Keywords Abstract
Will, Barry, W.C.H. Wong, and C.H. Chu. "A Case Study of Hypermedia Applications in the Building Industry: Curtain Wall Design, Fabrication and Erection." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

This paper is based on the development of a Hypermedia Information Delivery System called ArchiSpace, by the Department of Architecture, The University of Hong Kong to produce a comprehensive knowledge of a Curtain Wall system. A set of construction drawings of the building were analysed and converted to the 3D hypermedia system format. The focus of this study is the use of the hyper-model environment in information organization and once the 3D hypermedia system is formed the information on the curtain wall system is accessed by the use of hyper-text environments hyper-image environments, and hyper-model environments. The paper analysed that the hyper-model access method seems to be more appropriate than the hyper-text and hyper-image access methods for users who do not have any knowledge pre-requisites. The results obtained by this research are being applied to improve the user friendliness for information access within a hyper-model environment.

Sidjanin, Predrag. "A computer simulation model of the TU district of Delft with use of the GIS and VR." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. One of the big problems for GIS users is a luck of such an visual presentation of data which will easily transform them into a spatial image. Existing systems based on Human-Computer-Interfaces (Ha) have limitations and for this reason it is necessary to discover new explicit way of spatial data presentation and manipulation. Virtual Reality technology with its specificity and characteristics based on spatial displaying and multisensory interactivity, give to VR users a new promising possibility to solve GIS limitations. This research is an exploration of integration of GIS and yR. VR is a kind of production of a simulation of a real world, and GIS-databases contain data that describe this world, therefore a success of combination of both technologies is very probable. This research shows possibilities for creating a virtual GIS world in which is possible to handle, explore, analyse and present spatial data by free navigation through a virtual model. The virtual model of Delft University of Technology's Campus presents Virtual Reality as a new type of 3D interface for GIS and demonstrates some basic GIS functions in virtual environment. It has been created by importing of GIS databases into VR system. Virtual model is based on geometric and attributive data. GIS functionality is enabled by 3D interface objects, that symbolically and semantically represents GIS functions. Their use should initiate intuitive users action. This application combines spatial data, user interface, text, sound, thematic data and virtual hypertext. Virtual model enables the use of quantitative and qualitative information. The results of the research can be implemented to support design strategies ax! decision making in the field of physical and urban planning.
Hill, S.M., B.S. Sinclair, D. Sandall, T.S. Butt, N. Sampson, and N. Blackie. "A Computer-Facilitated Approach for Development, Visualization and Testing of Functional Programming Information." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Functional programming processes for complex architectural projects have traditionally been hampered by the static nature of available tools and technologies. Connection with user groups have likewise been disadvantaged through the employment of sender-oriented communications models that limit feedback and interaction. In addition, diminishing project budgets place increasing pressure on clients and consultants to develop more effective and efficient methods for the design and construction of buildings. This paper discusses a case-study involving the design of a highly complex medical laboratory where in information technologies were used to facilitate the development, visualization and testing of functional programming information. The objectives for the project involved creating an environment where users and clients actively participate in consideration of programming directions and implications in a manner that would not only increase confidence that the program would meet user requirements now and in the future, but also would reduce redundant and or inefficient space within the overall building programme. In the approach used the distinction between programming and design is diminished to improve communication of desires and design responses. The findings of the study indicate that the computer-facilitated approach met the objectives of the project and that the methods developed hold promise for application across a broader range of project types.

Fahmy, A.B., and Emmanuel-George Vakalo. "A conceptual framework for deriving and analyzing the geometric structures of orthogonal architectural compositions in plan." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

This paper introduces a conceptual framework for the analysis and generation of the underlying geometry of orthogonal architectural compositions in plan. The proposed framework has three interrelated objectives: (1) to allow the systematic analysis and derivation of the geometric structures of orthogonal architectural compositions in plan, (2) to describe the spatial relations among their constituent elements, and (3) to enumerate the morphological operations involved creating these relations. It comprises of a grammatical formalism and two data structures. The grammatical formalism allows the systematic derivation and analysis of the geometric structures of architectural compositions in plan. The first data structure is a table that enumerates the rules used to derive and/or analyze geometric structures and the sequence of their application. The second data structure is a binary tree that represents the spatial relations between the shapes produced during these processes.

Bax, M.F.Th., and H.M.G.J. Trum. "A Conceptual Model for Concurrent Engineering in Building Design according to Domain Theory." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Concurrent engineering is a design strategy in which various designers participate in a co-ordinated parallel process. In this process series of functions are simultaneously integrated into a common form. Processes of this type ask for the identification, definition and specification of relatively independent design fields. They also ask for specific design knowledge designers should master in order to participate in these processes. The paper presents a conceptual model of co-ordinated parallel design processes in which architectural space is simultaneously defined in the intersection of three systems: a morphological or level-bound system, a functional or domain-bound system and a procedural or phase-bound system. Design strategies for concurrent engineering are concerned with process design, a design task which is comparable to the design of objects. For successfully accomplishing this task, knowledge is needed of the structural properties of objects and systems, more specifically of the morphological, functional and procedural levels which condition the design fields from which these objects emerge, of the series of generic forms which condition their appearance and of the typological knowledge which conditions their coherence in the overall process.

Demir, Yuksel. "A Design and Decision Support System Proposal for Housing." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. The subject of this study is to develop an information management system integrating all the related specialists and sources of information virtually from all related fields in building sector (housing) of Turkey, including design, production, construction, marketing, research. The application field has been chosen as housing for having a contribution to the existing housing problem. Although the subject of architecture is one: “the building”, the specialists taking place during the lifetime of a building (from design, to destruction) are numerous. Moreover the links between practitioners, academicians, industry are missing Conventional methods, technology are expensive, time consuming. and insufficient to establish and maintain a healthy coordination between these contributors (mainly the design team and all the other related persons, institutions etc.). This has a strong negative effect on the concepts of “wholeness“ and “integrity”. The result is a built environment which is lacking significant qualities, while the money has been spent is even much more than required for a proper result. This means the loss of a considerable amount of resources. Especially in a country, which has to build thousands of houses each year, for low income groups, the efficient use of the limited sources becomes more essential. Though the potential user range of the system may include constructors, contractors, building element / material producers and retailers, surveyors, institutions, universities, the main user is aimed to be the architect. The system is aimed to support designers to deal with “complexity” without neglecting the concept of “wholeness”. Within the study, the problems which became a stimulus for the development of this system will be investigated. The philosophical base, structure and the possible advantages of the proposal will be discussed.
Arentze, Theo, Aloys Borgers, and J P. Harry. "A knowledge-based model for developing location strategies in a DSS for retail planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. Most DSS for retail planning are based on impact assessment models to support the evaluation of plan scenario's. This paper introduces a complementary knowledge-based model to support also the earlier stage of formulating plan scenario's. An analysis of the retail planning problem reveals the main lines of the strategies adopted by most Dutch planners and retailers to achieve their goals. A basic strategy that seems to be appropriate in most problem contexts is formulated in the form of a set of decision tables. Each decision table or system of decision tables specifies for a problem area decision rules to identify and analyse problems and to formulate possible actions. The model is implemented in a DSS where it is used in combination with quantitative impact assessment models. A case study in the area of daily good facilities demonstrates the approach. The major conclusion is that the knowledge-based approach and in particular the decision table technique provides interesting possibilities to implement planning task structures in a DSS environment.
Kanoglu, Aiaattin. "A Site-Based Computerized Production Planning and Control Model for the Plants which Produce Prefabricated Building Components." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

The “open systems” in building prefabrication may be qualified more flexible to some extent compared to the closed ones and may use the tools and approaches used in industrial production areas for the estimation of demand and production. As for the closed systems in particular, it is not possible for these systems to apply this kind of approach. Their production must be based on absolutely assured demands and projects. Because of this, they need detailed projects and assembly schedules for produc-tion. As a result of this, their production modes can be qualified "custom-made" type and production planning functions must provide the demand values from the assembly schedules of contracted proj-ects. The problem can be solved by integrating the work schedules of the sites that are served by fac-tory. Integration of data on a computerized system will be preferable and it is possible to realize the model in two alternative ways. The first is developing a new conceptual model and convert it into a software and the second is developing an approach for customizing general purpose project planning and programming software for using them in production planning. The second solution is studied in the paper following this. The aim of this study is to develop the principals of a conceptual model for an Integrated Data Flow and Evaluation System for production planning in prefabrication and to convert this model into an applicable and objective computer-aided model.

Sun, M, and S.R. Lockley. "A STEP Towards a Computer based Integrated Building Design System." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Building design is a multi-actor and multi-task process. In a design project architects, engineers and other specialists need to exchange information in order to produce a coherent design. These design participants often have different views of the design from their own perspectives. The aim of an integrated building design system is to develop a building data model that integrates all views so that building information can be exchanged in electronic form between the designers and also throughout various design stages. This paper introduces an integrated building design system developed as part of the European project, Computer Models for the Building Industry in Europe. It concentrates on the development of the Data Exchange System which is a central data repository implemented using an object oriented database and ISO STEP technology and it is able to support concurrent engineering, versioning, history tracing and other data transaction management

Engeli, Maia, and David Kurmann. "A Virtual Reality Design Environment with Intelligent Objects and Autonomous Agents." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

New technological achievements and research results allow for the creation of innovative design tools for architects, that do not originate from paper-based paradigms but instead make optimised use of the present technology and programming concepts. The core of our system is comprised of an intuitive interactive modelling tool. It runs in a virtual reality set-up, where the user can use 3D glasses to experience rooms and 31) input devices to model in three dimensions. The interface is free from widget-like buttons or menus, so that the user is undisturbed when moving into the virtual world of the design. The system can also run in a distributed fashion, so that a number of users can look at and modify the same design. The 31) model can be generated in a sketch-like fashion using solids and voids, void modelling turns out to be very valuable for architectural design. The objects in this system can contain forms of intelligence to produce such behaviour as: falling because of gravity, collision avoidance, and autonomous motion. Interactive behaviour can also be assigned to the objects. Autonomous Agents are added to the system to enhance the designer support. These are agents that enhance the virtual environment, agents that take over tasks, and agents that help to test the design. The system shows new interface and interaction approaches that support the architectural design process intelligently.

Gupta, M.K., M. Groves, and J.D. Moran. "An EMIC approach to design: Methodology for creating supportive environments for young children." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. The responsibility of the designer is to understand the unique perspective of the users, in order to create functional and efficient environments. The task of creating supportive environments often becomes more difficult when there is discrepancy between the perspective of the designer and that of the user, which is the case when designing spaces for children. The interaction of children with their environment has been identified as the basis of their development Most of the previous research has focused on the perspectives that adults have of spaces for children (etic), rather than an understanding of the child's view as the primary user of the playspace (emic). Children's perceptions are influenced by their physical and cognitive perspectives thus posing a unique challenge for designers. The objective of this study was to learn about the perception and perspective of four-and five-year-olds of their favorite playspaces. The children needed to identify their favorite spaces and also be able to verbalize the activities and meanings associated with these spaces. To avoid adult bias at the onset, the idea of utilizing a Polaroid Captiva camera was formulated, facilitating an extremely short latency period between the child taking the pictures and the opportunity to talk about their favorite playspace. The process was extremely successful, and provides first hand insight into children's perception of their built environment Photographs taken by the young children include many spaces not designed for play. The emerging themes are a source of invaluable information for designers and planners for making informed design decisions and for creating supportive environments.
Aoke, Yoshitsugu, and Naoto Muraoka. "An optimization method of the facility location by genetic algorithm." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. In planning of community-facilities, it is important to decide the facility location to provide the effective service for residents. The behaviour of residents using the facility and the evaluation methods of the location have been studied. But, finding the optimum location is very hard in actual planning because the volume of calculation depends on the number of feasible locating points of facilities. To conquer the difficulty of searching the optimum location, we propose an optimization method using Genetic Algorithm. An alternative of location is expressed by a chromosome. Each chromosome consists of genes, and each gene expresses a located zone of the facility. We gave definitions of genetic procedures, crossing-over, mutation and selection. Alternatives of the facility location are generated by these genetic procedures like as life evolution. For each alternative, the behaviours of users are estimated by a spatial-interaction model, and the facilities that residents in each place choose are determined. The effectiveness of the location is measured by a total sum of distances between the facility and the user. After the confirmation of the effectiveness of our method by applying on ideal example problems, we applied it on the actual problem in Japanese town. By this method we could find the optimum location in about one-third time and effort as compared with the ordinal method.
Kanoglu, Alaattin. "Application of General Purpose Project Planning and Programming Software for Production Planning and Control in Plants which Produce Prefabricated Building Components." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

The “open systems” in building prefabrication may be qualified more flexible to some extent compared to the closed ones and may use the tools and approaches used in industrial production areas for the estimation of demand and production. As for the closed systems in particular, it is not possible for these systems to apply this kind of an approach. Their production must be based on absolutely assured demands and projects. Because of this, they need detailed projects and assembly schedules for production. As a result of this, their production modes can be qualified “custom-made” type and production planning functions must provide the demand values from the assembly schedules of contracted projects. The problem can be solved by integrating the work schedules of the sites that are served by factory. Integration of data on a computerized system will be preferable and it is possible to realize the model in two alternative ways. The first is developing a new conceptual model and convert it into a software and the second is developing an approach for customizing general purpose project planning and programming software for using them in production planning. The second solution is studied in the paper following this. The aims of this study are analyzing outstanding general purpose project planning & programming software from the point of view of requirements of production planning function and their customizability, comparing the requirements of the model designed for production planning and capabilities of general purpose planning software and developing the conceptual and practical dimensions and basic principals of the model for using the general purpose planning and programming software for production planning.

Nguyen, T.H., K.H. Ha, and C. Bddard. "Architectural and Structural Design with Code Compliance Checking." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

This paper focuses on the development of an integrated information model suitable for a knowledge-based system to automate the building design process including code compliance checking. The development of such a data model is based on object-oriented knowledge representation techniques in which building entities and relationships are represented by objects and attributes through appropriate frame-based forms, whereas rule-based representations are used to describe the knowledge contained in building regulations. The proposed approach integrates all relevant information among different disciplines such as architecture, engineering, and building regulations in an object-oriented model capable of exchanging all the information by means of a common database. The implementation of a prototype system is also described.

Hall, A.C.. "Assessing the Role of Computer Visualisation in Planning Control: a recent case study." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. In papers to previous DDSS Conferences, and elsewhere, the author has developed an argument concerning the use of computer visualisation in the planning process. In essence, it proposes that: • visualisation can enable lay persons to play a more effective role and this can result in different and more effective decisions, • the level of realism employed should result from the basic requirements necessary to resolve the issue minimising the cost of production of the images. These points have been tested in repeated examples. The latest one concerns a new site that Anglia Polytechnic University has established in the centre of Chelmsford, UK. A computer model of the new campus showing both the existing and proposed buildings was commissioned from the author by the University for a visit by HM the Queen in June 1995. This model was subsequently adapted for use in the process of obtaining planning consent and the marketing of floorspace for the next building to be constructed. For this purpose, a higher level of realism was requested. The experience of achieving it confirmed the results of the previous research indicating the strong link between realism and cost. It also contributed new insights into the varying expectations of different professionals concerning the role of such a visualisation. The requirement of the architect for demonstrating all aspects of the design required a high level of realism than that required for planning and marketing purposes and was considerably more expensive. The low cost of use for planning purposes should be stressed but surprisingly, the lower level of realism implied may be easier for the lay person than the professional to accept.
Krafta, Romulo. "Built form and urban configuration development simulation." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. The “centrality/potential” model, proposed by Krafta (1994), for configurational development, aims at the simulation of inner city built form growth. This is generally achieved by simulating the uneven distribution of floor area increments, resulting from replacement of old buildings, considered “devalued capitali form new ones. The model considers two main variables - public urban space system and built form - and treats them unevenly, the former is extensively disaggregated whereas the latter is not. This feature enables the model to make just a rough account of intra-urban built form development. The issue of built form simulation is then taken further in the following way: a) Urban built form is disaggregated by types. Buildings are classified by a cross combination of scale, purpose, age and quality standard, b) The city is itself considered as a set of intertwined typologic cities. This means that each unit of public space is identified by its dominant built form type, producing a multilayered-discontinuous city. Each one has its own market characteristics: rentability, technological availability and demand size, c) The market constraints determine which layer-city has priority over the others, as well as each one's size of growth. References to rentability and demand size gives each built form type priorities for development d) Spatial conditions, in the form of particular evaluation of centrality and spatial opportunity measures, regulates the distribution of built form increments and typological succession. Locational values, denoted by centrality and spatial opportunity measures, area differently accounted for in each layer-city simulation. e) Simulation is obtained by “runningi the model recursively. Each built form type is simulated separately and in hyerarquical order, so that priority and replacement of built form types is acknowledged properly.
Polidori, Mauricio. "Built Form Impact Assessment Method of Description." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. Continuous change in contemporary cities heve produced an urban space tipollogically diverse, particulary in fast growing South-American countries. As a result, the straight contextual analysis, usually used to assess the degree of innovation/permanence of new buildings in urban settings becomes ineffective, for the simple reason that frequently it is virtually impossible to establish what the context dominance actually is. The method proposed in this paper takes the issue of tipological analysis from a systems approach. This is carried out by a series of procedures, such as: a) identifying buildings'constitutive parts, which can be done at any degree of detail, b) listing them according to their attributes of repertory and formal composition.,with this it is obtained a extensive catalogue of the entities taking part of the considered urban setting, from which the actual context can be depicted, c) listing each entity's participation in the landscape composition, or the role each one has in the landscape configuration. The software that operates the analysis does the rest, measuring the degree of innovation/permanence of each entity, in relation to the others, and defining what the context is made of.. From this, any inclusion/exclusion in the considered townscape is automatically evaluated in terms of impact on the pre-existing setting. The system can be used at any urban scale, as well as at the building scale.
Demir, Yueksel. "CAD Systems for early design phases or CAD systems for designers' early phases." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Most of the problems, related with the use of CAD systems are the results of some general principles, the philosophy that, those systems are based on. Therefore, mainly the relation between these principles and early design phase performance of CAD systems and designers are discussed in this paper. The circumstances of novice CAD user architects in Turkey is considered first. In formation of the research, the knowledge gained during my personal experience based on real cases from the university (education, research) and practice (design, consulting) is used. Beside this the results of a survey including a serious of interviews projecting the opinions of the architects is used. Vendors of commonly used CAD systems were interviewed. In this manner to answer the main question about the relation of “CAD” and “early design phase” the answers of some following questions and facts were investigated: What means CAD for architects? What are the main purposes of using CAD? Are CAD systems sufficient to be used in early design phases in terms of either hardware and / or software, or should we say thinkware?. The advantages and disadvantages of using CAD. The target user fact and its consequences (the difference between general purpose systems and the sophisticated architectural systems). Should we adapt to computerized way of thinking? Is 3D a basic feature? What are the education related problems of CAD? Is software integration problem solved? Modularity concept for CAD systems. What is the minimum time, and the budget required for a start? The illegal software use problem Complaints, demands, needs and thanks of architects? Simply, what do architects expect from CAD during design process and particularly in early phases (both of design and designer)? Do CAD systems match this?

Gordon, T., N. Karacapilidis, H. Voss, and A. Zauke. "Computer-Mediated Cooperative Spatial Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. Decision making on spatial planning problems has to integrate recent advancements on geographical information systems with a framework that supports fair, rational and efficient decision making procedures. Such a framework will assist government and businesses with the retrieval, use and reuse of information in cooperative, distributed planning procedures requiring access to spatial data. This paper gives an overview of a computer-mediated group decision support system for the World Wide Web, namely ZENO. The target is to provide intelligent assistance to human mediators and other kinds cf “trusted third partiesi during the above procedures. The role of the system is to remain neutral and help assure that the interests and goals of all members of a group, regardless of their status, are respected and appreciated. In this paper, the system's features are illustrated with a retrospective model of a real urban planning example, concerning the allocation of a new technology park in the area of the city of Bonn, where more than eighty communities, local and federal authorities, and other organizations have been requested to submit their suggestions, objections and comments on a spatial planning problem.
Dijkstra, J., W.A.H. Roelen, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Conjoint measurement in virtual environment: a framework." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Conjoint analysis (also called stated preference analysis) involves the use of designed hypothetical choice situations to measure individuals'preferences and predict their choice in new situations. Conjoint experiments involve the design and analysis of hypothetical decision tasks. Alternatives are described by their main features, called attributes. Multiple hypothetical alternatives (product profiles) are generated and presented to respondents, who are requested to express their degree of preference for these profiles. Conjoint experiments have become a popular tool to model individual preferences and decision-making in a variety of research areas. Most studies of conjoint analysis have involved a verbal description of product profiles, although some studies have used a pictorial presentation of product profiles. This paper describes a framework for a conjoint analysis system in a virtual environment. Product profiles are generated in a virtual environment and respondents are requested to choose in that virtual environment the product profile they prefer. Advantages of a virtual environment in this area of research include 3D presentation, improved experience and the possibility to include measurable attributes such as time and sound. This framework is a first attempt to explore the possibilities of virtual reality systems in conjoint analysis.

Witlox, F.J.A., Theo Arentze, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Constructing and consulting fuzzy decision tables." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. In this paper, we investigate a methodological issue associated with the use of decision tables (DTs). In particular, a predominant problem concerns the categorization of the condition and action states in a DT. This categorization is assumed to exhibit a discrete (or crisp) character. Although sharply defined discrete categorizations imply an. accurate and precise decision-making, in many real time problems it proves to be a too stringent and severe assumption to impose on the choice maker. In order to solve this problem, we will enhance the DT formalism to incorporate elements from the theory of fuzzy sets. The construction of a fuzzy decision table (FDT) is explained in a step-by-step manner and illustrated by means of a brief example in the field of location theory. The paper concludes with an assessment of how to use and consult a FDT.
de Gelder, Johan, and Larry Lucardie. "Criteria for the Selection of Conceptual Modelling Languages for Knowledge Based Systems." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

In recent years knowledge is increasingly recognised as a critical production factor for organisations. Performance of activities such as designing, diagnosing, advising and decision making, depend on the availability and accessibility of knowledge. However, the increasing volume and complexity of knowledge endangers its availability and accessibility. By their knowledge processing competence, knowledge based systems containing a structured and explicit representation of knowledge, are expected to solve this problem. In the realisation of a knowledge based system, the phase in which a knowledge model is reconstructed through a conceptual language, is essential. Because the knowledge model has to be an adequate reflection of real-world knowledge, the conceptual language should not only offer sufficient expressiveness for unambiguous knowledge representation, but also provide facilities to validate knowledge on correctness, completeness and consistency. Furthermore, the language should supply facilities to be processed by a computer. This paper discusses fundamental criteria to select a conceptual language for modelling the knowledge of a knowledge based system. It substantiates the claim that the selection depends on the nature of the knowledge in the application domain. By analysing the nature of knowledge using the theory of functional object-types, a framework to compare, evaluate and select a conceptual language is presented. To illustrate the selection process, the paper describes the choice of a conceptual language of a knowledge based system for checking office buildings on fire-safety demands. In this application domain, the language formed by decision tables has been selected to develop the conceptual model. The paper provides an in-depth motivation why decision tables form the best language to model the knowledge in this case.

Jabi, Wassim. "Domain-Specific Tools for Collaboration in Architectural Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

By using a semantically significant and parsimonious representation of collaborative work in architecture an approach is demonstrated that allows the construction of a computer environment that can support collaborative design among geographically dispersed participants. A principal characteristic of this approach is a shift away from a focus on multi-user access to shared databases towards a shared protocol of interaction that is independent of implementation and storage schemes. To arrive at the components of this protocol an analysis of the nature of collaborative design was conducted in order to derive its syntactic and semantic structures. This paper will detail the argument put forth and demonstrate a possible solution through a discussion of the elements of a protocol of interaction and a brief description of a prototype Synchronous Collaborative Design Environment (SYCODE) that was implemented on two heterogeneous computer systems at distant sites.

Jabi, Wassim. "Domain-Specific Tools for Collaboration in Architectural Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture, 248-259. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

By using a semantically significant and parsimonious representation of collaborative work in architecture an approach is demonstrated that allows the construction of a computer environment that can support collaborative design among geographically dispersed participants. A principal characteristic of this approach is a shift away from a focus on multi-user access to shared databases towards a shared protocol of interaction that is independent of implementation and storage schemes. To arrive at the components of this protocol an analysis of the nature of collaborative design was conducted in order to derive its syntactic and semantic structures. This paper will detail the argument put forth and demonstrate a possible solution through a discussion of the elements of a protocol of interaction and a brief description of a prototype Synchronous Collaborative Design Environment (SYCODE) that was implemented on two heterogeneous computer systems at distant sites.

Koutamanis, Alexander. "Elements and coordinating devices in architecture: an initial formulation." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Design representations of the built environment are essentially atomistic. A design is represented by its atomic components which may vary according to abstraction level, their properties and, if possible, their relationships. The utility of such representations has been amply demonstrated in academic research. However, the transition to practice means a substantial growth of the size of these representations in order to cover the many abstraction levels and the multiple aspects involved in the design and the management of the built environment. In most cases the complexity of larger representations renders them unmanageable for both computers and humans. The paper outlines an approach which enriches the atomistic basis of the representation with connected but independent coordinating devices. This facilitates the transformation of the basic relational representations into multilevel structures where each level corresponds to different aspects and abstraction scales. Coordinating devices are instrumental for the representation of multilateral relationships and abstract spatial schemata which precede or supersede the placement and arrangement of elements.

Hunt, John. "Establishing design directions for complex architectural projects: a decision support strategy." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

The paper seeks to identify characteristics of the design decision-making strategy implicit in the first placed design submissions for three significant architectural competitions: the Sydney Opera House competition, and two recent design competitions for university buildings in New Zealand. Cohn Rowe's (1982) characterisation of the design process is adopted as a basis for the analysis of these case studies. Rowe's fertile analogy between design and (criminal) detection is first outlined, then brought to bear on the case studies. By means of a comparison between the successful and selected unsuccessful design submissions in each case, aspects of Rowe's characterisation of the design process are confirmed. On the basis of this analysis several common features of the competition-winning submissions, and their implicit decision-making processes, are identified. The first of these features relates to establishing project or programmatic requirements and the prioritizing of these. The second concerns the role of design parameters or requirements that appear as conflicting or contradictory, in the development of a design direction and in innovative design outcomes. The third concerns the process of simultaneous consideration given by the designer to both project parameters or requirements, and to design solution possibilities - a process described by Rowe as "dialectical interanimation".

Doxtater, Dennis, and Daniel Mittleman. "Facilitating and structuring environmental knowledge: prototypical pre-design for a new campus setting." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

This applied research combines state-of-the-art computer-supported facilitation process with a conceptually new way of structuring behavioural knowledge of the physical environment. The object is to develop a prototypical evaluation/pre-design/design process which can be used in practice. The paper reports on the first phase of an actual building project for a university campus where representatives from all client user groups have participated in GSS facilitated sessions. Large amounts of user information have been organized into a graphically enhanced data base including decisions on key programmatic issues. Proposed GSS sessions for the second phase envision a continuous flow of pre-design information through design and design evaluation processes.

Achten, Henri, M.F.Th. Bax, and Robert Oxman. "Generic Representations and the Generic Grid: Knowledge Interface, Organisation and Support of the (early) Design Process." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Computer Aided Design requires the implementation of architectural issues in order to support the architectural design process. These issues consist of elements, knowledge structures, and design processes that are typical for architectural design. The paper introduces two concepts that aim to define and model some of such architectural issues: building types and design processes. The first concept, the Generic grid, will be shown to structure the description of designs, provide a form-based hierarchical decomposition of design elements, and to provide conditions to accommodate concurrent design processes. The second concept, the Generic representation, models generic and typological knowledge of building types through the use of graphic representations with specific knowledge contents. The paper discusses both concepts and will show the potential of implementing Generic representations on the basis of the Generic grid in CAAD systems.

Qingming, Zhan, and Huang Zhengdong. "GIS Support for urban planning in wuhan, p.r.china." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. The shift from a planned economy to a market economy has been a great challenge for the urban planning bureau of Wuhan. This challenge lies partially in finding new land for the rapid urban expansion as well as redeveloping existing urban areas especially inner city areas. The urban planning bureau initiated two projects: the revision of the master plan and the development of an urban renewal plan. In both plans the university assisted in spatial data analysis and the development of a spatial data model to support the inner city redevelopment process.
Kribbe, Willeke, and Frank Sanders. "Growth of spatial network constructions: a decision support systems oriented approach." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. The paper describes a method that has been developed to be used in a process for a systematic search of alternative designs for a network configuration. In the design process we will take into account that we may not be able to implement the full configuration all at once. Logical partial configurations must be derived. The process can than also be used to investigate the expansion of (railroad) networks. The basic idea is that either the most profitable trajectories or the trajectories that contribute most to the improved quality of the configuration will be developed first. A method cannot incorporate all criteria that are relevant for the final decision simultaneously, one of the reasons being that not all criteria are suitable for a mathematical formulation. Therefore a method cannot be used to replace current legal and political procedures. However it can be considered to be part of a decision support system that could be used in a preliminary investigation preceeding such procedures. In the example presented in this paper the criteria and calculations are kept simple for illustrative purposes. However they can easily be made more complex and realistic without damaging the fundamental concepts of the search algorithm. If the system is implemented in a way that the criteria to be used in the selection process can be chosen in interaction with the decision maker (or moderator) one can truly speak of a decision support system for the project formulation phase for the construction of the physical network. In the algorithm the network is represented as a graph and the nodes connected by the network are termed centers of attraction, supply and demand.
Schmidt-Belz, B., A. Vo?, L. Emkes, and C.H. Coulon. "How to support city planning using map interpretation techniques." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. We suggest and motivate a system to support city traffic planning. Our approach is derived from Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), where former experiences (cases) are stored and made available for reuse. To start with, a collection of examples from books or other sources is stored as hypermedia documents. Retrieval of useful examples is enabled by describing (indexing) the examples in several aspects. While some descriptors have to be attached by users or system administrators, others could be automatically inferred. The vision is, that in the long run cases are derived from GIS plans and the CBR support is an integrated tool in a GIS working environment.
Boelen, A.J.. "Impact-Analysis of Urban Design Realtime impact-analysis models for urban designers." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. The past five years Prof Dr Jr T.M. de Jong, professor in environmental planning and sustainability at the Technical University of Delft, has developed a theoretical foundation for the analysis of urban design on the ecological, technical, economical, cultural and political impacts of morphologic interventions on different levels of scale. From september 1994 Jr AJ. Boelen (Urban Design Scientist and Knowledge Engineer) started a research project at the same university to further explore the possibilities of these theories and to develop impact evaluation models for urban design and development with the theoretical work of De Jong as a starting point. The paper discusses the development of a design and decision support system based on these theories. For the development of this system, techniques like object-orientation, genetic algorithms and knowledge engineering are used. The user interface, the relation between the real world, paper maps and virtual maps and the presentation of design-interventions and impacts caused by the interventions are important issues. The development-process is an interactive step by step process. It consists of the making of a prototype of the system, testing the theory and hypothe-sisses the system is based on, by applying tests end adjusting the theory and hypothesisses where needed. Eventually the system must be able to act as an integrator of many different models already developed or still to be developed. The structure of the system will allow easy future expansion and adjustment to changing insights. The logic used to develop the basic theory on which this system is founded makes it possible to even introduce and maintain rather subjective aspects like quality or appraisal as impacts that can be evaluated. In a previously developed system “Momentumi this was proved to work effectively for the national level. In this project we will - amongst other things - try to prove the effectiveness of impact-evaluation for other levels of scale.
van Leeuwen, Jos, Harry Wagter, and M. Oxman. "Information Modelling for Design Support - a Feature-based approach." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

The research described in this paper addresses the problem of modelling design information with respect to the dynamic nature of design. This requires information models to be highly flexible and extensible with domain-specific information-definitions. The approach followed in this research is inspired by the concepts of Features-technology, mainly applied in Mechanical Engineering, and results in a framework for defining flexible and extensible information models for architectural application. This approach distinguishes Generic Feature Types for the domain of architecture and Specific Feature Types for particular sub-domains. It proposes a classification of Feature Types, as well as an infrastructure that accommodates the definition and particularization of Features Types. The research involves the development of a pilot-system for the computational support of this Dynamic Information-Modelling approach. At the end of this paper we discuss the possibilities of the Feature-based Modelling approach as a basis for design support systems.

Sariyildiz, Sevil, and Mathias Schwenck. "Integrated Support Systems for Architectural Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Many software systems are used in the field of architectural design. On the other hand, we can state that there is a significant lack of integrated systems providing a general support for the designer during the whole design process from initiative till demolition. This research project deals with the development of such an integrated design support system. We consider a complete automation of architectural design as an unlikely proposition and undesirable for the architect. Therefore, the general objective is to give support to the architect to improve the quality and to increase the efficiency of the design process. So far there are different tools providing such functionality. Nevertheless, there are no appropriate tools for many of the sub-processes. Furthermore, the current state of available design software is characterised by a lack of integration of different tools. To overcome these two problems our research project involves the development of tools as well as it deals with the aspect of tool integration. We will give a general description of the support that software can offer to architects during the materialisation phase of design. We conclude that many different tools are needed which have to be integrated in an open, modular, distributed, user friendly and efficient environment.

Shabha, G., and D. Rudge. "Is Uniformity the Key to Flexibility? a Post-Occupancy Evaluation of School Buildings." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Flexibility and efficiency are two fundamental concepts in the planning of school buildings. This paper is being set to investigate the theoretical and practical links between the two. It seeks to address a number of questions: What constitutes an efficient and flexible school building? What is the optimal range and size of teaching areas to maximise flexibility? In what way can teaching areas be optimised to enhance their efficiency in use? Attempting to address these questions, an in-depth review of the relevant literature will be undertaken to analyse and refine the size of different teaching areas. Later, some operational measures of uniformity of areas and flexibility will be refined and established. These will be applied on selected school buildings to assess the their adequacy to accommodate change over use. The main outcome of this study is to provide an insight about the general rules of design for flexibility and efficiency. It also provides a framework for architects, surveyors and facilities managers to improve space efficiency in school buildings. This might enhance the process of space planning and management and improve the operational efficiency of other building types.

Lucardie, L., J. de Gelder, and C. Duursma. "Matching the Knowledge Needs of Trade and Industry: Advanced and Operational Knowledge Based Systems." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. Complex tasks that are being performed in trade and industry such as diagnosis, engineering and planning, increasingly require rapid and easy access to large amounts of complicated knowledge. To cope with these demands on trade and industry, advanced automated support for managing knowledge seems to be needed. Knowledge based systems are claimed to match these needs. However, to deal with the vast volume and complexity of knowledge through knowledge based systems, preconditions at three computer systems levels should be fulfilled. At the first level, called the knowledge level, the development of knowledge based systems requires a well-elaborated theory of the nature of knowledge that helps to get a clear and consistent definition of knowledge. By providing guidelines for selecting and developing methodologies and for organising the mathematical functions underlying knowledge representation formalisms, such a definition significantly advances the process of knowledge engineering. Here, we present the theory of functional object-types as a theory of the nature of knowledge. At the second level, called the symbol level, the representation formalisms used must be compatible with the chosen theory of the nature of knowledge. The representation formalisms also have to be interpretable as propositions representing knowledge, so that their knowledge level import can be assessed. Furthermore, knowledge representation formalisms have to play a causal role in the intelligent behaviour of the knowledge based system. At the third level, called the systems level, a knowledge based system should be equipped with facilities that enable an effective management of the representation formalisms used. Yet other system facilities are needed to allow the knowledge base to communicate with existing computer systems used in the daily practice of trade and industry, for instance Database Management Systems, Geographical Information Systems and Computer Aided Design Systems. It should be taken into account that these systems may run in different networks and on different operating systems. A real-world knowledge based system that operates in the field of soil contamination exemplifies the development of an advanced and operational knowledge-based system that complies with the preconditions at each computer systems level.
Loughreit, Fouad. "Methods to assist the design of road surfaces with a reservoir structure: to improve flood risk management." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. Reservoir road surfaces can be seen as equipment of the future, in that they have two functions in the same structure (circulation and hydraulic functions). They can thus be laid without immobilising land, which is very expensive and prized in urban areas. Furthermore, they enable the limitation of the flow or volumes of running water, and thus help control rainwater, resulting in better flood risk management. The questions asked by drainage designers are how can we design these structures in the best way? How are they going to work for different types of rain (rain from storms, prolonged winter rain....)? As for the public administrators, they wonder how a series of areas equipped with this type of technique (total flow management) would work. By solving this latter problem, we could really arouse interest in flood risk management. Given the diversity of structures possible for reservoir road surfaces (regulated, non-regulated, draining surface, dispersion surface...), we suggest comparing design and simulation methods, taking into account the measurement and total flow management problems mentioned above. So as to validate these comparisons and to give some directions concerning the use of one or the other methods, we use flow-metre measures on two different sites in Lyons. One of these sites is a car- park on a tertiary activity zone on the La Doua campus in Villeurbanne, the other a refuse dump in the Greater Lyons area in the town of Craponne. They are both interesting as they have different features. The first is non-regulated downstream and is used on a car-park for light motor-vehicles. The other is regulated and the traffic on it is made up of lorries. These sites will be described in this article.
Daru, Roel, and H.P.S. Snijder. "Morphogenetic Designing in Architecture resolving controversies in and between design, research and development." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

There is a dearth of software able to support the working styles of all types of designers and design scholars, spanning the whole spectrum of hermeneutical and empirical traditions. The development of morphogenetic designing in architecture opens new possibilities to bridge the gap between the different traditions. It can support the birth of forms evolving one from the other with the help of local and global rules in genetic algorithms and neural networks which translate the wishes of the designer. It can also support the communication about these forms and the testing of their adequacy. On the other hand the design process which is reflected in the sequence of form generating acts can be studied by design researchers better than by protocols alone.

Sariyildiz, Sevil, M. Schwenck, and E. Jander. "Multimedia Teachware in the Field of Architectural Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Software systems for educational purposes have been developed and used in many application areas. In this paper we will describe a development in the field of building science. ClAD is a teachware system directed to be used in the education of students of architecture as well as a tool that gives a survey to architects and engineers in the practice. In the first place it provides information about the use of computer science technologies in the building design process. Furthermore, information about the architectural design process itself is included. Based on an analysis of general requirements and specific demands of the application field we describe our solution concept. Very important conclusions are that the system has to integrate the use of all media which are usually used by architects by offering a flexible and well-designed user interface and allowing a high degree of interactive work. After covering the development process as a combination of top down and bottom up strategies we describe the overall structure of ClAD as a modular system which can be extended and updated easily. Finally, we give an overview about some parts of the system to demonstrate the implementation of the concepts mentioned above.

Tisma, Alexandra. "Multimedia Training "Designing Randstad"." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. The project multimedia training “Designing Randstadi (MTDR) is an experimental attempt to introduce multimedia in education at the Faculty of Architecture in Delft. It intends to develope teachware which will learn the students the basics of Geographic Informational Systems (GIS) implementation in land use evaluation appropriate for physical planning purposes. Interaction between students and the system will enable students to learn about GIS, to design a model of the spatial development of Randstad area and to evaluate their own designs, to produce immediate graphic visualisation of the evaluation and to compare it with the evaluations of the fellow students. The project will be applied in the first year curriculum, in the course “Regioni of the Department of Urban planning of the Faculty of Architecture, in the first half of the year 1997.
Stark, S.L., and R.G. Phillips. "Occupational Performance Theory as a Support to Design of the Built Environment for Persons with Disabilities." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Architectural practice should not be considered only a method of building buildings, but also a process of creating places for those who will use them. The interdependent nature of humans and the environment has provided architects and designers with a challenge, to build not only a space, but also a place in which human performance occurs. Environment -- behaviour relations are complex and transactional. An understanding of this relationship facilitates the creation of environments that improve the quality of life for the buildings users. A strong understanding of the complexities of the environment is greatly enhanced by knowledge of the performance of the person. Knowledge of the person as a unique being who assumes different roles, possesses skills, and has attributes (abilities) allows the designer a greater respect of the dynamic experience of a person engaged in activity within an environment. The theory of occupational performance supports the understanding of the person and the persons daily tasks. These models describe human performance components and human performance areas. They also acknowledge that the person is engaged in activity within an environment. These models could prove to be invaluable to designers and architects interested in using knowledge of the persons in conjunction with knowledge of the environment to create spaces for people with disabilities.

Mitossi, V., and Alexander Koutamanis. "Parametric design of stairs." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Stairs represent one of the oldest and most intricate design problems in architecture. Aesthetics, pedestrian circulation, construction and safety combine to create a complex network of factors. Despite the essentially parametric nature of stairs, designers have been eager to adopt and apply simplistic standardization schemes, often unrelated to safety issues. Moreover, while there are several computerized systems for the automated design of stairs, there has been little if any interest in the computer-based analysis of stair designs. The objective of our research has been to develop a transparent and flexible computer system for the design and analysis of stairs. The system employs constraint propagation networks for the calculation of stair dimensions in generation and for the correlation of floor levels to stairs and their dimensions in analysis. Computerization also allows us to re-examine and refine the norms underlying stair design. We propose that our understanding of stair design can be improved by the analysis of proprioceptive sizes in ascent and descent. Simulation of these sizes with virtual robots combines accurate measurement with visual evaluation. This combination facilitates the effortless and direct integration of advanced technologies and new methods in architectural design.

de la Puente, Guillermo Vasquez de, and A.H. MendIvil. "Professional Decision Support Clients and Instructional Knowledge Based Servers." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

The paper sets its focus on the problem of supporting the decision making process of the architect by means of Knowledge Based Systems that tend to concentrate on narrow domains of knowledge and fail to support global domain integration in our path towards an architectural synthesis. In response to this concern, the paper recognises the theoretical soundness of Integrated Decision Support Systems that seek the articulation of diversified knowledge based resources in pursue of achieving integral design support, but at the same time, the paper needs to acknowledge the multiple factors that have limited their wide spread development, in particular: lack of true commercial interest and a related absence of relevant authorship. From a conceptual and a commercial perspective, the paper transfers the traditional development scenario of our Integrated Decision Support Systems, and their array of knowledge based resources, into the market place of worldwide networks where Integrated Decision Support Platforms may perform as professional high-end clients and Knowledge Based Systems may be clustered within multimedia instructional servers. The paper ends by making reference to the positive reaction of a given group of practising architects that were recently exposed to a simulation of the intelligent front-end of a professional decision support client.

Coomans, M.K.D., and Robert Oxman. "Prototyping of Designs in Virtual Reality." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture, 13-25. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Conventional CAD systems have not yet proven their ability to provide support for activities which characterise the early conceptual phase of design. We propose to refer to this set of capabilities of the human designer in conventional design as, design prototyping. We define the theoretical limitations of current CAD systems for supporting design prototyping, and postulate the potential of functionally dedicated, task related, CAD modules in Virtual Reality as a means to provide a unique form of a knowledgebased, visual design support environment for design prototyping support. We are currently engaged in a research program in which we explore CAD as a medium to support early conceptual design through rapid prototyping of architectural form. Furthermore we are exploring Virtual Reality as a potential design prototyping environment in which prototypes of designs can be constructed, communicated and visually evaluated at a high level of verisimilitude. In the first phase we have built the prototype system VIDE. This system has been used for extensive internal evaluation. In the ongoing second phase we are constructing an empirical research to observe designers at work on design prototyping in the Virtual Reality environment.

Coomans, M.K.D., and Robert Oxman. "Prototyping of Designs in Virtual Reality." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Conventional CAD systems have not yet proven their ability to provide support for activities which characterise the early conceptual phase of design. We propose to refer to this set of capabilities of the human designer in conventional design as, design prototyping. We define the theoretical limitations of current CAD systems for supporting design prototyping, and postulate the potential of functionally dedicated, task related, CAD modules in Virtual Reality as a means to provide a unique form of a knowledge-based, visual design support environment for design prototyping support. We are currently engaged in a research program in which we explore CAD as a medium to support early conceptual design through rapid prototyping of architectural form. Furthermore we are exploring Virtual Reality as a potential design prototyping environment in which prototypes of designs can be constructed, communicated and visually evaluated at a high level of verisimilitude. In the first phase we have built the prototype system VIDE. This system has been used for extensive internal evaluation. In the ongoing second phase we are constructing an empirical research to observe designers at work on design prototyping in the Virtual Reality environment.

van der Waerden, P., Aloys Borgers, and H. Timmerinans. "Route related data of shopping centre visitors and geographical information systems." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. Pedestrian route information can support different research activities such as the calculation of economic performances of shopping streets, the evaluation of parking policy measures, and the development of pedestrian design standards. These research activities are helpful in planning and designing shopping centres. Pedestrians'routes are used to measure walking distances, calculate other route related data, and estimate pedestrians'densities. To use route related data efficiently, it is necessary to capture the observed routes of pedestrians in some kind of computer system. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) might offer an opportunity to deal with route related data because they can handle spatial and non-spatial data for example of line segments. However, very few GIS offer tools to enter, store, analyze and display route related data. In the new version of TransCAD a special Route System module is implemented to handle routes. The route system stores the routes, the different links routes are made up, and the possible stops on the route in separate tables that can be analyzed and displayed in a map. This paper describes the structure and the contents of pedestrians'route information as it can be used in various research projects. From these research projects some general requirements to handle route related, are extracted. Special attention is paid to the way TransCAD deals with routes. A parking research conducted in the main shopping centre of Veldhoven is used to describe and illustrate the possibilities of route related data of pedestrians, and evaluate the possibilities TransCAD offers to deal with this kind of data.
Bach, Boudewijn, and Trina MacGillivray. "Semi-manual design support for increasing railwaystation catchment and sustainable traffic routing." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. The shape ('configuration'), location and direction of the pattern of potential trips by foot or bicycle can help decision makers and designers:- the shape of such a pattern informs about the potential size of a traffic calming area(such as 30Km-zoning),- the location of such a pattern refers to the user-groups and specific destinations that a urban network should bring in safe reach for dictated groups,- the direction of such a pattern, together with shape and location, points to the best routing to raise the Sustainable Traffic Modal Split or to improve the reach of destinations like a railway-station.The patters can be generated from zip-code's of user-groups with obvious and daily destinations (school-children, rail-passengers). The next step confronts the theoretical pattern with the layout of streets and the traffic flow, mapping or listing (potential) confrontations between cars and the non-motorised modes, a basis for economical investment in traffic-safety.A design can'model'the analysed pattern(s) to a economic, direct and safe base (cycle or pedestrian) network. In co-operation, the Dutch the traffic consultant “Verkeersadviesbureau Diepens & Okkemai in Delft, The Netherlands and the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, in Delft, The Netherlands, develloped the semi-manual design & decision support system “STAR-Analysis”
Emdanat, S.S., and Emmanuel-George Vakalo. "Shape grammars: a critical review and some thoughts." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Shape grammars are generative formalisms that produce shapes in specified styles. Little critical work has been done to examine the assumptions that shape grammar researchers make about architectural form and its generation, the methodology they employ, the underlying formalism they use, and consequently the adequacy of this formalism to describe architectural form. After establishing the criteria for evaluating the adequacy of a given generative formalism, this paper applies them to the evaluation of the shape grammar formalism. The paper demonstrates that, in its present state, shape grammar leaves a great deal to be desired in terms of its descriptive power and its generalizability. The paper concludes by exploring some of the desired characteristics for languages of architectural form.

Stamps, Arthur. "Significant visual impact: is it or isn't it?" In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. Thirty-eight countries, from all continents except Antarctica, have formal environmental impact review procedures. These impact procedures typically require distinctions between “significant impacts” and “non-significant”impacts, shows how the theory can be implemented, and illustrates the theory with three cases histories and a survey of research on the effects of various planning policies. The case histories are examples of statutory and discretionary design review in California and include specifying bay windows on houses, specifying contextual fit, and a before and after study of decisions of a review board. The talk concludes with a discussion of the ranges over which the theory will or will not be applicable and of the opportunities for future cooperative international research.
Doughty, D.C., and W.G. Zwirner. "Spa Hotels and Facilities - a Comparison of Hotels in Budapest, Buxton and Piestany." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

In Britain, health and leisure tourism seems primarily to mean leisure with health being normally merely a secondary consideration ranging from fresh air to diet. In central Europe Spas still draw tourists and patients for leisure and for treatments from their own as well as neighbouring countries. Indeed, whilst Buxton, Bath, Harrogate and Leamington draw day trippers to see their historic buildings, Carlsbad, Budapest, Piestany and many of the other grand old Spas of central Europe are filled with longer-term guests seeking an improvement to their own chronic ailments. The reasons for this decline in British Spas and the continuing relative good health of Spas in central Europe are a complex mix that includes national characteristic, financial constraints and a disbelief by the British medical establishment in the efficacy of the water cure and related Spa treatments. This reluctance to acknowledge complementary health care is certainly not the case in Germany and the old Austro-Hungarian lands and Spa tourism presents a challenge as well as a promise of lucrative international tourism to the emerging “newi states of pre-communist Europe.

Tonarelli, P., B. Ferries, J.L. Delaporte, and C. Tahon. "STEP approach applied to a design support system in construction, within the context of concurrent engineering." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

The purpose of this article is to show that a building project design requires a concurrent engineering approach. Therefore, a concurrent preparation phase which requires the choice of a product approach applied to the building trade will be defined. During the building project design, handled data are multiple, current models, used to define, to represent, and to communicate these data, are insufficient. To solve these problems, the achievement of this approach has to be supported by reliable models and computer systems. These systems have to integrate data set and treatments one. The models and tools used in this concurrent preparation must to take into account the standards set in the domain, in particular the STEP (STandard Exchange for Product model data) project. STEP technology uses a methodology of product data definition which can be applied to a particular domain: the application protocol approach. This methodology will be applied to data and support system modelling, so that a concurrent approach to the building trade can be achieved. Finally the specification and the software architecture of this system will be presented.

Szalapaj, Peter, and Andrew Kane. "Techniques of Superimposition." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

This paper addresses the issues of 2-D and 3-D image manipulation in the context of a Computational Design Formulation System. The central feature of such a system is the ability to bring together two or more design objects in the same reference space for the purpose of analysis. Studies of traditional design methods has revealed the effectiveness of this technique of superimposition. This paper describes ways in which superimposition can be achieved, and, in particular, focuses on a range of domain-independent knowledge-based graphical operators that enable the decomposition of complex design forms into simpler aspects (secondary models) that can then be superimposed and/or analysed from a design-theoretic point of view. Examples of domain-independent knowledge-base graphical operators include object selection, planar bisection, 2-D closure (the grouping of lines into regions), aggregation (the decomposition of 2-D regions into aggregations of lines), spatial bisection, 3-D closure (the grouping of 2-D regions into volumes), 3-D aggregation (the decomposition of volumes into aggregations of 2-D regions). The representation of these operators is dependent upon the notion of a parameterisable volume, thus avoiding the need for translations between multiple representations of graphical objects by providing a common representation form for all objects. Secondary models can therefore subsequently be manipulated either through subtractive procedures (e.g. carving voids from solids), or by additive ones (e.g. assembling given design elements), or by other means such as transformation or distortion. The same techniques of superimposition can also be used to support the visualisation of design forms in two ways: by the juxtaposition of plans and sections with the 3-D form, by the multiple superimposition of alternative design representations e.g. structural schematic, parti schematic, volumetric schematic and architectural model.

Stouffs, Rudi, and Ramesh Krisbnamurti. "The Extensibility and Applicability of Geometric Representations." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

As designers pose new questions, within the context of computational design, that go beyond geometry and require other information to be included, there is, now more than ever, a need for extensible geometric representations. We believe that such can best be achieved using abstract data types defined over a set of basic operations, common to all data types. At the same time, we must consider the applicability of such a representation with respect to the functionalities of the application. In this paper, we explore these issues of extensibility and applicability as these relate to the questions of standardization and adaptability of representations. As a particular example, we consider an algebraic model, with a corresponding representation, that defines arithmetic operations that operate uniformly and consistently on geometries and on non-geometric attributes of various kinds.

Shabha, G., and K. Orr. "The Impacts of Facilities Management Techniques on the Operational Efficiency of School Buildings- an Assessment of Grant Maintained Schools." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

This paper attempts to examine the main benefits and pitfalls of FM as applied to Grant Maintained Schools (UMS) by assessing its implications on selected school buildings. It seeks to address a number of questions regarding the desirability of this method as applied to GMS. On what assumption has GMS model been based? To what extent has this model affected their operational efficiency? What are the financial implications? What are the future prospects? The main findings are that FM has provided new opportunities in the educational sector. Despite the economical uncertainty, it is highly likely that local control will remain. Giving the state of disrepair of many system-built schools of the 50s and the 60s, there are many opportunities for the FM to be exploited including condition survey, refurbishment of external envelope of the building, preventative maintenance, space utilisation and consultancy on meeting the EU health and safety legislation.

Macmillan, Andrew, and Mustafa Mezughi. "The integral role of conventional sketching in conceptualisation." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

Architectural Design Studies is an expanding research area, which recently has experienced dramatic shifts in approach. The successful application of computing to architectural practice has created pressure leading to a rediscovery of Architectural Drawing. The thrust of recent design studies is toward the early stages of the design process, where the modes of conception, human perceptual, and cognitive systems are the focus. In this paper we endeavour to examine the integral role of sketching in conceptualisation. A modelling technique relating to both the design and the graphic process' sheds light on the interaction between thought and drawing. Data from a protocol analysis is tested within the framework of the proposed model.

Gorawara-Bhat, Rita. "The physical context of social order." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

The present ethnographic study of work settings in an established survey research center (Midwest Survey) is unique in that it combines both social organizational specifcs j4 interior physical context in contrast to previous studies that have focussed either on physical aspects or on the social dimensions of work settings. For more than four years the author observed the spatial adaptation by personnel of Midwest Survey. The dates under consideration roughly coincide with a move of Midwest Survey from an original facility to a new (and larger) set of offices. Anchored by seventy three open-ended interviews (constituing roughly 30% of the staff) the observations were carried on during and after the interviews. The synthesis of the ethnographic material revealed that physical settings act not only as a background for facilities, but they become a salient aspect of work life as indicators of status /role congruency and incongruency. Physical settings, therefore, are proposed as “extensioni attributes of role structure. In doing so, Nadel's conceptualization of role structure as comprising pivotal arid peripheral attributes (1957) is amplified to include the physical setting as an "extension" attribute. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are suggested.

De Groot, E.H., and F.H. Louwers. "The TIE-system, a KBS for the Evaluation of Thermal Indoor Office Environments." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

A Knowledge-Based System [KBS] for the evaluation of Thermal Indoor office Environments [TIE] (in the Netherlands) was the product of a one-year project, undertaken by researchers of the Physical Aspects of the Built Environment group [FAGO] in cooperation with the Knowledge-Based System Section of the TNO-Building & Construction research Institute in Delft. The objective of the project was to develop a KBS capable of evaluating thermal indoor environments of existing or proposed office buildings designs. The approach used in this study was based on a traditional method of predicting thermal sensation by calculating Fanger's'Predicted Mean Vote'[PMV]. PMV is influenced by four environmental parameters of a room: air temperature, radiant temperature, air velocity and relative humidity, and by two personal parameters of the employees: metabolic rate and clothing insulation. The knowledge required to determine these six parameters was placed in KBS-databases and tables using a KBS-building tool called Advanced Knowledge Transfer System [AKTS]. By questioning the user, the TIE-system is capable of determining the PMV for a particular office room. The system also provides conclusions and advice on improving the thermal comfort. The TIE-system was a pilot-study for the long-term Building Evaluation research project, being undertaken at FAGO, that examines in all aspects of office building performance, and in which KBS may play a major pole.

Wong, W.C.H., and Barry Will. "The Use of an Interactive Animation Viewer in Presenting Architectural Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

This paper analyzes the use of a 31) hypermedia system in architectural presentation. It first reviews the current process of using computer animation in architectural presentation and identifies problems in the current process. The research assumes that a new approach using the hyper-model environment and animation together would provide a better environment for presenting architectural animation. An interactive animation viewer is designed and developed using the new approach. A sample architectural animation is presented using a tape-recorded animation player, a normal animation player, the interactive animation viewer, and a real-time animation player. The analysis of the result is made by a comparison in terms of image quality, speed, user interactions, object hyperlinkage, scene complexity, and information transmission on using different systems in presenting the same material. A conclusion is drawn to show the advantages of using the new approach. Limitations on using the new approach are identified too.

Wang, D.. "Towards an Informatics Framework for Sustainability Analysis in Urban Transportation Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. An informatics framework for sustainability analysis in urban transportation planning is developed in this paper. The framework consists of sustainability indicators, structured impact analysis, a general procedure, and a conceptual informatics framework which organises all these elements in a decision support system. In deriving sustainability indicators and structuring impact analysis, specific attention is given to comparisons between a trip-based approach and an activity-based approach, so that drawbacks of the conventional trip-based approach and potential of the activity-based approach are manifested in the context of sustainability analysis. Implications to the design of a decision support system for sustainability analysis are also discussed in terms of database and model base designs.
Kulkarni, R.G., R.R. Stought, and K.E. Haynes. "Traffic Flow Landscapes." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. Major metropolitan areas and constituent independent jurisdictions face the problem of providing efficient transportation for their residents and in-and out commuters. A typical trip taker spends considerable time on the road to reach the workplace and other destinations. Though it may seem counter-intuitive, adding more links to existing road networks and/or increasing traffic capacity by adding lanes does not necessarily decrease travel times (eg. Braess'paradox). But it is certain that a dense redundant network of roads would provide a trip taker with alternate routes when traffic incidents occur. These types of questions raise the question of, how to evaluate the flow characteristics of the entire road network of a jurisdiction and its larger region in keeping the traffic moving? Further, how may the impact of adding more links/ lanes or the blocking of existing links! lanes be best measured? To answer these and related questions, we propose a methodology to evaluate a fitness criteria for road networks based on Kauffman's biological NK model (1993). We specify a transportation road traffic flow landscape analogous to the fitness landscape of the NK model. Using the transportation road traffic flow landscape we derive a road fitness index that can be used to evaluate either the entire road network's traffic flows or subparts of such network's traffic flows. We explore the possibility of investigating traffic flow landscapes to search for optimal routes to clear traffic. Finally we describe an approach for applying the theoretical framework developed in the paper to the traffic conditions on the road network of the city of Fairfax, Virginia.
Halman, J.I.M., and M. Prins. "Virtual Reality in Architectural Design Management." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

In this paper new forms of network-based organizations are discussed in general and within the building industry in particular. Special attention is given to cross functional network teams. New emerging building design and construction functions within these network teams are explained. Network-based organizations in the building industry are considered to be virtual organizations “avant la lettre”. The shift to these types of organizations in the building industry can strongly be supported by developments in information technology. A new IT-concept, the extranet is introduced and explained in the paper.

Sanui, Junichiro. "Visualization of users' requirements: Introduction of the Evaluation Grid Method." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996.

During the last decade, a new type of approaches have emerged in Japanese environmental psychology. These approaches have characteristics that they are aiming to clarify users'requirements for the environment as the design questions to be solved, compared with the traditional approaches aiming to clarify the environment-human relationship to provide actual design solutions. As an example of these new approaches, the Evaluation Grid Method (EGM), a semi-structured interview method developed by the author based on Kelly's Personal Construct Theory is introduced. In the EGM, by asking the reasons of why an environment is more preferable to others recurrently, together with leading questions (laddering), each participant's requirements to the environment are elicited structurally as well as phenomenologically. Also by cumulating each participant's requirements, the extensive structure of the requirements to the environment embraced by people is produced. In this paper, a detailed procedure and the outcome of the EGM are presented on the elicitation of workers' requirements for the office environment. Also recent applied examples where the EGM research was applied as an design aid in architectural as well as industrial field will be introduced.

Van der Flier, C.L., and A.F. Thomsen. "Weighing alternatives decision support systems for housing management in the Netherlands." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning. DDSS. Spa, Belgium, 1996. Under nowadays market conditions housing quality will be a major issue for the management of the housing stock. Even under the existing housing shortness in the Netherlands vacancy and demolition of post-war housing blocks is not any more a rare incident. In most cases the reason of depreciation and decay is found in a mismatch between supply and demand, caused by either an inadequate design or shifted market conditions.To cure the problems a range of possible interventions has been developed, varying from neglection and minor changes to radical redesign and demolition. Recently some decision support systems are developed to overview and compare the consequences of different concepts and strategies. Our paper provides an overview of recent Dutch tools and systems for this purpose, partly including computer software. Special attention is paid to the weighing of alternative interventions and practical experiences.