Keywords Abstract
Tweed, Christopher. "A Computing Environment for CAAD Education." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 136-145. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. This paper describes a modelling system, MOLE (Modelling Objects with Logic Expressions), and its use as a computing environment for teaching architectural undergraduates. The paper also sketches the background to MOLE's development as a medium for research, and identifies benefits conferred on research and teaching through their common interest in MOLE. Teaching at EdCAAD is conducted in what is chiefly a research milieu. Hence our teaching methods exploit the products and experience of research. But the partnership is mutually rewarding, because teaching informs future research efforts through the experience gained from using MOLE. At present, our teaching concentrates on a ten-week elective course for fourth year architectural undergraduates. The main component of the course requires each student to program a simple application related to architectural design. Applications normally require a programming language with access to graphics routines, and in previous years we have used C or, more recently, Prolog with their graphics extensions. For the past two years MOLE has fulfilled this need. The paper begins by explaining the evolution of our approach to CAAD, leading to the development of the description system, MOLE. Section two outlines the main features of the version of MOLE which has been extended to provide a comprehensive computing environment for programming simple architectural applications. MOLE in use is the subject of section three which is illustrated with examples drawn from students'coursework projects and exercises. This is followed by a discussion of the lessons learned from teaching which highlight areas of MOLE's development that need more study. A concluding section summarises what has been learned, and poses vital questions that require answers before we can expect widespread acceptance of CAAD in practice.
Wagter, Harry. "A New Generation Needs New Tools (A Proposal for a Joint Effort)." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 323-327. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. After an introduction describing the present situation on computer- programs used in learning environments, some remarks are made on what future programs should look like. Although the design and the building process are both extremely complex, a proposal is made to carry out a project in a joint effort among ECAADE members to achieve a new generation of learning tools. These tools should also be of good service in a consulting environment.
Brown, Andre. "A Year's Experience with CATIA and CADAM." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 16-Jul. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. In June 1985 Liverpool University obtained the CAD packages CATIA and CADAM to run on its IBM 4341 mainframe. The following is a brief description of the investigations which have taken place in the first year of their implementation to gauge the usefulness of these packages, principalLy as CAAD teaching aids. Neither CATIA nor CADAM were initially developed as architectural design aids so a matter of initial concern was their appropriateness for teaching (and possibly research) in an architectural environment.
Oksala, T.. "About the Mathematics of Knowledge-Based Design." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 244-252. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The aim of this paper is to enlighten the role of mathematics in architectural planning with the view of CAD-teaching. First attention is focussed on the general development in planning methodology and technology. Planning mathematics provides for the basic tools to support mastering this development. Finally the common possibilities of exact methods and CAD-technology are characterized.
Bridges, Alan. "Alternative Approaches Towards the Teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Design." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 331-340. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The problems of architectural education in general and CAD education in particular are discussed. The paper suggests that the computing requirements of architectural practice are different to those of architectural education and that much of the software used in schools of architecture is not used in an educationally structured way. A number of proposals for the educational use of computers are made, together with recommendations for a common computing environment.
Schiavoni, Ugo. "An Areal Data Management Package." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 295-304. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986.

The Areal Data Management Package was created to fulfill the need for a data manipulation system on the basis of a grid cell data structure. The package was originally developed for use by research operators in land planning and natural resources. Over the past three years the package has been used extensively by various users, including students under and postgraduates. The ADM has been designed for users having no experience with computers, but it does assume understanding of resources and land planning information. The specific manipulative capabilities of ADM Package are designed to help land use planners analyze the natural and man-made characteristics of an area. The ADM is intended as a tool to manage spatially disposed thematic and categorical information, in many cases supplementing or analysis.

Cipriani, Roberto, and Anna Decri. "Approaching CAAD at Facolta' di Architettura, Genova." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 213-222. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986.

This paper describes a few aspects of the current research and teachings in the field of CAAD in the School of Architecture at the University of Genoa. In particular it analyses the capacity of a small system, which a single professional can afford and which provides a simple approach for the teaching of automatic drawing. This analysis has not yet been completed because it is a part of a thesis which is currently being written.

Cajati, Claudio, and Lucia Calandro. "Architectural analysis of buildings in order to choice new functional destinations: an application of computer graphics for Faculty of Architecture's students." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 17-19. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The research tries to give a little but meaningful answer to the specific context of the Faculty of Architecture of Naples. Such a context presents a delay of teachers and researchers, in their teaching and researching activity, in beginning the CAAD way. Often the delay is due to a wrong attitude: a too high or too low expectation towards the use of the computer. In such a situation, the chief target of the research is the student of architecture. It is possible and useful to address a clear message, by a simple educational material, just to the student of architecture, not necessarily by producing a software or modifying some existing one, but also applying a given available software to an important architectural question.  
Salvemini, Mauro. "Automatic Methods of Data Presentation for Planning Analysis and Urbanistic Applications." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 275-284. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. Urbanistics and land analysis on different scales both have a basic need: processing an ever increasing amount of data and numerical information. This might seem extremely easy to handle especially where we have computer at our disposal, but unfortunately that is not true. The great wealth of data and information now available means that on one hand an unarrestable process is set in motion whereby more and more data are required but the analysis and consultation of this data becomes longer, more complex and laborious as the amount of data increases. There is also the danger that data produces more data and gives way to a process which can be endless. The planner must also make quick decisions on what is happening and use several target analyses based on a vast quantity of data which he must process with the automatic system available. There must always be strict compatibility between the available data processing system and the quantity of data. The representation of data in image form is an important aid in carrying out correct analyses as well as in decision making. Basically it is a question of making synthetic, decisional use of information contained in raw data. Systems which can process data visually are practically indispensable in urbanistics.
Praderio, Giorgio. "CAAD and Didactic in Bologna." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 111-120. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986.

Among the didactic directions of professional training, which Architecture and Urban Science Institute includes, CAAD is set in the courses of Drawing 2 (2nd year of degree course) and Architectural Design 2 (5th year): both ones belong to the didactic turn “compositivo”(drafting + design + project). In the course of Drawing 2, CAAD is presented in a simple, first step way: the most emphasized aspects are technology and description (especially graphic, in 2D, 2.5D, 3D) of objects and places. In the course of Architectural Design 2, CAD experience becomes project appliance and therefore simulation and modelling. The didactic direction, which appears from that, suggests then to consider Drawing as description of objects (in the steps of project process) explored as knowledge, generation,valuation and decision.

Barduzzi, Ondina, and Carlo Pascolo. "CAD System (Computer Aided Design) for the Planning of the Territory, with Reference to the Automatical Estimate of Works of Urbanization." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 167-179. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. Any applied research, no matter what discipline is concerned, needs affined and suitable tools, as regards the studies in the field of architecture and planning, the use of automatic systems of analysis, data ordering and comparison is of particular interest. The quickness of operations by means of computers and the corresponding graphical representation gives new possibilities for scientific work, once impossible, not certainly because of conceptual limits, but practically, for the limits of available tools. It is the wideness of applications of computers to be pointed out, for although studied for scientific reasons, their practical usefulness is often enormous. This has been generally verified. It guilts in particular for the CAD System, proposed and explained in this paper. The practical utility this and other systems from the same field have for the public administration, contractors and consultants is well known and therefore not necessary to be described further. The use of such systems is particularly convenient in those sectors where the graphical representation is the basic part of the production process.
Picone, Marcello. "Computer Aided Architectural Operational Planning." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 258-274. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986.
Howes, Jaki. "Computer Education in Schools of Architecture and the Needs of Practice." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 45-48. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. In April 1985  there was a meeting (at Huddersfield Polytechnic) or representatives from 26 Schools of Architecture. At this, concern was expressed about the lack of direction from the RIBA with regard to the appropriate level of computer teaching on architectural courses. In addition, it was felt that it was essential that at least one member of a Visiting Board panel should be computer literate and in a position to give advice. These points were raised at the RIBA Computer Committee later in 1985, and the committee's attention was also drawn to comments contained in the report by HM Inspector on Public Sector Education in Architecture (1985) based on investigations made during 1984.
Herzen, Michel. "Computer Science within the Department of Architecture." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 49-51. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The purpose of this short talk is to reveal the didactic option taken by DA-SFIT in the face of the rise of computer science and CAAD.
Sasada, Tsuyoshi. "Computer-Generated Animation for Architecture and Urban Design." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 285-294. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. Computer-generated animations are going to be a powerful design medium. During the last two years, we have created more than 10 animated films by using the computer. The purpose of animation varies as the case, however it is always related to the architecture and urban design. Using these computer-generated animation films, we edited a video tape of 54 minutes. Along with the video tape, this report shows our works in four parts with pictures taken from the films.
Laing, Lamond. "Computers in Architectural Education." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 71-77. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. Throughout Europe there is a rapidly growing volume of initiatives towards integrating computer aids within all aspects of education. In architectural education, the support offered by these initiatives presents a double-edged sword. On the one hand it is gratifying to see the work of almost two decades of CAAD research bearing fruit and the concepts gaining recognition by the profession. On the other hand the resulting pressures on the few individuals with the necessary knowledge to implement the teaching will stretch many to breaking point. Where resources are so limited it is crucial to clarify the needs and objectives and, thereby, more effectively direct resources. These needs will change over time and, in the world of computers, the means are also changing rapidly as hardware and software improves. This paper therefore outlines a scenario which I believe is relevant at this point in time but the background is constantly changing and I offer no apologies for any shift in emphasis since my last presentation of this topic in 1983.
Calderaro, V., A. Giangrande, P Mirabelli, and E Mortola. "Decision Support Systems (DSS) in Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD)." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 20-38. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The paper describes a new procedure of design management and the results of its application to architectural design in an exercise developed in a didactic context. The procedure requires the participation of all “actors” (i.e. designers, experts, clients, users, etc.) involved in the design process and which contribute, directly or indirectly, to obtain the result. By generating and developing alternative design solutions, this procedure allows the exploration of a region of the performances space which is generally more vast than that explored by the traditional designer.
Colajanni, B, A. Cottone, and G. Pellitteri. "Didactic experiences in CAAD." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 341-347. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The question to pose is to know what is possible to do in conditions of scarcity of resources (as this is the endemic condition of many Institutes and Departments in the Italian Southern Universities) in order to obtain an effectual didactic approach to CAAD.
Kroll, Lucien. "Enseigner L'Informatique aux Architectes?" In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 52-70. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986.
Blasi, D., and G. Scudo. "Experience of Output Visualisation in Thermal Performance Analysis and Design." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 186-191. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. GKS didactic application in output visualisation of thermal behaviour simulation in building analysis and design. Energy analysis is performed by BEETA (Built Environment Energy Test and Analysis) code. It is a numerical simulation code which allows to simulate the building multizone thermal behaviour with different passive devices (Direct Gain, Greenhouse, Solar Chimney, Trompe, Convective and Radiative Cooling etc.). The code is based on thermal network theory and methods, the set of thermal equation is normally solved every hour or less by the coefficient matrix inversion method. An interactive loop is provide for dealing with non- linear thermal conductance problems with continuous or step variation (i.e. air mixing through an opening between two spaces, Trompe wall convective loop, etc.) The code allows to take into account urban obstructions and shading devices.
De Cola, Bruno, and Sergio De Cola. "Experience of Thematic Mapping Using Personal Computer." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 223-230. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The work that is presented here is the result of research conducted within and by the “Observatory of territorial and planning transformation” group of the faculty of Architecture at the University of Reggio Calabria, which was formed as a consequence of a commission called Coordination of Territorial Planning (C.T.P) given to the Calabrian University by the Regional Government.
Ramaekers, J.M.A.. "Experiences with CAD at the Hogere Technische School te Heerlen." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 121-126. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. In comparison with the educational institutions abroad, the Hogere Technische School can be translated with “Higher Technical Schooli. In Germany it would be ‘Fachhochschule’ The highest level of education at the HTS is similar to the level in the second year of the university. Contrary the university study, the study at the HTS is directed at the professional practice. The HTS is national well-known because of her education in CAD-instructions. at the moment CAD-instruction is best developed at the department of building engineering.
Calderaro, V., and C. Platone. "Information systems and internvention technologies programmed to aid the energy saving within the limits of the existing building property rescue." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 192-201. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986.

In our national territory the rescue of the existing building property is a very important problem. For that reason, starting front the presupposition that the existing buildings, restoration finds its real achievement by means of technological and installing interventions strictly connected with the energy costs and consumptions, this study sets as a planning method on various degrees to analyze, single out and propose the possible solutions based on qualitative and quantitative researches into the thermo-physical behaviour of the above-mentioned buildings. From a research done into the principal building properties related with the different national areas we can single out significant morphological samples and typical technological structures. This first analytical study allows the singling out of significant building models on which it's possible to value the thermal behaviour and possible subsequent restoring interventions by applying computerized mathematical models or by operating diagrams deduced from them. First of all, these mathematical models for simulation allow a valuation of the main thermal parameters (dispersion both in absolute value and in volumetric factor, medium thermal transmittance (U value) of geometrical models deduced from the typical above - mentioned cases.

Carrara, G., and G. Novembri. "KAAD - Knowledge-based Assistance for Architectural Design." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 202-212. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The research being conducted at the CABD LAB at the Department of Building and Environmental Control Technologies is geared to the production of an Expert System for architectural design, which is able to perform interactive design tasks and help to provide accurate and complete description of the buildings in question. The Expert System will control the design process, continually ensuring consistency between the definitions of the designer and a given set of constraints. Accordingly, the System will be able to determine the effects of of definition, performing the choices taken at different stages necessary calculations and checks. The System is based on a general representation of the building objects, from individual components to the whole building defined in terms of a number of hierarchical, topological and functional relational structures resulting from earlier research conducted into the automatic management of architectural design since 1975.
Gero, John S.. "Knowledge-Based Design Systems in Architecture." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 243. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. This paper describes continuing research in the Architectural Computing Unit of the University of Sydney on the development of knowledge-based design systems in architecture. It is broken into three parts: (i) antecedents - how did we get here? (ii) the present - where are we? (iii) a future - where might we go from here?
Stazi, A., P. Munafo, and O. Giampieri. "Proceedings Relative to a Quick Determination of Thermal Performances of Passive Solar Systems." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 305-322. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. In the following report it's reported on a research still going on, which aims at establishing easy to use computing methods to allow to quickly compute the thermal loads at first stage of approximation and the performances of the most significant solar systems, which can be applied private. The research is developing through three steps. In the first step the research team recognised the most and housings occurring in residence building. In the second step, also with regard to the outcomes of the theoretical reference model has been loads and the performances of the passive solar systems have been computed for, when varying a few parameters regarding building typology, alignment of the body of the building, flats layout, walls shape, and so on. In the third step the interval range, where the model can fit into, and the correcting coefficients are set through theoretical and experimental tests.
Capitanio, L., M. Nasoni, E. Piroddi, E Scandurra, and U Schiavoni. "Programs for the Representation of the Territorial DataPrograms for the Representation of the Territorial DataPrograms for the Representation of the Territorial Data." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 39-44. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The programs afterwards briefly described, were used during the courses of Urban Planning of the Department of Building Techniques and Environment Control of Engineering Faculty of Rome. Those programs are chiefly directed to didactic use and to optimization of the graphic representation of regional and urban phenomena. Both those programs make use of censual data from ISTAT stored, by Urban Planning courses teachers, on Univac/ 1100 computer in Interdepartmental Center for Scientific Calculus of Rome First University.
De Grassi, Mario. "Rational Data Model: an Approach for Building Design and Planning." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 231-242. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. A model of the building object utilizing the typical formal structures of the relational data model is presented, which allows interactive design procedures to be foreseen and at the same time the use of the model for a data base containing information on building objects, to be used for normative planning and for building design.
Zelissen, C.. "Report of a CAAD-Course: Curriculum, Results and Revision." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 146-153. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. In 1985 the college of Technology Heerlen started in cooperation with the Academy of Architecture Maastricht a course CAAD on behalf of graduates of both institutes. In this contribution attention is paid to the preparation and frame. The course in 1985 was a great success. After a profound revision the course has started again this year. A report of the experiences by the course developer/co-ordinator.
Barbera, Salvatore, and Gabriele Correnti. "Reticular and Linear Planning of Erecting Yards Aided by Personal Computer." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 157-166. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. This study has been carried out during the Course of Ergotecnica Edile hold at the Instituto Dipartimentale di Architettura e Urbanistica of Catania University, and it has been addressed to the students of the Faculty of Civil Engineering (manufacturing and direction of civil works). The present study aims at instructing the students as refers to planning, through computers, erecting yards. Work-planning is specifically important with reference both to the starting program and to the carrying on of the work. Within this context, workplanning is useful as regard the control and contingent correction of the work. In the latter case, divergencies between work-evolution and forecast are of primary value.
Lawson, B.. "Teaching CAAD at Sheffield University." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 78-87. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The University of Sheffield Department of Architecture has been using Computer Aided Architectural Design in its teaching now for over ten years. During that time there has also been a major research unit in CAAD working in the department and most of the software used in our teaching programme has originated in our own research unit. Our students have now got access to a wide range of CAAD programs including 2D draughting, 3D colour visualisation, environmental analysis, structural design and cost estimating. We have generated our own specialised systems of terrain modelling and intelligent building modelling which link to both the visualisation and environmental appraisal software. Students also have access to data base and word processing software. CAAD has been used in all five years of our course and we also have students working with CAAD during their professional experience years. Over this ten year period we have gradually altered and refined our approach to the educational use of CAAD and this paper will describe this approach and present some of the lessons we have learnt. I want to organise the paper into two main sections, firstly what are we trying to achieve by teaching CAAD on our course, and secondly, how do we fit this into the curriculum and what effect does it have.
McCartney, Allan. "Teaching Computer Aided Architectural Design - Problems of Identity and Support." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 88-96. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. A recent survey carried out in the U.K., which identified the activities in the majority of the Schools of Architecture in the field of CAAD, broadly indicated that whilst most of the schools provided a taught course in CAAD, the nature and extent of the content varied significantly. In many cases, student participation in CAAD was entirely voluntary, whilst in other cases a considerable amount of time was allocated within existing course structures. 
Kalay, Yehuda. "The Impact of CAD on Architectural Design Education in the United States." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 348-355. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) began to appear in schools of architecture in the United States over 15 years ago. By 1982, over 50% of all accredited schools of architecture in North America included some form of CAD in their curricula. This number has continued to steadily increase. For the most part, the use of CAD has been restricted to the few individuals working on special “CAD projectsi and to the researchers developing CAD products. The reasons for this limitation have included the low availability, difficulty of use, restricted access and high cost of the CAD systems, as well as limited faculty and administrative support. Recently, however, partly due to the introduction of micro- computer CAD software, and partly due to the growing awareness of the importance of CAD in architectural education and practice, some schools have begun to introduce CAD as part of the general design curriculum.
Paasi, Jyrki. "The space synthesizer of Helsinki University of Technology." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 253-257. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. Computer technology and CAD are about to change radically the thousands of years of tradition of the architect's work. We are leaving behind the old method of drawing by hand, replacing the pencil with a stylus for pointing elements of mathematical models of projects. We are changing over from two dimensional to three dimensional design. Decisive for the architect to achieve a successful outcome has always been and will always be the visualisation of the project right from its early stages. There is a trend in our time and a risk in the new technology of fragmenting our work and making it more abstract. The new technology is based on the old one and in the beginning its user still has the habits of the old. Therefore the visualisation in present CAD systems and three dimensional design is based on the old plan projections, axonometrics and perspectives. However, there is an essentially better way which happens also to be natural to the new technology and simple to realize using it. This is the spherical projection.
Panunzi, Stefano, and Claudio Sansoni. "Transformations of the Shanberg House - Analysis of a Plan and Planning Experimentations, Using the Instruments of Multicriterial Analysis as Means of Research." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 97-110. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. During the last years some research programs have been developed aiming to analyse a particular architectonic language, using mathematical and informatic instruments. Some of these research programs have as second aim the making of a method for creating a geometrical planning-language: most of these studies are dedicated to the research into the laws which rule the personal style used by an author in certain works. Instead, this research program aims to analyse the planning process, not from the point of view of those who want to reconstruct the laws which describe the stile of a particular author but, by trying to understand the “compositivei process, analysing it by reconstructing the project itself, through a dynamic aggregative process of subsequent parts.
Beretta-Covacivich, N, M. loannilli, M Lazzari, E Scandurra, and U Schiavoni. "Urban Planning Computer Aided Methods." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 180-185. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. In the practice of urban centers analysis and of urban planning projects, a noticeable aspect is the absence of some essential information required in the planning process due to the natural difficulty to manage the numerous data to process.
Roth, J., R. Hashimshony, and E. Ishai. "Using the Computer as a Teaching Aid for Architecture Students - Some Examples." In Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD: 4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 127-135. eCAADe: Conferences. Rome, Italy, 1986. The use of computers has become part of the regular curriculum in many schools of Architecture in the last few years. In addition to specific courses related to basic computer knowledge (e.g.: programming), the computer's main application is in the design studio for evaluating alternatives (e.g.: GOAL, GABLE), or as a drafting aid (e.g.: BIBLE AUTOCAD, ARC+). We believe that using the computer as a regular part of the teaching in all the courses is of great importance. In this paper we present three examples in which the computer was used as a teaching aid in courses not related to the design studio: “Morphology” and “Introduction to lnterior Design”.