Keywords Abstract
Chatzikonstantinou, Ioannis. "A 3-Dimensional Architectural Layout Generation Procedure for Optimization Applications: DC-RVD." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 287-296. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. A procedure for generating 3-dimensional spatial configurations for optimization applications, termed Dimension Constrained Rectangular Voronoi Diagram (DC-RVD), is presented in this paper. The procedure is able to generate a non-overlapping configuration of spatial units in 3-dimensional space, given a string of real values. It constitutes an extension and adaptation of the Rectangular Voronoi Diagram generating procedure, found in the work of Choi and Young (1991). An extensive description of the procedure, with the relevant pseudocode is included in the paper. The procedure is tested in a stochastic optimisation-based decision support environment. Testing is done using a case study of a medium-sized family house. The result indicate promising performance.
Abdelmohsen, Sherif. "A BIM-based Framework for Assessing Architectural Competition Entries." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 473-483. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Architectural competitions have been traditionally used to select best design practices. The basis of assessment for competitions has typically involved non-technical concepts of quality, subjective and emotional appreciations of experiences, and inseparable accord of formal, functional, aesthetic and contextual values (Rönn, 2011), rather than clear-cut objective and precisely measured values as in the engineering domain (Nashed, 2005; Nelson, 2006). Criteria for judgment usually focus on design parti and clarity of concept, novelty of architectural approach, context compliance, spatial organization, functional adaptability, economical solutions, and design flexibility. The assessment process, although presumably comprehensive and involving multiple evaluation techniques and resources, may still overlook important technical issues that may be fundamentally significant to the exclusion or approval of a given entry. This paper introduces a framework for assessing architectural competition entries aided by concepts of building information modeling (BIM).

Dincer, Ahmet Emre, Gülen Çağdaş, and Hakan Tong. "A Digital Tool for Customized Mass Housing Design." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 201-211. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Innovative design approaches are needed for mass housing implementations. Especially increasing interaction between user and designer is major important in the design decisions of these buildings. For this, it is seriously necessary to benefit from technological advances in computational designs, because digital tools like shape grammar, cellular automata, genetic algorithm, l-systems and agent-based models in this field provide not only to save time and to manage the relationships but also to generate many different alternatives. Accordingly, a digital support tool for designers has been developed by using cellular automata approach and scripts of 3Ds Max software. It produces samples of housing design plans which is generated by cellular automata approach according to the data of users' preferences. In this paper the interface and contributions of the developed model are introduced and discussed.
Gonçalves, Afonso Maria de C.. "A Grammar for Shelters - An exploration of rule-based designs in prefabricated and modular shelters." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 327-336. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This work explores the possible use of the shape grammar formalism in generating small/medium sized dwellings or shelters as a possible and effective solution for shelter shortages that usually follows in the wake of a natural disaster. The shelters are generated using a set of pre-fabricated elements that add up to form a coherent and functional dwelling. The grammar exemplified here, being a shape grammar, deals specially with generating the underlying functional diagram and the floor plan of one possible solution based on a set of typologies design a priori.
Diniz, Nancy, and Hai-Ning Liang. "A Mobile Sensing Kit for Urban Analysis - For more legible, quantifiable intangible and temporary data." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 63-70. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper describes the design and testing of a mobile sensing kit for real-timeurban site analysis. It aims to contribute to a discussion on the importance ofsensing-based mapping of urban phenomena following our assertion that current delivery of urban analysis methodologies, with their emphasis on visuo-spatialanalysis only, fail to create maps that reflect the nuanced and layered interrelationships between the people and the physical environmental space they live in. In essence, the paper will bring to light the set up components and deployment of a mobile sensing kit that allows for usually mapped static invisible data (air quality, temperature, humidity) to be mapped as visible data. In other words, we want to explore how real-time geo-referenced data collection can enhance traditional data mapping and visualization methods enabling designers to understand better the urban space.
Varoudis, Tasos, and Panagiotis Patlakas. "A Model for a Distributed Building Information System." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 505-513. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper sets the theoretical and technological framework for the development of a distributed model for a holistic Building Information System. It commences by summarizing versioning and revision control models in software engineering. Then it proceeds to establish parallels between the distributed revision control process and the building design process and argues that the underlying structure of Building Information Modelling can be exploited for the development of a similar structure for building design. The fundamental framework of such a system, called Distributed Building Information System (DBIS), is described and implementation strategies are discussed, while the potential difficulties are also addressed.
Aksoy, Yazgı, and Gülen Çağdaş. "A Model for Sustainable Site Layout Design with Pareto Genetic Algorithm: SSPM." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 227-238. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In architectural design, computer aided design tools have an important impact on design process, but still early design stage and sustainable design are problematic issues. During sustainable architectural design process, the designer needs to comply with some regulations, which requires calculations and comparisons. Green building certification systems are developed to assist designers during this complicated process, but for an efficient sustainable design for different regions, environmental information and local building codes must be considered with green building certification system criteria. In this paper, LEED and BREEAM certification systems are going to be considered as being the most representative building environment assessment schemes that are in use. As there are conflicting criteria's according to LEED and BREAM sustainable site parameters, local building codes and environmental conditions; an efficient decision support system can be developed by using multi-objective genetic algorithm. This paper presents an effective site-use multi-objective optimization model that use pareto genetic algorithm to determine the most efficient sustainable site layout design for social housing, which could assist designers in the early stage of design process.
Barekati, Ehsan, and Mark Clayton. "A Universal Format for Architectural Program of Requirement - A prerequisite for adding architectural programming information to BIM data models." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 385-394. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper is a report on authors' ongoing effort in creating a universal model for architectural programming. Authors analyse three well-known formats for architectural programming and devise a UML model representing each format. The UML models are further analysed and compared to form a super UML model that can bring together all the three formats under one roof and act as a universal format for architectural programming (UFPOR). The results improve the integration of architectural programming and BIM data models and are of value to the software development field and architectural programing.
Vyzoviti, Sophia, and Nicolas Remy. "Acoustically Efficient Origami Based Partitions for Open Plan Spaces - Developing a Design Tool." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 487-494. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The paper investigates the management of acoustic and privacy problems in open-plan spaces through the implementation of lightweight architectural partitions developed by origami tessellations. Integrating knowledge from parametric modelling, acoustics and design for user needs, a design tool for acoustically efficient, flexible, interior partition systems is developed. The paper elaborates on three components of the design tool: form generation, acoustic performance and spatial performance. The form generation component employs parametric models of origami tessellations to generate the partition system. The acoustic performance component employs acoustic simulation and prediction to regulate the containing volume as well as the system's surface materials. The spatial performance component evaluates form and material through qualitative criteria for privacy and flexibility according to user needs.
Moya, Rafael, Daniel Prohasky, Simon Watkins, Yan Ding, Jane Burry, and Mark Burry. "Aerodynamic strategy applied in an urban shelter design - Simulation and analysis of aerodynamic phenomena in an urban context." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 137-144. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper presents an experimental study on strategies of utilizing wind as an architectural element, proposing the reconfiguration and projection of wind patterns to produce vaults of wind as regions of shelter in the outdoor environment. It shows an aerodynamic analysis and exploration of barriers, deflectors and porous screens in an existing urban wind canyon for a hypothetical urban shelter in a tram stop area. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software and physical tests in a wind tunnel using microelectronic hot-wire anemometry are the methods utilised. The experiments involve a comparison between screens with impermeable surfaces and porous membranes and their ability to project wind as architecture. The experiments showed that the use of porous membranes improves the mitigation level of wind speed and turbulence intensity in the wind vaults regions.
Georgiou, Michail, Odysseas Georgiou, and Theresa Kwok. "Affordable Complexity - 'God's Eye' - Sukkahville 2013." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 169-177. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The paper presents a novel approach on the design of complex forms by re-formulating the relationships between form, structure, material, fabrication and construction. It is proposed that current design models are supplemented by feedback-enabled frameworks, integrating material properties, fabrication constraints and construction logistics. As such, a series of input parameters based on industry standards, filtered through physical testing and digital simulations, feed a central computational model. The outcome is weighed against a set of objectives towards an optimum design solution which embodies construction logic while ultimately opposing costly inflated ad-hoc solutions. Within the above framework and as part of a broader research conducted at [ARC], this paper illustrates a design methodology implemented at the case study of 'God's Eye', winning entry of Sukkahville 2013 International Design Competition. It is further supported that a high tech, interdisciplinary design process based on efficient material assemblies allows for a complex, yet efficient end result, through low tech affordable construction.
Kerkidou, Maria, Anastasia Pechlivanidou-Liakata, Adam Doulgerakis, and Alexandros Sagias. "Agents' movement_towards the reformation of public space - Step 1: select | implement | observe crowd rules." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 53-62. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In order to enable designers to envision the behaviour of pedestrians with reference to specific environments, computational models of crowds and their movement become indispensable tools of evaluation as well as tools of creativity. In this paper, the model under development constitutes a generic model which incorporates ideas about agent-based systems. The simulation program comprises a support system for the designer to place virtual users in a context that bears analogous environmental traits of the area under study. The design problem which is addressed by the implementation deals with public squares for which the programmatic demands involve a broad spectrum of users of diverse idiosyncrasies. Our study attempts to elucidate how the variation in preferences of pedestrian movement which depend on various personal, situational and environmental factors, may influence the current use of a selected public space and underpin qualitative alterations compared to its initial design. The intent of the methodology is not to create a predictive tool of naturalistic human movement but to explore how spatial configuration can be assessed and developed through a simulation model of pedestrian behaviour.
Alwan, Zaid, Peter Holgate, and Paul Jones. "Applying BIM to Sustainable Performance Evaluation in Design Projects: An Educational Approach for Architecture Programmes." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 437-444. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The merits and potential of Building Information Modelling (BIM) have been promoted for several years; however, its widespread adoption and development may potentially stagnate on account of a technical skills shortage, with insufficient personnel having the capabilities to successfully deliver projects. This shortfall covers all aspects of BIM, and building performance and life cycle analysis in particular. Programmes such as Ecotect, Revit, Green Building Studio, and Project Vasari, have transformed data capture and analysis, enabling architects and systems engineers to visualise site analyses and to test preliminary designs. As BIM is a relatively new process which continues to develop rapidly, Higher Education Institutions need to respond to currency and change while striving to provide graduates with the advanced skills to satisfy the needs of the building industry. This work presents a case study of the application of Autodesk's Building Performance Analysis Certificate (BPAC) as a driver for learning in support of the integration of BIM into the architectural curriculum.
Negendahl, Kristoffer, Thomas Perkov, and Alfred Heller. "Approaching Sentient Building Performance Simulation Systems." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 49-60. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Building designers make decisions in early design stages that have large impact on building performance, including those of energy-, daylight- and indoor environment performance. Building performance simulation (BPS) tools can support the designer, in making better decisions, by providing the performance consequences of design choices. However BPS tools often require deep technical knowledge and is too time consuming to use to effectively support the design exploration in the early design stages. To solve this challenge, the current paper proposes: Sentient building performance simulation systems, which combine one or more high precision BPS tools to provide near instantaneous performance feedback directly in the design tool. Sentient BPS systems are essentially combining: 1) design tools, 2) parametric tools, 3) BPS tools, 4) dynamic databases 5) interpolation techniques and 6) prediction techniques as a fast and valid simulation system for the early design stage.
Zubairu, Tijjani, Sevil Sariyildiz, and Ozer Ciftcioglu. "Assessment of Building Performance Using Computational Intelligence: Focus on the Disabled and Elderly." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 217-225. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The care for the elderly and people with disability increasingly demand more ingenuity to undertake, especially as it relates to the built environment. The impact of the physical environment on health has been widely documented. The knowledge of the special needs/preferences of this vulnerable group of users (people suffering from Alzheimer, autism, dementia and other similar disabilities), for the purpose building of performance evaluation and subsequent improvements is essential. The challenge is that their conditions, as exemplified by the loss or impairment of their capacity to provide accurate/realistic information of their building attributes' perceptions and preferences, make such knowledge inaccurate to serve as basis for building improvements and designs. This paper seeks to provide a scientific means for obtaining more accurate knowledge, which when obtained normally can be misleading and non representational of reality. The method adopted for this study is fuzzy-neural-network computation, a branch of computational intelligence, to develop an all-encompassing knowledge based building performance assessment model.
Morton, David. "Augmented Reality in architectural studio learning: How Augmented Reality can be used as an exploratory tool in the design learning journey." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 343-356. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The boundaries of augmented reality in the academic field are now being explored at an ever increasing level. In this paper we present the initial findings of an educational project focusing on the use of augmented reality in the design process of an architectural student. The study seeks to evaluate the use of AR as a tool in the design stages, allowing effective exploration of spatial qualities of design projects undertaken in the studio. The learning process is guided by the exploration and detection of a design idea in both form and function, with the virtual environment providing a dynamic environment (Mantovani, 2001). This is further reflected in the constructivist theory where the learning processes use conceptual models, which are used to create incremental stages that become the platform to attain the next [Winn, 1993]. The additional benefit of augmented reality within the learning journey is the ability of the students to visually explore the architectural forms they are creating in greater depth.
Varoudis, Tasos. "Augmented Visibility Graph Analysis - Mixed-directionality graph structure for analysing architectural space." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 293-302. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper introduces a new spatial analysis methodology based on visibility graphs. Through various design elements architects can create configurations where our visual field and the relations of spaces can be challenged in a combinatorial game beyond the easily accessible and understandable boundaries of the environment. This research explores the trans-spatial architectural elements, transparencies and projected realities that playfully challenge visibility, permeability and accessibility in built environment. The paper presents the computational problem of analysing spaces that include 'augmented visibilities' and areas with 'inaccessible but visible' locations, where dislocated multi-dimensional overlaps frequently occur. Furthermore, proposes a new 'mixed-directionality graph structure' and the definition of 'Augmented Visibility Graph Analysis' (AVGA) as a new spatial analysis methodology. AVGA overcomes limitations of current visibility graph analysis theories and allows the analysis of architectural and urban space that includes visuo-spatial overlaps, hybrid configurations and multi-dimensional information. Finally, a series of mathematical graph analysis measures and test cases associated with observations and experimental data from real spaces is presented in order to demonstrate AVGA.
Simeone, Davide, Stefano Cursi, Ilaria Toldo, and Gianfranco Carrara. "B(H)IM - Built Heritage Information Modelling - Extending BIM approach to historical and archaeological heritage representation." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 613-622. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper describes the context and the proposal for the extension of Building Information Modelling to built heritage in order to enhance information management during the investigation and restoration activities. The core of the presented model is the integration of a BIM-based modelling environment and a knowledge base developed by means of ontologies, in order to represent all the semantics needed for a comprehensive representation of the historical artefact.To test its features, the model has been applied to the real archaeological investigation process of the Castor and Pollux temple at Cori, Italy.
Wójcik, Marcin, and Jan Strumillo. "BackToBack - A bio-cybernetic approach to production of solid timber components." In Fusion - Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 159-168. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper investigates the potential and implications of using naturally occurring material phenomena as a connecting mechanism for solid timber components. Proposed and discussed are connections based on anisotropic shrinkage and geometrical variability of trees. Using the notion of material agency in design, following the bio-cybernetic and biomimetic frameworks, solutions are devised to reduce energy usage, environmental pollution and utilise low-processed material. Finally, consequences of the fusion of the natural (analogue) and the digital realms are discussed, with an example of a workflow integrating inherent material traits with digital manufacture.
Rahmani Asl, Mohammad, Michael Bergin, Adam Menter, and Wei Yan. "BIM-based Parametric Building Energy Performance Multi-Objective Optimization." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 455-464. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Building energy performance assessments are complex multi-criteria problems. Appropriate tools that can help designers explore design alternatives and assess the energy performance for choosing the most appropriate alternative are in high demand. In this paper, we present a newly developed integrated parametric Building Information Modeling (BIM)-based system to interact with cloud-based whole building energy performance simulation and daylighting tools to optimize building energy performance using a Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) algorithm. This system enables designers to explore design alternatives using a visual programming interface, while assessing the energy performance of the design models to search for the most appropriate design. A case study of minimizing the energy use while maximizing the appropriate daylighting level of a residential building is provided to showcase the utility of the system and its workflow.

Yunis, Leyla, Ondřej Kyjánek, Moritz Dörstelmann, Marshall Prado, Tobias Schwinn, and Achim Menges. "Bio-inspired and fabrication-informed design strategies for modular fibrous structures in architecture." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 423-432. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Research pavilions can serve as architectural scale demonstrations for the materialization of experimental forms and structures. Pavilions seek to prove and change methods of design and construction mechanisms in order to achieve desires such as material efficiency, novel spatial qualities and performative needs. The case of the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14 highlights the use of fiber composites in order to achieve a core-less filament winding modular system from bio-inspired lightweight structures through robotic fabrication. This paper describes the multi-disciplinary design and construction process of this pavilion that created a structure of out 36 unique components.
Ahmar, Salma El, and Antonio Fioravanti. "Botanics and Parametric Design Fusions for Performative Building Skins - An application in hot climates." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 595-604. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Biomimicry and computational design are two growing fields of research and practice in architecture for their potential in performative and sustainable design, among many other benefits. Cooling loads are posing serious energy problems in hot climatic cities as in Cairo and Alexandria. Attempting to solve these problems, this research turned to botanical inspirations for ideas in order to improve thermoregulation of the building skin. One of these ideas was chosen and implemented using computational software in the design of a parametric vertical shading screen for a typical office room in Cairo. The challenge was to minimize cooling loads as much as possible without compromising daylight requirements. An evolutionary solver was used to optimize results and environmental simulations were performed before and after the proposed screen to assess its performance and evaluate this biomimetic-computational approach to design.

Gargaro, Silvia, Elisabetta Leggieri, and Antonio Fioravanti. "Building Heritage Knowledge Framework using Context Ontologies - Regeneration of industrial areas - Isola del Liri case study." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 593-602. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The growth of urban areas and the increase of urban migrations caused an incorporation of industrialized areas in the development of cities. The difficulties related to city planning in these areas could be coped with more satisfactorily through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Context ontologies plus reasoning rules to reuse old industrial buildings. The 'Context' entities and rules are studied using a Context Knowledge Model formalized with Protégé OWL(Ontology Web Language). The study was carried out on industrial buildings situated in southern Lazio - Italy - in particular a paper mill network. Applying GIS instruments to the study of these areas is not enough as designers can only obtain information, but not knowledge, which depends on the urban, historical, cultural, economic, environmental and juridical ‘context’. The goal of this research is to create a combination of these technologies to manage knowledge for a more aware design to regenerate old industrial areas with new uses.
Tamke, Martin, Morten Myrup Jensen, Jakob Beetz, Thomas Krijnen, and Dag Fjeld Edvardsen. "Building Information Deduced - State and potentials for Information query in Building Information Modelling." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 375-384. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through customised queries and exemplifies these on the base of a scripted tool. This customized approach is used to test approaches for a machine-based assessment of Level of detail and BIM-readiness in BIM models.
Tapias, Estefania, and Shubham Soni. "Building-up urban open spaces from shadow range analyses." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 129-135. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

This paper explores an alternative approach for the creation of new built forms based on solar access analysis. Consolidated on urban areas under development, the denominated 'inverted' approach is focused on the generation of recreational open spaces based on shadow conditions caused by existing built forms, and as a starting point for the construction of new urban envelopes as possible development areas. Unlike the existing method of the 'solar envelope', the 'inverted' approach shows an alternative procedure for the construction of built forms, based on pedestrian comfort caused by solar access in urban spaces rather than on indoor performance affected by the penetration of sunlight into buildings. As a method for the creation of urban envelopes, this approach attempts to enhance pedestrian comfort according to the study of solar access in urban areas. The 'inverted' approach is based on sun path data and is developed as a generative procedure, where the results of shadow range analyses and the different urban objectives work as input parameters for the generation of urban envelopes. Based on this methodology, two Grasshopper� custom components are developed.

Jensen, Mads Brath, and Isak Worre Foged. "Cellular Automata as a learning process in Architecture and Urban design." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 297-302. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper explores the application of cellular automata as method for investigating the dynamic parameters and interrelationships that constitute the urban space. With increasing aspects needed for integration during the architectural and urban design process with the relations between these aspects growing in parallel, complexity of the design process and design solution increases. Additionally, aspects and relations are of a transformative character in that they change over time and therefore construct a time-based condition for which problems are presented and solutions are sought. An architectural methodological response to this situation is presented through the development of a conceptual computational design system that allows these dynamics to unfold and to be observed for architectural design decision taking. Reflecting on the development and implementation of a cellular automata based design approach on a master level urban design studio this paper will discuss the strategies for dealing with complexity at an urban scale as well as the pedagogical considerations behind applying computational tools and methods to a urban design education.
Beirão, José Nuno, Letícia Mendes, and Gabriela Celani. "CItyMaker Workshop - An Urban Design Studio to experience the dynamic interaction between design exploration and data flow on density-based indicators." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 33-41. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper shows the results of a workshop on parametric urban design. A pattern based parametric urban design platform provides a common platform for urban design and analysis by linking GIS with a parametric CAD environment. Urban plans are developed by combining design patterns taken from a large set of parametric urban design patterns acknowledged as a generic urban design language. Urban plan instances are obtained through a specific composition of patterns and a specific assignment of parameters to the patterns. The models provide simultaneous analysis by confronting formal solutions with density indicators that are automatically provided by a set of density calculation patterns.
Danker, Fabian, and Oliver Jones. "Combining Augmented Reality and Building Information Modelling - An industry perspective on applications and future directions." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 525-536. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The aim of this paper is to investigate the applications both current and potential, of combining Augmented Reality (AR) and Building Information Modelling (BIM), providing an insight into attitudes towards utilising these technologies within the construction industry. This paper presents a study which has evaluated current research on the topic of AR and BIM, conducted semi structured interviews with a panel of industry experts and surveyed a sample group of 43 within the wider UK construction industry . Industry experts were interviewed using semi-structured interviews and results were thematically analysed with the data gathered from the literature review. 5 core themes used to structure a nine item industry and practitioner questionnaire. Results suggest that use of AR and BIM within the construction industry will continue to grow with the advent of emerging technologies. Use of AR and BIM combined with 3D Scanning, Wireless Sensory Network will also increase and the synergies between BIM and these emerging technologies will improve overall efficiencies in design, delivery, maintenance and demolition of projects. The findings of this study contribute further knowledge to understanding the implications and possibilities that utilising AR and BIM will have in the construction industry.
Menegotto, José Luis. "Composing musical geometry with sonic objects." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 195-203. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This article relates an experiment linking two types of forms: geometric forms generated from algorithms by mathematical functions and sonic forms generated from algorithms and linked to the first. In order to formalize a graphical and musical object called “sonic object" were used the following tools: the environment of a graphic program, the C# language and the Midi-dot-Net musical library. Diverse equations are used to generate the geometric shapes which generate periodical, cyclical and circular movements. Other equations used in the experiment are formulas adapted from the Edward Lorenz's Strange Attractor. Current research into the problem of the generation of patterns of movement, such as that of Jules Moloney, and research which deals with algorithms which generate shapes, such as that of Robert Krawczyk, have been taken as references and parameters for comparison for this work..
Erdine, Elif, and Evan Greenberg. "Computing the Urban Block - Local Climate Analysis and Design Strategies." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 145-152. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This research develops a method for the analysis, integration and visualisation of climatic parameters in a dense urban block. In order to test this method, a typical urban block in Manila, Philippines, is investigated and results are represented through computational simulation. The translation of latent spatial qualities into visual data with common tools and techniques allows designers to gain an understanding of how to design local microclimates, and inhabitants to gain greater knowledge of the environment. In this regard, this research proposes, contrary to conventional methodologies, the use of analytical tools as the impetus to, rather than the outcome of, architectural design.
Coutinho, Filipe, José Pinto Duarte, and Mário Kruger. "Constructing a shape grammar. The Ducal palace façade - Constructing a shape grammar. The Ducal palace façade." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 515-525. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper shows the way the Ducal palace façade shape grammar was built, evidencing some steps involved in the process, its derivation and partial outputs gained from the grammar evaluation.
Kulcke, Matthias. "Crowdfunding as a Collaborative Design Tool - Codefining the Variables for Mass Customisation Design Products." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 245-249. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Designfunding, defined here as a unique category of crowdfunding, is described and explored regarding its potential to become an important collaborative design tool for parametric design and mass customisation concepts. As it may serve, among other aspects, the preliminary first-hand gathering of customer desires as a basis for detailing a designer's conception of a design product, possibilities of the integration of this tool into design-education are proposed and discussed. .
Kjems, Erik. "Data Fusion Using Geographic Managed Objects." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 495-504. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The way we design our buildings and cities has not really changed a lot for decades. Drawing boards have been exchanged with relatively small 30” inch monitors, pens and rulers have been exchanged with advanced digital tools mostly though disturbing, making the creative process of design merely a frustrating one. So what have we gained from CAD. Certainly a lot, but mostly the possibility to combine and fuse projects. Simulating future use and behaviour, revealing design issues and failures before actually built. Still data fusion is a relatively new challenge albeit quite obvious trying to assemble models coming from different systems and vendors representing different professional domains. This paper discusses data exchange and data fusion in general and presents a new development, which gives the possibility to enhance data as intelligent objects opening a whole new paradigm for both data exchange and data fusion.
Kepczynska-Walczak, Anetta. "Data Integration In A Visual Mode." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 565-572. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The principal aim of the paper is to discuss data integration issues in the context of urban scale studies. A special attention is dedicated to built environment, visual thinking and synthesis of knowledge. The paper is based on literature studies, professional experience and the outcomes of an experimental students' project conducted by the author last year. First, the theoretical background and the current state of research in the area is revealed. Then, the project theme, goals and organisation are described. So, the main idea of the experiment was to explore data collection methods at the urban scale without a design goal since the prime approach was to take into consideration students' perceptions of space and its multifaceted aspects. Thus, to maintain an open mind about gathering such information and not to bias participants towards one approach or another were crucial. Finally, the outcomes of the project are discussed. Students' presentations showed that they used different approaches not only in terms of digital tools but also in terms of their understanding of data integration. The author believes a discussion of the experiment outcomes will contribute to the main theme of the eCAADe 2014 Conference entirely.
Agkathidis, Asterios, and Tuba Kocaturk. "Deceptive Landscape Installation - Algorithmic patterning strategies for a small pavilion." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 71-79. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

This paper reflects a collaborative, research led design project, aiming to explore the potentials offered by incorporating parametric / generative tools and performative lighting simulation software in order to design and fabricate a small pavilion for the School of Architecture. The Deceptive Landscape pavilion was designed in the framework of a masters level, research led, and collaborative design studio. During its intense 12 weeks schedule, student teams were asked to explore and apply generative / parametric tools such as Rhino and Grasshopper, in order to design and later construct a small pavilion, with a theme of their choice. In addition, each team was asked to optimise their design proposal by embedding environmental software plug-ins (e.g. DIVA for Rhino) in their design process, thereby aiming to re-inform their parametric models and set performance targets. Finally each team was expected to propose a file to factory fabrication technique, following all constrains of a limited, predetermined budget. The most convincing and consistent proposal, was then chosen for fabrication. The finalised project serves as verification of the effectiveness of the design system and teaching methods used.

Seifert, Nils, Michael Mühlhaus, Gerhard Schubert, Dietrich Fink, and Frank Petzold. "Decision support for inner-city development - An interactive customizable environment for decision-making processes in urban planning." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe. eCAADe: Conferences. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Re-densification of inner-city areas is a highly topical socio-political issue. In order to meet the increasing demand for centrally located living space, the cities have to amend building laws. At present, there are no analytical means of directly comparing and assessing different strategies and measures aimed at identifying the potential for internal development in specific urban quarters and learning about the consequences for the citizens. In this publication, we describe an interactive digital tool that monitors the key building codes and visualizes their effects on the urban structure in real-time, so that this can serve as an informed basis for debate and argumentation in the political decision-making and planning process, consequently supporting the development of re-densification strategies that are well-suited to their urban context.

Asut, Serdar. "Design By Making - Enhanced Human-Computer Interaction for Digital Conception and Manufacturing in Architectural Education." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 401-410. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper presents an ongoing project which aims to develop an HCI application. The purpose of the application is to introduce tactile experience into digital design cycle and to have transparent links between different phases of the design object. Thus, it will provide a hybrid design environment in which design conception and manufacturing are integrated and enhanced learning opportunities towards an architectural education where making is fundamental.
Sánchez, Rodolfo F., and Halil I. Erhan. "Design ReExplorer: Interactive Design Narratives for Feedback, Analysis and Exploration." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 247-255. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Designers keep a constant record of the design process through their sketches and notes. In parametric CAD, the record of design moves is implicit and can be found in the elements upon which the parametric model is built. Current systems provide designers with limited tools for recording, viewing or analyzing the design process. We propose a system's approach to capture the design narrative as an artefact for design. The Design ReExplorer was developed to test ideas on using these narratives in gaining insights towards how models are built, exploring alternatives and supporting backtracking and deferral strategies in design exploration. We evaluate its insertion and viability in real-world scenarios through an expert panel study. The results of the study are favourable with positive feedback and multiple suggestions for future work.
Mostafavi, Sina, and Matthew Tanti. "Design to fabrication integration and material craftsmanship - A performance driven stone architecture design system based on material, structural and fabrication constraints and criteria." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 445-454. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper presents a computational design methodology through describing of a case study on stone building system. In addition to establishing a performance driven form-finding methodology, the objective is to redefine local craftsmanship methods as industrial fabrication techniques in order to introduce the constructability of the design solutions as one of the main performance criteria. Therefore, the focus of the methodology is to facilitate architectural design processes through developing of customized computational design tools and workflows for data integration and concurrent performance evaluation. The research starts with the hypothesis that the technological advancements in digital design and fabrication can lead to re-exploration and improvement of traditional building techniques with local materials. The paper explains different stages of the methodology and the way the chained design to fabrication processes would lead to constructible, structurally possible and optimal design solutions of small scale and simple symmetric design solutions to complex topologies at the scale of larger complex buildings.
Decker, Martina, and Andrzej Zarzycki. "Designing Resilient Buildings with Emergent Materials." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 179-184. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper looks at two distinct approaches to kinetic façades and smart building assemblies reminiscent of designs for the Institut du Monde Arabe and for Hoberman's Simon Center. The first approach uses Arduino microcontroller-guided kinetic components with a distinct assemblage of elements, each performing a dedicated function such as sensor, actuator, or logical processing unit. The second approach incorporates custom-designed smart materials-shape memory alloys (SMAs)-that not only complement or replace the need for electrically operated sensors or actuators, but also eliminate a microcontroller, since in this arrangement the material itself performs computational functions. The paper will discuss case studies that use physical computing and smart-material models as vehicles to discuss the value of each approach to adaptive design in architecture. Building on these observations, the paper looks into conceptual aspects of an integrated hybrid system that combines both computation approaches and unique opportunities inherent to these hybrid designs.
Lancia, Ruggero, and Ian Anderson. "Digital Curation for CAAD Curricula - Bridging Mainstream and Speculative Design Procedures to promote curatorial competences for Architecture." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 313-322. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. As the design processes in Architectural practices switch toward entirely digital workflows, architects are gradually required, because of their legal and commercial liability, to provide for both a relatively long term curation of their own digital products and the deposit of authoritative data. But, despite being the sole curation actors for their data, architects receive little education or training in either pertinent competences nor agreed and established procedures to comply with these duties. In this paper, the design of Digital Curation courses within CAAD Curricula will be discussed against the investigation results of the DEDICATE project, an AHRC funded project hosted at the Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute of the University of Glasgow.
Voordouw, Johan. "Digital Etching - An Alternative Approach to Drawing." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 557-564. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper explores an analog method of intaglio etching via digital /computational means. It qualifies an alternative approach to digital representation through the development of a narrative based architectural expression. The project, entitled Weerkas, was undertaken as an open call for the International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam 2014. The drawings used a combination of 3D computational modelling and AutoCAD drawing to explore emerging drawing technique derived from historical drawing methods. These digital drawings were photo-transferred and etched using a polymer intaglio plate to produce the final set of drawings. While analog / digital connections have been increasingly explored in architecture, it is rarely used to re-create past modes of production. While this paper counters a nostalgic approach to representation, it is anecdotal evidence of a pluralistic method in combining three-dimensional and two-dimensional drawing technique as an emerging form of architectural expression.
Li, Di, Michael Knight, and Andre Brown. "Digital fabrication as a tool for investigating traditional Chinese architecture - A case study of the dou gong." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 623-632. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper presents part of a broader research project in which a set of complementary computational techniques have been applied to investigate and interpret traditional Chinese architecture. The techniques involve digital modelling, algorithmic representation and digital fabrication. The ancient rule books that describe the traditional Chinese design styles and construction technologies are the basis for the parametric rules and algorithms and the application to the modelling and fabrication process. The focus of this paper is the study of a typical Chinese joint structure, the dou gong. The precedent case study and the components of the dou gong are reviewed and analysed. Then the digital representation and fabrication processes that have been employed are demonstrated. Practical problems were found in this process and modifications were consequently made. At the end of the paper, we discuss the achievements and benefits that arise from this investigation, and potential applications in practice. Conclusions from work presented in this paper and for the broader research are drawn respectively. Significant prospective work is suggested.
Sedrez, Maycon, Rafael Meneghel, and Gabriela Celani. "Digital fabrication of a brise-soleil using fractal geometry as generative system." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 315-325. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Biomimicry and computational design are two growing fields of research and practice in architecture for their potential in performative and sustainable design, among many other benefits. Cooling loads are posing serious energy problems in hot climatic cities as in Cairo and Alexandria. Attempting to solve these problems, this research turned to botanical inspirations for ideas in order to improve thermoregulation of the building skin. One of these ideas was chosen and implemented using computational software in the design of a parametric vertical shading screen for a typical office room in Cairo. The challenge was to minimize cooling loads as much as possible without compromising daylight requirements. An evolutionary solver was used to optimize results and environmental simulations were performed before and after the proposed screen to assess its performance and evaluate this biomimetic-computational approach to design.

Martins, Pedro Filipe, and José Pedro Sousa. "Digital Fabrication Technology in Concrete Architecture." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 475-484. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Technological innovation has been an important driving force in architecture, enabling and inspiring architects and engineers by giving them new tools for solving existing problems. In the last two decades, the exploration of digital design and fabrication technologies has stimulated the development of a variety of interests and strategies to materialize increasingly complex and customized solutions in architecture, with traditional building materials. Reinforced concrete is the most widely used material in the building industry today and throughout its history has been the subject of vast research into its performance as a construction material and its tectonic potential in architecture. As such, the introduction of digital fabrication processes in concrete construction represents the biggest prospect for renovation of our built environment and at the same time, presents particular difficulties and opportunities, which are now being addressed. In an effort to investigate the alternative design and material possibilities in concrete emerging from the use of digital fabrication technologies in architecture, this paper proposes a focused view of digital fabrication applied to concrete construction with two areas of research. By framing the research in the context of reference works in concrete architecture of the 20th century, this paper describes and illustrates taxonomy of existing and possible types of integration of digital fabrication technologies in concrete architecture in the realms of Practice and Research.This characterization allows the authors to frame the relation between material, technology and architecture in different environments regarding the same material, extracting a clear image of existing processes, their potential and shortcomings, as well as expectations for future developments.
Maldonado, Miguel Paredes. "Digital Recipes - A diagrammatic approach to digital design methodologies in undergraduate architecture studios." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe. eCAADe: Conferences. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

This paper is concerned with the development of a digitally-informed teaching methodology for architectural design courses within the context of undergraduate education. Besides situating this methodology within the broader theoretical framework of current architectural discourses, this paper will also discuss the practical implications of its implementation within the context of the second year architectural design course at the University of Edinburgh, which will be examined as an ongoing case study.

Hayes, James, Stephen Fai, and Phil White. "Digitally-Assisted Stone Carving on Canada's Parliament Hill." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 643-651. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In this paper, we discuss the results of a collaboration between the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS), the Dominion Sculptor of Canada, and the Heritage Conservation Directorate (HCD) of Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC), on the development of a digitally-assisted stone carving process. The collaboration couples the distinguished skill of the Dominion Sculptor with digital acquisition and digital fabrication technologies in the reconstruction of a stone relief sculpture on the façade of the East Block building of the Canadian Parliament in Ottawa, Canada. A variety of digital technologies were used including, hand-held laser scanning, digital photogrammetry, 3d-printing, CNC milling, and robotic stone milling, in initial research for the fabrication of maquettes and the collaboration with the Dominion Sculptor.
and, Kateřina Nováková, and Henri Achten. "Do (not) sketch into my sketch - A comparison of existing tools." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 237-243. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Various computer-aided sketch tools can be used to support architectural designing (Tang, Lee, Gero, 2010) either individually in early stage of the process or in communication. We focus on the second mentioned. The goal of this paper is to give an overview of possible applications and mention the platforms which are supported. We explore the advantages or disadvantages of the tools and compare it with our newly developed application called ColLab sketch. With this application we hope in increasing speed and ease of graphic communication on one hand and testing architects demands on the other hand. We develop multiple criteria for evaluating the tools, while believing this paper could be of use to give a hint how to improve remote as well as co-located collaborative designing by sketch. Architectural designing is a very sensitive topic when it comes to sketching. Finally, we would like to compare the newly developed tool to this list and suggest improvements or experiments that help its finalizing.
Yazici, Sevil. "Efficiency in Architectural Geometry Informed by Materials." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 547-554. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Although some studies investigate physics-based dynamic systems to generate structurally efficient forms by incorporating geometry with performance requirements, there is a gap in the field questioning on how to link structurally efficient architectural geometry with mechanical properties of materials. The aim of this paper is to question the possibility of generating an information loop in which Young's Modulus, stiffness of the material may both inform the form-finding process and the structural performance simulation. The proposed method offers steps including form-finding, series of analyses applied for architectural geometry and structural performance, as well as optimization. Based on the simulation results, efficiency values are calculated driven by the use of different materials. The significance of incorporating material properties in the early design stage is underlined, by comparing differences, whether the stiffness of material informs the form-finding process or not.
Búš, Peter, Lukáš Kurilla, and Henri Achten. "Emergent articulation field in existing urban context - Computational typologies with emergent matter." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 181-189. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The main purpose of this research is to introduce and verify selected advanced computational methodologies operating with agent-oriented approach that are applicable within the framework of emergent urban design strategies in early stages of zoning proceedings. The aim is to demonstrate that speculative matter of the phenomenon of emergence in terms of design thought driven by computational models can also be applicable within real existing urban conditions. The research concurs previous researches in the field of urban pre-reconfigurations in the selected city environments. It concentrates on developing a simulation model as an analytical and generative instrumental platform for architects in early phases of urban design and synthetizes accumulated computational advancements based on agent-oriented approach.
Baerlecken, Daniel, and Sabri Gokmen. "Emphatic Lines - Surface structuring based on Walter Crane's pattern making methods." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 107-114. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The paper introduces a method for structuring and ornamenting double-curved geometry, which is developed through the lens of Walter Crane. Crane's method for pattern making is based on underlying scaffolds and infill patterns for two dimensional surfaces. The presented research uses his method and applies it through digitals means to three dimensional surfaces. The scaffold is used to solve the problem of curvature: it creates flat facets. This approach is tested through a prototypical installation at the Musee d'Jurassien d'Art and d'histoire using aluminium sheet metal and water-jet cutting, but can also be transferred to other architectural applications.
Norell, Daniel, and Einar Rodhe. "Erratic - The Material Simulacra of Pliable Surfaces." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 145-152. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper examines how designers can invigorate designs with a sense of liveliness and indeterminacy through manipulation of pliable materials. Two approaches to material manipulation are defined and juxtaposed in the paper: The control associated with Frei Otto's elegantly tensioned membranes and the noise associated with Sigurd Lewerentz's intensely material brick walls. These historical approaches become pertinent in relation to current opportunities offered by material simulation software in architecture. Simulation may be used to increase control over the materialization of design, but is at the same time a way to introduce the noise of real-time, real-world experiments into digital design. The paper presents this discussion in parallel with documentation of the research project 'Erratic', a recent installation carried out by the authors' practice Norell/Rodhe. Constructed from polyurethane cold foam, the project combines analogue experiments with digital simulations to target architectural qualities like mass, figuration and relief.
Foged, Isak Worre, Anke Pasold, and Mads Brath Jensen. "Evolution of an Instrumental Architecture." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 365-372. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The paper illustrates the architectural capacities of combining computational methods, such as genetic algorithms, acoustic simulation and parametric modeling, with material properties and a simple spatial programme in the developing of a performative and aesthetical sound based architecture. The paper presents a new architectural working method, a developed digital model and a resulting 1:1 pavilion. The work emphasizes and finds deep architectural potentials by combining material, spatial and human aspects into the formation of an aesthetical and performance oriented architecture.
Koenig, Reinhard, Matthias Standfest, and Gerhard Schmitt. "Evolutionary multi-criteria optimization for building layout planning - Exemplary application based on the PSSA framework." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 567-574. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

When working on urban planning projects there are usually multiple aspects to consider. Often these aspects are contradictory and it is not possible to choose one over the other; instead, they each need to be fulfilled as well as possible. Planners typically draw on past experience when subjectively prioritising which aspects to consider with which degree of importance for their planning concepts. This practice, although understandable, places power and authority in the hands of people who have varying degrees of expertise, which means that the best possible solution is not always found, because it is either not sought or the problem is regarded as being too complex for human capabilities. To improve this situation, the project presented here shows the potential of multi-criteria optimisation algorithms using the example of a new housing layout for an urban block. In addition it is shown, how Self-Organizing-Maps can be used to visualise multi-dimensional solution spaces in an easy analysable and comprehensible form.

Vrouwe, Ivo, and Burak Pak. "Framing Parametric and Generative Structures - A Novel Framework for Analysis and Education." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 365-371. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In this paper we aimed at the development of a novel tool to facilitate the structured analysis of architectural construction principles, materials and production methods in digital design and fabrication practices. In order to assist the understanding and teaching of these subjects, we employed a taxonomy of spatial design construction (Vrouwe 2013). By using the taxonomy, we analysed and categorised 34 parametric structures published in the IJAC Journal (2002-2014). Informed by this study, we aligned the initial taxonomy using various framing strategies. As a result we developed a new framework for spatial design construction specifically customised for the design and fabrication of parametric structures which can potentially serve as a constructive tool to create a novel design learning environment and integrated teaching strategies.
Johansson, Mikael, Mattias Roupé, and Mikael Viklund Tallgren. "From BIM to VR - Integrating immersive visualizations in the current design process." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 261-269. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper presents a system that allows immersive visualizations to become a natural and integrated part of the current building design process. It is realized through three main components: (1) the Oculus Rift - a new type of Head Mounted Display (HMD) directed at the consumer market, (2) a real-time rendering engine supporting large Building Information Models (BIM) that is, (3) implemented as a plug-in in a BIM authoring software. In addition to provide details regarding the implementation and integration of the different components in our system, we present an evaluation of it from three different perspectives; rendering performance, navigation interface and the ability to support fast design iterations.
Tamke, Martin, Ina Blümel, Sebastian Ochmann, Richard Vock, and Raoul Wessel. "From Point Clouds to Definitions of Architectural Space - Potentials of Automated Extraction of Semantic Information from Point Clouds for the Building Profession." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 557-566. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Regarding interior building topology as an important aspect in building design and management, several approaches to indoor point cloud structuring have been introduced recently. Apart from a high-level semantic segmentation of the formerly unstructured point clouds into stories and rooms, these methods additionally allow the extraction of attributed graphs in which nodes represent rooms (including room properties like area or height), and edges represent connections between rooms (doors or staircases) or indicate neighborhood relationships (separation by walls). In this paper, we investigate possible applications of these approaches in architectural design and building management and comment on the possible benefits for the building profession. While contemporary practice of spatial arrangement is predominantly based on the manual iteration of spatial topologies, we show that the segmentation of buildings in spaces along with the untraditional more abstract graph-based representations can be used for design, management and navigation within building structures.
van der Zee, Aant, Bauke de Vries, and Theo Salet. "From rapid prototyping to automated manufacturing." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 455-461. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

In this paper we present an outline of a newly started project to develop a tool which connects BIM to a manufacturing technique like 3D printing. First we will look some promising manufacturing techniques. We will design a small dwelling and export it into a BIM, from which we will extract our data to generate the path the nozzle has to follow. The chosen path is constrained by the material properties, the design and speed of the nozzle. To validate the system we develop a small VR tool in which we mimic a manufacturing tool.

Cekmis, Asli. "Fuzzy computing for layout design in ill-defined, uncertain spaces." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 277-286. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Layout design has been supported by some computational tools, where fuzzy systems have been approved as an appropriate method to handle uncertainty in the early design stage. In this paper, a new mathematical model depending on the fuzzy logic and sets theory is proposed to assist in layout design. The model distinctly deals with spatial uncertainty in open planned designs, where there is no clear layout configuration or definite patterns of usage. The model calculates the possibility of occupancy according to space, function and user related parameters and logical rules. It also visualises the architectural plan as being comprised of sub-spaces formed by the distribution of those possibilities. Sub-spaces are characterised as “Fuzzy Architectural Spatial Objects” (FASOs). As a result, layouts are represented as an accumulation of FASOs showing a certain inhabitation pattern. Various layouts can be generated within the identity of FASOs. Architects can evaluate the layouts and propose new ones by organising the FASOs on the plan and considering their relations. After describing the model the paper demonstrates an application which aims to design a proper layout for a major exhibition hall in Istanbul.
Aydin, Serdar, Tian Tian Lo, and Marc Aurel Schnabel. "Gamification of Shape Grammars - Collaborative and Participatory Mass-Housing Design for Kashgar Old Town." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 603-612. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper describes the framework of an ongoing research, titled 'quasiGRAMMARS', seeking a participatory mass-housing approach. In the context of the city of Kashgar, China, where the convergence of Islamic-Chinese-Turkic cultures has been shaped within a unique style since the 10th century, mass-housing becomes a 3D puzzle that requires each piece to be placed with full of care, motivation, participation, analysis, strategy, art and finally design. Gamification is about designing collaboration and participation for mass-housing, whereas shape grammars are meant for analysis and design. This game finally turns into a strategic game to be scrutinised further in relation to game theory that is mathematically concerned with the economics too. However, the present study aims at proving a participatory design strategy that incentivises valuable action through gamification techniques. Focusing on its specific design development, it reveals some of these techniques to gamify mass-housing for Kashgar in eight steps. While unveiling gamification term for use in architecture domain, the paper discusses the limitations and future directions of the research.
Ventura, Davide, and Matteo Baldassari. "Grow: Generative Responsive Object for Web-based design - Methodology for generative design and interactive prototyping." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 587-594. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper is part of the research on Generative Design and is inspired by the ideas spread by the following paradigms: the Internet of Things (Auto-ID Center, 1999) and the Pervasive/Ubiquitous Computing (Weiser, 1993). Particularly, the research describes a number of case studies and, in detail, the experimental prototype of an interactive-design object: “Grow-1”. The general assumptions of the study are as follows: a) Developing the experimental prototype of a smart-design object (Figure 1) in terms of interaction with man, with regard to the specific conditions of the indoor environment as well as in relation to the internet/web platforms. b) Setting up a project research based on the principles of Generative Design.c) Formulating and adopting a methodology where computational design techniques and interactive prototyping ones converge, in line with the principles spread by the new paradigms like the Internet of Things.
Trento, Armando, Antonio Fioravanti, and Francesco Rossini. "Health and Safety Design by means of a Systemic Approach - Linking Construction Entities and Activities for Hazard Prevention." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 633-642. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Education and Research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe faces many urgent tasks. Among the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC)international scientific societies, only few researches systematically investigate on how to integrate the design solutions with Health and Safety (HS) planning measures, enhancing a collaborative “fusion” of all involved actors in Design and Construction decision making. Process automation cannot be enhanced until design/management tools, such as Building Information Models, can rely only on entities formalised "per se" geometrical items fulfilled by isolated-object specific information. To face complex problems, BIM models should be able to implement and manipulate multiple sets of entities, qualified by clearly established relationships, belonging to organically structured and oriented (sub-) systems. This paper reports on an early stage research project, focused on the identification of operative rules for Health and Safety design. Implementation on the unique case study of Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana functional refurbishment faces two main objectives: one, more pragmatic, is concerned with boostingworkers education about non-standard operative tasks, by means of accurate ad-hoc construction narrative visualisation; another one, more challenging and theoretically complex, consists in modelling "judgment-based" rules, aimed at supporting automated reasoning in Safety Design.
Pak, Burak, and Johan Verbeke. "ICT-enabled Civic Empowerment and Participation: in Design, through Design." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 89-97. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper aims to discuss the potentials of novel modes of participatory design in relation to the latest developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The first part of the study involves the extraction of the basic principles from the extraordinary cases of the Medical Faculty Housing by Lucien Kroll (1976) and Cedric Price's Fun Place (1965) in which various forms of ICT-enabled participation were conceived. In the second part, we reframe the existing ICT tools and strategies and elaborate their potentials to support the modes of participation performed in these two cases. As a result, by distilling the created knowledge, we introduce a model of ICT-enabled design participation which exploits a set of collective action tools to support sustainable ways of self-organization and bottom-up design.
Sarhan, Ahmed, and Peter Rutherford. "Integrating Sustainability in the Architectural Design Education Process - Taxonomy of Challenges and Guidelines." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 323-332. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The last decade have seen substantial calls and increasing pressure for developing an integrated design teaching framework, where sustainability is an imperative priority. This paper focuses on presenting a taxonomy of the main challenges encountered within the educational domain, in the attempt to reach an effective integration. The paper also presents a set guidelines to address and try to resolve the noted challenges. As the use of Building Performance Simulation (BPS) applications is a central approach in this process aiming to reach energy efficient buildings, the paper focuses on the shortcomings noted as a result of the use of these applications in the design studios, with particular emphasis on the thermal and lighting aspects of the simulation. The taxonomy presented is a summary of the findings from literature review, as well as the surveys results which were part of the author's research project discussed in the paper.
Kuma, Taichi, Moritz Dörstelmann, Marshall Prado, and Achim Menges. "Integrative Computational Design Methodology for Composite Spacer Fabric Architecture." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 61-69. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Spacer fabrics are 3D warp-knitted fabrics, which have a volumetric structure. Together with the capacity to differentially stretch and contract, these materials allow three dimensional which is specific to spacer fabrics. The authors present a computational design methodology which enables the generation of form based on these material characteristics and local, regional and global material manipulations. Such a process can not only generate functional surface articulations, but also control the forming of spatial textile geometries. As a resin infused composite structure the spacer fabric can serve as architectural construction and building envelope. This new methodology to develop fibrous and textile morphology is contrary to a traditional hierarchical design process, which is based on a linear strategy from design to implementation. The investigation methods are based on analogue material experimentation and integration of the materials behaviour into a computational design process. Such a feedback process can unfold potential material morphologies and performances of spacer fabric as an architectural material.
Kontovourkis, Odysseas, and Despo Anagiotou. "Integrative Pedestrian Modelling Techniques based on Virtual Force Fields - Analysis, Generation and Evaluation in Public Open Spaces." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe. eCAADe: Conferences. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

This paper demonstrates a preliminary research methodology towards an integrative digital design approach for the analysis, generation and evaluation of architectural proposals in public open spaces based on human movement behaviour performances. In order to achieve this, various computational mechanisms that involve the logic of pedestrian modelling are applied, aiming to be explored in different stages of design. The suggested models follow the idea of 'virtual force' fields, an approach initially introduced in previous work by author. Based on particle behaviour modelling, this approach examines the interaction and movement behaviour of individual entities within a system through virtual effects and specifically through attraction and repulsion forces, influencing pedestrians behaviour and hence their accelerated movement. Current paper argues that the idea of 'virtual force' fields can be used not only for pedestrian simulation but also for the analysis and generation of proposals, aiming on a holistic design development of public spaces.

Osório, Filipa, Alexandra Paio, and Sancho Oliveira. "Interaction with a Kinetic Folded Surface." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 605-612. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Kinetic systems offers new perspectives and design innovation in research and practice. These systems have been used by architects as an approach that embeds computation intelligence to create flexible and adaptable architectural spaces according to users changing needs and desires as a way to respond to an increasingly technological society. The presented research attempts to answer to this question based on the results of a multidisciplinary on-going work developed at digital fabrication laboratory Vitruvius Fablab-IUL in Lisbon. The main goal is to explore the transformation of the shape of a construction by mechanisms which allow adaptation either to environmental conditions or to the needs of the user. This paper reports the initial development of a kinetic system based on an origami foldable surface actuated by a user. The user can manipulate a small scale model of the surface and evaluate at all times if it is achieving the desired geometry.

Figueiredo, Bruno, Eduardo Castro e Costa, Bruno Araújo, Fernando Fonseca, Joaquim A. Jorge, and José Pinto Duarte. "Interactive Tabletops for Architectural Visualization - Combining Stereoscopy and Touch Interfaces for Cultural Heritage." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 585-592. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper presents an interactive apparatus to didactically explore Alberti's treatise on architecture, De re aedificatoria, as generative design systems, namely shape grammars. This apparatus allows users to interactively explore such architectonical knowledge in both appealing and informal ways, by enabling them to visualize and manipulate in real-time different design solutions. The authors identify the difficulties on encoding the architectural knowledge of a parametric design model into an interactive apparatus to be used by laypeople. At last, the authors discuss the results of a survey conducted to users that interacted with the prototype in order to assess its ability to communicate the knowledge of an architectural language.
ElBanhawy, Eiman Y., Ruth Dalton, and Emine Mine Thompson. "Interrogating the Relation between E-Mobility Recharging Network Design and Drivers' Charging Behaviour." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 213-224. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In this article we report on research into patterns of electric vehicle (EV) commuters' movement and behavior in a road network. The design of the charging network is a function of its size and the distribution of the charging points. It consists of several spatial design qualities, configuration attributes, travel demand, and users charging patterns. This study introduces the spatial configuration of an active e-mobility system through a case study. The article investigates the correlation between the design characteristics of EV recharging infrastructure and its usability. We need to explore the variations in individual charging behavior within the EV population to understand the movement patterns in the network. Using data of over 500 EV drivers charging their cars using Recharging facilities (RFs) over a three-year time, we clustered the EV population based on the charging patterns. Design configuration analysis is conducted using DepthMap; charging patterns are captured by the infrastructure service provider.
Di Mascio, Danilo, and Tom Maver. "Investigating a narrative architecture - Mackintosh's Glasgow School of Art." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 653-663. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In this paper a theoretical approach and a methodology to investigate and document a narrative architecture will be presented. In the architecture field the word narrative is often used in reference to ways of representing or telling the story of a project. Within the context of this research with the expression “narrative architecture” the authors mean an architecture that, like a book, tells a story through its material and immaterial characteristics. In order to analyze the selected characteristics of a narrative architecture, a possible approach is represented by a digital 3D reconstruction and a critical analysis of the digital model produced. The digital reconstruction process and the theoretical background have been applied to a case study, a masterpiece in the history of architecture: Mackintosh's Glasgow School of Art. Several graphic works have been created to communicate the main characteristics of this narrative architecture. The research project attempts to explore ways to study and explain existing buildings from new and innovative points of view, but at the same time it can trigger important reflections in architectural design and education.
Fereos, Pavlos, and Marios Tsiliakos. "Isoprototyping - Rapid Robotic Aided Fabrication for Double Curvature Surfaces." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 433-443. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. IsoPrototyping is a research initiative, undertaken at the Institute fur experimentelle architektur.hochbau, within the context of the Vertiefung Hochbau and Sonderkapitel des hochbaus courses, which specialize on building construction. Through the case study of an iso-surface spatial configuration, this research targets the exploration of innovative digital prototyping methodologies, that would allow rapid and cost-efficient fabrication, capable of manufacturing any given double curved surface. The ABB industrial robots of REX-Lab programmed in combination with custom designed, recalibrated dry-mold, surface-producing apparatus, formed the framework for a proficient, yet flexible, process describing and fabricating implicit non-linear systems.
Stasiuk, David, and Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen. "Learning to be a Vault - Implementing learning strategies for design exploration in inter-scalar systems." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 381-390. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Parametric design models enable the production of dynamic form, responsive material assemblies, and numerically and geometrically analytical feedback. The value potential for design produced through the procedural transformation of input parameters (or features) through algorithmic models has been repeatedly demonstrated and epistemically refined. However, despite their capacity to improve productivity and iteration, parametric models are nonetheless prone to inflexibility and reduction, both of which obscure processes of invention and discovery that are central to an effective design practice. This paper presents an experimental approach for the application of multiple, parallel computational design modelling strategies which are tested in the production of an inter-scalar model array that synthesises design intent, the simulation of material behaviours, performance-driven adaptation, and open-ended processes of discovery and categorical description. It is particularly focused on the computational potentials embedded in interdependent applications of simulation and machine learning algorithms as generative and descriptive drivers of form, performance, and architectural quality. It ultimately speculates towards an architectural design modelling method that privileges open model topologies and emergent feature production as critical operators in the generation of flexible and adaptive design solutions.
Hansen, Ellen Kathrine, and Michael Mullins. "Lighting Design - Toward a synthesis of science, media technology and architecture." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 613-620. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Light as a multi-dimensional design element has fundamental importance for a sustainable environment. The paper discusses the need for an integration of scientific, technical and creative approaches to light and presents theory, methods and applications toward fulfilling this need. A theory of design developed from three experiments show how distinct qualitative and quantitative criteria in different disciplinary traditions can be integrated successfully, despite disparate technical/scientific, social scientific and art/humanities backgrounds. The model is applied to a pedagogical curriculum in the context of multi-level learning competencies.

Salman, Huda. "Linkography for evaluating ideas connectivity of Computer Aided Design-based protocols." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 573-581. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper presents the analysis of four design protocols, using linkography, to characterise participants' design interaction and activity while designing with CAAD programs. The participants were final year students, who have spent at least four years in a school of architecture and were confident CAAD users. The conceptual structure and linkability of ideas was assessed using the Linkography method. The findings demonstrated that, for the same design problem, the conceptual structure and linkability of ideas can be assessed using the Linkography method. Furthermore, what characterised the continuity of CAAD design protocols is the number of ideas in association with design moves along the timeline of the design process.
Akiyoshi, Koki, and Hiroya Tanaka. "Local-reconfigurable Freeform surface with plywood - From the perspective of Japanese Tsugite-Shiguchi." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 527-535. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This research exhibits a novel construction method for Freeform surfaces with plywood, without using metal joints and bending. By introducing the perspective of Japanese Tsugite-Shiguchi, the research aims for a drastic change from node-oriented thinking to module-oriented thinking. This paper focuses on the investigation of how to simplify fabrication processes, how to realize the environmental capabilities of Freeform wood structures, and how to provide redundancy and stability to the whole architectural system. In order to challenge these problems, we examined three discretion methods. As a result, we have been successful to produce a double-layered surface, filled with triangular mesh, implemented only by cutting one sheet of plywood. Moreover, the system has also acquired a new nature: local-reconfigurability, wherein it can react and adapt to fit local parameters and requirements.
Grigoriadis, Kostas. "Material Fusion - A research into the simulated blending of materials using particle systems." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 123-130. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Parallel to the early development and recent widespread usage of composite materials in building and manufacturing, the concept of functionally graded materials (FGM) was initiated and developed as far back as the 1980s. In contrast to the composite paradigm, where layers of materials are glued and 'cooked' together under high pressure and temperature to form laminated parts, FGM are singular materials that vary their consistency gradually over their volume. In direct link to their increasing use in fields adjacent to architecture, the scope of the paper is to explore a possible design route for designing with FGM. Of a limited number of available CAD software where material properties can be graded, the intent of the design for a materially graded windbreak module is to utilize particle systems as a technique for simulating fields of interacting, information-loaded material point sets that can be fused together in a gradient manner.

Davidova, Marie, Martin Šichman, and Martin Gsandtner. "Material Performance of Solid Wood:Paresite, The Environmental Summer Pavilion." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe. eCAADe: Conferences. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The Paresite - The Environmental Summer Pavilion designed for reSITE festival, is a möbius shaped structure, built from torsed pine wood planks in triangular grid with half cm thin pine wood triangular sheets that provide shadow and evaporate moisture in dry weather. The sheets, cut in a tangential section, interact with humidity by warping themselves, allowing air circulation for the evaporation in arid conditions. The design was accomplished in Grasshopper for Rhino in combination with Rhino and afterwards digitally fabricated. This interdisciplinary project involved students from the Architectural Institute in Prague (ARCHIP) and the students of the Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences at the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (FLD CZU). The goal was to design and build a pavilion from a solid pine wood in order to analyse its material properties and reactions to the environment and to accommodate functions for reSITE festival. The design was prepared within half term studio course and completed in June 2013 on Karlovo Square in Prague where it hosted1600 visitors during festival weekend.
Pantazis, Evangelos, and David Gerber. "Material Swarm Articulations - New View Reciprocal Frame Canopy." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 463-473. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Material Swarm Articulations, is an experiment in developing a multi-objective optimization system that incorporates bottom up approaches for informing architectural design. The paper presents an initial built project that demonstrates the combination of a structural form finding method, with an agent based design system through the digital fabrication processes. The objective of this research is to develop a workflow combined with material and construction constraints that has the potential to increase performance objectives while enabling geometric complexity and design driven articulation of a traditional tectonic system. The emphasis of the research at this stage is to take advantage of material properties and assembly methods applied to a digital design and simulation workflow that enables emergent patterns to influence the performance of the space.The paper illustrates the research through a prototype of a self standing canopy structure in 1:1 scale. It presents results of the form finding, generative patterning, digital fabrication affordances and sets and agenda for next steps in the use of multi-agent systems for design purposes.
Lorenz, Wolfgang E.. "Measurability of Loos' rejection of the ornament - Using box-counting as a method for analysing facades." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe. eCAADe: Conferences. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

As evidence from recent years has demonstrated, box-counting provides an objective fractal analytical method to evaluate the visual complexity of architecture. This paper for the first time explores the potential of box-counting with regard to the work of the Viennese architect Adolf Loos (1870-1933). Loos is seen as the pioneer of modern architecture, as someone who anticipated the International Style. This impression derives from his resentments towards the ornament, expressed especially in his texts. However, Loos did not reject ornamentation in general. Thus, the group of smooth plastered facades provides a narrowed view on his overall architectural concept. A more differentiated view on Loos' oeuvre is not new; however, the author further develops the possibilities of describing facades geometrically by using an implementation of the fractal analytical method, especially created for facades. This paper not only focuses on the possibility of grouping facades with similar characteristic values, but considers other aspects of Loos' design such as space as well.

Ibrahim, Mohamed S.. "More than a Computational Tool - Design Competence Development using Shape Grammars." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 337-346. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Development of competence has been one of the major issues and goals of modern academic design and engineering education. The research assumes that a rule based reasoning approach could aid in the development of the design competences within the design studio. Support by its application in design and computational courses, the implemented tool is loosely based on the concept of grammatical design and shape grammars. The potential of implementing such methodology is explored by investigating its pedagogical applications as well as evaluating the possibilities of applying such methodology in the studio structure. The argument is supported by examples from the author's work with beginning and advanced design students from different design schools.
D'Uva, Domenico. "Morphogenesis and panelling, the use of generative tools beyond academia. - Case studies and limits of the method." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 81-87. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The increasing complexity in architectural design brought a parallel evolution of tools for shape generation and management. Digital tools which better fulfil this need are the generative design software. The aim of this work is finding and testing real life uses of generative design software beyond academic edges. The specific target is transform a complex surface into a similar surface mostly made of flat panels. As a testing ground it has been chosen the support in construction of complex shapes made with ordinary and well known tools. The combination of software used is Rhinoceros, with its plugin Grasshopper, and a couple of opensource add-on, Lunchbox and Paneling tool. The cases are listed from the simplest to the most complex, and the first four are solved with the automated procedure, the fifth, manually. Based on the cases studied it is possible to confirm that the method is applicable to the majority of the complex surfaces.
Love, Peter E. D., Jingyang Zhou, Jane Matthews, Brad Carey, and Chun-pong Sing. "Moving Beyond CAD: A Systems Information Model for Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering Design." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 395-404. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Documentation errors have been identified as a significant problem within the construction and engineering industry. Errors contained with contract documents can contribute to loss of profit, reduced productivity, and cost and time overruns as well as contractual disputes. Research has identified that as much as 60% of variations in construction and engineering projects are a result of errors and omissions contained within poor quality documentation. Using a case study, errors, omissions and information redundancy contained in the Electrical and Instrumentation (E&I) 'As built' drawings for a Stacker Conveyor is examined. A total of 449 errors and omissions were identified within 42 documents. In addition, 231 cables and components appeared once among the 42 documents; 86 cables and components appeared twice and 12 cables and components appeared three times. As a result of the errors, omissions and redundancy, requests for information (RFIs) are required. Retrospective analysis indicates that the indirect cost of raising the RFIs to the contractor was estimated to be 8.93% of the cost of the E&I contract. To address the problems of errors, omissions and redundancy, it is suggested that there is a need to adopt an object orientated system information model (SIM) for E&I engineering design and documentation. It is demonstrated in the case study that the use of a SIM could bring significant improvements in productivity and reduce the cost of engineering design.
Larsen, Andreas Lund, Isak Worre Foged, and Rasmus Lund Jensen. "Multi-layered Breathing Architectural Envelope." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 117-122. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage. The performance of the envelope is simulated and put through an optimization process. The impact of a design system on the architectural potential of Performance -based design was investigated.
Janssen, Patrick, and Rudi Stouffs. "Multi-Perspective Urban Optioneering." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 79-88. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper investigates the state-of-the-art with respect to simulation-based planning support systems in order to draw a set of requirements and best practices for an urban planning and design framework that enables multiple stakeholders with differing perspectives to systematically explore design options, leveraging the latest analysis and simulation techniques. From these requirements and best practices, the foundations and structure of such an urban planning and design framework are developed. A number of technological and methodological challenges are identified for future investigation.
Laskari, Anna. "Multidimensional Comparative Analysis for the Classification of Residual Urban Voids." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe. eCAADe: Conferences. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Spatial configurations can be perceived through a variety of descriptions of their physical form and structure. Each description can offer an autonomous interpretation or be combined with others parathetically, in a logic of multiple distinct layers. However it is asserted that meaningful information can be extracted from a simultaneous view of sets of descriptions within a high-dimensional structure. This paper investigates the possibility of conducting a comparative analysis and classification of non-typical spatial formations based on the synchronous view of multiple quantifiable spatial attributes. Under the hypothesis of a reciprocal definition of spatial structure and occupation practices, it is intended to identify distinct generic spatial types in order to subsequently determine a range of suitable respective generic use types. This investigation supports the formulation of strategies for the reactivation of unused, residual urban voids, currently being addressed by the research programme titled 'Strategies to network urban interventions in the Metropolitan Centre of Athens'. The programme is carried out by the School of Architecture of the National Technical University of Athens in collaboration with the Region of Attica, under the scientific coordination of Professor Dr. Parmenidis (2013).

Colakoglu, Birgul. "New Approaches in Architecture Education - Conclusion." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 305-312. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The explosion of computationally-oriented content into architectural design and making has generated curricular changes in architectural education. This paper describes an educational model developed following this changes. One of the important goals of the educational model explained in this paper is to introduce the knowledge of geometric assembly/disassembly planning to the field of architecture encouraging students of architecture to integrate this knowledge into the design process.
Kreutzberg, Anette. "New Virtual Reality for Architectural Investigations." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 253-260. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Visually decoding and evaluating digital 3D models in proper scale on screen from within 3D modelling software can be quite difficult due to random zoom-factors, Field of View (FOV) and eye height. Motion and interactive bodily grounded examinations are helpful factors that can be enhanced with the use of Virtual Reality (VR). The purpose of this phenomenological study is to address these difficulties of perception of scale by introducing a Virtual Reality Head Mounted Display (HMD) as an exploration tool and outlining possible ways of utilising this tool in architectural teaching. To achieve the purpose findings of perception of scale and distance; level of abstraction; navigation; and simulator sickness will be discussed in relation to architectural investigation in VR. This will be based on the experiences and findings during two workshops with architecture students qualifying their conceptual designs with the VR HMD.
Leitao, António, and Sara Proença. "On the Expressive Power of Programming Languages for Generative Design - The Case of Higher-Order Functions." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 257-266. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The expressive power of a language measures the breadth of ideas that can be described in that language and is strongly dependent on the constructs provided by the language. In the programming language area, one of the constructs that increases the expressive power is the concept of higher-order function (HOF). A HOF is a function that accepts functions as arguments and/or returns functions as results. HOF can drastically simplify the programming activity, reducing the development effort, and allowing for more adaptable programs. In this paper we explain the concept of HOFs and its use for Generative Design. We then compare the support for HOF in the most used programming languages in the GD field and we discuss the pedagogy of HOFs.
Kachri, Zeta, and Sean Hanna. "Parasitic Ecologies - Algorithmic Space through Diffusion-Limited Aggregation of Truncated Octahedrons." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 539-546. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Parasitic architecture allows the creation of flexible structures that feed off existing infrastructure. Additionally, self-organised models that grow in response to environmental forces and adapt to their context introduce new ways for intervening in architectural design. This paper investigates the properties of self-organised parasitic structures that evolve by creating aggregation forms in the context of simulated structural environments. The growth process of the parasitic structures is inspired by the fungal colonies and is based on the rules of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) extended to support real-time force analysis and aggregation of space-filling geometry. The results of the simulations demonstrate that the developed diffusion-limited aggregation of truncated octahedrons is capable of providing self-sustained structures able to adapt in environments with different spatial limitations.
Hubers, Hans J. C., Michela Turrin, Irem Erbas, and Ioannis Chatzikonstantinou. "pCOLAD: online sharing of parameters for collaborative architectural design." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 39-48. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Simultaneous interdisciplinary architectural design from the very start of a project faces challenges in properly sharing information across disciplines. This research developed a method and related digital tool to improve collaborative design and aimed at making selected information to be shared faster and more transparently. The method consists of developing alternative parametric solutions for different parts of the design in such a way that crucial parameters form a link between these parts. The digital tool has been developed for Grasshopper and permits synchronic (real-time over the Internet) and a-synchronic sharing of these parameters. The design alternatives are evaluated with specific criteria, pros and cons in an Internet Forum and discussed via a video-conferencing tool. Decisions are then taken in a collaborative manner through voting. The paper describes the method based on a case study.

Cokcan, Baris, Johannes Braumann, and Sigrid Brell-Cokcan. "Performative Wood." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 131-138. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This research builds upon projects from both university and practice to explore new approaches on how the multifunctionality, flexibility, and performance of wood can be utilized to inform new approaches towards both design and fabrication. The following projects use physical prototypes to bend wood just within its tolerances, design with the high precision of multi-axis robotic fabrication in mind, and finally inform the shape of a large free-form structure through material properties.
Kontovourkis, Odysseas, and George Tryfonos. "Physical input-driven offline robotic simulation through a feedback loop process." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe. eCAADe: Conferences. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

This ongoing research describes a feedback loop procedure where physical inputs are used as the medium for offline robotic simulation. The purpose is to investigate the ability of industrial robots that are currently used in manufacturing processes to work in a flexible and productive manner whilst providing a continuous feedback loop between physical inputs and fabrication artifacts. In order to achieve this, a methodology is developed that involves the use of data acquisition devices to enable the transference of information from the physical to the digital environment and then to use this data as real-time parameters to control the robot's behaviour during fabrication. The aim is to achieve active involvement of robots in the manufacturing process to address complex construction issues and to ensure accuracy, a reduction in manufacturing defects and flexibility in the materials used. This investigation is accompanied by relevant experiments to exemplify the potential of control mechanisms to be used in prototyping case studies.

Nielsen, Timo Harboe, Stephen Melville, and Iain Sproat. "Populating surfaces with holes using particle repulsion based on scalar fields." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 537-545. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper describes the relaxation of charged particles in order to create a pattern of voids based on a scalar field on any complex polygon mesh. A scalar field representing stress values or a greyscale image, can be used to create void patterns of aesthetic or structural character; all with full awareness of the materiality. Following relaxation, areas with low scalar values consist of large voids with a small distance between them. Areas of high scalar value consist of small voids with a greater distance between them. This research has been applied in the design of a sculpture at Oxford Brookes University, where stress data from Finite Element Software has been used for the automatic and rational distribution of holes.
Fok, Wendy W.. "Premise - A discussion on open source, networks, and digital property in architecture." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 391-397. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This research paper questions the relationship between the legal, ethical, and economic challenges that are presented by new ways of utilizing trademark, intellectual property, and copyright law within design production and creative purposes of architectural design. While it does not attain a conclusive resolution-as this is a developmental body of applied research, and includes a great deal of exploration of reform within the legal system-the paper addresses the systemic propositions, issues of inspiration and precedents, and case-studies in architectural design production that are implicit in new forms of legal transformation which could potentially address the issues within the worlds of design, economics, and law. It is hereby proposed that by understanding these relationships with respect to the prevalent global economic model, research in understanding architecture and law may be able to identify ways of restructuring and offer alternative (or, evolutionary) modes of ethical protection and equitable reward to all members contributing to the production system.
Wurzer, Gabriel, Bob Martens, and Thomas Grasl. "ProceeDings - A web-based word processor automating the production of conference proceedings." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 11-20. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In this paper an online editing system for eCAADe papers is presented, which is also the technology behind this proceedings volume. On the occasion of the eCAADe 1999 conference in Liverpool, a novel layout for the proceedings was developed. In the course of forthcoming annual conferences, this became the distinctive “look and feel” of the eCAADe proceedings. Due to the complexity, professional typesetting was required for and the authors were disconnected from the publication and layout stage. This paper elaborates on the development and implementation of a web-based tool, which takes care of the typesetting and delegates this activity again to the authors. Neither software installation is required, nor specific training must be completed in advance. On top of this the degree of homogeneity can be raised significantly, thus supporting the editors in charge to concentrate on the task of harmonising the resulting publication output.
Schneider, Sven, Martin Bielik, Dirk Donath, Michel Triemer, Julia Tschetwertak, and Alexander Hollberg. "Rapid Data Collection using Automated Model Generation and Performance Evaluation - A workflow for morphological studies of apartment floor plans." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 303-311. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In this paper we propose a framework for accelerating the process of data-collection from apartment floor plans. After describing the general workflow and the criteria used for performance evaluation, we present a tool for automated model generation and evaluation. To demonstrate the functionality of this workflow we show examples, based on a preliminary test phase undertaken in a seminar for master students.
Davidova, Marie. "Ray 2:The Material Performance of Solid Wood Based Screen." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe. eCAADe: Conferences. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The wood - humidity interaction of solid wood has been tested through generations on Norwegian traditional panelling. This concept has been further explored by Michael Hensel and Steffen Reichert with Achim Menges on plywood and laminates in basic research. Plywood or laminates are better programmable but they are less sustainable due to the use of glue. This research focused on predicting the performance of solid wood in tangential section which is applied to humidity-temperature responsive screen for industrial production. With the method Systems Oriented Design, the research evaluated data from material science, forestry, meteorology, biology, chemistry and the production market. Themethod was introduced by Birger Sevaldson in 2007 with the argument that the changes in our globalized world and the need for sustainability demands an increase of the complexity of the design process. (Sevaldson 2013)Several samples has been tested for its environmental interaction. The data has been integrated in parametric models that tested the overall systems. Based on the simulations, the most suitable concept has been prototyped and measured for its performance. This lead to another sampling of the material whose data are the basis for another prototype. Ray 2 is an environmental responsive screen that is airing the structure in dry weather, while closing up when the humidity level is high, not allowing the moisture inside.
Wang, Tsung-Hsien. "Reasoning Spatial Relationships in Building Information Models using Voxels." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 465-471. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

This paper investigates a voxel-based approach to automate the space construction of an ill-defined building information model, namely, a building model without specific spatial definitions. The objective is to provide a simplified representation through clustering voxels to reconstruct spaces, with which a spatial topological algorithm is designed to infer the implicit connectivity. This approach is treated as the first step to automate building information exchange for building performance simulation and knowledge-intensive reasoning.

Erdine, Elif, and Alexandros Kallegias. "Reprogramming Architecture - Learning via Practical Methodologies." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 373-380. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper aims to address innovative approaches in the pedagogical aspects of architecture by describing the work of AA Summer DLAB and Athens | Istanbul (AI) Visiting Schools of the Architectural Association (AA) School of Architecture in London. The presented work is part of a research which enables a more seamless transition from design to fabrication and from academia to profession. The paper formulates the pedagogical and methodological approach towards the integration of generative design thinking, large-scale prototyping, kinetic/interactive design, and participatory design. As such, a discussion on the methods of overcoming the fragmented nature of architectural education via the elaboration of the methodology, computational setup, fabrication strategies, and interaction / kinetic modes of the selected programmes is aspired.
Faleh, Omar Al. "Responsive Architecture - A Conceptual Framework for the Re-examination of Space, Embodyment, and Perception." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 577-585. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper is a discussion and a re-examination of the materiality and the perception of architecture and architectural spaces beyond the physicality of bricks and mortar and beyond the geometrical delineation of walls and ceilings. This paper presents our research in responsive architecture, computational and interactive media, and the phenomenology of space perception, presence, and embodiment. We will introduce some of our experiments where we design and implement immaterial spaces and potential architectures through sensing, moving, and non-linear narratives, and attempt to revisit concepts of perception, space, and spatiality, when technology is used in architecture not as tools for design and visualization, rather as a framework for designing of engaging and meaningful experiences.
Avis, Charles. "Shared Space Navigation." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 173-179. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Shared space is a concept of urban planning in which all barriers between cars and pedestrians, such as curbs and crosswalks, is removed to encourage heightened awareness of drivers and pedestrians, thus making city streets safer. The system has been highly successful, but can be highly stressful due to the lack of rules and signage. Thus, an adaptive feedback system that guides one safely through shared space could be essential for a shared space on the city scale. This paper imagines shared space at the city scale, and uses computational strategies to develop a system of adaptive collision-avoidance. By abstracting the movement of cars and pedestrians to properties of moving 'agents', collision detection and adaptive path finding models are developed, and then prototyped in an immersive environment that experiments with variable visual feedback based on user interactions.
Qian, Zi, Brian Agnew, and Emine Mine Thompson. "Simulation of Air flow, Smoke Dispersion and Evacuation of the Monument Metro Station based on Subway Climatology." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 119-128. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This research is creating a working laboratory in Newcastle Monument metro station to understand the details of how the over ground climate influences the internal airflow and the impact this has on evacuation strategies. It is intended to link weather data with the background air flow in the station and identify the main driving forces for the dispersion of smoke or toxic agents throughout the station. The subway air flow will be evaluated and then interfaced with a VR simulation of the station and adjoining tunnels to produce a visual diagnostic and predictive tool. This data, with existing pedestrian movement modelling, will assist in identifying the correct evacuation procedures to minimise the exposure time of individuals to a smoke filled environment. The final outcome of this work will be a decision making process with regard to the initiation of effective measures to minimize the impact of fire within a subway that can be used at the initial design period to evaluate proposed evacuation routes.
Dias, Miguel Sales, Sara Eloy, Miguel Carreiro, Elisângela Vilar, Sibila Marques, Ana Moural, Pedro Proença, Joana Cruz, Jorge D'alpuim, Nelson Carvalho et al. "Space Perception in Virtual Environments - On how biometric sensing in virtual environments may give architects users's feedback." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 271-280. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper focuses on the objective study of emotions, namely, fear induced by architectural spaces, by sensing and statistically analysing some physiological signals of users experiencing Virtual Environments (VE). For this, a virtual building was designed considering the presence of stairs and ramps as architectural elements that could affect users´ physiological states and perception of fear of falling. Thirty-one older persons participated in this study and were assigned to two experimental conditions (i.e., safe and unsafe conditions). Five main locations (beginning of the stairs; neutral room; first descending ramp; ascending ramp; and the middle of ascending ramp) were considered along the participants' path, and heart rate (HR) was collected in the vicinity of those locations. Results shown significant differences in HR activation among neutral, beginning of stairs and middle of ascending ramp. Despite the fact that the effect of condition was not fully verified for HR, participants reported more fear while interacting with the unsafe condition, with significant differences between conditions.
Kurilla, Lukáš, Henri Achten, and Milos Florián. "Structurally Evaluated Shaping Process - Decision-making support in structural design." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 23-28. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

This paper deals with possibilities for evaluation and visualization of structural solutions created in the conceptual design phase. The goal is to support transparency of structural analysis results, and to support architects' decision-making by providing them with opportunity to compare different structural solutions. Research will be implemented into the developed software tool, with the aim to support architects in the shaping process and to teach them to better understand form and forces.

Kwieciński, Krystian, and Jan Słyk. "System for customer participation in the design process of mass-customized houses." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 207-215. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The paper presents an undergoing research that aims at developing a system, which will allow customer participation in a design of mass-customized houses. The system will allow customers to self-configure a house in a preferred way in relation to the site where it is going to be constructed and with a respect to the prescribed architectural rules. Introducing customer participation in the design process of mass-customized houses allows users to find out individual design goals transforming the design process from being ill-defined into goal-oriented. The proposed system for customer participation could become feasible alternative to the traditional process of provisioning affordable houses improving the living quality in these market areas where architectural knowledge is unaffordable and missing.
Zarzycki, Andrzej. "Teaching and Designing for Augmented Reality." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 357-364. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper discusses ways emerging interactive technologies are adopted by designers and extended into areas of design, education, entertainment, and commerce. It looks, in detail, at various project development stages and methodologies used to engage design focused students into, often complex, technological issues. The discussion is contextualized through a number of case studies of mobile and marker-based augmented reality (AR) applications developed by students. These applications include an app for a fashion based social event that allows participants to preview recent collection additions, an info-navigational app for the High Line elevated urban park in New York City, a marker-based maze game, and an interior decorating interface to visualize various furnishing scenarios. While a number of case studies will be discussed from a developer perspective, the primary focus is on the concept and content development, interface design, and user participation.
Pereira, Vasco Alexandre, and Alexandra Paio. "The architectural design process: an intuitive modeling in BIM's parametric design." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 405-410. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The digital era has brought many changes in the architectural research and practice. Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools are offering now a wide range of benefits in the AECO industry. This paper aims is not to do an evaluation on efficiency gains or the advantages of adopting BIM, but to suggest a design methodology using BIM software tools, throughout all phases of the architectural design process. With the constant advances in technology and with new conceptual design tools, became urgent the exploration of the potentialities of an intuitive design within BIM technology. This paper addresses the above question by suggesting an experimental methodology to implement an intuitive modeling in BIM's parametric design.
Tamke, Martin, Gregory Quinn, Henrik Leander Evers, Anders Holden Deleuran, and Christoph Gengnagel. "The Challenge of the bespoke - Design, Simulation and Optimisation of a Computationally Designed Plywood Gridshell." In Fusion - Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 29-38. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The Dermoid project, a series of three plywood grid shells, navigates at the interface between parametrically designed architectural spaces and the efficiency and resourcefulness of the simulations that are necessary in order to build them. It highlights the increasingly common challenges and conflicts which occur in building practice ranging from design to fabrication and highlights approaches that facilitate implementation in multiple scales of material, element and structure.
Clayton, Mark J., Geoffrey Booth, Jong Bum Kim, and Saied Zarrinmehr. "The Fusion of BIM and Quadruple Net Value Analysis for Real Estate Development Feasibility Assessment." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 445-453. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Real estate development may benefit from a decision-support software system that is implemented with Building Information Modelling to perform Quadruple Net Value Analysis. Schemes may be created rapidly using BIM and parametric modeling. They may be assessed for economic, social, and environmental factors using spreadsheets and simulation software. They may be assessed for sensory value by using an immersive visualization system. The idea has been tested as a proof of concept in undergraduate and graduate design studios. It appears to be easy to use for students and effective in directing attention to the four factors and obtaining objective measurements.
Juvancic, Matevz, and Tadeja Zupancic. "The fusion of clever urban initiatives and digital applications - Teaching architects and urban designers how to make apps for the public involvement." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 99-108. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Smart cities demand digitally smart designers. Teaching architects and urban designers how to combine clever initiatives and tailored digital applications to their advantage when trying to involve members of the public is one of the important aspects of contemporary designer education. The paper demonstrates an example of such an effort, highlights the reasoning behind teaching and methods used, follows the learning path of students (and teachers) and analyses the process, illustrating it with student work, offering architectural, pedagogical and reflective implications for the purposes of similar introductions of topics in architectural and urban design curricula.
Christensen, Jesper Thøger. "The generation of possible space layouts." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 239-246. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The general scope of this paper is to present the development of an approach for the generation of possible space layouts in the early stages of design. The approach sets out to bridge the gap between the free form brainstorming of the sketching designer and the deterministic parametric model of the computational designer. A new responsive design tool is developed; applying physical based modelling techniques to a computational environment. Springs and particles automates the initial placement and sizing of the spaces, and allows continuous user and software interaction. Keeping the design process alive, through springs that connects everything to everything and allows topology to change, opposed to the strict hierarchy and constraints of traditional parametric design. Thus instead of the topology being determined by initial constraints, the layout will be generated by probabilities of spaces to connect. Letting the storyline of potential users give answers to possible space layouts.
Achten, Henri. "The Psychology of Buildings - Computational cognitive strategies for interactive buildings." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 621-627. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

Buildings have to respond to changes in order to remain functional. Traditional means to adapt to change are to design relatively static shells that can accommodate to some degree changes. Recently a number of technologies have come into existence that extend the capacity of buildings to change in a more autonomous way. Such buildings are responsive buildings. In this paper we deal with a special case of such responsive buildings: interactive buildings. Interactive buildings engage in a dialogue with the user and have an internal representation of the user. Interactive buildings can display a variety of 'styles' how they interact with people - these are known as attitudes. As a building may go through a number of attitudes during the interaction with the user, control structures are necessary to determine this change. The mechanisms for these changes are the 'psychology' of the building.

Alborghetti, Paolo, and Alessio Erioli. "The Red Queen Hypothesis - Chemotaxic stigmergic systems and Embodied Embedded Cognition-based strategies in architectural design." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 97-105. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The Red Queen Hypothesis is a research project on parasitic architecture, developed as a case study application of knowledge inherited from the fields of stigmergy-based systems, swarm intelligence and Embodied Embedded Cognition. The project aims to provide a possible answer to the increasing demand for the redevelopment of abandoned post-WW2 buildings in northern Italy, proposing an alternative to preservation logics in through strategies based on intrusion, adaptation and growth focusing on the relationships between different systems (host/parasite) and innovative fabrication techniques. Implementing such approach in a non-trivial way entails enabling access to increasing degrees of complexity and self-organization in the computational design approach while keeping the whole process coherent throughout its unfolding. The case study is an abandoned factory in Bergamo (which has become an urban landmark for a socially intricate community) a multi-agent system based parasitism strategy was implemented as design process for its transformation and reuse as spaces for community and cultural expression.
Dieckmann, Andreas, and Peter Russell. "The Truth Is In The Model - Utilizing Model Checking to Rate Learning Success in BIM Software Courses." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 417-426. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Model checking is one of the core methodologies of Building Information Modelling (BIM). It allows us to quickly evaluate models based on custom criteria. While there are known examples of the integration of model checking into the course content of design studios, there is no literature on utilizing this methodology to help in the grading process of BIM software courses. This paper presents a project that applies model checking to the task of rating the learning success of students in such a course. The main project goals were increasing the objectivity of the ratings and reducing the time necessary to process a large number of submitted models. The paper describes a possible approach to categorizing and organizing model checks in an educational context and outlines a proven and tested workflow for automating the rating and feedback process.
Vinšová, Ivana, Dana Matějovska, and Henri Achten. "The Unbearable Lightness of BIM." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 411-415. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In this paper we investigate the current state of BIM usage in Czech Republic and aim to find strategies how to improve BIM education based on findings from practice. We give an outline of the current state, identify problems that provide hurdles for BIM adoption, and show how we implement a new pedagogical approach to BIM education in our faculty.
Khorasani, Mehrnoush Latifi, Jane Burry, and Mahsa Salehi. "Thermal performance of patterned facades - Studies on effects of patterns on the thermal performance of facades." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 267-276. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Skin is the primary shield between our body and its surroundings. It protects the body from the harmful environmental effects like dehydration and radiation from intense sunlight. Likewise, the outer layer, or skin of a building has the same function of protecting its inhabitants against the external elements. This research is a part of a larger investigation into geometrical patterning and layering of facades as an effective intervention between the outdoor space and the indoor environment to regulate the conditions for occupant thermal comfort. This paper reports on exploration of an approach for measurement, evaluation and feedback in the design workflow through a mixed digital -physical simulation platform (MDPS) based on the objectives of the larger study. For this purpose, it introduces a new way of analyzing thermal performance of double skin facades by using temperature sensors, Arduino, post visualization with MATLAB and digital energy simulation. The main aspects of this proposed workflow is the design of a thermal performance feedback loop as an integral part of the process of geometrical patterning design for façade.
Kalogianni, Dorothea, and Richard Coyne. "Thinking about sound and space - Recording people's emotional responses to spaces." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 185-194. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. In this paper we explore what EEG techniques teach us about people's responses to environments. We explain two complementary projects: a sound art installation in which a performer was rigged up with an EEG device and required to sit for 30 minutes in a chair. Around him were positioned custom-made instruments for generating electro-mechanical sounds. A screen behind the performer showed a dynamic geometrical image that altered according to his mood state and as picked up by EEG (engagement, meditation, frustration and excitement), while a sound technologist operated the instruments. We used the same sound sources for an experiment in which we tested people's responses to sounds. We discuss the spatial implications of this work.
Ibrahim, Magdy M.. "Thinking the BIM Way - Early integration of Building Information Modelling in education." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 427-435. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Since Building Information Modelling as a technology depends on recognizing parts of the buildings as objects that can be simulated digitally, to prepare students to grasp the BIM way of thinking, educators can start introducing the concept early in the architectural curriculum without using the real tools. The researchers monitored the students' progress over a period of time while they were using different 3 dimensional CAD tools in several situations such as design studio visualization and construction document production until eventually the same group of students have been introduced formally to a real BIM tool. The research tries to establish a relationship between the pedagogical techniques and the success of the students to grasp what BIM is about and the development of their ability to use it fruitfully. Comparisons between their performances should shed the light on the best method to use in order to prepare students for the use of BIM.
Elbanna, Hassan Abdel Sala. "Timing and spacing in Architecture - Architecture with motion." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 89-95. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. It is a fact that the Animation and architecture have common and strong bonds in various forms. According to animators, and architects as well, there are two main and vital concepts which are the basics of animation, they are Timing and Spacing. The paper represents an analogy between animation and architecture focusing on these two concepts. So, in the following sections we discover the relation between animation and deforming geometry in architecture. By looking through the history and theory of architecture we find many architects' attempts to apply animation as a concept within their forms. This paper will review what pioneers have achieved in designing through animation. At the end of the paper a case study is being analyzed by showing how the concept of animation is applied to an existing building due to the research's main points.
Charlton, James, and Markus Brune. "Towards a dynamic evacuation system: developing methodologies to simulate the evacuation capabilities of subway stations in response to a terrorist attack with CBRNE weapons." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 109-118. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. Events in recent times have highlighted the vulnerability of underground public transportation to possible terrorist attacks. A key question therefore is how an evacuation can be accomplished from underground stations safely. The strategy “go up and take the nearest exit to the surface” might not be the best response. Evidence from the Daegu subway station fire in 2003, investigated by Tsujimoto (2003) and Jeon and Hong (2009) establish that smoke or toxic airborne substances from a terrorist attack tend to use the same direct routes used by the fleeing passengers and as result significant injuries or fatalities can occur. This study proposes the concept of a dynamic evacuation system which would guide subway users along safe routes. To test how this system may operate, the study discussed combines measurements from tracer gas experiments with climate measurements to establish how toxic agents spread in subway stations under certain conditions and combines these results with those from pedestrian simulations applied to calculate evacuation times for possible escape routes. By integrating the resulting dataset from these methods, an evidence base of how a dynamic evacuation system may work can start to form.
Stouffs, Rudi. "Towards a Formal Representation for Description Rules." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 347-356. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper explores a generalized specification for descriptions and description rules, on the basis of an extensive overview of applications of description grammars in literature. The aim of this research is to establish a formal representation for description rules and the implementation of a grammar interpreter that supports the specification of description grammars, discursive grammars or, in general, shape grammars including textual descriptions.
Grasl, Thomas, and Athanassios Economou. "Towards controlled grammars - Approaches to automating rule selection for shape grammars." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 357-363. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

An approach to automating the rule selection process of shape grammars is introduced. A shape grammar interpreter is extended by a computational framework to allow the rule selection to be executed by agents. Hereby each agent is based on a different paradigm taken from the field of artificial intelligence. The results are compared.

Guerriero, Annie, and Guillaume Gronier. "Trust within AEC virtual teams - Analysis of different-place collaboration in architectural design." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 227-236. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014.

The virtual teams are largely encouraged by the recent technological devices supporting different-place collaboration and suggest today new forms of organization. This one is geographically dispersed and regroups all the competencies required for the work to be done. In such a context, trust is essential to guarantee the performance of team. It is indeed a necessary component for initiating the work relationship and to overcome the inherent risk. The capacity of the groups to communicate about the objectives and strategies as well as to readjust them according to the context (i.e. reflexivity) is another element important for the group's performance. This article suggests analyzing these notions of trust and reflexivity within virtual teams in the context of an academic experiment where students are geographically dispersed and have to produce an architectural project.

Stapleton, Kieran A. J., Barry J. Gledson, and Zaid Alwan. "Understanding technological interoperability through observations of data leakage in Building Information Modelling (BIM) based transactions." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 515-524. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and collaborative techniques have been identified as solutions to the problem of managing construction project information and data. However the implementation and success of BIM may stagnate due to issues associated with unsatisfactory technological interoperability, which can impede the flow of information through a project lifecycle. To gain further understanding of technological interoperability within a BIM-enabled project environment, a review of relevant literature was undertaken to assimilate key information and provide a framework for future research. An observational method of reviewing a series of data transactions between multiple BIM packages was then devised in order to assess interoperability issues, and inform future research design. Interim findings from the preliminary stage of this research project have been reported in this paper.
Standfest, Matthias. "Unsupervised Symmetric Polygon Mesh Mapping - The Dualism of Mesh Representation and Its Implementation for Many Layered Self-Organizing Map Architectures." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 505-513. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. With this paper we present a fully automated semantic shape similarity detection based on N-rings with further potential for shape synthesis in a topological correct feature space. Therefore a way of symmetric encoding of geometry, optimized for the use as feature-vector in self-organizing maps, is introduced. Furthermore we present a modified kernel for the detection of the best matching unit in self-organizing maps especially designed for a data topology differing from the default predecessor/successor structure. Finally we provide the results of a conducted experiment clustering building blocks of an area in Zürich, Switzerland.
Androutsopoulou, Eirini. "Urban body network configurations - Attica." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 191-199. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The methodology presented here is grounded on the reconstruction of the urban body as a network configuration consisting of material and non-material components (Bateson, 1972). It is based on the assumption that if one can describe the rules that define the nodes and the connections of the network construction/urban body, as well as their attributes, then the differentiation on the relationships between elements, or even a shift from one value to another, would result in different network constructions, that would produce a time-based sequence of the self-adaptational and self-organizational reconfigurations occurring during the mutational procedure. The urban body is defined as the part of the urban tissue which distinguishes itself from the whole of the urban landscape, either because of constructed boundaries, or because of the strengthening of a specific attribute, which would result in a kind of an immaterial boundary, or, in other words the formation of an identity.
Hess, Trevor, and Eric Sauda. "Urban Place and Networked Data - Space, Content and Time." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 71-78. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. This paper explores the relationship between physical space, and virtual networks in the city. Topic modeling is utilized to provide robust descriptions of virtual conversations occurring over city-wide social networks, and data driven events are used to describe virtual projections of physical events. By comparing the prevalence and pervasiveness of topics and events in the city, the paper seeks a comprehensive understanding of the city as an increasingly interconnected entity.
Tauscher, Helga, and Raimar J. Scherer. "Use cases for configurable building information model visualization." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 485-494. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. We present a new approach to reconnect building information models and their visual representations involving architects and engineers as domain experts in the process of the visualization specification. To this end a generic visualization framework and a visualization description language are introduced. Four use case areas for the application of the approach were identified and are illustrated with corresponding examples.
Janssen, Patrick. "Visual Dataflow Modelling - Some thoughts on complexity." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 547-556. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. When visual programming is applied to design, it results in a parametric modelling approach that we refer to as Visual Dataflow Modelling (VDM). This paper reviews existing VDM environments and identifies key issues that result in dataflow graphs with high complexity. In order to explore how these issues could be overcome, a new VDM environment is being developed, called Vidamo. For any given parametric modelling task, Vidamo aims to support a style of VDM where the complexity of the dataflow graph remains commensurate with the complexity of the task. An initial experiment is conducted in which the existing environments and the proposed Vidamo environment are used to complete the same parametric modelling task. The results indicate that the dataflow graphs created using Vidamo are much smaller and less complex.
Prohasky, Daniel, Rafael Moya Castro, Simon Watkins, Jane Burry, and Mark Burry. "Wind sensing with real-time visualisations for Designers - An approach to understanding wind phenomena for pedestrian comfort using low cost wind sensors." In Fusion, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, 165-171. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northumbria University, 2014. The evaluation of a low-tech wind sensing platform for urban aerodynamic simulations relevant to pedestrian comfort. In this paper, the wind canyon effect is simulated with two different building morphologies. The platform provides conceptual knowledge of the dynamics in wind relevant for designers, architectural practitioners and students of design. Low-cost hot wire anemometry is utilised for the design of an Experimental Fluid Dynamic (EFD) wind sensing network interface. This paper explores the validity of the sensing platform for a new approach for non-wind engineers to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of wind. The influence of real-time feedback from quantified wind on the understanding of wind phenomena for non-wind engineers is discussed and compared with post analysis data. It was found that real-time quantified feedback from wind intrigues and stimulates the intuitive notion of wind dynamics through discussion, however post analysis remains critical to evaluate building design performance.