Keywords Abstract
Musat, Maria. "3D Intelligent Representations for the Facility Management Practice." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. New field, growing very fast since the nineteen eighties, facility management takes care of our built environment. As owners and users together become more and more aware of the importance that healthy built environment has for their lives, the need for high quality tools to help them manage their buildings, throughout their transformations, are growing in demand. The market is overflowed with 2D applications assembled in different information systems that have no links one to another. Intranets, that offer direct links between alphanumerical and 2D graphical databases, are considered nowadays the top tools for facility management experts. Nevertheless the sophistication of this information systems, we should not forget the fact that built environment is always 3D. Therefore, the representations not only should be 3D as well, but also they should include some of the intelligence that builders and managers have, in order to ease their tasks during the life cycle of the buildings. Health and life of our built environment bases on the quality of the management process. However their importance was pointed in the first paragraph, there are yet no norms to intelligently describe our buildings as to take the most profit of their 3D representations. Both owners and managers seem to be impressed by accurate renderings of the building models. They seem to forget that behind these models, the useful information for the facility management is the appearance of the built environment. No intelligent applications have yet been developed based on this information. Our goal is to examine the facility management specific needs in information and to research and define a coherent norm that could intelligently describe 3D representations of complex buildings for this practice.
Lin, Cheng-Yuan, and Yu-Tung Liu. "A digital Procedure of Building Construction: a practical project." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960, Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985, Cable, 1983), the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996, Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991, Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996, Krawczyk, 1997, Murray, 1997, Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000, Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies. 
Coomans, M.K.D., Jos van Leeuwen, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Abstract but Tangible, Complex but Manageable." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. In the VR-DIS research program, an innovative design-information modelling technique has been proposed that is based on features. In this modelling technique, the designer is invited not only to model the form and spatial aspects of his or her design, but also to model the structure of the data behind the design. The designer is offered a way to control how abstract design data is structured and stored. In this way, the designer is given the power to model concepts like conformity, contrast, and scale on the formal data level, and this for both graphical and non-graphical design characteristics. Further, the designer is invited to input formal descriptions of own design concepts, and use these personal concepts during the design process. With this new information modelling technique, we expect that the designers will be better capable to handle the complexity of linking diverse kinds of information involved in a design process.  This new way of computer aided design offers a unique design freedom: any design concept becomes addressable. On the other hand, this technique also puts the responsibility for the content of the CAD database entirely in the hands of the designer. In order to be able to enjoy the design freedom fully and at the same time handle the responsibility over the design database, a computer tool is needed that shows the precise content of the database, and that is easy and quick to interact with. Only with such a tool, the designer will be capable of keeping the complex data model in pace with his or her design reasoning. To realise this requirement, a “feature browser” has been developed with a 3D graphical user interface. It shows the data objects as 3D blocks, mutually linked by rubber-band arrows that closely reflect the database structure. The whole forms an interactive 3D graph. The intuitiveness and user friendliness of the interface was improved by adding features like the visualisation of the browsing history, the visualisation of link-semantics, and animated visual feedback effects. The hardware part of the interface is worked out as a Fish Tank VR set-up. This hardware configuration improves the experienced realism of the displayed 3D objects up to a feeling of physical presence. The interface as a whole therefore provides a highly attractive display of the abstract design data, abstract but tangible. It is a tool in which complex data structures can be explored and controlled: complex but manageable. 
Kim, Yong-seong, and Suk-Tae Kim. "Abstract for AVOCAAD 2001 Conference." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. This study is on development for framework and implementation of the Web VR based Housing Design Solution System(VRDS). Architects, engineers and architectural consultants working on project through the network can use the VRDS system. The system should be used anywhere and whenever if project teams are connected on Internet. The system should have security protection for permitted users and the main data files for ongoing architectural projects. The main data files are linked with track recording file of users, date, time, and authority level and should be traced to previous version whenever authority requires it. The system is integration of Client Interface System and Server Management System. The Client User Interface System is integrated with Web VR system, so user can use the system easily without heavy education and the system works like utility program. The Server Management System has authority on permission for information management of main data file and records the tracking data. Also the Server Management System provides resource and information in its database by the request of users. The system can be expanded to cyber architectural company with multimedia meeting, communication, discussion and remote management. 
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Analysis and the descriptive approach." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. The rise of consciousness concerning the quality of working and living conditions has been a permanent though frequently underplayed theme in architecture and building since the reconstruction period. It has led to an explosive growth of programmatic requirements on building behaviour and performance, thus also stimulating the development of design analysis. The first stage of development was characterized by the evolution of prescriptive systems. These reversed the structure of pre-existing proscriptive systems into sequences of known steps that should be taken in order to achieve adequate results. Prescriptive systems complemented rather than replaced proscriptive ones, thereby creating an uncertain mixture of orthodoxy and orthopraxy that failed to provide design guidance for improving design performance and quality.The second stage in the development of design analysis focuses on descriptive methods and techniques for analyzing and supporting evaluation. Technologies such as simulation and scientific visualization are employed so as to produce detailed, accurate and reliable projections of building behaviour and performance. These projections can be correlated into a comprehensive and coherent description of a building using representations of form as information carriers. In these representations feedback and interaction assume a visual character that fits both design attitudes and lay perception of the built environment, but on the basis of a quantitative background that justifies, verifies and refines design actions. Descriptive analysis is currently the most promising direction for confronting and resolving design complexity. It provides the designer with useful insights into the causes and effects of various design problems but frequently comes short of providing clear design guidance for two main reasons: (1) it adds substantial amounts of information to the already unmanageable loads the designer must handle, and (2) it may provide incoherent cues for the further development of a design. Consequently the descriptive approach to analysis is always in danger of been supplanted by abstract decision making.One way of providing the desired design guidance is to complement the connection of descriptive analyses to representations of form (and from there to synthesis) with two interface components. The first is a memory component, implemented as case-bases of precedent designs. These designs encapsulate integrated design information that can be matched to the design in hand in terms of form, function and performance. Comparison between precedents with a known performance and a new design facilitate identification of design aspects that need be improved, as well as of wider formal and functional consequences. The second component is an adaptive generative system capable of guiding exploration of these aspects, both in the precedents and the new design. The aim of this system is to provide feedback from analysis to synthesis. By exploring the scope of the analysis and the applicability of the conclusions to more designs, the designer generates a coherent and consistent collection of partial solutions that explore a relevant solution space. Development of the first component, the design case-bases, is no trivial task. Transformability in the representation of cases and flexible classification in a database are critical to the identification and treatment of a design aspect. Nevertheless, the state of the art in case-based reasoning and the extensive corpus of analysed designs provide the essential building blocks. The second component, the adaptive generative system, poses more questions. Existing generative techniques do not possess the necessary richness or multidimensionality. Moreover, it is imperative that the designer plays a more active role in the control of the process than merely tweaking local variables. At the same time, the system should prevent that redesigning degenerates into a blind trial-and-error enumeration of possibilities. Guided empirical design research arguably provides the means for the evolutionary development of the second component. 
De Paoli, Giovanni. "Architectural design and procedural models - a radical change of language to design in architecture." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. The history of architecture and its teaching clearly reveal how representations of the image and drawing have changed over centuries. Today, computers are increasingly found at the desks of architecture professionals and students, but their usage remains restricted to technical functions and what is commonly known as CAD (computer-assisted design), in architecture is often simply the other CAD (computer-assisted drawing).This presentation deals with architectural design, particularly at its earliest stage. Our objective is to propose a model for describing the architectural concept that meets the needs of architects through software. Only then will they really be able to use computers as an aid to design by overcoming the obstacles that presently keep us from making full use of them.This has led me to propose an avenue of exploration that examines projection through an objectis properties, and a method of computer-assisted design that makes use of procedural models. These procedural models consist of geometric operators and operators that define the properties, characteristics and performance of a building  “  operators which I have termed “semantic”.This research fits into a paradigm that leads to representation of the building through functions that can be called with parameters and encapsuled in an algorithm, making it possible to create procedural models that assist with the design. This approach opens up a means of integrating the logos with the figurative representation where drawing is used instead of words to convey the architectural concept. The example of a procedural model shows how we can use a generic model to produce a volume model with all the characteristics belonging to the same family of objects. This type of model can serve not only to illustrate the result of a process, or to draw connections among buildings on the basis of their construction process, or to test the validity of a rule typical of a set of objects, but also to integrate, through a functional language, semantic operators which to date have been excluded from the initial design phase. This descriptive mechanism is extremely powerful in making it possible to establish relationships among the functions and properties of a building and the purpose of the architectural project.The scientific contribution of this research is to test the hypothesis that we can use computer tools to manipulate operators which enable the architect to reappropriate a complex design of the building, and open up new lines of investigation into integrating geometric and knowledge-based systems into a unified representation. The declarative approach for creating three-dimensional scenes fits into this perspective. It is now a matter of exploring the possibility of working on a “common morphology” shared by everyone involved in the design process by rewriting the functions or by converting the functions used for representation, or else through a functional dialect (language) that allows for dialectic relationships among all types of operators and the actions of the protagonists in the architectural design process.
Wrona, Stefan, and Adam Gorczyca. "Complexity in Architecture - How CAAD can be involved to Deal with it. - "Duality"." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. “Complexity “ is for us a very ambigous notion. It may be understood in two contexts.1.Thorough solution of a problem.Complexity means full recognition of design area, followed by appropriate work. That work must be thorough and interdisciplinary – if necessary, separated to different co-operatives. These trade designers reqiure a branch coordination and – the most important- all of them must have a „common denominator”. Such as a proper CAAD platform and office standards. That will reduce costs of changes, improve an interplay between designers and somtimes enable to face up a new challenge.Nowadays architects are no longer “solitary” individualists working alone – they must concern a team – they become a member, a part of a huge design machine. “Import/export”, compatibility, interplay – these words must appear and we have to put a stress on them. How to organize work for different trade-designers? How to join in common database architectural design,engineering design, HVAC design, electricity design, technology design, computer network design and all other trades ?...A key to solve this range of problems is in good work organization. Universal prescription does not exist, but some evergreen rules can be observed. We are going to present a scheme of work in CAAD application ALLPLAN FT v.16 with a Group manager, which starts to conquest polish market and is widely spread in Germany. “Golden rules” of ALLPLAN FT There is one database – it is placed on server. It includes all projects. There is a well-developed office standard. It must be created at the beginning of collaboration, although it is possible to improve it later. It consist of hatches, fonts, symbols, macros, materials, pen-widths, and – the most important –layers. A layer set – predefined structure divided into functional groups – e.g. drafting, text, dimensioning, architecture, HVAC, engineering, urban design, etc.That stucture is a part of an office standard – all workers use a relevant part of it. No name duplicates, no misunderstandings... If however design extends, and a new group of layers is required, it can be easily added, e.g. computer networks, fireguard systems. Administrator of ALLPLAN network defines different users and gives them different permitions of access. For example – an electrician will be able to draft on layer “electricity”, but he won’t modify anything at layer “architecture – walls”, and he won’t even see a layer “engineering- slabs”, because he doesn’t need it..At the same time our electrician will be able to see, how architect moves some walls and how HVAC moved and started to cross with his wires. Every user is able to see relevant changes, after they are saved by author. Two different users can not access at the same time the same file. That excludes inconsistent or overlapping changes. All users operate on a 3D model. While putting some data into a model, they must remember about a “Z” coordinate at work-storey. But at the same time all create a fully-integrated, synchronous database, which can be used later for bills of quantities, specifications, and – of course – for visuaisation. That method can be described as “model-centric”. To simplify complex structure of architectural object -ALLPLAN offers files. Usually one file means one storey, but at special designs it might become a functional part of a storey, or whatever you wish. Files connected with layers easy enable to separate certain structural elements, e.g. if we want to glance only at concrete slabs and columns in the building – we will turn on all files with “layer filter” – “slabs” and “columns”. ALLPLAN is of course one of possible solutions. We described it, because we use it in our workshop. It seems to be stretchy enough to face up every demand and ever-increasing complexity of current projects. The essence of the matter, however, is not a name or version of application – it is a set of features, we mentioned above, which allows to deal with EVERY project. The number of solutions is infinite.2. Increasing difficulties during design process. It may be associated with more and more installations inside of new buildings, especially some “high-tech” examples. The number of these installations increases as well as their complexity. Now buildings are full of sensors, video-screens, computer networks, safety-guard systems... Difficulties are connected with some trends in contemporary architecture, for example an organic architecture, which conceives “morphed” shapes, “moving” surfaces, “soft” solids. This direction is specially supported by modelling or CAD applications. Sometimes it is good – they allow to realize all imaginations, but often they lead to produce “unbuildable” forms, which can exist only in virtual world.Obstacles appear, when we design huge cubatures with “dense” functional scheme. Multi-purposed objects, exhibition halls, olimpic stadium at Sydney – all of them have to be stretchy, even if it requires sliding thousands pound concrete blocks! Requirements were never so high.The last reason, why designs become so complex is obvious - intensifying changes due to specific requirements of clients/developers.We could say “ signum tempori” – everything gets more and more complicated, people have to become specialists, to face up new technology. But how CAAD can help us with it? How?! We have already answered that question. Sometimes CAAD is the only way to imagine and sketch something, to visualize something, to compute a construction, to prepare a simulation... So that human must “only” interprete ready solutions. Sometimes CAAD help us to notify a problem. It works exactly in the same way, as spy-glasses does. For example – without a real-time visualization we we would have never realised (until finished!) some strange interference of solids, which have occured in the upper roof part of our new appartment-house.ConclusionsTemporary CAAD is an integral part of design process – not only as a tool, but sometimes as an inspiration. It helps to organize our work, to define problems, to filter relevant elements and to render our visions. It becomes an integral part of our senses – and that will be a real complexity in architecture...
Iordanova, Ivanka, and Temy Tidafi. "Design assistance by complexity-supporting precedents' modelling." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. Architectural design processes imply complexity at every stage of the development of a project. On one hand, this complexity is rarely taken into consideration by the currently used CAD programs. On the other hand, recent theoretical researches indicate that a large proportion of architectural design processes are based on precedents as a source of inspiration or as a basis for reflection. A precedent is usually seen as a sketch, as a picture, as a drawing or as a visual memory of an architectural object or space. Recent research enlarges this concept into at least two directions: (1) precedents are looked for not only in the architectural space, and (2) itis not only the visual aspect of a precedent that is important, but also its internal logic and structure, the know-how associated to it, and the actions needed for its creation. Usually, architectural design knowledge is implicitly presented by precedents. This design knowledge is applied to design-objects having various levels of generality, at different states of detailing and expected to be dynamically transformed during the following stages of design. Having in mind these characteristics of precedents called for during the architectural design process, we propose to join their visual representation with a description of their most important characteristics: structural organisation, way of production, functional organisation, spatial composition, etc. These can be either described or modelled by the original author, or interpreted by the precedentis “user”. These design-knowledge models can be of use in several ways: (1) providing a library for search of precedents by semantic analogy, (2) offering ready-to-use capsules of design knowledge for new design situations, (3) enriching the “design world” of the user-architect. We have implemented the proposed method of complexity-supporting precedentsi modelling by the means of the functional programming SGDL-Scheme language. The models (a programming function or a structure of programming functions) describe the actions necessary for the creation of an object (or its digital representation) and the structural organisation between the models in order to generate new, more complex ones. The concept of describing actions instead of shapes, provides a multi-level applicability of the models. Visual presentations (digital maquettes, images or animations) of newly generated objects can be stored in a visual-library of the assistant, thus creating a new “precedent” that can be referred to in future by visual analogy. The design-knowledge that has generated the new object, is stored and linked to the image. Thus, the visual stimulus of a precedent can be joined with functional characteristics, production procedures and/or semantic meaning of the object. The paper will present the “engine” of the proposed assistant, its organisation, as well as digital models of precedents that have served as a basis for the design of new architectural objects or structures. The assistant is conceived as an open, complexity supporting structure that can be further developed by the “user-architect”. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed assistant. 
Liu, Yu-Tung, Yung-Ching Yeh, and Sheng-Cheng Shih. "Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977, Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000, Liu 1999, Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000, Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988, Schon and Wiggins 1992, Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioural data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the  CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970, Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating. 
Tunçer, Bige, Rudi Stouffs, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Facilitating the complexity of architectural analyses." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. It is common practice for architecture students to collect documents on prominent buildings relevant to their design task in the early stage of design. While practitioners can rely on a body of design experience of their own, during the process of a new design, students can only draw from the examples of success and failure from other architects. In the past, such precedent based learning was implicit in the master-apprentice relationship common in the educational system. Nowadays academics commonly no longer have the possibility to maintain an extensive design practice, and instead introduce important outside precedents to the students. Thus, the study of important historical precedents or designs plays an important role in design instruction and in the studentsi design processes. While there is no doubt that the most effective outcome of such a study would be achieved when the student does entire the study herself, students also benefit from a collaboration with peers, where they form groups to do an analysis of various aspects of a same building or over a group of buildings. By integrating the respective results into a common, extensible, library, students can draw upon other results for comparisons and relationships between different aspects or buildings. The complexity this introduces is best supported in a computer medium.The Web offers many examples of architectural analyses on a wide variety of subjects. Commonly, these analyses consist of a collection of documents, categorized and hyperlinked to support navigation through the information space. More sophisticated examples rely on a database for storage and management of the data, and offer a more complex categorization of the information entities and their relationships. These studies present effective ways of accessing and browsing information, however, it is precluded within these analyses to distinguish and relate different components within the project documents. If enabled, instead, this would offer a richer information structure presenting new ways of accessing, viewing, and interpreting this information. Hereto, documents can be decomposed by content. This implies both expanding the document structure, replacing document entities by detailed substructures, and augmenting the structureis relatedness with content information. The relationships between the resulting components make the documents inherently related by content.We propose a methodology to integrate project documents into a single model, and present an application for the presentation of architectural analyses in an educational setting. This approach provides the students with a simple interface and mechanisms for the presentation of an analysis of design precedents, and possibly their own designs. Since all the information is integrated within a single environment, students will benefit from each othersi studies, and can draw new conclusions across analyses and presentations from their peers. 
Cubero, R., N. Caldera, J.A. Indriago, L. Camacaro, M. Nixon, and J. Cestary. "Georeferential Services and Touristic Resources for Territorial Planning: the Sigtur-Zulia." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design, 146-155. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. In 1997, the Research Institute of Faculty of Architecture and Design, University of Zulia, started the R&D project of a decision making support system for tourism planning. For this, GIS technologies have been used for geocodification and spatial analysis of all the tourism facilities and resources existing in Zulia State, studying this kind of socioeconomic development according to critical poverty problems that are typical of their population. This paper describes this geographic information system, with the application of accessibility analysis, areas of influence, and threedimensional studies through network analysisó three-dimensional analysis with ArcView GIS clients, ArcExplorer clients, and MapObjects clients, on an MS Windows NT client/server environment.
Pittioni, Gernot. "Handling of Complex Projects as Engineering-Partner of Planning Groups." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. The collaborative handling of design activities is a growing matter of present planning processes. Most planning partners in the meantime have agreed on using CAD-systems. The common use of the design information is a vital factor which enables us to handle complex problems.The instruments offered by the CAD-systems are performing on a very low level. Many intelligent features get lost by data-transfer. But experience shows that more obstacles are built up by ineffective and insufficient use of the CAD-system and their properties.Huge efforts have to be done in improving the knowledge and the handling abilities of many users. They often do not even know that they are not using their systems in an appropriate way. In fact looking only at the plotted results nobody would guess that the data sometimes are entirely worthless for common use. This only turns out when complex projects rely on timesaving common data use and the partners get stuck in endless difficulties trying to get some information out of badly organised project files. 
Pongratz, Perbellini. "Intermedial Architecture." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. A great part of our physical environment and existence is currently undergoing an epochal transformation from a solid to a liquid state on many layers of technological evolution.  Optical phenomena and radical shifts in visuality, particularly manifest through media propagation are impacting on urban space in unpredictable ways. City - space is not only perceived as a physical place but also simultaneously inhabited as a virtual site. Both conditions form the hybrid of an urban realm, construed as surveillance, simulation, distraction and a relentless proliferation of information. Ultimately, all man-machine interfaces of hardware will be adequately infinitely machined. This process however will continue beyond the now experienced level of TV, video, cellular-phones and computers, incorporating interconnected surfaces of text, music and other kind of data. The surrounding sensorium will penetrate the phenomenological tissue of our nervous system to the extent that we are unconsciously fluidly interacting. Behavioral properties of matter and their smooth transmittal of visual, sound and tactile sensations, will provide an intellectual and sensual presence which renders space and its perception as being liquefied. Also the interrelation between the exterior and interior usage will be smooth and multidimensional, as the buildingis envelopes are capable to alter their properties in response to contextual changes or movements.  A redefinition of the disciplines of architecture and urban planning responds to the changes in cultural, social, political and economical milieus.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Modeling irregular and complex forms." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. Computational technologies provide arguably the first real opportunity architectural design has had for a comprehensive description of built form. With the advent of affordable computer-aided design systems (including drafting, modelling, visualization and simulation tools), architects believe they can be in full control of geometric aspects and, through these, of a wide spectrum of other aspects that are implicit or explicit in the geometric representation. This belief is based primarily on the efficiency and effectiveness of computer systems, ranging from the richness and adaptability of geometric primitives to the utility of geometric representations in simulations of climatic aspects. Such capabilities support attempts to design and construct more irregular or otherwise complex forms. These fall under two main categories: (1) parsing of irregularity into elementary components, and (2) correlation of the form of a building with complex geometric structures.The first category takes advantage of the compactness and flexibility of computational representations in order to analyse the form of a design into basic elements, usually elementary geometric primitives. These are either arranged into simple, unconstrained configurations or related to each other by relationships that define e.g. parametric relative positioning or Boolean combinations. In both cases the result is a reduction of local complexity and an increase of implicit or explicit relationships, including the possibility of hierarchical structures.The second category attempts to correlate built form with constraints that derive usually from construction but can also be morphological. The correlation determines the applicability of complex geometric structures (minimally ruled surfaces) to the description of a design. The product of this application is generally variable in quality, depending upon the designer's grounding in geometry and his ability to integrate constraints from different aspects in the definition of the design's geometry.Both categories represent a potential leap forward but are also equally hampered by the rigidity of the implementation mechanisms upon which they rely heavily. The paper proposes an approach to making these mechanisms subordinate to the cognitive and technical aspects of architectural thinking through fuzzy modelling. This way of modelling involves a combination of (a) canonical forms, (b) tolerances around canonical forms and positions, (c) minimal and maximal values, (d) fuzzy boundaries, and (e) plastic interaction between elements based on the dual principles of local intelligence and autonomy. Fuzzy models come therefore closer to the intuitive manners of sketching, while facilitating transition to precise and complex forms. The paper presents two applications of fuzzy modelling. The first concerns the generation of schematic building layouts, including adaptive control of programmatic requirements. The second is a system for designing stairs that can adapt themselves to changes in their immediate environment through a fuzzy definition of geometric and topological parametrization.
Jakimowicz, Adam. "Non-Linear Postrationalisation: Architectural Values Emergence in a Teamwork Interpretation." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. The paper presents the outcomes of the experiment being conducted at the Faculty of Architecture in Bialystok, which derives form three main sources: a new course of architectural composition by computer modelling, developed and conducted in Bialystok postrationalisation as a formulation platform for new architectural values and theories, applied by e.g. Bernard Tschumi the idea of new values emergence resulting form a  teamwork, when placed in an appropriate environment, It is assumed that the work performed first intuitively, can be later seriously interpreted, and to some extent rationalised, verbalised, described. With no doubt we can state, that in creative parts of  architectural activities, very often decision are taken intuitively (form design). So this “procedure” of postrationalisation of intuitively undertaken efforts and results seems to be very important - when trying to explain ideas. This kind of activity is also very important during the first years of architectural education.  In case of this experiment, the studentsi works from the course of architectural composition are taken as a base and subjects for interpretation, and values research. However, when at first, individual works are being interpreted by their authors, at the latter stage, the teams are to be formed. The aim of the teamwork is to present individual works, analyse them, find common value(s), and represent it (them) in an appropriate, creative way. The ideal environment to perform this work is hypertext based internet, because the non-linearity of team interpretations is unavoidable. On the other hand, the digital input data (computer models) is a very appropriate initial material to be used for hypermedia development. The experiment is to analyse the specific of the following: the self-influence of the group on the individual work “qualification”, mutual influence of the team members on their own work interpretation, the influence of the digital non-linear environment on the final outcome definition.  The added value of hypertext in architectural groupwork digital performance shall be examined and described. A new value of individualised, though group based, non-linearity of expression will be presented and concluded. 
Achten, Henri, and Jos van Leeuwen. "Scheming and Plotting your Way into Architectural Complexity." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. The problem of complexity underlies all design problems. With the advent of CAD however, our ability to truly represent complexity has increased considerably. Following the four waves of design methodology as distinguished by Cross (1984), we see changing architectural design attitudes with respect to complexity. Rather than viewing it as problematic issue, designers such as Koolhaas, van Berkel, Lynn, and Franke embrace complexity and make it a focus in their design work. The computer is an indispensable instrument in this approach. The paper discusses the current state of the art in architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD, and reflects in particular on the role of design representations in this discussion. It is advanced that a number of recent developments are based on an intensified use of design representations such as schemais, diagrams, and interactive modelling techniques. Within the field of possibilities in this field, the authors discuss Feature-Based Modelling (FBM) as a formalism to represent knowledge of the design. It is demonstrated how the FBM approach can be used to describe graphic representations as used in design, and how other levels and kinds of design knowledge can be incorporated, in particular the less definite qualitative information in the early design phase. The discussion section concludes with an extrapolation of the current role of design representation in the design process, and advances a few positions on the advantage and disadvantage of this role in architectural design.
Chang, Yu-Ying, Yu-Tung Liu, and Chien-Hui Wong. "Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. “Space,” which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977, Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993, Benko & Strohmayer, 1996, Chang, 1999, Foucault, 1982, Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic “world.” According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, “space” is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999, Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of “space”, this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first, it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, ”interaction/reciprocity” either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviours: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by “imagining” and then excite personal experiences of space, visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by “mappingi.Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories, industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
Huang, Ying-Hsiu, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, and Yu-Chen Chiu. "The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "The End of Methodology - Towards New Integration." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. The present paper is devoted to the deliberation on the genesis and development of designing from the point of view of the potential use of computers in the process. Moreover, it also presents the great hopes which were connected with the use of the systematic designing methods in the 1960is, as well as the great disappointment resulting from the lack of concrete results. At this time a great deal of attention was paid to the process of design as a branch of a wider process of problem-solving. Many people believed that the intuitive methods of design traditionally used by architects were incapable of dealing with the complexity of the problems to be solved. Therefore, the basic problem was the definition of a vertical structure of the designing process, which would make it possible to optimise each process of architectural design. The studies of design methodology directed at the codification of the norms of actions have not brought about any solutions which could be commonly accepted, as the efforts to present the designing process as a formally logical one and one that is not internally “uncontrary” from the mathematical point of view, were doomed to fail. Moreover, the difficulties connected with the use of the computer in designing were caused by the lack of a graphic interface, which is so very characteristic of an architectis workshop. In result, the methodology ceased to be the main area of the architectis interest and efforts were focused on facilitating the method of the designeris communication with the computer. New tools were created, which enabled both the automatic generation of diversity and the creation of forms on the basis of genetic algorithms, as well as the presentation of the obtained results in the form of rendering, animation and VRML. This was the end of the general methodology of designing and the beginning of a number of methods solving the partial problems of computer-supported design. The present situation can be described with the words of Ian Stewart as a “chaotic run in all directions”. An immediate need for new integration is felt. Cyber-real space could be a solution to the problem. C-R-S is not a virtual reality understood as an unreal world. Whilst VR could be indeed treated as a sort of an illusion, C-R-S is a much more realistic being, defining the area in which the creative activities are taking place. The architect gains the possibility of having a direct contact with the form he or she is creating. Direct design enables one to creatively use the computer technology in the designing process. The intelligent system of recognising speech, integrated with the system of virtual reality, will allow to create an environment for the designer - computer communication which will be most natural to the person. The elimination of this obstacle will facilitate the integration of the new methods into one designing environment. The theoretical assumptions of such an environment are described in the present paper. 
Tang, Shen-Kai, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, and Chi-Seng Chung. "The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: a study of computer simulation." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing “too new” historical architecture.
Tang, Shen-Kai. "Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. In the field of architectural design, “visualization• ¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992, Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modelling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995, Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, Liu, 1997, Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, Fu, 1995, 1997, Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990, Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture. 
Stellingwerff, Martijn. "Visual Cues in the CYBER-REAL Complex." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. Current Computer Aided Architectural Design deals with issues of complexity in creation and interpretation of the built environment, complexity of the computer systems and complexity of the representations of the design object. The term “CYBER-REAL Complex” in this paper is defined as the whole (un)conscious state of the architectural design project in the heads of the design-group and as how it is maintained in CAAD systems. The “CYBER-REAL Complex” contains the design, its context and all related information such as planning, product specifications and design ideas.  An Intranet is an interesting means for storage and approach of such complex project-data. However the knowledge and data of the project participants remains in their heads and new methods have to be developed in order to get each participant to share his or her personal information about the project. Meetings and intense data retrieval by an Intranet can establish a useful “CYBER-REAL Complex”. Then, as a designer wants to approach and change the information in the “CYBER-REAL Complex”, a very good set of tools, methods and media has to be at hand. The complexity of all the information can be overwhelming and it can take much effort to re-understand and re-interpret the information before new decisions and design-steps can be made. Currently, the understanding of CAAD representations by the designer and the deliberate execution of operations on increasingly complex datasets through increasingly complex user interfaces takes too much time and effort. An enhanced way of representation in the “CYBER-REAL Complex” could help the approach and understanding of the information. Therefore the visual language of information systems needs further research and development.  This paper explores several limits of human perception and ways to adhere to the human way of visual thinking in order to find and add new visual cues in CAAD, VR interfaces and in the “CYBER-REAL Complex” as a whole. Successively the perceptive aspects of complex information, the role of visual cues in complex information and several examples of visual cues in research tests are presented.  The paper draws from knowledge of the Gestalt Theory, Perception Research and findings of a PhD research project about Visual Language for Context Related Architectural Design. Findings of this research show that designers use distinct views to get overview and insight in the project data and that different kinds of data representation are needed for different phases in the design process. Finally it showed that abstract represented and filtered information can be very useful for remaining focus in the otherwise overwhelming dataset.   
van Leeuwen, Jos, and Joran Jessurun. "XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models." In AVOCAAD - Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design. AVOCAAD. Brussels, Belgium: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, 2001. The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality - Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with, (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries, and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only, this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer, both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000], the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000], and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.