Keywords Abstract
Demirel, Füsun. "A Case Study on a Neighbourhood unit Planning in Ankara-Turkey." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

In this study a neighborhood unit which contains 700 dwelling of 6 different types is planned in Ankara-Turkey. The site is at the outside of the boundaries of the main city and it is designed with regard toall daily facilities exept the workplace. This case study is limited to neighborhood units of 3500 persons and incorporates a kindergarden, primary school, health centre, shopping centre, playgrounds, playfield and library within the housing area. The proposed settlement is planned or the middle, and uppermiddle socio-economic classes. The housing project provides its users 6 types of dwellings for their choice: 2 from the houses and 4 from the appartment blocks. They can decide the most suitable typeconsidering the finance and use. The houses are clustered together to encourage social and economical relation of the people living in them.

Brondino, Nair, and António Da Silva. "A comparison of land valuation methods supported by GIS." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The purpose of this work was to study three different strategies for the appraisal of urban land. The first, a theoretical strategy created by the authors of this study to reproduce the common conditions of Brazilian cities, uses increments and reductions in the value of a square meter of land according to each lotis individual features. The second method, based on Multiple Regression techniques, is widely used for valuation purposes. Finally, the effectiveness of Artificial Neural Networks to deal with thiskind of problem is studied. A sample of 157 lots was collected from several neighbourhoods of a small Brazilian city for the case study. The lot features recorded were area, width, shape, distance to the downtown district of the city through the street network, existence of fences and paved sidewalks, and market price. Prediction errors have been estimated for each of the three methods in order to compare their results. Predicted and error values, added to Geographical Information Systems, may be used to build thematic maps and to check how each strategy applies to different areas of the city. The analyses of error values conducted in this study showed that Artificial Neural Networks presented the best performance as a land appraisal method for the case studied.

Yildirim, Ayca. "A Conceptual Model of a Computer Mediated Asynchronous Collaborative Design Environment." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Architectural design practice is a collective work of different levels of expertise. Collaborative design relies on seamless meshing of specialists with different levels of expertise, skills and views. Research oncollaborative design suggests various methodologies for supporting synchronous or asynchronous communicative practices of designers in reviewing and analyzing design decisions at different stages of thedesign process. However, they do not address the provision of an action platform that would enable collaborative group decision making in architectural design. There are four requirements for this platform:1) sharing of design decisions among designers, 2) sharing of design rationale among designers, 3) detecting conflicts among design decisions, and 4) sharing of designers responses to design decisions. This paper presents a conceptual model of an asynchronous collaborative design environment that implements methodologies for addressing these requirements.

Assaf, S.. "A Decision Support System (DSS) for Forward Housing Planning." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper presents a specification of a Local Housing Strategy Decision Support System (LHS-DSS) (Conceptual and Physical model design). Emphasis throughout the design process is laid on the techniques that provide housing planners with accurate rapid assistance during the preparation process of local housing strategy. Relevant knowledge (descriptive, procedural, reasoning) and data about each step of the process, options for each situation as it arises, and a record of decisions made with underlying reasons are provided to system users. Three main components are identified to shape up the LHS-DSS: the language system for addressing housing problems, knowledge system which is responsible for gathering and accumulating the housing knowledge required, and problem processing system (an inquiry system) which produces suitable and effective recommendations to support the strategy preparation process.

Smeets, Jos J. A. M., and Stephan Mausse. "A decision support system for housing management." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The paper deals with the decision making process in relation to housing management. The DSS was developed in favour of several Dutch housing association and has been implemented in their organisation. For the purpose of strategic management the developed system includes an integration of object related technical, commercial and financial data.Firstly we enter on the context in which decision making takes place. Then we will make some remarks on strategic housing management. Thirdly we go into the data input of the Decision Support System. The following conditions are used in a 'decision table':- a Rentability Index (RI)- the trend in the RI- the tenant's appreciation- the intended target group- the investment policy- the possibility to increase the rent based on these conditions the most appropriate strategy has been selected as output. The output also shows the urgency of a problem. The developed DSS-system supports decision making on the level of dwelling estates as well as on the level of the whole portfolio. This paper has been confined to DSS on the level of a dwelling estate. Finally we will go into the automation of the system and the implementation at the organisation of housing associations.

Sidjanin, Predrag, and Waltraud Gerhardt. "A design tool for analysis and visual quality control of urban environments supported by object databases." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

In the paper, the main concepts about a design tool supported by an object database system will be described. The design tool should improve architectural design with respect to analysis and improving existing and planned urban environments regarding several quality criteria, especially those associated with visual aspects. Preconditions for defining the design tool's purpose are the determination of the "well-situated" urban elements, their impact on cognitive mapping, and the exploitation of thisknowledge on cognitive mapping for the improvement of urban environments. Cognitive mapping is a kind of representation of schematic knowledge that a person has about familiar environments. A cognitive map is stored information or knowledge about the purpose and function of the environment. This leads to the conclusion that an urban environment design which takes of the process of cognitive mapping into consideration, will be experienced by most of the people in the same way. Investigationsof this process result in a theoretical model of elements of urban environments, their relationships and their dependencies. The theoretical platform of the tool is based on design theory, cognitive science and computer science. Design theory and cognitive science will be used to develop the theoretical model. This theoretical model together with computer science will be the basis for tool development. The tooluses a schematic representation of urban environment, based partly on Lynch's theory of "urban form". Lynch's theory is crucial for the tool because it explains almost all elements of urban environments. Systematic investigation of urban environments and their characteristics are important for theoretical modelling as well as for the later computational modelling of the tool. The main computational support for the tool will be provided by an object database system, which helps to represent and to handle all the urban elements with their properties and relationships, with their natural semantics. The information represented in the database will be used to analyze urban environments as well as to improve and control their visual quality.

Achten, Henri, and Jos van Leeuwen. "A Feature-Based Description Technique for Design Processes: a Case Study." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

In order to develop appropriate tools for decision support in design processes, it is necessary to found them on an understanding of design. Analytical techniques of design processes that have a direct relationship with tool development can enhance design support systems development. The paper focuses on a design support system in the VR-DIS research program. The aim of this research program is to develop insight in the architectural design process and to establish design tools for architectsworking in Virtual Reality. The basic approach for data modelling in VR in this research is based on an extension of the Feature Based Modelling paradigm taken from design in mechanical engineering. The computer model of the design in the system is a Feature-based model. This paper describes design processes in terms of changes in the Feature-based model of the design. For this purpose, a case of a house design is used. Drawings in the conceptual design phase up to the preliminary design phase arestudied. Each state of the drawings is described in terms of a Feature-model. Particular design actions such as creation of spaces, definition of architectural elements, and changes during the design process can be expressed in terms of changes in the Feature-model. Because of the use of Features, the changes can be formalised in the VR-DIS system. The description in terms of Features offers an analytical toolthat leads to a functional brief for design support tools. The paper ends with a discussion of implications and future work.

Hendricx, A., B. Geebelen, B. Geeraerts, and Herman Neuckermans. "A methodological approach to object modelling in the architectural designprocess." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The paper describes a first prototype constructed in search for a central object model. It presents all possible data, concepts and operations concerning the architectural design process in the early phases. A central model of the process of design is essential: going from one design phase into another, the model describes geometrical shapes, abstract concepts like space and activity, concrete physical building elements and the basic operations all these entities undertake. Emphasis is put on combining all these different viewpoints, thus enabling the designer to use a broad range of design strategies. The aim is to help him and not steer or even hamper his creative process. Information necessary toassist the user of the system concerning energy calculation, stability checks etc can be extracted. By means of appropriate interfaces not only those tests built on top of the system but also existing software packages can make use of the modelis object structure. The implemented object model is one of the cornerstones of the IDEA+ project, aiming to provide an Integrated Design Environment for Architecture.

Mahdavi, Ardeshir. "A Middle Way to Integration." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Integration in computer-aided design denotes systematic incorporation of multiple domain applications within a unified computational design support environment. At one end of the spectrum of integration efforts, there is a top-down approach involving an all-encompassing maximal building representation. On the other end, there is bottom-up approach involving the ad hoc and as-needed production of translator and mediator routines to enable various existing applications to communicate with each other. This paper describes the development of a design support system which represents a middle way to integration: while it assumes that, at a fundamental level, some shared notation of the constitutive building entities and their spatial relationships is sine qua non, it assumes that this notation is not a primary necessity, but must be tested against the requirements of the "down-the-line" manipulators of the entities encapsulated by it.

Osaragi, Toshihiro, and Naoko Kurisaki. "A Model of Land use Conversion and Its Application." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

A quantitative model for analyzing the spatial distribution of land use utility is proposed. This model is based on the random bidding theory in which location behaviour is decided according to the size of utility to be obtained. The utility function used here consists of the benefit and the cost in the process of land use transition. The benefit is described as the positive utility that can be obtained by doing the corresponding land use at the place. The cost is described as the negative utility that is necessary for changing the land use from one state to the others. The most likelihood method is generally employed to estimate the parameters of this kind of models. However, we attempt to propose the other statistical method through the mathematical consideration. Using this model, it is possible to obtain the spatial distribution of land use utility that differs with the places and with the land use states. We can also evaluate the effects of a change of land-price or construction costs on our utility. Namely, our location behaviour can be estimated numerically relating with the social or economic factors. As numerical examples, we apply the proposed model to the actual land use data and access the effectiveness of the model.

van Leusen, M., and V. Mitossi. "A practical experiment in representation and analysis of buildings." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The TYPOLOGY project was set up by the Dutch Government Building Agency (GBA) to explore computerised representations of buildings that allow analysis of various aspects of their performance. So far this project produced the RF-model, an abstract computerised representation.Physical elements of the building are not represented as such, only individual spaces and boundary segments along which they are adjacent are represented explicitly. Spaces can have any number of functional properties such as the general category of floor area they are included in, the activities they accommodate, or the particular safety compartment or circulation system they belong to. Similarly, boundary segments may, for example, provide access or view, may be included in a particularcategory, such as interior walls, or in a safety or security barrier.The RF-model enabled the presentation and quantitative analysis of design proposals for large and complex buildings such as courts of justice and prison buildings. The model is also used in a multiaspect analysis of a series of recently erected Dutch prison buildings. We expect that these first results will develop into a rich and professional precedent-based system, to be used in the early stages of design. The strategic goal of the project is to derive from the accumulated models and their analysis a more general understanding of the relations between a buildingis actual characteristics and various aspects of its performance.

Demirel, Füsun. "A Research on Housing in Ankara-Turkey." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The subject of this research contains an opinionnaire study and its results obtained from 30 houses in Ankara-TURKEY in which the people have middle and upper middle income so as to identify their favourites and criticsm about housing, regarding to their both houses and environment as well as tomake the definition of ideal houses and environment. Totally 30 subjects of which 21 are female and 9 are male which represent middle and upper middle incomed people. The average age of the subjects whose age range vary between 21 and 70 is 41. In the study, firstly, the opinionnaire questions were prepared and the housing in which the middle and upper middle incomed people live were determined as socio-economic level to be examined. Next permission and time reservation were requested fromthe owner's of housing to implement the study. During the times which have been determined by the subjects, the following procedure has been followed reading of the opinionnaire forms by myself and recording of responses of the subjects exactly, drawing of reliefs and plans of house, taking pictures of outer views and surroundings of housings. Tendencies of users'against various conditions have been transformed into numerical values from 1 to 7 in a scale with 7 column. In the light of above information, Considering the country conditions it was observed that these housing were excessivelylarge and were built for ostentation purposes, not for functional purposes. Usefulness, that is to say, design of house is in the bottom of the criteria list and it is not an important factor to choose the house, form another part of interesting findings of this study. Another significant result has been observed due to users desire about their house. Although the rising of design which was in 6th rank among the reasons to prefer a house was not an effective criteria on users'attitudes merely to have ahouse, this criteria was the 1st rank (87 %) among reasons due to the advantages that were provided for the users with respected to design and functionality as a result of meticulous studies of architects. Users' criticisms on their vicinity have shown variations according to their sexes.As a result of this research that were initiated to define the ideal house and environment concepts, interesting and detailed data about users' tendencies in the scope of both house and settling are available in “Findingsi part of this study. Rising of desing criteria which was the 6th rank amongcriteria's to choose a house, to 1st rank has brought the following conclusion: since the users are not able to act consciously due to the consideration of the properly owing action much more important, the main duty here is performed by the planner. Hence, starting from the assumption that users living in housings are extremely sensitive to their houses and especially environments, provision of public participation via this kind of opinionnaire studies while creating new environments, may contribute to create such environments in which people can live.

Ruokolainen, Anne, and Herman Plat. "A System for Optimizing Private House Owner's Spendings and Benefits." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Investment decisions about privately-owned houses are usually based on limited investment budget and vague information about choice alternatives available. Since a household buying a dwelling has to compare the housing expenditure with other expenditures, the financial consequences of the housing investment should be transformed on an annual basis. Furthermore, to be able to make a choice out of various choice alternatives within the annual housing budget, the annual costs of the most importantattributes have to be calculated separately. Cost information about the choice alternatives should be used in combination with their utility in order to be able to allocate the householdis budget. The cost information is objective while utility depends on an individual household. As a consequence, the household should determine its own utility scale. This is accomplished by defining a willingness to pay amount for each choice alternative using a bidding game. The willingness to pay amount reveals the maximum additional amount of money the household is willing to pay for an additional quantity orquality of a certain attribute. In order to maximise the total utility within the budget, the ratios of marginal utility to marginal cost for the attributes have to be compared. The definition of subjective utilities as willingness to pay amounts has drawbacks. Future research should improve the system as concerns utility measurement for the decision support of individual households.

Vakalo, Emmanuel-George, and A. Fahmy. "A Theoretical Framework for the Analysis and Derivation of Orthogonal Building Plans and Sections." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Architects are generally perceived as "Formgivers with an extraordinary gift" (Ackerman, 1980:12). Implicit in this statement is the belief that the operations that architects employ to compose their designs are the product of a creative faculty that is beyond the reach of rational discourse, and thereby cannot be subjected to logical investigation. This view is detrimental to the advancement of knowledge about architectural composition and adversely affects both practice and education in architecture. More specifically, it prevents the architectural community from acquiring of a more refined conception about how architects derive their designs. In contrast to this view, this study demonstrates that architectural form-making is amenable to logical analysis. In specific, this is to be done through a theoretical and computational framework that describe and explain the tasks involved in the making of orthogonal building plans and sections. In addition to illustrating the susceptibility of architectural form-making to logical analysis, the frameworks proposed in this study overcome the limitations of previously established theories thatdeal with architectural form-making. These can be divided into two categories: normative and positive theories.Normative theories include architectural treatises and manifestos. A major limitation of normativetheories is that they have limited explanatory power. Their concern is with promoting a specific aesthetic ideology and prescribing rules that can be used to derive compositions that conform to it. Therefore, they cannot be used to explain form-making in general. Positive frameworks, such asshape grammar, rely on rules to describe derivation and analysis processes. Nevertheless, they do not provide a comprehensive description of the tasks involved in architectural form-making. This causes the relation between the rules and compositional tasks to be ambiguous. It also affects adversely the ability of these frameworks to provide architects with a complete understanding of the role of compositional rules in derivation or analysis processes.

Coomans, M.K.D., and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "A VR User Interface for Design by Features." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

We present the design of a Virtual Reality based user interface (VR-UI). It is the interface for the VR-DIS system, a design application for the Building and Construction industry (VRDIS stands for Virtual Reality - Design Information System). The interface is characterised by a mixed representation of the task domain: an analogue “mock-up view” is being integrated with a descriptive “feature view”. It uses a Fish Tank VR configuration which integrates the virtual objects in the designer's normal working environment. The issues underlying the design of the feature view are discussed, as well as the choice of input devices.

Coomans, M.K.D., and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "A VR-User Interface for Design by Features." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

We present the design of a Virtual Reality based user interface (VR-UI). It is the interface for the VR-DIS system, a design application for the Building and Construction industry (VRDIS stands for Virtual Reality - Design Information System). The interface is characterised by a mixedrepresentation of the task domain: an analogue “mock-up view” is being integrated with a descriptive “feature view”. It uses a Fish Tank VR configuration which integrates the virtual objects in the designeris normal working environment. The issues underlying the design of the feature view are discussed, as well as the choice of input devices.

Fukui, H.. "An Example of Visualization for Urban Economic Scenery andUrban Modeling using GIS." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper presents a zone-based urban model to forecast population distribution and land use transition. A GIS model has been suggested for urban economic scenery forecasting by using data related to an urban environment like Tokyo in Japan. The model has structural simplicity, visibility and applicability of policy analysis.

De Vries, B., and A.J. Jessurun. "An Experimental Design System for the Very Early Design Stage." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The concepts of the experimental design system that are discussed are feature modelling and geometrical constraints. The main technique for creating the user environment is Virtual Reality. Feature modelling forms the basis for managing the design data. To start with, data storage is implemented in a Relational Data Base Management System. Along with this a (traditional) interface is developed for managing the data. Data management consists of feature type creation and feature type instancing. Features are used to define building elements, their relationships and additional constraints. Apart from the design data, geometrical data are stored. Possible design solutions can be limited using geometrical constraints. Specifying connection types between building elements result in a set of solutions for the position of the bounding boxes of the building elements in space.

De Vries, B., and A.J. Jessurun. "An experimental design system for the veryearly design stage." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The concepts of the experimental design system that are discussed are feature modelling and geometrical constraints. The main technique for creating the user environment is Virtual Reality. Feature modelling forms the basis for managing the design data. To start with, data storage is implemented in a Relational Data Base Management System. Along with this a (traditional) interface is developed for managing the data. Data management consists of feature type creation and feature type instancing. Features are used to define building elements, their relationships and additional constraints. Apart from the design data, geometrical data are stored. Possible design solutions can be limited using geometrical constraints. Specifying connection types between building elements result in a set of solutions for the position of the bounding boxes of the building elements in space.

Holmberg, Stig. "Anticipation in Evaluation and Assessment of Urban and Regional Plans." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

In order to start a move toward better computer based supporting tools for the assessment of urban and regional plans, a new research and development endeavour is proposed. In so doing, anticipation andanticipatory computing, i.e. a technique applying modelling and simulation, is found to be an interesting and promising point of departure. Hence, a fuzzy cellular automata computer model (STF) for simulation and anticipation of geographical or physical space is constructed. The main idea is to map anurban plan onto the STF for its assessing. STF has a normalised and continuous, i.e. fuzzy, system variable while both the time and space dimensions take on discrete values. Further, while ordinary cellularautomata use local rules, global ones are employed in STF, i.e. there is a total interdependence among all the cells of the automata. Outcomes of STF can be interpreted more as possible future states than exact predictions. Preliminary results seem to be well in line with main characteristics of planned urban or regional geographical spaces. Further, for the managing of multi-criteria choice situations, a fuzzy procedure - the Ordered Weighted Average (OWA) procedure - with continuous control over the degree of ANDOR-ness and with independent control over the degree of tradeoff, is proposed.

Kovács, László, and István Kotsis. "Basic Concepts and Prototypes of a Land Usage Design and Decision Support System." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper presents the basic ideas of a computer system for supporting urban design and decisions on land use. We argue, that the high complexity of urban design - inherent in the its large number of interdependent views and aspects - seems to justify a flexible support system capable of reasoning and conceptual modelling. Such a system may be prohibitively resource demanding unless we are able to build it up from smaller and larger modules of different types and functionality and which canbe created basically in an incremental way without a complete plan in advance. Two prototypes concerning urban designs and a small flexible design rule interpreter/handler is presented for free standing buildings.

Mallory-Hill, Shauna. "Building a Case-Based Design Assistant forWorkplace Environment Design." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper reports on the early stages of development of a case-based design tool. The purpose of this tool, called the Workplace Environment Design Advisor (WEDA), is to support architects in the conceptual design of workplace environments. The objective of this system is to provide electronic storage, retrieval and the exploration of post-occupancy performance knowledge of workplace environments. The paper provides a description of the reasoning behind choosing a case-based approach and thesteps used to develop a prototype case-based system. This includes recent efforts to collect and structure real case data. This experience led to observations about issues such as case content (the availability and format of post-occupancy data) and retrieval strategies. The data collected for use in the system is based on a building-in-use study of the Centre ofBuilding Researchis office rooms located at the University of Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

Barbanente, A., E. Conte, and V. Monno. "Changing trends and approaches in human and computer modelling for social housing policies." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The paper discusses conceptual issues, goals and preliminary results of an on-going research which aims at building a Decision Support System for public housing environmental oriented maintenance and management in a city in Southern Italy, Bari. Traditional post-war Italian housing policies are compared with more recent approaches in the field, pointing out the change from quantitative, aggregated, more simple building problems and related approaches to qualitative, differentiated, complex ones integrating social, economic and environmental dimensions with the aim of regenerating deteriorated residential areas. The paper claims for the need shift, both in the human and computer areas, from traditional quantitative models to new approaches able to manage also qualitative variables, temporal dynamics, emergencies, and intentionality, since they appear key aspects of the real world to be modelled. The housing estate of Bari and its needs of maintenance and management are examined, eliciting essential related knowledge using the interview technique. The clear orientation towards sustainable policies for urban regeneration, at a local, national, and Community level, is also considered. The innovative and collaborative nature of such policies and the attention to be paid to the social aspects ofthe problem require a complex DSS, integrating various kind of hypertexts, information systems and case-based fuzzy expert systems, whose main aims, functions, software and general organisation are outlined in the paper.

Boelen, A.J., and Hermen van der Lugt. "Communication of design parameters within groups." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper discusses the facilitation of worldwide concurrent design within the domains involved in environmental planning, urban design and civil engineering. Typical projects in these domains require the collaboration of many experts. Each of these has his reference framework for the taskat hand and for the variables used. The amount of variables makes it impossible for each project participant to take account for all possible impacts of proposed or planned actions. The typical project demands for a concurrent design process that enables all participants to concentrate ontheir domain of expertise. On the other hand the design process should enable them to have insight in the problems, within the domains of other experts. The system should provide a generic environment with the ability to attach domain specific knowledge. By providing this support thesystem integrates knowledge specific to various expert domains.In the PortPlan project within the LWI organization a system is being developed that supports the integration of various reference frameworks involved in environmental planning. We no longer need to develop a common language for the users. The system contains a dynamic set of scalebound reference objects for the domains involved. The system facilitates the communication of object characteristics. It also supports the presentation of these objects, in legends for each participant involved.We achieve the communication between participants using a dynamic legend. We also enable all participants to become informed on the interests of other participants. We achieve the technical communication using the exchange of interventions. We do not exchange results. This leads to alow "network traffic load" and thus enables the system to operate within the current Internet infrastructure. In this paper we present the problem area of concurrent design in environmental planning. We present this describing the background of our project, describing the overall architecture of the system and presenting the first findings of user studies.

Akin, Ömer, Z. Aygen, M. Cumming, M. Donia, R. Sen, and Y. Zhang. "Computational Specification of Building Requirements in theEarly Stages of Design." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

We have been exploring computational techniques to help building designers to specify design requirements during the early stages of design. In the past, little has been accomplished in this area either in terms of innovative computational technologies or the improvement of design performance. The prospect of improving design productivity and creating a seamless process between requirements specification and formal design are our primary motivations. This research has been conducted as partof a larger project entitled SEED (Software Environment to Support Early Phases in Building Design). SEED features an open-ended modular architecture, where each module provides support for a design activity that takes place in early design stages. Each module is supported by a database to store and retrieve information, as well as a user interface to support the interaction with designers. The module described in this paper, SEED-Pro (the architectural programming module of SEED), is a workingprototype for building design requirements specification. It can be used by other modules in SEED or by design systems in other domains, such as mechanical engineering, civil engineering, industrial designand electrical engineering. Our approach to SEED-Pro is divided into two phases: core, and support functionalities. The core functionalities operate in an interactive mode relying on a case-based approach to retrieve and adapt complex specification records to the problem at hand. The supportfunctionalities include the case-base, the data-base, and the standards processing environment for building specification tasks. Our findings indicate that SEED-Pro: (1) is a tool that structures the unstructured domain of design requirements, (2) enables the integration of design requirements with the rest of the design process, (3) leads to the creation of complex case-bases and (4) enables the observation of their performance in the context of real world design problems.

Yildirim, Ayca. "Computer Mediated Collaborative Methodologies for Schematic Design Process." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

In architectural design practice, a number of design participants are involved in the schematic design process. Participants of the schematic design process perform collaboratively or individually conductedactivities at different stages of the design process. Research conducted on computer mediated architectural design systems suggests a variety of computerized methodologies to support participants in performing collaborative activities during schematic design process. Most of the suggested methodologies are designed and ready to be implemented in specific platforms, and others are implemented and anticipated to beevaluated against the requirements of specific architectural design domains. However, there is still no single model to date that satisfactorily meets the requirements of collaborating participants duringschematic design process. Prospective users of the currently available models are obliged to choose among a vast variety of group design support solutions with little information about their potentials and pitfalls. This paper focuses on the identification of the fit between collaborating participants requirements, prospects of design activities and the currently developed computer mediated design paradigms. In this paper, the author discusses the findings of two different researches conducted in two different professional design domains, and identifies the type of actions prevalent to schematic design process. The author introduces an analysis of a number of computer mediated methodologies that are developed to support participants during schematic design process. As a result of this analysis, this paper introduces a classification of computer-mediated methodologies according to their potential support to tasks and activities performed during the schematic architectural design practice.

Dijkstra, Jan, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Conjoint Analysis and Virtual Reality - a Review." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper describes a review of an ongoing research project which aims to develop a conjoint analysis and virtual reality (CA&VR) system as part of a design information system in virtual reality. The research project aims to develop a design system that can be used for interactive design and evaluation of design alternatives. A virtual environment model and dynamic virtual objects representing the different design aspects of interest can present a design. The different design aspects are called attributes. Each attribute level is a different state of the concerned virtual object. In the case of a virtual walk through a building design, the system can be viewed as a visual simulation of the environment. The CA&VR system has the potential advantage that individualsi preferences can be measured indesigned hypothetical choice situations. As part of the ongoing research project, principles underlying the CA&VR system will be illustrated by simple examples. The status of this research project, both in retrospect and in prospect will be described.

Torre, Carmelo, and Francesco Selicato. "Consequences of Interdisciplinary Approaches in the Construction ofKnowledge-Bases." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The character of interdisciplinarity in planning approaches create a new, intriguing, emerging complexity (Funtowitcz and Ravetz, 1994) in problems and in knowledge-structuring of contexts of planning practices. The key-role played by information systems (IS) implicates a re-consideration ofcharacter of knowledge to be used in knowledge-bases. The necessity of considering knowledge domains coming from social, cultural, economical, technical, physical and naturalistic approaches means dealing with different scales of value, with non homogenous parameters. The necessity ofmanaging flexible knowledge rises on the fore as fundamental issue for future information system oriented to supporting decisions. Might information systems be useful in this interdisciplinary approach ? It is necessary to contain in a knowledge-base both quantitative and qualitative information. Three alternatives are available for a conceptual discussion:the possibility of identify new approaches, in order to develop information systems able in managing new knowledge, the necessity of adding new support systems oriented to manage soft knowledge, to traditionalgeographic information systems (GIS), the possibility of non using support systems coming from a technological vision of problem for nontechnical knowledge (Latouche 1996). The first two paragraphs are due to F. Selicato. The third and the fourth paragraph are due to C. Torre.

Halin, Gilles, Jean-Claude Bignon, K. Benali, and C Godart. "Cooperation models in co-design: application to architectural design." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper focuses on cooperation concepts necessary for managing concurrent engineering. It reports on a research work being done in a project which establishes a connection between computer sciences, architecture, and telecommunications research. Simple electronic cooperation paradigms (also called generic cooperation bricks) are found by analysing the current usage of human cooperation in the domainof AEC design environments. We introduce the principles of a middleware to build easily cooperative applications to assist cooperative design. In this approach, the design actors choose cooperation forms by instancing adapted generic cooperation bricks.

Langelaan, Willem. "Criteria for an object oriented library system of high-level parametric CAD elements." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The subject of this paper is the development of criteria and specifications for an object oriented library system of high-level parametric elements that have an integrated 2D and 3D representation. High-level elements are virtual representations of architectural elements such as windows, doors, etc. High-level parametric elements need few components to be flexible and easily customizable. The generalization of each element by its characteristic parts results in a substantial reduction in the number of polygons that must be processed by the computer during the 3D transformation, graphically clean 3D images and low demandon user intervention. Gestalt theory emphasizes the importance of contour lines for the perception of an element. The "minimalist" symbolic representation will simplify contour lines that enhance perception. The inherent flexibility and functionality of object oriented elements are augmented when the elements are rigorously developed as an object oriented library system, with classes and sub-classes of elements which inherit characteristics of the parent-class. Attribute values of a parent-class give the user global control over all instances of that class and its sub-classes in the model's database. The concepts which Systems Theory uses for making an abstraction of reality are analogous to the concepts used in object oriented programming. This paper describes how Systems Theory is used as tool to develop high-level parametric elements as a functionally and computationally efficient library system.

Van Raes, N., B. Cornelis, and J.P. Donney. "Decision Support for Improving Public Transport Network." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

When dealing with accessibility in a public transport network, isochronous maps are the common rule. Those maps are based on shortest distance algorithms run over simple or simplified networks. This contribution aims at representing the actual spatial distribution of the public transport offer in order to improve the usefulness to the urban community and to predict the evolution of the network according to the expected development of the agglomeration. The study combines the street (walking distance)and public transportation (buses) networks. The analyses rely on timetables and road maps completed by the public transportation company (TEC). Moreover, it makes use of built-up areas derived from satellite imagery. The processing requires raster- as well as vector-based procedures which have been achieved notably with the IDRISI software. Nevertheless the implementation of the decision rule relies on an original routine written by the authors. The area of interest concerns a part of the agglomeration of Lige (Belgium), including two secondary poles, highlighting their relation with the centre of the city and with each other. First the paper presents the typology of the public transport routes. Then the methodology elaborated for each transportation type is analysed, the shortest distance routes and their alternatives are extracted and combined within a raster process. The obtained results and their operationality are finally presented and the paper concludes with possible improvements of the methodology.

Reymen, Isabelle. "Design in Architecture, Software Engineering and Mechanical Engineering: a comparative study." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The awareness about the gap between general design theory and design practice is increasing. Design practice is not really served with the results of current design theory. To build a bridge between theory and practice, design researchers should know what is really going on in practice. To explore design practice and to find the most important characteristics of design situations, I have chosen an empirical approach based on case studies in which design projects in different disciplines are compared. In each case study, an individual designer is interviewed and the design documents are analysed. The results in this article are based on two architectural projects, two software-engineering projects and two mechanical-engineering projects. The cross-case analysis has resulted indescriptions of design situations in these disciplines. A preliminary design frame to describe design situations in different disciplines has been derived. Based on similarities and differences in the descriptions, conclusions concerning design theory, design education and design practice are given. The most important conclusions are the following. First, designers are often not aware of their design process, but focus mainly on the product. Second, software designers more often than architects and mechanical engineers use methods to structure their overall design process.

Yyldyrym, Sercan, and Asly Doday. "Design Theory and Film." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Design theories and film work with the same keywords since the designative concepts for both are time and space. At the beginning of the 20th century, the discovery of montage technique and a new esthetic language took place synchronically. This led to an interaction between them. Throughout the paper, this situation has been searched. However, the look is operational. For this reason, other discussions, concerning the topic have been excluded. The discussion is formed basically around four points defined in the 20th century. Four directors: Eisenstein, Tarkovski, Lynch and Greenaway are examined and discussed with their operational methods of filming. Various architects' works are also searched and discussed with the same operational keywords. The paper aims to disclose the interaction between the topics.

Tisma, Alexandra. "Designing and Deciding." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

In the highly urbanized and densely populated western part of The Netherlands, called Randstad, the space is scarce and therefore the landscape is under the constant pressure. The changes in the landscapeare often the result of decisions brought up by the actors involved in planning in different time periods and different levels of spatial scales. Currently used procedures in the spatial planning practice in The Netherlands are long lasting and inefficient, based on the old fashioned unicentric model of decision making. The changes in modern "informational" society reflect in growing need for other models than those of hierarchical type. This research deals with urban designs and corresponding decisions which caused the transformation of the original landscape into the urban environment. The aim is to develop a DSS for common citizens inpluricentric society, which will help them to define their individual opinion and choice preferences before they take part in collective negotiations with other decision makers. The DSS will be developed and tested on the case-study area of the Masterplan for South Axes in Amsterdam.

Yaakup, A., F. Johar, and I.M. Yusof. "Development Control System and GIS for Local Authority in Malaysia: a Case of Kuala Lumpur City Hall." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper examines the functions of local authority particularly in the context of planning and development control. The process of development control involves a technique for the systematic compilation of expert quantitative analysis and qualitative assessment of a project's land use and development viability, including its effect on the surrounding area, andthe presentation of results in a way which enables the importance of the predicted results, and the scope for modifying or mitigating them, to be properly evaluated by the relevant decision making body before a planning application decision is rendered. Taking Kuala Lumpur as an example this paper will demonstrate the development of database and its application for development and building control. The application indicates that thefunctionality of GIS can be enhanced, i.e. by adding new model and analytical tools to existing systems and by using the GIS toolkit to best effect. Consequently it will be used to assist decision-making, taking into account among other things, the current scenarios of the proposed development, physical constraint and future impacts.

Celebi, Gulser. "Development of a Building System." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The universal principle of architecture can be defined as follows: “The architectural product is the synthesis of the different man-made physical environments that are formed by locating the series of building components in different ways”. Within this context, it is necessary to determine the principle of building assembly and the assembly of “material components” in order to produce the building. The material components are the elements of sub systems (such as, structural, envelope, services, partitions, circulation, and finishing systems) which form the building system of an architectural product. Every building is an integrated product. Integration defines the relations of sub systems with the whole. Therefore, it is necessary to define the sub systems and their relations in realizing the architectural product. This paper presents the analysis principles of the sub-systems, relationship between the analyzed systems and components, integration principles and possibilities of them, and the future conditions.

Groot, E.H., and C.E.E. de Pernot. "Energy Impact Knowledge-based System project: Outcomes of the Netherlands Workshops." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Overcoming barriers in the current building process that hinder the realisation of optimal energy efficiency in buildings is the aim of the Energy Impact Knowledge-based System [EIKS] project. During this project, a demo-version of a knowledge based assistive information and decision supportsystem was developed, considering the design and evaluation of integrated daylight and artificial lighting systems for office rooms. Twenty workshops with building experts were carried out in four European countries. The first set of sixteen workshops delivered the specifications of the system. During the second set of four workshops, this prototype was shown to some of the building experts who had attended one of the workshops of the first series. The outcomes of the first series EIKS workshops were very general and not really specifying the EIKS-prototype as expected. However, from the generally enthusiastic response of participants during the second workshop series it can be concluded that the prototype is a good basis for further development.

De Hoog, J., N.A. Hendriks, and P.G.S. Rutten. "Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages. Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the worldwide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed. Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.

Arentze, Theo, Aloys Borgers, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Extending spatial DSS with spatial choice models of multipurpose shopping trip behaviour." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Spatial choice or interaction models have been widely used in spatial DSS or customised GIS for analysing the impacts of retail location plans. The models typically used, however, do not account for spatial agglomeration effects on spatial choice behaviour. This study develops a model system for analysing the impacts of retail plans based on a choice model of multipurpose behaviour developed in earlier work. The model system is implemented in the spatial DSS called Location Planner. An empirical study demonstrates the empirical estimation and use of the model for analysing the impacts of an expansion of floor space in the major shopping centre of a middle-sized city in The Netherlands. The results indicate that agglomeration effects as predicted by the model can have substantial impacts on the performance of retail systems. Therefore, it is argued that when incorporated in a spatial DSS, the more complex models have the potential to improve the use of these systems for impact analysis.

Mahdavi, Ardeshir, Ömer Akin, and Y. Zhang. "Formalization of Concurrent Performance Requirements in Building Problem Composition." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Specification of performance requirements is an emerging area of research that promises to improve building design particularly during the early stages of design. Building problem decomposition and recomposition can be based on a number of requirement categories in order to group building functions into hierarchically organized groups. Traditionally this activity is known as stacking and blocking, or zoning, and limited to spatial requirements. Our long term objective is to broaden this set into a more comprehensive one, including thermal, acoustic, and daylighting, and improve the state of- the-art in building performance specification. While domain information from various building performance areas may be applicable toward enriching the informational basis for stacking and blocking operations, this paper focuses primarily on the thermal and acoustic domain.

Suter, Georg, and Ardeshir Mahdavi. "Generation and communication of design information: a building performance simulation perspective." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

There is general agreement that the process of design and construction of buildings typically involves multiple players. This has been the impetus to develop concepts for computational environments that would supportcollaborative design. While there has been considerable progress with regard to hardware and electronic communication, the underlying representations of design ideas and artifacts have not kept pace with thisprogress. In this paper we deal with this problem not from a global conceptual perspective, but rather from the specific point of view of those designers who use design representation toward extraction and manipulation of specialized technical information. For example, engineers in various fields of building technology require a rich representation of building information in terms of geometry (with special focus on topology), materials, systems attributes, etc. We argue that the current building analysis tools do not operate on the basis of such rich informational representations. Instead the needed information is often assembled on an ad hoc basis from various non-integrated informational sources. We review three representations as they are implemented in commercial or research systems and explore their potential for communicating design information to computational building analysis tools. Based on this review, we describe desirable characteristics of more sophisticated building representations.

Tonarelli, P., J.L. Delaporte, and C. Tahon. "Geographical and logistical Information System for building management." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Nowadays, most of building managers (e.g. companies, local communities, government agencies) have to face up a common set of problems. For instance, these problems are a deficient knowledge of ancient buildings and networks (e.g. gas, water), an inefficient management of green spaces, ora lack of communication between users (e.g. technical staff, suppliers, building end users). In addition, building and spaces to be managed may be shared among several distant areas. LAMIH works aim to achieve methodologies and computer tools for building management andassociated logistic. These works include two aspects we present in this paper:- a methodological one: the establishment of a project business plan, applied to building and logistic management,- a computer aspect: the design and implementation of a decision and management support system, the Geographical and Logistical Information System (G.L.I.S.). The project business plan includes the creation of a task force which has to lead the project and the description of the project plan. The G.L.I.S. is a software set which uses shared database. In particular, this set allows the different users to:- manage a patrimony as a whole, with the help of a Geographical Information System,- manage buildings and networks,- improve communication and logistic aspects with the help of a groupware tool. We present the achievement of these methodology and tools as part of a particular area: theUniversity of Valenciennes which is shared among four towns. The project takes into account existing buildings and those to be built, spaces which separates them, and the relationships between the four different sites of the University. A task force is created as well as a specialised service, the Building Management Department. This department represents an interface between the task force, the LAMIH, and a centre of Information Technologies in construction (CERTIC) which is created as part of the SCENIC project (Support Centres Network for IT in Construction, Esprit project 21772).

Besio, M., M. Frixione, and O. Pedemonte. "GIS technologies in the transfer of the knowledge project to the plan project multiple representation of the environmental spaces." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

An analysis is made of the relation between the conceptualand paradigmatic level of GIS technologies and the new forms of plan, whichmake environment the center of attention. The intention is to study new criteria for zoning able to give contextual representations of theterritorial, environmental and landscape aspects of the geographical space,and also to study new legislative principles, able to establish integratedrules for theprojecting of soil uses, the safeguarding and recovery ofenvironmental systems and the tutelage and boosting of the landscape. The experimentation of GIS (Geographical Information System) technologies aims at the construction of systems helping to make decisionsfor the control of the environmental and landscape aspects of the territory. An analysis is made of the ways in which there are formulated the descriptions of the various aspects of the environment: the conceptsthrough which knowledge is expressed, the languages used forrepresentations, the cognitive models adopted. GIS technologies have made it possible to represent in an explicitmanner the paradigms underlying the various models of knowledge. Specifically, the following cognitive models have been developed:- ecological models of nature- ecological models of human settlement- ecological models of inhabitants' mental perceptions

Sariyildiz, Sevil, Özer Ciftcioglu, and Peter van der Veer. "Information Ordering for decision support in building design." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

A systematic approach for the application of AI-based information processing for information ordering in architectural building design is described. For this purpose fuzzy associative memory (FAM) method is considered. In this system FAM is used for knowledge representation in building design concerning the functional & technical requirements information and its graded relevance to individuals concerned in the same context. A set of FAM rules having been established as a knowledge base for use, a pattern of information in the form of a fuzzy vector is fed to each FAM rule. Here, a decision support system is aimed to convey the information to the respective individuals and/or bodies involved, in a graded form, according to their capacity of involvement in the building design. By exploiting the binary logic, each FAM rule is fired in parallel but to a different degree so that each rule generates an m-dimensional output fuzzy vector Pi. The union of these vectors creates m-dimensional fuzzy decision vector D that provides the ordered information addressed to respective individuals and/or bodies mentioned. Using simulated data, a verification procedure for the performance of the approach is investigated and by means of the work, the role that artificial intelligence in architecture and building design might play, is pointed out.

Koutamanis, Alexander. "Information systems and the Internet: towards a news counter-revolution?" In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The explosive evolution of the Internet into a ubiquitous infrastructure influences the generation, dissemination and use of information. From a historical perspective it redefines issues that have been central to the news and information industry since the seventeenth century. One such issue is periodicity. The practicalities of news media and news as a commodity have resulted into the periodical appearance of news and, by extension, of all actual information. Integral to periodicity iscontrol of information production by institutions or other authorized channels. With the advent of the Internet we are reverting to an a-periodical information system characterized by personalization anddirect contact between information provider and information user. Rather than relying on the institutional status of the propagation channels, we are increasingly evaluating information quality by the integrity, up-to-datedness and reliability of its source. Moreover, we are able to complement orcorroborate information by linking different sources together in compound representations. The extent and complexity of the Internet make search intermediaries necessary. These collect and collate information either ad hoc (responding to a user query) or as part of wider documentation projects. These projects re-introduce institutionalization but the autonomous, intelligent mechanisms used by such intermediaries promote personalization in information retrieval and facilitate decentralization ofinformation supply into a cottage industry. In addition to a-periodicity, directness and wider availability of information, decentralization provides a new social and technical context for precedent and case-based approaches in designing.

Kellett, Ronald, and Cynthia Girling. "Informing Public Participation in Neighborhood ScalePlanning and Design." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Neighborhood scale planning and design in many areas of the United States has been evolving toward a system of negotiated priorities and agreements. Common models include public workshops and design'charrettes'which bring diverse stakeholders (citizens, land owners, developers, consultantsand public officials, for example) together to develop a mutually acceptable plan. Crucial to the quality and effectiveness of the outcome are decision support tools that help this diverse audience understand, communicate, collaborate and make decisions about complex and often emotional issuesof land use and design. Net Energy Communities (NEC), the project summarized in this paper, creates a suite of computer based tools for this purpose. NEC links three types of computer software: the spatial data manipulation, modelling and visualization capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the illustration and information retrieval capabilities of multimedia relational databases and, the simulation and comparison capabilities of spreadsheet-based calculation models, into four tools: a site modeller, an elements of neighborhood database, a scenario modeller and ascenario calculator. This paper reports on the NEC project as an example of decision support tools for public participation using illustrations and examples from a 420 acre demonstration neighborhood design in progress for the City of Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

Keuren, A., and F.M. Sanders. "Integrated Land-Use and Network Modelling." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

In this paper, the integration of modelling the changes in land-use and the changes in the infrastructure network will be described. Emphasis is laid on the automatic development of the network instead of changing the network by hand before simulating the changes in the land-use pattern. The approach and working procedure were tested by developing a pilot model simulating the spatial situation on the Frisian island Ameland (The Netherlands). The pilot is developed within the geographical information system Arcinfo. In this pilot model, special attention is paid to the extension of the infrastructure network and the allocation of more than one activity. Network analysis for the purpose of network extension is based on graph theory. Selection of links is based on the increase of the total accessibility within the network system as a result of adding a link to the network. The allocation of activities is based on several selection criteria and takes place within a cellular grid. Several methods ofselecting cells and links and the choices made will be discussed.

Lee, Jia-Her, and Yu-Tung Liu. "Modelling Mondrians Design Processes and their Architectural Associations Using Multilayer Neural Networks." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Can artificial intelligence be used for design behaviour of human beings? Human designeris behaviour and design thinking are extremely complicated. There is still argument about the relationship between the two until now. Therefore, this research only investigates regular and common design behaviour. This essay is taking Mondrian of Neo-Plasticism as an example and neural networks systems as a tool to illustrate the core idea. It is hoped that we can simulate the design thinking ability, such as memory association and recognition of human designers. Computation of neural networks systems, as a result and the difference between human designers and computer, can be discussed too. Also, since the work of Neo-Plasticism Mondrian influences contemporary architecture design, industrial design, andvisual design directly or indirectly, floorplans of architect John Hejdukis works were taken as an example to discuss the application of Neural networkss in the design field.

Cordan, Ozge, and Asu Besgen. "No Times but Principles, a Case Study from Priene, Anatolia." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

To emphasise the reusing of the local identities and cultural effects on contemporary designs, this paper is believed to have an important role for architects and for further designs. In this paper design theories in 1000's BC from Priene is held. The theories in urban and architectural design took place. From the intersection point of Ancient Greek and Western Anatolia, a city named “Prienei is chosen as a point of view because of its speciallocation on the Aegean Sea Coasts, Asia Minor and its design principles on urban and housing scale which were used during 1000's and are still common. Also, in this paper, an analysis is done on urban and housing scale. The analysis has two main parts. In the first part, the important buildings in Priene and their settlement decisions take part. And in the second part, the houses of Priene are explained. The general outputs of the study can be put under two titles: urbanism and architecture. In terms of urbanism, those features of a city image reflecting onto todayis world have been examined and the city of Priene has been analysed in the content of Lynch's elements ensuring formation of a city image. In terms of architecture, results obtained have been separately examined in the content of todayis architecture as public buildings reflecting unique characteristics of Hellenistic architecture and as settlements. In short, the result that it is wished to reach in terms of city scale of the city of Priene in this study isthe expression of the essence of the historical heritage using a modern language to ensure historical continuity.

Boelen, A.J.. "Pattern Matching for Decision Support." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

In this paper is discussed how we can use pattern matching techniques in combination with object orientation to support decision makers in arranging offices and industrial and commercial facilities in existing urban areas. The method used is based on the findings of a Ph.D. project almost finished when writing this. The tool under development is specifically useful for rehabilitation of deteriorated industrial or commercial areas. I consider such an area already occupied and surrounded with all kinds of urban objects and connected to all kinds of infrastructure. I can describe this area in available objects and facilities. Furthermore we can describe the areas capacity left within the infrastructure, the capacity in forexample work force or clients and the available band width in noise or pollution. By describing the area in terms of availability of capacity to absorb or produce flows of people, goods, energy and information we sketch the room available for certain types of industrial or commercial facilities. I developed a technique to describe industrial and commercial facilities in such a way that we enable the match between these and the characteristics of an area available. Pattern matching techniques enable the system to generate best matches between available areas, locations and facilities. This model can be adapted in several object oriented geographical information systems and be integrated with other information systems that for example calculate the pollution of certain kinds of facilities. The rules to match with are partly based on objective, measurable data like available capacity on the electricity network and needed electrical power for certain facilities. Other matching rules are based on political norms on for example acceptable pollution levels and suggested pollution of facilities. The paper presents the problem area of industrial area rehabilitation, describes the architecture of the modelling technique and presents the first findings of implementation studies.

Terzidis, Kostas. "Proposal for a Virtual 3D World Map." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The development of a VRML scheme of a 3D world is proposed. The objective is to provide a prototype framework for Internet client-users toa) Learn how to “plug-in” their own 3D models, b) View and interact with the models using existing communication software on PC-based hardware, and c) Search for other models on the basis of geographical locations.The framework utilizes multiple levels of detail, data abstraction, interaction with HTML format, and build-in code animation. A case study is implemented to provide an example of a four level (territory-city- block-building) hierarchy for creating, visualizing, and searching.

Heylighen, A., R. Segers, and Herman Neuckermans. "Prototype of an Interactive Case Library for Architectural Design." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Architects acquire an important part of their design knowledge from existing designs. Specific design projects from the past form an indispensable source of information and inspiration. Hence the idea todevelop a digital library of design cases that can be easily accessed during design. The paper describes a recently developed prototype of such a case library, intended to assist architecture students in the studio,yet with the potential of expansion into the office setting. When students enrol into a design project, they usually receive a reader with some relevant examples. At first sight, the digital case library only seems torepresent these examples into another medium, yet there are some important differences between both. Unlike the reader, the library has at its core an indexing-system which allows the easy retrieval of relevantinformation. By labelling projects with several features and making links between similar designs, the tool supports both directed search and browsing. A second difference is that the library is interactive. Studentsare not only able to consult interesting examples, but also to add other projects they consider relevant, to make links between them, to create extra indices etc. Finally, the tool allows to combine several media andto create links to external information sources.

Cutler, Lorraine. "Prototypical Laboratory Design to Support Learning and Teaching." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Collaboration between designers and scientists is an unusual combination to undertake the prototypical design of a teaching laboratory funded by Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The zoologists are developing a cooperative learning and interactive teaching pedagogy to make learningscience a process of critical inquiry and discovery. The industrial and interior designers are paying attention to the design issues of function and environmental support for teaching and doing the work required in a three-hour, hands-on beginning science learning space. Using both qualitative andquantitative research methods, the designers are able to determine a framework for making design decisions in prototypical beginning science environments. This framework is being developed as a guideline for designing similar environments at other institutions of higher learning. Videotape analysis precedes the research to uncover the underlying problems of the existing space and to formulate the questions for the research. Elements of a case study and an evaluative study integratewith the design process to form the basis of an intensive investigation of design issues for a beginning science teaching laboratory. Using two pretests as a baseline, the posttest data evaluates the success orfailure of the prototypical design. Both the pretests and the posttest evaluate the physical attributes of the old and new learning environment related to a beginning laboratory course in Zoology at Arizona State University.

Malkawi, Ali M.. "Representing Collaborative Multi-Knowledge Agents as Generic Rules." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper discusses the internal representation of a multi-knowledge agent decision support system that was developed for building thermal design. The system is able to provide designers with specific problem detection in thermal design without the use of rules of thumb. The paper describes how generic rules can be used as virtual agents and how these agents can interact using a blackboard model. The generic rules utilized use logical variables as a strategy to capture generality. This allows the rules todeal with variables that can be replaced by any possible term. In addition, it allows the rules to be equivalent to the infinite set of rules that could be obtained if the variables were replaced in all possible ways by terms. In the system, these terms include the building elements and systems that affect the thermal behaviour of the building. Problems associated with agent conflicts and how they were resolved in such a model are described.

Rigatti, Decio. "Rubem Berta Housing Estate: Order and Structure, Design and Use." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The main goal of this paper is to investigate, through some space configurational based tools, a quite common phenomenon found in many different locations in Brazil, concerning the process of urban changes individually introduced by dwellers of public housing estates. A significant number of housing estates, particularly those designed according to rationalist concepts, seem to be unable to support space related social requirements and are then widely transformed when compared to the original layouts. Beyond the quantitative features, the morphological changes that take place in those housing estates mean a fundamental new approach to understand how completely new urban structures can arisefrom the space produced by a comprehensive urban design, took as a starting point for the transformations made by the dwellers of those settlements. As a case study is analysed the Rubem Berta Housing Estate which was built in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil, for 20,000 people in the late 70's. Since the begining of its occupation in 1986 and the invasion that took place in 1987, the urban transformations there have never stopped. It is possible to realize that the dwellers individually use some constant physical rules to define the new settlement which are very similar within the estate itself and, at the same time, very similar to those found in other transformed housing estates of this sort. The physical rules introduced change the features of the entire settlement in two different levels: a) locally, through the transformations introduced in order to solve individual needs, b) globally, the local rules of physical transformations produce a new overall structure for the whole urban complex. The knowledge of this process makes it possible to bring to the surface of architectural theory some generic configurational codes that can be used as a tool for designing public housing estates in Brazil.

Emdanat, S., and Emmanuel-George Vakalo. "Sharing Design Knowledge Using Shape Algebras." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Recent work on shape algebras and the maximal element representation produced a uniform and composable representation of shapes. This paper presents ongoing work to formulate a framework for sharing design knowledge based on shape algebras. The shape algebraic definitions are translated into Ontolingua, a framework for representing ontologies. It provides forms for defining classes, relations, functions, objects, and theories that are part of a conceptualization. The paper discusses some of the axioms and definitions of this ontology. It discusses the factors that influenced its design and the selection of its representational abstractions.

Hartog, J., Alexander Koutamanis, and P. Luscuere. "Simulation and evaluation of environmental aspects throughout the design process." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The evaluation of environmental aspects in architectural design has traditionally been performed by means of simple (and often simplistic) rule systems. These generally remain at the normative level of minimal control one encounters in building rules and regulations, thereby failing to provide sufficient information and clarity for design guidance. Despite this, evaluation results normally bound subsequent design decisions as fundamental, inflexible constraints. At much later design stages, whenarchitectural form has been largely crystallized and when environmental subsystems must be specified in detail, both the architect and the contributing engineers often realize the severe limitation of theinitial choices. A frequently voiced argument for such simplification in the guise of abstraction is the lack of detailed information on the form and functional content of a building in the early stages of the design process. This obviously presupposes a tabula rasa generative approach. The application of a priori knowledge in the form of types, cases, precedents and automated recognition permits direct transaction from the abstract to the specific at and between a number of predefined relevant abstraction levels in the representation. The combination of a priori knowledge at the typological level with multilevel representations permits the use of precise simulation techniques already in the early design stages and throughout the design process. The simulation results employ the dual representation principle of scientific visualization, thereby linking form with measurable performance. Feedback from the simulation provides the analysis and evaluation means for design guidance and for communication between thearchitect and the contributing engineers. A prerequisite to this is that the abstraction level in the representation constrains the analysis derived from the simulation, e.g. by means of grades of fuzziness applied to different zones in the representation on the basis of information specificity.

Hartog, J.P., A. Koutamanis, and P.G. Luscuere. "Simulation and evaluation of environmental aspects throughout the design process." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The evaluation of environmental aspects in architectural design has traditionally been performed by means of simple (and often simplistic) rule systems. These generally remain at the normative level of minimal control one encounters in building rules and regulations, thereby failing to provide sufficient information and clarity for design guidance. Despite this, evaluation results normally bound subsequent design decisions as fundamental, inflexible constraints. At much later design stages, when architectural form has been largely crystallized and when environmental subsystems must be specified in detail, both the architect and the contributing engineers often realize the severe limitation of the initial choices. A frequently voiced argument for such simplification in the guise of abstraction is the lack of detailed information on the form and functional content of a building in the early stages of the design process. This obviously presupposes a tabula rasa generative approach. The application of a priori knowledge in the form of types, cases, precedents and automated recognition permits direct transaction from the abstract to the specific at and between a number of predefined relevant abstraction levels in the representation. The combination of a priori knowledge at the typological level with multilevel representations permits the use of precise simulation techniques already in the early design stages and throughout the design process. The simulation results employ the dual representation principle of scientific visualization, thereby linking form with measurable performance. Feedback from the simulation provides the analysis and evaluation means for design guidance and for communication between the architect and the contributing engineers. A prerequisite to this is that the abstraction level in the representation constrains the analysis derived from the simulation, e.g. by means of grades of fuzziness applied to different zones in the representation on the basis of information specificity.

Mitossi, Vicky, and Alexander Koutamanis. "Spatial representations as the basis of formal and functional analysis." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The proliferation of the computer in the documentation of architectural designs generates a growing number of computerized architectural drawings. As a result, practice is showing an increasing interest in the utility of such drawings. This interest is linked to a fundamental promise of computerization in architecture, the analysis and evaluation of a buildingis behaviour and performance during the design process. The main drawback of conventional computerized drawings is that they are restricted toplotting orthographic or, less frequently, perspective projections. This effectively reduces the computer to a mere electronic drafting table and computerized drawings to unstructured, haphazard collectionsof arbitrarily chosen graphic elements, normally of the lowest possible complexity. The lack of structure and in particular of meaningful, relevant primitives leads to inadequate support even for basic analyses and evaluations. We consider the structure of computerized design representations with respect to the choice of primitives that facilitate automation of analysis and support focused feedback. We argue that current drawing systems are capable of deriving the basic dual network of "solid" building elements and "void" spaces on the basis of user-input descriptions of familiar entities and that this network is sufficient for normative analyses.

"The Effects of Cubist Design Theory on Modernism and Post Modernism." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, edited by Harry J. P. Timmermans. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The main aim of this study is to present design theories since 1900s and their evaluation for 2000s. For this reason the basic manifesto, “Modernism” which gives its signs and principles to the identityof 20th century is held as beginning point. The modern movement in architecture in order to fully express 20th century, possessed the “faith in science and technology”, “rationalism and romantic faithin speed” or “the roar of machines”. And also it was treated as a series of discrete art movements like Futurism, Cubism, Constructivism, Dadaism, Surrealism. But one of them, “Cubism” is pointed out tobe the first movement of “Purismi that built “Modernism”. To emphasise the general idea of design theories in 1900s, Cubism is chosen as a point of view and the aim is required to put forward some ideas by criticising cubist design theory and putting some principles about the effects of cubist design theory on modernism and post modernism (trends and periods after modernism). The method of “Conceptualisation”, one of the most important system to begin a design is used while making analysis. In this content, the paper involves five main parts. In the first and second parts, theintroduction to Cubism and First Machine Age are explained. The third part consists of Cubism as an art of painting. In the fourth part cubist design theory and the cubist conceptions are posed. The last part of the survey gives the findings and conclusions aiming to put forward estimations for further designs in the future.

Kato, K, Y Iwasaki, and K Gonda. "The Influence of Changing Planning Methods on the Characteristics of Industrial Activities in Japan." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The object of this paper is to clarify the scope of planning method for industrial supporting facilities through the analysis of the characteristics of services and questionnaire survey. The results are as follows: 1) For upgrading of needs from the firms, establishment bodies that organize the ISFs shifts from government-leading toward non-government-leading. 2) The industrial supporting facilities in the industrial park has higher tendency to offer services required for the business creation and exchanges. 3) The most important point secures the flexible communicational environment, carry out communicational service in consideration of changing the industrial supporting facilitiesis organization for planning method.

Shalaby, Tarek, Tom Scutt, and Diane Palmer. "The Intelligent Map as a Decision Support System for Urban Planners in Nottingham Using GIS Technology." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Location is often considered as the most important factor leading to the success of public or private services. Location is the key in maximising accessibility and keeping operating cost low. A collaborative research project between “Nottingham University” and the “Environmental ServicesDepartment of Nottingham City Council” is developing an “Intelligent Map” for identifying optimum locations for the recycling centres in the city. The object is to develop a new decision support system for urban planners, to be used as a management and analytical tool for improving locational decisionmaking. This paper discusses the technique of the Intelligent Map, and its concept. The paper includes three main sections. The first discusses the introduction of the mini-recycling centres in Nottingham, the problems associated with their spatial distribution, and the need for a new decision support system using GIS technology. The second examines traditional techniques using GIS for identifying optimum locations and calculating catchment areas. The third explains the concept of the Intelligent Map, discussion takes the form of an initial analysis of the likely method to be applied, and then briefly outlines some of the prototyping work that is currently taking place at Nottingham.

Schmid, P., and J.C.M. Olie. "The Knot - a support for designers, decisionmakers, producers and products concerning building systems in the light of Sustainable Development." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper deals with the topics of design theory, decision support systems and product modelling. In order to be able to generate optimal decisions in the framework of architectural and building systems design it is necessary to use a proper base, like a design theory, which finally can lead towards a satisfying product modelling in a wide sense of this term.

Varghese, G., S.L. Dhingra, and P.K. Sikdar. "The Role of Expert Systems, and RDBMS Strategies in a DSSfor Urban Bus Transport Management." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Efficient and well-managed urban bus transport systems supported by information systems with decision support capabilities developed within the framework of an advanced Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) can provide critical information at the right moment and assisttransport managers in conducting performance evaluations. This paper includes discussions on the use of the entity-relationship (E-R) model (a semantic data modelling technique) in the development of thestructure of the conceptual database for the information system planned to be implemented using RDBMS. The E-R data modelling approach enables database designers in obtaining the third normal forms of related databases for the efficient functioning of the information system. The inportance of decision tables in the development of DSS modules using Expert System shells are also discussed. The DSS modules will assist transport managers in the analysis of operational performance for bus depots or the organization as a whole. The E-R diagrams generated and the decision files developed will serve as important documents that can enhance the adaptability of the DSS to the changing needs ofthe organizations. The conceptualization of the information system to support decision-making in an RDBMS framework provides the advantage of a very low disk seek time and facilitates frequent generation of reports.

Liu, Yu-Tung, and Rui-Yuan Bai. "The roles of virtual reality, image processing, and multimedia in thedesign of public spaces: 1997 Hsinchu Project." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This paper examines the procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment proposed by Rahman and reviews the use of CAD applications in urban projects in the real world. A preliminary computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is proposed. An experiments wasconducted in our laboratory to verify the preliminary procedure. In order to further study the revised procedure in real urban projects, it was also applied into the renew project of The Eastern Gate Plaza located in the center of city Hsinchu, Taiwan from 1996 to 1998. According to several face-to-face discussions with Hsinchu habitants, government officials, and professional designers, a final computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is concluded.

Gribnau, M.W., I.M. Verstijnen, and J.M. Hennessey. "Three Dimensional Object Orientation Using the Non-Dominant Hand." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The paper presents the “Turntable”, a 3D input device for orienting objects using the non-dominant hand. The device supports two-handed manipulation by allowing the non-dominant hand to orient an object while leaving the dominant hand free to perform other actions. Two-handed input is a technique that can enhance the performance, simplicity and intuitiveness of CAD systems. These properties are obligatory for CAD systems dedicated to support the conceptual phase of the design process. Anexperiment has been conducted in which the performance of the Turntable was compared to that of a well known 3D orientation method, known in literature as the "virtual sphere". The virtual sphere is operated with the mouse using the dominant hand and is documented to be easy to use and efficient. The experiment establishes that a performance gain can be expected from a two-handed user interface that employs the Turntable for 3D object orientation with the non-dominant hand. In a single-handedinterface users must switch between rotating and manipulating an object. In a two-handed interface however, task switching is unnecessary and an additional performance benefit can be achieved when there is temporal overlap in the execution of the two tasks. Experimental results show that the Turntable, operated by the non-dominant hand, is easy to learn and its performance and accuracy are nearly equal to that of the virtual sphere operated by the dominant hand. With these results it can now be expected that a two-handed interface utilizing the Turntable performs better than a single-handed one for manipulating objects in 3D.

Spinelli, Juçara, and Romulo Krafta. "Urban Land Value Distribution UnderConfigurational Scrutiny." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

In the present study were evaluated land parceling problems under aspects of spatial configuration related to land value (lv). Paradoxical cases occur in urban spaces, such as low spatial differentiation and high lv, or vice-versa. Determined urban areas are identified as having high centrality, with intense land use and occupation, and, therefore, high market value. Conversely, other urban areas are identified as having low centrality value, certain degradation, or lack of infrastructure and urban equipment, and, consequently, low lv. Empirical studies have proved satisfactory results interms of the correlation between measures of configuration and lv. These studies verify the convenience of the models used to describe significant aspects of spatial differentiation. The complementation of the methodological proposal is identified, and other components of urban space are calculated (plot dimension, infrastructure, normative aspects, etc). These are determinant measures that characterize the local factor associated with measures that determine the morphological differentiation.This differentiation demonstrated that land value distribution, besides following centrality, depends, in greater or lesser extent, on the local factor. The results obtained, through a model that combines measures of centrality with local characteristics, approached reality because the model incorporated a greater number of variables which allowed the verification of correlated socioeconomic and spatial matters related to parceling, value, and configuration.

Zacharias, John. "Virtual Shopping Centre Models and Path Choice." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

A three-dimensional computer model of a shopping center was navigated by participants who were unfamiliar with it. In the first experiment, an orthogonal and equally spaced grid was used. It was found that the great majority of the itineraries made simple and similar patterns which were remembered by the participants, although they often mistook the precise path choices. In a second experiment, the width of the corridors was varied. Participants showed a distinct preference for wider corridors over narrow ones, resulting in a significantly different distribution of itineraries when compared with the results of the first experiment. Dimensional variation did not improve the ability of the participants to remember their itineraries, however. Also, individuals preferred to continue moving straight-ahead over turning. They also preferred to circumnavigate the shopping center, traveling along the outer edges, rather than head first into its center. The computer-based model is a low-cost way of testing preference in a dynamic way and could be mounted on multiple stations in computer laboratories as a way of increasing sample size. There remain some interface problems, however, that diminish somewhat the sensation of moving in real time. Further work will include refinements to the model and other variations in geometry and visual stimuli in the virtual shopping center, in addition to its validation in real environments.

Mattsson, Helena. "Working with unpredictability." In Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. DDSS. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The paper deals with notions of complexity in art and architecture. On the basis of a recent sculptural work by Richard Serra, Torqued Ellipses (1997), the notion of complexity is investigated in terms of how it situates the viewer, and affects our sense of space and time. Serrais work is analyzed in terms of the artistis working method, the production of the work, and finally the “external relations” which connect it to the viewer and the context. In each of these steps, the notions of complexity and unpredictability are shown to have a formative role. The relations between space and time, object and context, are redefined in Serra's work, which also gives it great importance for architectural theory and practice.