring, Java, and mobile computing. We discuss our experimental prototypes under several headings derived from what are commonly considered the key features of e-commerce: the marketplace, collaboration (the electronic marketplace as a community), geography (and geographical boundaries), navigation, regulation, integration and media (how in some cases e-commerce provides both the medium of transaction and the medium of delivery). So this account of our experimentation with product information tools provides a way of reviewing issues raised by e-commerce and their importance for design decision support systems.

Uysal, Safak, and Markus Wilsing. "Embodying architecture, studying dance: movement as means of studying body-space relationship." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Body, even at its most still form, is the most violent against the acclamations of architectural space formulated in terms of a “search for the order in the environment”. It leans against the wall, hits the table, falls over the bed, approaches the window case, shakes and trembles in empty space: in short, it moves, it is alive. However violently, the presence of the human being is the fundamental input for the architectural practice since it is an art of creating spaces to enhance the living conditions of the human being. In recognizing the violent character of the body, we must include not only the real bodily movement, but also the extensions of that movement which we make in imagination. In this study, the authors discuss the possibilities of studying theatrical dance in order to understand the body-space relationship, constructing an analogy to the contact improvisation technique. Use of space in performance is examined on a two dimensional model: one dimension marked by body and space at its extremes, and the other marked by the affirmative and the negative types of interaction. The schema provides one with a general categorization that classifies space as (1) background, (2) motivator, (3) partner in dialogue, (4) mental counterpart. The limitations brought about by the universal approach are mentioned at the end, in order to be approached within the following study.

Janssen, Patrick, J. Frazer, and T. Ming-Xi. "Evolutionary design systems: a conceptual framework for the creation of generative processes." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

This paper presents an conceptual framework for the construction of generative mapping processes as a basis for creating active design tools in the domain of architecture. Such generative processes are seen as key components within evolutionary systems that manipulate populations of alternative solutions in order to discover previously unexplored possibilities. Solutions are represented in two forms: as highly encoded genotypes referred to as design seeds and as decoded phenotypes referred to as design proposals. The generative process maps the design seed to the design proposal. The discussion of generative processes is in two parts. In the first part it is argued that any generative process that aims to create a wide range of solutions that differ from each other in fundamental ways must focus on a limited subcategory of possible designs. It is proposed that the endeavour to create active design tools demands that the focus be on the designer's highly personalised style, called a design-schema. The second part discusses how to uncover the essence of an architectural design-schema. In particular, it is argued that implicit and familiar aspects of buildings must be scrutinised in order to reveal the knowledge that is essential to capturing and codifying a design-schema. A range of rationalisations and conceptualisations of built form are presented with examples to illustrate possible routes of analysis. Finally, in conclusion, the possibility of discovering universal generators common to many divers generative processes are discussed.

Findlay, Robert, and Lee Haugen. "From individual inquiry and attention to cohorts to a "collaborative critique": the use of student groups to support individual designers." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

This study explores learning settings and strategies related to design collaboration and critical thinking. To this end, theories of education and of cognitive learning were assembled to describe learning design collaboration. Student perceptions of their learning experiences were then gathered in structured interviews and focus groups, and were analyzed qualitatively for concepts, tendencies, and trends. The study also concerns the effects of collaboration on individual learning. An emphasis of the investigation has been on the context in which a person's mind learns. The activity of learning has been enriched by being in a context in which students can participate in the social construction of knowledge, in this way enhancing the processes of developing knowledge, decision-making, and design. We discovered that a "collaborative critique" evolves during the course of activity of groups of students as they shift from the protective behavior of individual competition, through bargaining away ideas in compromise or subduing differences in consensus building, to critical ideation and the constructive behavior of the "collaborative critique".

Koutamanis, Alexander, and Vicky Mitossi. "Grammatical and syntactic properties of CAAD representations for the early design stages." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

CAAD representations for the early design stages have traditionally focused on aspects apparently relating to design creativity, such as flexible, effortless and rich geometric modelling. However, modelling capabilities are generally unconnected to the control and analysis of design constraints that affect the further development of the design. These usually refer to functional and spatial aspects that are only implicit in a CAAD representation of design “solids”. Moreover, the stability and reliability of control and analysis rely on the grammatical and syntactic quality of the representation. In particular, (a) the grammatical well-formedness of spatial and building primitives, and (b) the syntactic completeness and unambiguity of spatial relations are essential prerequisites to any meaningful analysis of aspects such as fulfilment of programmatic requirements, indoor climate, lighting or human interaction with the built environment. The paper describes a dual spatial and building element representation implemented on top of a standard drawing system. The representation attempts to minimize input requirements, while at the same time providing feedback on the grammatical and syntactic quality of the design description.

Geebelen, Ben, and Herman Neuckermans. "IDEA-l, a prototype of a natural lighting design tool for the early stages of the design process." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

This paper discusses IDEA-l, a new natural-lighting design tool, currently under development, that is meant to offer the architect/designer a digital equivalent for scale models, artificial sky simulators and heliodons. The program is part of the IDEA+ research project at K.U.L. This project, under guidance of Prof. H. Neuckermans, aims at developing a new integrated design environment for architects. The paper starts with a discussion of lighting as a design issue. Next the specifications for the new tool are given. The paper ends with a brief development status.

Bax, Th., H. Trum, and D. Nauta. "Implications of the philosophy of Ch. S. Peirce for interdisciplinary design: developments in domain theory." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Subject of this paper is the establishment of a connection between categorical pragmatism, developed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) through phenomenological analysis, and Domain Theory, developed by Thijs Bax and Henk Trum since 1977. The first is a phenomenological branch of philosophy, the second a theory of interdisciplinary design. A connection seems possible because of similarity in form (three-partitions with an anarcho-hierarchical character), the not-absolute conception of functionality and the interdisciplinary and procedural (participation based action) character of both theories.

Witt, Tom. "Indecision in quest of design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Designers all start with a solution (Darke, 1984), with what is known (Rittel, 1969, 1970). Hans Menghol, Svein Gusrud and Peter Opvik did so with the chair in the 1970s. Not content with the knowledge of the chair, however, they walked backward to the ignorance of the question that has always elicited the solution of chair and asked themselves the improbable question, “What is a chair?” Their answer was the Balans chair. “Until the introduction of the Norwegian Balans (balance) chair, the multi-billion dollar international chair industry had been surprisingly homogeneous. This chair is the most radical of the twentieth century and probably since the invention of the chair-throne itself (Cranz 1998). Design theorists have tried to understand in a measurable way what is not measurable: the way that designers think. Rather than attempt to analyze something that cannot be taken apart, I attempt to illuminate methods for generating new knowledge through ways of seeing connections that are not logical, and in fact are sometimes ironic. Among the possibilities discussed in this dialogue are the methodological power of language in the form of metaphor, the power of the imagination in mind experiments, the power of mythological story telling, and the power of immeasurable intangibles in the generation of the new knowledge needed to design.

Aoki, Yoshitsugu, and Makoto Inage. "Linguistic Operation System for Design of Architectural Form." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

In a process of architectural design, an architect not only draws by himself/herself but also lets another person modify a design by given a linguistic instruction expressing how the design ought to be. In the case of utilization of CAD systems, it is useful if the system modifies the design according to the linguistic instruction. On the other hand, because of the recent increase of the opportunities of designing a building whose roof has complicated curved surface, it extremely takes labor to change the design. This paper proposes a linguistic operation system that modifies a design according to the linguistic instruction of the modification by the user to support design of a complicated form with curved surface. The proposed system is expected to be integrated with a CAD system. First, the system presents a perspective sketch of a designed form. From the values of the design variables that characterize the form in the system, the system calculates the position of the form in "the association image space". Second, the designer puts a linguistic instruction i.e. words as like as "let it be more light" to modify the form. The words used for the instruction have the position in the association image space. In the association image space, the system moves the position of the form to a new position that gets to be near the position of the given word. The system calculates the values of the design variables of the form corresponding to the new position. We need a mapping from every vector representing the position of the changed form in the association image space to the corresponding vector representing the values of the design variables. To find the mapping, we construct a neural network system with three levels. Finally, the system presents a perspective sketch of changed form using the calculated values of design variables.

Orzechowski, M.A., Harry J. P. Timmermans, and B. De Vries. "Measuring user satisfaction for design variations through virtual reality." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture, 278-288. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Virtual Reality (VR), and Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology have become increasingly more common in all disciplines of modern life. These new technologies range from simple software assistants to sophisticated modelling of human behaviour. In this research project, we are creating an AI agent environment that helps architects to identify user preferences through a Virtual Reality Interface. At the current stage of development, the research project has resulted in a VR application - MuseV2 that allows users to instantly modify an architectural design. The distinctive feature of this application is that a space is considered as a base for all user modifications and as a connection between all design elements. In this paper we provide some technical information about MuseV2. Presentation of a design through VR allows AI agents to observe user-induced modifications and to gather preference information. In addition to allowing for an individualized design, this information generalized across a sample of users should provide the basis for developing basic designs for particular market segments and predict the market potential of those designs. The system that we envision should not become an automated design tool, but an adviser and viewer for users, who have limited knowledge or no knowledge at all about CAD systems, and architectural design. This tool should help investors to assess preferences for new community housing in order to meet the needs of future inhabitants.

Orzechowski, M.A., Harry J. P. Timmermans, and B. De Vries. "Measuring user satisfaction for design variations through virtual reality." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

This paper describes Virtual Reality as an environment to collect information about user satisfaction. Because Virtual Reality (VR) allows visualization with added interactivity, this form of representation has particular advantages when presenting new designs. The paper reports on the development of a VR system that supports architects to collect opinions about their design alternatives in terms of user preferences. An alternative to conjoint analysis, that uses statistical choice variations to estimate user preference functions, is developed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Agent technology will be implemented to build a model for data collection, prediction, and learning processes.

Ciftcioglu, Özer, S. Durmisevic, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Multi-objective design for space layout topology." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

A novel method to produce space layout topologies for architectural design is described. From the uniformly distributed design solutions in the solution space the corresponding design requirements are computed according to a given norm and metric function. The system is based on graph representation of the layout so that the desired relations between the pairs of nodes are considered to be independent variables of appropriate series of multivariable functions mapping the requirements into the solution space. The system so established is used as a knowledge-base for robust layout design where knowledge base having been established, the layout design requirements are introduced to the system as design constraints and the output is identified in the multidimensional solution space by means of interpolation. Since the smoothness of the interpolation is guaranteed, robust design layout, in the form of node locations, is obtained.

Madrazo, Leandro. "Networking: media, representation and architecture." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

In this paper we present a pedagogic work, carried out in a third year architecture course, focused on the relationship between teaching content and media. The subject-matter of the course is the concept of representation, an eminently philosophical issue which transcends the limits of a particular discipline. The media that have been used are mostly the web, along with other standard programs to process text and images, create models and animations. The core of this research work is the course “Sistemas de Representación”, which has taken place for the first time in the academic year 1999/00. The course is structured in six themes, each one standing for a system of representation: TEXT, FIGURE, OBJECT, IMAGE, SPACE and LIGHT. Within every system, a variety of topics dealing with the concept of representation are addressed in an interdisciplinary manner. A web based learning environment named NETWORKING has been created especially for the course. This environment allows students to perform a variety of collaborative works: drawing visual and linguistic relationships, developing further the works of other students, and participating in collective processes of form generation and space perception.

Hartog, J.P., Alexander Koutamanis, and P.G. Luscuere. "Possibilities and limitations of CFD simulation for indoor climate analysis." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

With the democratization of information and communication technologies, simulation techniques that used to be computationally expensive and time-consuming are becoming feasible instruments for the analysis of architectural design. Simulation is an indispensable ingredient of the descriptive design approach, which provides the designer with precise and accurate projections of the performance and behaviour of a design. The paper describes the application of a particular class of simulation techniques, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to the analysis and evaluation of indoor climate. Using two different CFD systems as representatives of the class, we describe: relevant computational possibilities and limitations of CFD simulation, the accessibility of CFD simulation for architects, especially concerning the handling of simulation variables, the compatibility of CFD representations of built space with similar representations in standard CAD and modelling systems, including possibilities for feedback, The relations between geometric representation and accuracy / precision in CFD simulation. We propose that CFD simulation can become an operational instrument for the designer, provided that CFD simulation does not become a trial and error game trying to master computational techniques. A promising solution to this problem is the use of case based reasoning. A case base of analyzed, evaluated and verified buildings provides a flexible source of information (guidance and examples) for both the CFD simulation and the designer.

Tüzmen, AyVa. "Process management for collaborative building design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Collaborative building design relies on people working coordinately to accomplish the requirements of a design project. Coordination is achieved by well organized, informed and communicating design teams. However, not all design teams in current design practice are well organized and well informed about where the project stands. This paper introduces a process management system that facilitates the management of the enactment of a collaborative design process. At the highest level, the process management system enables (a) the design teams to describe the design process that will be enacted by the team, (b) the enactment of the design process according to its process definition, (c) the management of the resources required for the enactment of the process. The paper also presents the findings of a validation and verification (V&V) study that is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system in the establishment of a collaborative design environment.

Koutamanis, Alexander. "Recognition of spatial grouping in rectangular arrangements." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Rectangular arrangements are an efficient technique for generating an exhaustive catalogue of a class of designs. Moreover, they offer the possibility of retrieving designs from such a catalogue on the basis of geometric or topological features. The paper describes an extension of the possibilities of rectangular arrangements in indexing and retrieving catalogues of architectural floor plans through the recognition of spatial grouping. Using an adaptation of the chain code, each space in a shape arrangement is labeled in terms of its bilateral geometric relationships with contiguous spaces. This means that each space is maximally labeled as many times as the number of its contiguous spaces. The labels of a space are ordered on the basis of a priority list that reflects the stylistic preferences of the particular design class. Grouping of spaces uses the ordered space labels as criteria. The groups returned by this process agree with human intuitive perception of spatial grouping in the floor plan, as well as with expert architectural knowledge. For example, Palladian floor plans are consistently grouped into a central space group flanked by two symmetric space groups.

Peng, C., C. Cerulli, B. Lawson, G. Cooper, Y. Rezqui, and M. Jackson. "Recording and managing design decision-making processes through an object-oriented framework." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

In this paper we describe our current research into an object-oriented approach to the recording and managing of design decision-making in the processes of building design. The Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process (ADS) project, funded under the Innovative Manufacturing Initiative by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), aims to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD-based Design Decision Support System. The research focuses on how to provide designers with tools for recording and managing the group dynamics of design decision making in a project's life time without intruding too much on the design process itself. In collaboration with Building Design Partnership, a large multidisciplinary construction design practice, we look at design projects that require decision-making on an extraordinarily wide range of complex issues, and many different professional consultants were involved in making and approving these decisions. We are interested in developing an advanced CAD tool that will facilitate capturing designers'rationales underlying their design decision making throughout the project. The system will also enable us to explore how a recorded project history of decision-making can be searched and browsed by members of the project team during and after design development.

Wilsing, Markus, and Tijen Sonkan. "Rediscovering communication through representation." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Design is created or taught in the first step by the “internal” world of human beings, which is afterwards visualised or represented in the “external” one. The “external” world is a representation of the “internal” world, and the “internal world” is a representation of the “external” world. They both depend on each other and influence each other, and can be seen as an instrument of visual communication within and between domains. Man throughout the time stored information in his “insidei which can give us probably an answer to how the representation of our environment came out, and how it guides our lives, our behaviour and health. Many sciences have tried and are still trying to explore the “inside” of man to provide him with health, better satisfaction for his needs and desires. But although all sciences have the well being of human beings as a common aim they have also isolated themselves from each other. Due to this, it can be said that there is a lack of exchange of knowledge and it only shows that an interdisciplinary movement is necessary. In this paper, a research that was conducted at Bilkent University in the year 2000 will be utilised to clarify these statements about the perception and representation of space by the help of colours and forms.

Hendricx, Ann, and Herman Neuckermans. "Setting objects to work: adding functionality to an architectural object model." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Several research initiatives in the field of product modelling have produced static descriptions of the architectural and geometrical objects capable of describing architectural design projects. Less attention is paid to the development phase in which these static models are transformed into workable architectural design environments. In the context of the IDEA+ research project (Integrated Design Environment for Architectural Design), we use the object-oriented analysis method MERODE to develop and describe both an enterprise (or product) model and a functionality model. On the one hand, the enterprise model defines the architectural and geometrical objects, their methods and their relation with other objects. On the other hand, the functionality model organizes the functionality objects - ranging from single-event objects to complex-workflow objects - in a layered and easily expandable system. The functionality model is created on top of the enterprise model and closes the gap between the static enterprise model and the dynamic design environment as a whole. After a short introduction of the envisaged design environment and its underlying enterprise model, the paper will concentrate on the presentation of the higher-level functionality model. Elaborated examples of functionality objects on the different levels will clarify its concepts and proof its feasibility.

van Loon, Peter. "Team design from the individual points of viewa humanistic approach." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

This paper deals with design in teams from the individual points of view of all the parties involved in the process: principals, investors, owners, specialists, experts, advisors, officials, builders, users and residents. Taken together, these different points of view enable us to describe decentralised design in its pure form. Discussion of the individual points of view is possible only if one assumes that the parties involved have their own standpoints in the form of a collection of definable goals (all their wishes, efforts, principles, standards etc), that they will endeavour to achieve those goals and that they will adjust their actions and decisions during the design process to serve those goals. For the elaboration of this individual point of view (of team design in a matrix structure) I shall take as a basis two concepts from decision theory: “methodological individualism” and “the actoris viewpoint”.

Achten, Henri, and Jos van Leeuwen. "Towards generic representations of designs formalised as features." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Nijkerk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Feature-Based Modelling (FBM) is an information modelling technique that allows the formalisation of design concepts and using these formal definitions in design modelling. The dynamic nature of design and design information calls for a specialised approach to FBM that takes into account flexibility and extensibility of Feature Models of designs. Research work in Eindhoven has led to a FBM framework and implementation that can be used to support design.. Feature models of a design process has demonstrated the feasibility of using this information modelling technique. To develop the work on FBM in design, three tracks are initiated: Feature model descriptions of design processes, automated generic representation recognition in graphic representations, and Feature models of generic representations. The paper shows the status of the work in the first two tracks, and present the results of the research work.