Keywords Abstract
Novákova, Kateřina, Lukas Kurilla, and Henri Achten. "150 000 – Parametric Control of PET Bottle Structure." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 555-562. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Garbage Architecture; Parametrics; Pedagogy; Petower; Workshop

In this paper we describe the pedagogical and methodological approach to a parametric project and workshop for the design of a tower which consists of 150000 PET bottles. The ultimate goal of the project is to actually realize the PET bottle tower; therefore the constraints on the projects are very strict. Additionally, because of the large number of bottles to be used in the design, the problem lends itself well to a parametric approach.

Mateus, Luís, and Victor Ferreira. "3D Digitization in Architecture Curriculum." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 445-452. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. 3-D Digitization; Architectural Recording; Digital Photogrammetry; Laser Scanning; Teaching And Learning

In this paper we describe an experience undertaken in the Faculty of Architecture of Technical University of Lisbon, concerning the introduction of a 3D Digitization course in the frame of the PhD doctorate program in Architecture and in the frame of the Master’s programs in Architecture, Urbanism and Design.We start by describing the theoretical and instrumental frameworks proposed. Then we describe and discuss a set of two exercises developed during one semester, giving examples of the work produced by the students. Finally we end with some considerations to be taken into account in future editions of the course.

Wurzer, Gabriel, Bob Martens, and Katja Bühler. "3D Regular Expressions - Searching Shapes IN Meshes." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 279-288. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Angular Search; Regular Expressions; Shape Retrieval; Sub-Mesh

We have grown accustomed to performing elaborate queries on textual data, e.g. via online search engines, file system managers and word processors. In the past decade, retrieval methods that also work on non-textual data have become mainstream (e.g. face recognition software). Sadly, these developments have so far not caught on for data mining within geometrical data, e.g. 3D meshes generated in the course of architectural work. Specifically during data exchange, such a search functionality would be handy, as it often happens that geometry is exported but object identity is lost - think, for example, of generative geometry or exported BIM data. In this paper, we present an example of such a search functionality, based on angular search. Our method is inspired by regular expressions, a string matching technique commonly employed for matching substrings.

Mendes, Leticia Teixeira, José Nuno Beirão, José Pinto Duarte, and Gabriela Celani. "A Bottom-Up Social Housing System Described with Shape Grammars." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 705-714. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Analytical Grammar; Design Methodology; Low-Income Housing; Shape Grammar

This paper presents the analysis of a bottom-up design system using shape grammars. This research is part of a larger study that proposes the development of a generic grammar to improve the quality of site development in social housing plans, including the improvement of their public spaces. We show the use of shape grammars as an analytical method to study the design of Belapur social housing development, designed by Charles Correa, in 1983.

Nicknam, Mahsa, Marcelo Bernal, and John Haymaker. "A Case Study in Teaching Construction of Building Design Spaces." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 595-604. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Analysis; Design Space Exploration; Multidisciplinary; Optimization; Teaching

Until recently, design teams were constrained by tools and schedule to only be able to generate a few alternatives, and analyze these from just a few perspectives. The rapid emergence of performance-based design, analysis, and optimization tools gives design teams the ability to construct and analyze far larger design spaces more quickly. This creates new opportunities and challenges in the ways we teach and design. Students and professionals now need to learn to formulate and execute design spaces in efficient and effective ways. This paper describes curriculum that was taught in a course “8803 Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization” taught by the authors at Schools of Architecture and Building Construction at Georgia Tech in spring 2013. We approach design as a multidisciplinary design space formulation and search process that seeks maximum value. To explore design spaces, student designers need to execute several iterative processes of problem formulation, generate alternative, analyze them, visualize trade space, and address decision-making. The paper first describes students design space exploration experiences, and concludes with our observations of the current challenges and opportunities.

Orbey, Betül. "A Catalyst for Digital Design Media." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 167-174. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Design Productivity; Digital Design Media; Sketching

This study aims to understand whether time restriction along with a ‘situational influence on creativity’ can act as a catalyst to speed up unique design alternative genera- tion when digital media is being used compared to sketching. In order to achieve this, an experiment with undergraduate architectural design students is conducted. The results are measured with the flexibility and fluidity measures of creativity proposed by the Torrance Test.

Takenaka, Tsukasa, and Aya Okabe. "A Computational Method for Integrating Parametric Origami Design and Acoustic Engineering." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 289-295. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Acoustic Simulation; Interactive Design Method; Optimization; Parametric Origami; Quadrat Count Method

This paper proposes a computational form-finding method for integrating parametric origami design and acoustic engineering to find the best geometric form of a concert hall. The paper describes an application of this method to a concert hall design project in Japan. The method consists of three interactive subprograms: a parametric origami program, an acoustic simulation program, and an optimization program. The advantages of the proposed method are as follows. First, it is easy to visualize engineering results obtained from the acoustic simulation program. Second, it can deal with acoustic parameters as one of the primary design materials as well as origami parameters and design intentions. Third, it provides a final optimized geometric form satisfying both architectural design and acoustic conditions. The method is valuable for generating new possibilities of architectural form by shifting from a traditional form-making process to a form-finding process.

Gargaro, Silvia, and Antonio Fioravanti. "A Context-Knowledge Model for Architectural Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 81-90. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Ai Techniques; Architectural Design; Early-Stage Design; Holistic Context; Knowledge Representation

From the earliest stages of the Architectural Design Process, designers have to take a lot of design decisions mostly based on “Context”. The present research is aimed at developing a Context Knowledge Model to improve the representation of ‘Context’ for architectural design. ‘Context’ has been analysed and formalized by means of Ontologies related to the entities most frequently involved in architectural design, namely environmental, social, economic and normative entities. The development of such a model to manage ‘Context’ parameters can improve the knowledge of ‘Context’ of designers involved in a design project in order to advise them of how it affects their design solutions. Moreover, Artificial Intelligence techniques have been explored to improve its performance.

Narahara, Taro. "A Generative Approach to Robotic Fabrication." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 673-681. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Adaptable Growth; Generative Design; Robotic Fabrication

This paper studies computational methods for adaptive growth seen in human design processes through a relatively simple yet explicit example in the context of robotic fabrication. The proposed experiment uses an industrial robot arm to produce structures by stacking unit bricks without hard-coded instructions (“blueprints”) from the outset. The paper further explores how such implementations can be applied to architectural design and speculates as to the possibilities of open frameworks for design using computational methods.

Strobbe, Tiemen, Ronald De Meyer, and Jan Van Campenhout. "A Generative Approach towards Performance-Based Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 627-633. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Evolutionary Algorithm; Generative Design; Implementation; Performance-Based Design; Shape Grammar

Due to a growing number of regulations and standards, building performance becomes equally important as traditional design drivers. Therefore, it is necessary to quickly explore design alternatives that meet these performance requirements. To support this complex design task, a rule-based design system is proposed that is founded on a shape grammar. This paper describes a graph-based implementation of this shape grammar that allows subshape detection, parametric rules and attributed shapes. The implementation described in this paper forms the basis to further investigate to what extent rule-based design systems can support a generative approach towards performance-based design.

Ahmar, Salma El, Antonio Fioravanti, and Mohamed Hanafi. "A Methodology for Computational Architectural Design Based on Biological Principles." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 539-548. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Architectural Design; Biomimicry; Case Study; Design Process

Biomimicry, where nature is emulated as a basis for design, is a growing area of research in the fields of architecture and engineering. The widespread and practical application of biomimicry as a design approach remains however largely unrealized. A growing body of international research identifies various obstacles to the employment of biomimicry as an architectural design method. One barrier of particular note is the lack of a clear definition and methodology of the various approaches to biomimicry that designers can initially employ. This paper attempts to link biological principles with computational design in order to present a design methodology that aids interested architects within the preliminary design phase.

Gokmen, Sabri. "A Morphogenetic Approach for Performative Building Envelope Systems Using Leaf Venetian Patterns." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 497-506. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Goethe; Growth; Morphology; Performative FaçAdes; Simulation

Recent developments in theory and technology in performance based design show an interest towards generative systems. In this paper a morphogenetic approach will be introduced that looks at Goethean morphology and leaf venation patterns. To instrumentalize this approach an algorithm will be introduced to generate various leaf venation patterns on complex mesh surfaces. As a case study, the paper tests the applicability of such system as performative algorithms for building envelopes. The role of simulation is to generate self-organizing forms and provide a framework for design development. The overall approach is to consider performance as a direct input to guide the computation of form at an early design stage.

Kınayoğlu, Gökhan. "A Novel Method for Revolved Surface Infrastructures." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 297-303. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Contouring; Nesting Pattern; Revolved Surface; Ribbed Structure; Standardization

This paper presents an algorithm for the formation of single or double curved revolved surface’s infrastructures through standardized parts. Any revolved surface can be generated with only two types of parts, interconnected by a ribbed structure technique. The proposed method differs from the accustomed orthogonal rib structures by the varying angle in-between coupling parts. The algorithm can be customized through several parameters like the number, width of parts and thickness of the material used for the infrastructure. The algorithm also offers an advantageous nesting pattern with minimum loss of material regardless of the revolved surface cross-section.

Li, Di, Michael Knight, and Andre Brown. "A Parametric Recreation of Traditional Chinese Architecture." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 697-703. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Floor Plan; Kung-Ch’Eng Tso-Fa Tse-Le; Parametric Modelling; Traditional Chinese Architecture; Ying Zao Fa Shi

This paper presents the current state of progress investigating the possibility of modelling traditional Chinese architecture using parametrics based on the two rule books. This builds on the work of producing systematic analysis on both rule books and contributing knowledge from extant buildings. The case study target is the floor plan described in Ying Zao Fa Shi. Discussion and future works are suggested at the end.

Semlali, Anis, Temy Tidafi, and Claude Parisel. "Action Based Approach to Archaeological Reconstruction Projects: Case of the Karnak Temple in Egypt." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 325-332. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Action-Based Modeling; Archaeological Reconstruction; Architectural Heritage; Architecture And Complexity

The proposed paper deals with a numerical approach that could better assist the archaeologist in the archaeological reconstruction projects. The goal of our research is to explore and study the use of computerized tools in archaeological reconstruction projects of monumental architecture in order to propose new ways in which such technology can be used.

Heinzelmann, Florian, Telesilla Bristogianni, and Patrick Teuffel. "Adaptive Fluid Lens and Sunlight Redirection System." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 49-58. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Daylight; Large Span Roofs; Optics

The paper describes a novel system to alter and redirect sunlight under large span roofs with the help of a fluid lens system. Focus lies on the computational design, testing, measurement and evaluation of the performance of a physical prototype.

Bielik, Martin, Sven Schneider, Florian Geddert, and Dirk Donath. "Addis Building Configurator." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 109-116. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Design Tool; Developing Countries; Evolutionary Optimization; Generative System

The paper presents ongoing applied research on the development of a computational design tool addressing planning deficiencies in the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Because of increasing population pressure and a lack of planning resources, Addis Ababa is clearly in need of new efficient planning solutions. The tool proposed utilizes and combines different generative design methods in order to increase the efficiency of planning and construction processes. The paper discusses design goals and the implementation strategy involved.

Figueiredo, Bruno, José Pinto Duarte, and Mário Kruger. "Albertian Grammatical Transformations." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 687-696. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Alberti; Classical Architecture; Generative Design; Parametric Modelling; Shape Grammars

This paper presents a research on the use of shape grammars as an analytical tool in the history of architecture. It evolves within a broader project called Digital Alberti, whose goal is to determine the influence of De re aedificatoria treatise on Portuguese Renaissance architecture, making use of a computational framework (Krüger et al., 2011).Previous work was concerned with the development of a shape grammar for generating sacred buildings according to the rules textually described in the treatise. This work describes the transformation of the treatise grammar into another grammar that can also account for the generation of Alberti’s built work.

Hulin, Jaroslav, and Jiri Pavlicek. "Algorithmic Engineering in Public Space." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 255-259. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

The paper reflects on a relationship between an algorithmic and a standard (intuitive) approach to design of public space. A realized project of a plaza renovation in Czech town Vsetin is described as a study case. The paper offers an overview of benefits and drawbacks of the algorithmic approach in the described study case and it outlines more general conclusions.

J. Kucukoglu, Gozde, and Birgul Colakoglu. "Algorithmic Form Generation for Crochet Technique." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 273-278. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Crochet Technique; Decoding Rule; Form Generation; Hyperbolic Geometry

In architecture use of generative computation suggests a possibility of rethinking the form finding process. In order to generate form, one method could be predefining first the production technique and constraining the form by the rules of it. In this study crochet-knitting technique is chosen as a production technique. To explore various forms developed through this technique; a computational model, which the behavior of crochet-knitted surface is embedded into, is developed. This paper explains the process of decoding the behavior of a crochet-knitted surface for a computational model in order to extract the crochet-knitting patterns of complex geometrical surfaces.

Bittermann, Michael S., and Özer Ciftcioglu. "Ambient Surveillance by Probabilistic-Possibilistic Perception." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 345-353. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Ambient Intelligence; Perception; Possibility; Surveillance

A method for quantifying ambient surveillance is presented, which is based on probabilistic-possibilistic perception. The human surveillance of a scene through observing camera sensed images on a monitor is modeled in three steps. First immersion of the observer is simulated by modeling perception of the scene from the camera locations using probabilistic perception approach. The perceptions are thereafter combined by means of probabilistic union, simulating simultaneous watching of the scene from multiple viewing positions. As third step the combined perceptions are converted to a possibility using triangular possibility density function. The latter step accounts for the fact that surveillance takes place via monitor depiction and not directly as perception of the actual physical scene. The method is described and demonstrated by means of an ambient surveillance application involving three cameras. The resulting possibility of perception is compared to the case of using two cameras, quantifying the added value of additional camera as to surveillance.

Fraguada, Luis, Christophe Girot, and James Melsom. "Ambient Terrain." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 433-438. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Ambient Site Analysis; Photogrammetry; Sensor Data Logging; Stereophotogrammetry; Uav Data Collection; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

‘Ambient Terrain’ explores the application of large-scale, sensor-based site analysis. The research develops various techniques dealing with the logging, storage, retrieval, analysis, and representation of sensor and image-based data. These techniques could be utilized in concert with traditional site preparation and site information gathering processes, and could arguably serve to reevaluate the site preparation process altogether in a manner which not only focuses on terrestrial data, but also on metrics which are dynamic and multidimensional.The research proposes direct applications for urban space and the built environment, in the modes of site appraisal, design and the generation of new spatial strategies.

Stoutjesdijk, Pieter. "An Open-Source Building System with Digitally Fabricated Components." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 719-722. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Building System; Computer Numerical Control (CNC); Digital Fabrication; Friction Fit; Open-Source

With digital fabrication, our hardware is starting to bear greater resemblance to software. This paper explores the potential of processes used in the development of open-source software for the field of Architecture. The developed design process is connected to a building system that provides new insights on constructing with CNC-cut 2D elements and friction fit connections. Underlying the design process and the building system is Master’s thesis research work conducted at Delft University of Technology.

Ianni, Manuela, and Michelle Sánchez de León. "Applying Energy Performance-Based Design in Early Design Stages." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 31-40. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Building Energy Efficiency; Building Performance Simulation Tools; Design Decision-Making Process; Design Methodology; Energy Performance-Based Design

In current architectural practice some important changes are taking place because of the development of numerous Building Performance Simulations (BPS) tools to support design decisions during early phases of the design process. Many difficulties still persist, however, not necessarily due to the limitations of the available technology, but to the lack of appropriate methodologies to use the existing tools to improve the decision making process, particularly at the early design stages. In this work we present an application of performance-based design in early design phases, with the purpose to take better-informed decisions which would ultimately contribute to improve the energy performance of buildings.

Foged, Isak Worre. "Architectural Thermal Forms." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 99-105. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Material Distribution; Performative Generative Algorithms; Simulation; Sustainable Environmental Architecture

The paper presents a developed method and algorithm to create environmental sustainable optimised forms based on the solar energy received in relation to receiving, containing and distributing energy. Different studies are created based upon this approach, to which forms are evaluated against conventional building geometries. The work shows a significant improvement on several aspects of environmental performance. Lastly the work presents an idea of maximum structures, rather than minimum structures as a path in future research work.

Mohammed-Amin, Rozhen K., Sebastian von Mammen, and Jeffrey E. Boyd. "ARCS Architectural Chameleon Skin." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 467-475. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Interactive Architecture; Interactive Installation; Responsive Facade; Swarm-Based Projection; Virtual Skin

Traditionally, interactivity in architecture has been suppressed by its materiality. Building structures that can transform and change themselves have been the dream of many architects for centuries. With the continuous advancements in technology and the paradigm shift from mechanics to electronics, this dream is becoming reality. Today, it is possible to have building facades that can visually animate themselves, change their appearance, or even interact with their surroundings. In this paper, we introduce Architectural Chameleon Skin (ARCS), an installation that has the ability to transform static, motionless architectural surfaces into interactive and engaging skins. Swarm algorithms drive the interactivity and responsiveness of this “virtual skin”. In particular, the virtual skin responds to colour, movements, and distance of surrounding objects. We provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the ARCS installation.

Both, Katherine, Teresa Heitor, and Valério Medeiros. "Assessing Academic Library Design: A Performance-Based Approach." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 337-346. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Academic Libraries; Evaluation; Functionality; Performance; Users

Academic Libraries (ALs) design concept has been under a changing process, precipitated by both internal needs and external pressures including changes in the societal context of education, the information services and documentation storage requirements. This paper is focused on a model of form and function to assess AL’ in use, in order to explore ways for better understanding their performance. The proposed model was developed within the scope of a wider research project and makes both use of Post-Occupancy Evaluation and of Space Syntax procedures in order to explore how the spatial configuration influences the performance and use of ALs space. It considers ALs building typology as spatial, physical and social systems, by: 1) measuring users satisfaction about how well the space supports their requirements; and 2) providing information on how architecture and spatial design support - enable and generate - flows of information, communication and knowledge.The analysis provides evidence suggesting that ALs’ spatial system influences study performance, patterns of use and co-presence of its users. The results of data inputs point out prospective strategies about space intervention.

Papadonikolaki, Eleni, Alexander Koutamanis, and J. W. F.(Han Wamelink. "Attaining Performance with Building Information Modelling." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 475-483. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Architecture; Building Information Modelling (BIM); Engineering And Construction (Aec); Life-Cycle Phases; Stakeholders; Supply Chain Management

The paper presents the findings of a systematic literature review of approximately 200 scientific sources. It is designed with the aim to identify the current benefits and factors of high performance in Architecture, Engineering, Construction (AEC) since the introduction of Building Information Modelling (BIM). We formed and confirmed two main propositions associating the performance of the AEC to the use of BIM. The mapping of the current impact and benefits of BIM showed that the role of the managers, suppliers, owners and authorities is underestimated, as well as the initiation and use stage of project development. At the same time, the performance in the AEC industry can be improved by an array of possibilities where IT research and policy-making authorities contribute – from establishing new collaboration protocols until improving existing or creating new BIM tools.

Cutellic, Pierre, and Fabien Lotte. "Augmented Iterations." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 393-401. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Evolutionary Computation; Generative Design; Integrated Cognition; Neurodesign

The principle of Augmented Iterations is to create shapes of progressively higher complexity, thanks to a fast neuronal selection of shapes among several possible evolving designs. Such a process is made possible by the use of a brain signal known as P300, which appears when a user perceives a rare and relevant stimulus and can be used for intricate pattern recognition and human computation systems. We aim at using this P300 signal to identify the (re)cognition of shapes or designs that a user finds almost instantaneously relevant and noticeable, when exposed to a rapid visual flow of variations of such shapes or designs. Using evolutionary algorithms, the shapes identified as those triggering a P300 in the user’s EEG signals is selected and combined to give rise to geometrical aggregations of a higher complexity. These new shapes replace the previous ones in the rapid flow of variations presented to the user, hence iterating the evolutionary design.

Delgado, Juan Manuel Dav, and Herm Hofmeyer. "Automated Simulation and Study of Spatial-Structural Design Processes." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 155-164. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Design Process Research; Design Process Simulation; Spatial Design; Structural Design

A so-called “Design Process Investigation toolbox” (DPI toolbox), has been developed. It is a set of computational tools that simulate spatial-structural design processes. Its objectives are to study spatial-structural design processes and to support the involved actors. Two case-studies are presented which demonstrate how to: (1) study the influence of transformation methods on design instances and (2) study the influence of transformation methods on the behavior of other transformation methods. It was found that in design instances with the same type of structural elements the influence of a specifically varied transformation method is more explicit; while, when different types are present this influence is more undetermined. It was also found that the use of two specifically different structural modification methods have little influence on the sub-sequential spatial transformation method.

Pedraza, Estefania Tapias, Antje Kunze, Giuseppe Roccasalva, and Gerhard Schmitt. "Best Practices for Urban Densification." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 41-50. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Analysis Tools; Decision-Making Process; Decision-support tools; Microclimate Evaluation; Parametric Modelling; Strategic Densification; Urban Design

This paper presents an approach for microclimate aware densification of urban areas by creating best practices for an in situ application for block-size urban developments.The discussed procedure generates and evaluates urban block types according to microclimate criteria by integrating climate and comfort parameters in the design process of existing urban areas. It supports urban designers by generating design strategies that aim for climate, comfort and spatial as well as for urban design qualities.To achieve this, a multi-step method with different analysis and research processes has been set up. At the end, a parametric envelope tool was created for a local case study area by incorporating pre-defined design strategies built on previous investigations as urban design strategies. It is expected that this envelope tool can be transferred to similar urban development activities and guide microclimatic versus densification trade-offs. The presented approach can be applied from street canyon to block size urban situations.

Araya, Sergio, Ekaterina Zolotovsky, Felipe Veliz, Juha Song, Steffen Reichert, Mary Boyce, and Christine Ortiz. "Bioinformed Performative Composite Structures." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 575-584. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Bioinformed; Composite; Multi-Material; Parametrics; Performative Design

This ongoing investigation aims to learn from nature novel material organizations and structural systems in order to develop innovative architectural system. We developed a multidisciplinary approach, using scientific analysis and design research and prototyping. We focus on the study of a “living fossil” fish, whose armor system is so efficient it has remained almost unchanged for millions of years. We investigate its morphological characteristics, its structural properties, the assembly mechanisms and the underlying material properties in order to derive new principles to design new enhanced structural systems. We use micro computerized tomography and scanning electron microscopy to observe microstructures, parametric design to reconstruct the data into digital models and then several 3D printing technologies to prototype systems with high flexibility and adaptive capabilities, proposing new gradual material interfaces and transitions to embed performative capabilities and multifunctional potentials.

Oxman, Neri, Jared Laucks, Markus Kayser, Carlos David Gonz Uribe, and Jorge Duro-Royo. "Biological Computation for Digital Design and Fabrication." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 585-594. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Biologically Computed Digital Fabrication; CNC Weaving; Finite Element Analysis; Optimization; Robotic Fabrication

The formation of non-woven fibre structures generated by the Bombyx mori silkworm is explored as a computational approach for shape and material optimization. Biological case studies are presented and a design approach for the use of silkworms as entities that can “compute” fibrous material organization is given in the context of an architectural design installation. We demonstrate that in the absence of vertical axes the silkworm can spin flat silk patches of variable shape and density. We present experiments suggesting sufficient correlation between topographical surface features, spinning geometry and fibre density. The research represents a scalable approach for optimization-driven fibre-based structural design and suggests a biology-driven strategy for material computation.

Erdine, Elif. "Biomimetic Strategies in Tower Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 559-568. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Biomimetics; Differentiation; Generative Algorithms; Integration; Tower

The paper argues that the tower needs to respond to its environment by changing from a closed building typology towards a heterogeneous, differentiated open system that can adapt to the changing conditions within and around it. This argument is supported by focusing on the analogies and principles of specific biological examples in order to propose computationally-generated self-organizing systems. The goal of analyzing these models is to integrate their structural and geometrical characteristics with the aim of overcoming high lateral loading conditions in towers, as well as elaborating on the existence of multi-functionality and integration throughout the subsystems of the tower. A series of computational models which abstract the biological properties and articulate them with a generative approach through the use of agent-based systems are implemented according to designated evaluation criteria.

Dolas, Caner, Andreas Dieckmann, and Peter Russell. "Building Your Own Urban Tool Kit." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 485-493. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Building Information Modelling (BIM); Early Design; Parametric Design; Rule-Based Design; Urban Planning

The paper describes the development of a set of smart BIM components to facilitate and accelerate the creation of large-scale urban models in the early design phase in a BIM software environment. The components leverage the analytical, parametric and modelling capabilities of the BIM environment to support adaptive parameter-driven building geometry, patterning of different building types, early numerical and graphical design evaluation, various simulation methods and the exploration of design alternatives. The toolset consists of the most common building shapes, but can be extended with additional shapes and their respective area and volumetric calculations when necessary. The rapid large-scale deployment of the components has been achieved by diverting existing tools from their intended use.

Achten, Henri. "Buildings with an Attitude." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 477-485. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Augmented reality; Design Theory; Human-Computer Interaction (HCI); Interactive Architecture; Mixed Reality

In order to achieve interactive architecture it is necessary to consider more than the technological components of sensors, controllers, and actuators. The interaction can be focused to different interaction activities: instructing, conversing, manipulating, and exploring (we propose to call this the interaction view). Additionally, the purpose of the building may range from performing, sustaining, servicing, symbolising, to entertaining (we propose to call this the world view). Combined, the interaction view and world view establish 20 different attitudes, which are flavours of behaviour for the interactive building. Through attitudes interaction profiles can be established and criteria derived for the design of interactive buildings.

Kocaturk, Tuba, and Arto Kiviniemi. "Challenges of Integrating BIM in Architectural Education." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 465-473. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Architectural Education; BIM and Integrated Design; Distributed Cognition; Integrated Design Studio

This paper provides a critical overview of some of the fundamental issues regarding the adoption and integration of BIM – both as a method and as a technology – in Architectural education. It aims to establish a common ground for the rationale behind such integration and reflects on the past and present state of the cultural, intellectual, professional and technological context of Architecture. The paper will introduce the core issues to be considered in order to succeed in this challenging and transformational process. It will also introduce a framework for a gradual and progressive adoption of BIM and integrated design in the architectural curriculum.

Okuda, Shinya, and Saurabh Bhagra. "Cloud Arch." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 625-632. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Composite; Digital Fabrication; Lightweight; Performance; Prototyping

Expanded Polystyrene foam (EPS) is a chemically inert and 100% recyclable material that is lightweight and has a good compression strength per weight ratio; however, its current construction use is mostly limited to insulation or landfill. The key concept of this paper is to develop an EPS composite to create an ultra-lightweight long-span sustainable roofing structure by integrating the minimum necessary structural tension layer with a certified fire protection system. The authors present this concept in the following four steps, 1) EPS composite structural specimen test, 2) structural optimisation of the reversed displacement model, 3) discretisation with developable surfaces and 4) CNC hotwire rapid prototyping and assembly in scaled prototypes. The Cloud Arch is an economical, material-efficient, thermally insulated, quickly assembled ultra-lightweight construction that eliminates the need for formworks for long-span structures. It can be applied to many types of column-free spaces, such as in factories, gymnasiums, markets and cafeterias.

Mueller, Volker, and Tiemen Strobbe. "Cloud-Based Design Analysis and Optimization Framework." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 185-194. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Building Performance; Cloud Computing; Design Analysis; Generative Design; Optimization

Integration of analysis into early design phases in support of improved building performance has become increasingly important. It is considered a required response to demands on contemporary building design to meet environmental concerns. The goal is to assist designers in their decision making throughout the design of a building but with growing focus on the earlier phases in design during which design changes consume less effort than similar changes would in later design phases or during construction and occupation.Multi-disciplinary optimization has the potential of providing design teams with information about the potential trade-offs between various goals, some of which may be in conflict with each other. A commonly used class of optimization algorithms is the class of genetic algorithms which mimic the evolutionary process. For effective parallelization of the cascading processes occurring in the application of genetic algorithms in multi-disciplinary optimization we propose a cloud implementation and describe its architecture designed to handle the cascading tasks as efficiently as possible.

Novákova, Kateřina, Vladimír Jakubal, Henri Achten, and Dana Matějovska. "ColLab Sketch." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 213-218. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Collaborative Design; Communication; Programming; Sketching

In this paper we present an application we developed for collaborative sketch sharing within a design process. We review the specific application development process and discuss the features of the application itself. The tool has been tested and used in a design studio setting between two universities located in different countries. We observed that it is suitable for architectural communication, and also allows monitoring of the sketch activity during the design process. This paper also describes application architec- ture and selected technologies. We have furthermore defined multiple groups of applica- tion requirements. Our self-developed application was proven to suit specified needs and overcame previously tested commercial tools.

Schwartz, Mathew. "Collaborative and Human Based Performance Analysis." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 365-373. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Collaboration; Disability; Education; Human Analysis; Universal Design

This research presents methods for simulation and visualization of human factors. This allows for a performance based analysis of buildings from the local human scale to the larger building scale. Technical issues such as computational time and mathematically describing a buildings geometry are discussed. The algorithms presented are integrated in a 3D modeling software commonly used in design and architecture through a plugin.

Lorenz, Wolfgang E.. "Combining Complexity and Harmony by the Box-Counting Method." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 667-676. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Box-Counting Method; Fractal Analysis; Il Redentore; Palladio; Pantheon

When Benoît Mandelbrot raised the question about the length of Britain’s coastline in 1967, this was a major step towards formulating the theory of fractals, which also led to a new understanding of irregularity in nature. Since then it has become obvious that fractal geometry is more appropriate for describing complex forms than traditional Euclidean geometry (not only with regard to natural systems but also in architecture). This paper provides another view on architectural composition, following the utilization of fractal analysis. The procedure concerning the exploration of a façade design is demonstrated step by step on the Roman temple front of the Pantheon by Appolodorus and its re-interpretation – in the particular case the entrance front of Il Redentore, a Renaissance church by Palladio. Their level of complexity and range of scales that offer coherence are visualized by the specific measurement method of box-counting.

Pla-Catala, Anna. "Computation/Performance." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 579-586. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Code; Computation; Ecology; Maker; Performance

Setting up a completely new architectural academic curriculum for a brand-new school of architecture. Elaborating, critical space within the new curriculum for the teaching and learning of ‘digital-technologies’ (DT) through the integration of them with its core subjects, rather than understanding the teaching/learning of such technologies as an add-on set of skills that comes a posteriori. How to articulate the potential of the ‘Computational-Architect’ as a professional capable of being a productive agent within society; that is, capable of adding Value. The nature of such is what it’s at stake here, if we want to avoid to become or be reduced to mere providers of services.

Kós, José Ripper, Guilherme Angeloni, and Thiago Mello Brito. "Connecting Dwellers to Building Performance and Weather Data through Sustainable Automation Systems." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 157-165. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Building Performance; Graphic Interface; Home Automation System; User Behavior; Weather Data

The paper presents a prototype for a Home Automation and Information Systems (HAIS) applied to an existing dwelling, the Florianopolis House, with the potential to address building performance and user behavior towards a more sustainable way of living. Home information and automation systems based on a great variety of sensors, associated with local weather stations and climate forecast databases can significantly impact the construction of more sustainable habits in home dwellers. Monitoring the weather variations, building’s performance and the impact each resident’s activity in energy and water consumption is a powerful tool for the dwellers’ awareness and can provide a significant impact on residents’ reconnection with the natural cycles. The development of the graphic interface is highlighted as a critical issue for the communication of building performance, weather data and actuators control.

Zarzycki, Andrzej. "Considering Physicality in Digital Models." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 425-434. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Building Information Modelling; Building Information Modelling (BIM); Construction Assemblies; Parametric Construction Details

This paper discusses the integration of physical and digital models in the context of building technology teaching. It showcases projects that explore the design possibilities of a chosen structural system with the use of parametric and behaviour-based computational modelling. It uses detailed mock-ups as vehicles to study, optimize, and evaluate the design as well as to provide feedback for student learning and the direction in which future designers may engage computational design. Finally, it investigates digital-to-physical design translations, the importance of which becomes more and more critical in the context of the current, computer-intensive architectural education and professional practice.

Barczik, Günter. "Continuous Oscillations." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 571-578. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Design Curriculum; Shape Studies; Tools

We present and discuss a didactic for augmenting architectural design education with computational design techniques via integrative feedback loops and show examples of student projects. Our goal is to embed new technical skills into existing design abilities as quickly as possible, in order to enable our students to exploit and explore the extended capabilities of digital design techniques within the framework of architectural design projects. We instigate a process of continuous mutual feedback between different fields: on the one hand between technique-based exercises and design-related steps, and on the other hand between the digital and the physical. Through oscillation and feedback, the newly learned skills are directly interwoven with the existing ones. Special emphasis is put on the illuminative effects of transitions between different media and on issues of fabrication.

Massara, Bruno, Felipe Bosi, Mário Margotto, and Victor Malheiros. "Critical Methods in Computer-Mediated Performance and Phenomenology-Based Systems." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 383-389. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Computing; Performance; Phenomenology; Programming

The main goal of this article is to provide a critical reflection on what computing may contribute to an open understanding of performance in architecture. We propose a phenomenological approach to computing since it combines several concepts concerning the user’s experience of space. In order to study the human movement in space, we will present the results of a sequence of applications using open source software Processing, including time-lapse movies, frame differencing analysis and blending images tools. The research used the context of a existent building at the campus of Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. A series of interviews with users were also conducted in order to validate the computing analysis.

Marques, Rui, and Sara Eloy. "Customized Cork Façade." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 621-626. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Cork; Digital Fabrication; Façade; Generative Design; Shape Grammar

The propose paper presents an ongoing research which main goal is to use cork in a customized modular façade system. Cork is used due to its ecological value, renewable characteristic, insulation properties and aesthetic value. The modular system design is bio-inspired in the microscopic cork pattern and the study aims at reproducing in the façade some of the natural characteristics that enable cork to be suitable for the function it plays in construction. Façades are design by a generative design process based on a parametric shape grammar which encodes shape rules and an algorithm to guide the generation. The developed cork modules are part of a back-ventilated façade system which is assembled upon a substructure that reproduces the cork cell structure and enables both the assemblage of the modules to the support wall and the connection between them.

Lückert, Angelika, Volker Koch, and Petra von Both. "Dances with Architects." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 587-594. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Collaboration; Gesture Control; Interactive; Performance; Teaching

This paper proposes a complementary approach for the architectural design studio. By interpreting architecture by means of an interactive (dance) performance as design task it combines architectural theoretical examination with the implementation of new technologies and event realization. This design studio concept integrates scenography, choreography, sound design and event management, providing workshops carried out by external and internal experts to give insight into these disciplines and new tools. The experimental form allows the students to define the specific form within a broad scope, ranging from a dance performance performed by the students themselves to an interactive installation. The focus for the students was on dealing with the diverse input and on the decision-making process and its reflection.

Fiorito, Stefano, Francesco Orsi, Francisco Manuel Serdoura, and Victor Ferreira. "Data Extraction from Social Networks for Urban Analyses." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 439-445. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Remote Sensing; Social Networks; Space Syntax; Urban Dynamics; Urban Morphology

The present work constitutes the first stage of an ongoing research on the interaction between morphological characteristics of the urban fabric and the amount of social activity in such spaces. In order to analyze such correlation, the current research links together two different field of studies: Space Syntax on one side, for the morphological analysis of the spatial configuration of the urban fabric, and a remote sensing study about social activity in the analyzed urban context, on the other. Data extracted from location-based online Social Networks databases (e.g. Foursquare) are employed in order to perform such survey. The resulting methodology constitutes an early attempt to set a novel approach to the study of the relationships between the morphological and configurational characteristics of urban systems and actual human dynamics in urban contexts.

Stavrakantonaki, Marina. "Daylight Performance Simulations and 3D Modeling in BIM and non-BIM Tools." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 535-542. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

The fusion between building assessment and design can lead to better informed design decisions. Performance oriented design is better supported through the use of interoperable file formats for data exchange between BIM and non-BIM tools. At the same time, the parameters that influence the calculation during a performative assessment are no longer a purely engineering problem, since 3D modeling is of primary importance in defining the numerical output. The role of the designer along with the selection of the tools becomes all more relevant in this direction. A framework is presented hereby, which can be used for the selection between different BIM tools for daylight assessment. An insight is also given on the major parameters that can affect the outcome and on the obstacles that were experienced in four case-studies in relation to data exchange and information flow.

Gallas, Mohamed-Anis, and Gilles Halin. "DaylightGen: From Daylight Intentions to Architectural Solutions." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 107-116. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper addresses the integration of the daylight effect during the early stages of the architectural design process. The first part presents a design assistance method that helps designers to characterize their daylight intentions and materialize them in architectural solutions. In this part, we describe the implementation of this method in a design tool, denoted DaylightGen, the implemented process and the different system components. The second part of this paper focuses on the investigation of the potential of the proposed method in design process. It was evaluated in educational design case study. This part integrates the experimentation process and his results.

Thompson, Emine Mine, and James Charlton. "Delivery of Interactive 3D Content via the World Wide Web to Aid in Public Participation in Planning Proposals." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 205-212. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Public participation has become an important task for urban planning projects, but due to a lack of interactivity, immersion and feedback on the tools that has been utilized so far for this purpose, the current practice is limited. In providing a web-based virtual solution the current limitations can be reduced and transparency in the planning process can be increased. This paper presents the outcomes of a small study where three online options were tested by various stake holders.

Parascho, Stefana, Marco Baur, Jan Knippers, and Achim Menges. "Design Tools for Integrative Planning." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 237-246. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

The performance of an architectural object is highly difficult to both define and measure in its complexity since it is integrating a constantly increasing amount of information, from concrete measurable characteristics to the subjective perception of individual users. The question arising though is how to predict the performance of a building and influence the design in order to increase it according to a significantly high number of criteria.The presented paper proposes two design tools, both developed and programmed in rhino python for the generation of freeform geometries. The tools are generated for specific tasks, but may be interpreted as exemplary for a way of defining and structuring a design program in order to increase its efficiency. Both tools rely on a computational core that is generally defined and may be fed with as many and different constraints and criteria as considered suitable for the defined task.

Symeonidou, Ioanna, Urs Hirschberg, and Martin Kaftan. "Designing the Negative." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 683-691. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Designing the Negative was the title of a Master Studio that took place at the Institute of Architecture and Media of Graz University of Technology during the summer semester of 2012. Students designed and fabricated prototypes of customized concrete formwork as part of their studio assignment. The studio theme forced students to think about digital fabrication with parametric tools in a hands-on fashion. Using robotic technology and hot-wire cutting, students worked with the robot’s constraints (size of the robot’s arm, robot’s axis and tool’s restrictions) to design complex curved elements that could serve as formwork (the negative) for cast concrete elements (the positive). The students were asked to design a production strategy for their cast concrete elements as well as the application of said elements in an architectural scheme. The student projects confirmed the value of a pedagogy that takes on research-relevant questions in an interdisciplinary studio setting and engages students in a process that is best described as digital crafting: it simultaneously addressed the conceptual and technical as well as the material and tactile aspects of digital fabrication and design.

Nourian, Pirouz, Samaneh Rezvani, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Designing with Space Syntax." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 357-365. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper introduces a design methodology and a toolkit developed as a parametric CAD program for configurative design of architectural plan layouts. Using this toolkit, designers can start plan layout process with sketching the way functional spaces need to connect to each other. A tool draws an interactive bubble diagram and a set of tools reveal feasible geometric interpretations of the proposed bubble diagram in terms of plan layout graphs. Offering real-time Space Syntax analyses at the same time, the tools provide feedback on the spatial performance, which is translatable into the likely social performance of the plan layout patterns.

Aish, Robert. "DesignScript: Scalable Tools for Design Computation." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 87-95. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Design computation based on data flow graph diagramming is a well-established technique. The intention of DesignScript is to recognise this type of data flow modeling as a form of ‘associative’ programming and to combine this with the more conventional ‘imperative’ form of programming into a single unified computational design application. The use of this application is intended to range from very simple graph based exploratory ‘proto-programming’ as used by novice end-user programmers to multi-disciplinary design optimisation as used by more experienced computational designers.

Patlakas, Panagiotis, Habid Becerra Santacruz, and Hasim Altan. "Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Software Application for the Visualization of Environmental Data." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 137-145. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper presents EnViz, a prototype software application for the visualization of environmental data. The rationale for the development of the application is given, together with the methodology for collecting the data. A technical description of the software is provided, with a presentation of new features and their relevance. Two case studies are presented, and their relevance in the testing of the software is discussed. Visualization results from the application of the software are included. Particular attention is paid to the testing and evaluation of the application by real users. The methodological approach is described and the results of the tests are presented. The paper concludes by interpreting the results and pointing towards directions for further research on the topic.

Orbey, Betül, and Nihan Gürel. "Digital Design Tools versus Architectural Representation and Design Approach." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 415-423. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This study aims to investigate the relation between evolving graphic representations and due to new digital tools and how they affect architects’ approach to design process. In order to do this, Yap_ Magazine being published since 1973 in Turkey will be retrieved and data related to types of architectural design representation used will be recorded. The study will conclude with an evaluation of new representation means such as 3D render, other 3D digital products and diagrams and how they have influenced new approach to design.

Rua, Helena, Ana Paula Falcão, and Ana Filipa Roxo. "Digital Models – Proposal for the Interactive Representation of Urban Centres." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 265-273. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

The idea of ‘city’ has now surpassed its physical concept. The emergence of the Internet and the growing development of information and communication technologies (ICT) have changed the behaviour of our society in the past decade and revolutionised the traditional ways of representing space. The classic 2D (floor plans, sections and elevations) and 3D representations have been gradually replaced by 3D digital models that can reproduce buildings and places in a virtual environment.3D digital models are tools that enable a wide range of applications in urban planning and management, especially in architectural and data documentation where they allow the analysis of theoretical scenarios such as: 1) representation of the past, considering the procedures needed to restore the heritage; 2) visualisation of the present, to enable dissemination and communication of the city as it is; and, 3) simulation of the future, with the model being used to visualise and experiment with architectural objects, even those at a design stage. The main contribution of this work is to present an urban application developed into a GeoBIM tool, ESRI City Engine Software (CE), that integrates GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and BIM (Building Information Modelling) concepts. Finally, to enhance its potential, three spatial analyses were conducted.

Velasco, Rodrigo, Aaron Brakke, and César Díaz. "Digital Tools and High Performance Architecture." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 117-125. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper briefly recounts how computational design has surfaced in the architectural discourse during the recent decades, developing into what is now called parametric design. In this context, the authors argue against Parametricism, an avante garde movement which is limited to the issues of style and aesthetic fitness, whilst an approach that uses parametric modelling, simulation and visualization in an iterative way to generate design solutions for complexities of contemporary design problems is favoured. Following a discussion supported by representative examples from current practice, a possible organizational structure more appropriate to take advantage of digital tools to increase design performance is suggested.

Etman, Omar, Osama Tolba, and Sherif Ezzeldin. "Double-Skin Façades in Egypt between Parametric and Climatic Approaches." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 459-465. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Daylight is a crucial element for indoor environment quality. Office buildings commonly use fully glazed façades to reflect a luxurious appearance and to maximize natural light at the expenses of high energy consumption due to cooling/heating. Double-skin façades are one of the solutions that improve the building efficiency while maintaining good natural lighting. This paper studies the impact of various perforated outer skins for non-sealed double-skin facades on light quality in prototypical office space in Egypt using parametric design. A traditional solution for light such as the Mashrabiya is taken as an inspiration for this study to generate different forms of perforated screens. The cases were analysed using light simulation tool and sorted by a genetic algorithm to show best 30 solutions offered by the design criteria. A methodology to achieve these objectives was suggested in this paper to reach better light quality in indoor spaces.

Bus, Peter. "Emergent Urban Strategies." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 283-290. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper presents the results of partial research in the area of designing processes and methods of spatial and social interaction of multi-agent system with its environment in the city urban structure. According to the logic defined by the intrinsic rules of the simulation model of the selected area,there will be verified and tested the emergent phenomena resulting in changes in the configurations of urban structures.

Turrin, Michela, Ioannis Chatzikonstantinou, Martin Tenpierik, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Engineering Performance Simulations in Architectural Design Conception." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 137-146. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

The paper tackles the integration of engineering performance simulations in the conceptual phase of architectural design, with specific focus on parametric design processes. A general framework is exemplified, in which the use of performance simulations and the learning process of the designer are discussed in relation to the parameterization process. A specific case study is presented more in details regarding the design of an atrium for the reuse of an existing building in Shenyang-China. Performance simulations concerning the thermal comfort in the atrium are presented and discussed in relation to the general framework.

Fioravanti, Antonio, Eolo Avincola, and Gabriele Novembri. "Even ‘Clouds’ Can Burn." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 29-37. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Architecture, nowadays, is an even more demanding activity in which complexity is the keyword: complex forms, complex functions and complex structures require sophisticated facilities and components, for example, ‘The Cloud’ of D. and M. Fuksas in Rome. These complexities can give rise to numerous risks, among which fire is frequently a central problem. The fire safety norms do not involve an approach integrated with other instruments or building model (BIM), but provide a list of information and constraints. These codes are now shifting away from a prescriptive-based towards a performance-based method due to recent progress in fire safety engineering. Following this approach, a case study simulation of a multi-purpose centre was carried out in Tivoli, near Rome. This simulation allowed greater freedom in architectural composition, a lower risk to people, a larger number of material and building components used and higher safety standards to be achieved. The model is based on the FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator) language, a simulation code for low-speed flows, focused on smoke, particle and heat transport by fire.

Janssen, Patrick. "Evo-Devo in the Sky." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 205-214. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Designers interested in applying evo-devo-design methods for performance based multi-objective design exploration have typically faced two main hurdles: it’s too hard and too slow. An evo-devo-design method is proposed that effectively overcomes the hurdles of skill and speed by leveraging two key technologies: computational workflows and cloud computing. In order to tackle the skills hurdle, Workflow Systems are used that allow users to define computational workflows using visual programming techniques. In order to tackle the speed hurdle, cloud computing infrastructures are used in order to allow the evolutionary process to be parallelized. We refer to the proposed method as Evo-Devo In The Sky (EDITS). This paper gives an overview of both the EDITS method and the implementation of a software environment supporting the EDITS method. Finally, a case-study is presented of the application of the EDITS method.

Lin, Shih-Hsin Eve, and David Gerber. "Evolutionary Energy Performance Feedback for Design (EEPFD)." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 175-184. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

In order to understand the applicability of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) to the building design process, a MDO framework, titled Evolutionary Energy Performance Feedback for Design (EEPFD), along with the prototype tool, H.D.S. Beagle, were developed to support designers with the incorporation of partially automated performance feedback during the early stages of design. This paper presents 2 experimental case studies, one from the design profession and the other from a design studio, that evaluate the applicability and impact of EEPFD on the early stage design process. Through these two case studies two different interaction and automation approaches for applying EEPFD are explored as part of the framework validation. Observed benefits, challenges and suggestions of EEPFD’s implementation are then presented and discussed.

Boeykens, Stefan, Pauline De Somer, Ralf Klein, and Rik Saey. "Experiencing BIM Collaboration in Education." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 505-513. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

In a context of a slow uptake of the Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology in the Flemish region, we present the results of an educational research project, carried out over 4 semesters, in a multi-disciplinary, cross-campus collaboration. This project fosters an improved application of BIM, information management and communication, by organizing building teams involving students from different schools.The project partners collaborated on a shared framework of supportive learning material, collaboration scenarios between teams of students and the integration of digital tools for communication, information management and collaboration in the curriculum.This article, in particular, will elaborate on one of the collaborative exercises, involving architecture and engineering students, using BIM for modeling, information exchange and model evaluation.

Sokmenoglu, Ahu, and Onur N. Sonmez. "Exploring Reciprocal Relationships of Land-Uses in a Historical Mixed-Use Quarter of Istanbul." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 301-310. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

In this paper we explore the land-use patterns of a historical mixed-use quarter of Istanbul by focusing on the reciprocal relationships of housing and commercial uses. We are concerned with the distribution of land-use patterns based on spatial adjacency and land-use patterns within the buildings. We measure reciprocal relationships of housing and commercial uses by using GIS and Data Mining in a complementary way and we test if we can re-generate these relationships by evolutionary computation to further support land-use allocation in inner city regenerations or new urban developments.

Fukuda, Tomohiro, and Masaharu Taguchi. "Feature of Users’ Eye Movements during a Distributed and Synchronised VR Meeting using Cloud Computing." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 219-226. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Owing to cloud computing Virtual Reality (cloud-VR), a note PC or tablet with no need for a high spec GPU can be used for sharing a 3D virtual space in a synchronous distributed type design meeting. This research investigates the users’ eye movements and optimization of the GUI of cloud-VR during a distributed and synchronized VR meeting. Firstly, a townscape design support system based on cloud-VR was constructed. Then, a 30-minute experiment was executed with eight subjects who wore an eye-tracking system. In conclusion, it was effective to use the eye-tracking system because meeting participants could discuss while confirming each other’s eye direction in an actual distributed and synchronized VR meeting. In scenes where a reviewer listened to a presenter’s explanation, the tendency to look at VR contents other than operation commands was observed. On the other hand, the tendency to look at operation commands about viewpoints, such as “walk-through” and “jump” to an important viewpoint location, was observed in scenes about which a reviewer argued with a presenter.

Weigele, Jakob, Manuel Schloz, Tobias Schwinn, Steffen Reichert, Riccardo LaMagna, Frédéric Waimer, Jan Knippers, and Achim Menges. "Fibrous Morphologies." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 549-558. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Biomimetics; Computational Design; Fibre-Reinforced Composites; Prototyping; Robotic Fabrication

Living organisms have evolved effective structural solutions in response to the inherent constraints of their respective environments through a process of morphological adaptation. Given the fact that the majority of natural load bearing materials are fibrous composites, the authors suggest the analysis of appropriate biological role models as a promising strategy for informing the application of fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) in architecture. In this paper the authors present a biomimetic design methodology for seamless large-scale FRP structures involving the analysis of the exoskeletons of Arthropoda with regards to structural performance criteria, the development of a custom robotic filament winding process, and the translation of biological and fabricational principles into the architectural domain through physical prototyping and the development of custom digital tools. The resulting performative material system is evaluated in a full-scale research pavilion.

Moya, Rafael, Flora Salim, Mani Williams, and Kamil Sharaidin. "Flexing Wind." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 69-78. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Architectural Prototype; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Urban Aerodynamics; Wind Tunnel Simulation; Windbreak

The aims of the Flexing Wind project, investigated in an intensive cross-disciplinary course, were twofold. First was to learn about aerodynamic phenomena around buildings. Second was to explore ways to observe, measure, and control the negative effects of wind around specific pedestrian areas, tram stops, and public sites in Melbourne City. Using tools such as a weather station to collect data and CFD software to simulate aerodynamic phenomena students could study the wind conditions in one of the windiest areas in the Melbourne downtown. Various do-it-yourself tools such as mini wind tunnels, handheld probes and sensors were used to evaluate the performance of potential design options, which lead to prototyping full scale adaptive architectural windbreaks.

Roman, Miro. "Four Chairs and All the Others - Eigenchair." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 405-414. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Data; Eigenchair; Eigenvector; Indexing; Principal Component Analysis

By contemplating on the Eigenchair project, we ponder upon strategies and concepts of designing by using information technologies. What are the potentials of data driven design? What happens with objects when they are abstracted and reduced to a set of data? The emphasis is no longer on the creation of physical objects, but on conceiving meta-objects in the possibility space. Furthermore, this enables us to manipulate with a whole population of objects, instead of a single object. How do we get this abstract system to relate to the real world? Information technologies have opened up a number of new ways of thinking about the world and the object and they, by far, surpassed the formally simplified expression in design and architecture. Based on intellectual heritage of history and culture, information technologies can, by utilizing and recycling various elements and information, explore the 21st century object.

Bernhard, Mathias. "Frequency Analysis of Wood Textures." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 597-603. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Fourier Analysis; Information Theory; Pattern Recognition; Wood

“Frequency analysis of wood textures” presents the application of Fourier analysis to translate images of wood textures to the frequency domain. With this encoding, a lot more details can be captured by the same amount of data points than with other descriptions in the spatial domain. A small set of overlapping waves with different frequencies, magnitudes and phase angles allows to characterize the main features of the wood’s grain texture and to quantify and classify different samples. The sample’s color information is thereby enhanced with an array of direction vectors, describing the local orientation distribution.

Coutinho, Filipe, Luís Mateus, José P. Duarte, Victor Ferreira, and Mário Kruger. "From Point Cloud to Shape Grammar to Grammatical Transformations." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 655-663. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Alberti; Design Automation; Shape Grammar; Shape Recognition; Transformation In Design

This paper describes a generative design approach integrating real building data in the process of developing a shape grammar. The goal is to assess to which extent it is feasible the use of a reverse engineering procedure to acquire actual building data and what kind of impact it may have on the development of a shape grammar.The paper describes the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) techniques to acquire information on the São Vicente de Fora church, then the use of such information to develop the corresponding shape grammar, and finally the comparison of this grammar with the grammar of Alberti’s treatise, to determine the grammatical transformations that occurred between the two grammars.

Miltiadis, Constantinos. "From the Univocal to the Dissipative." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 517-525. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Computation; Interactive; Kinetic; Methodology; Real-Time

The paper develops around a problematic regarding the methodology of contemporary computational real-time design. It begins by exploring the status of computer-driven architecture today, locating its inherent limitations that support the paper’s main argument that the problem of this kind of architecture, is the failure of realizing the necessity of a paradigm shift.Utilizing a personal project that falls in the category of real-time computation and design, and guiding the reader to the distinct stages for its development, an attempt is made to introduce an alternative methodology based on the materialist philosophy of Gilles Deleuze, that, displays a great potential to be applied and used as a conceptual framework for such designs.

Ciftcioglu, Özer, and Michael S. Bittermann. "Fusion of Perceptions in Architectural Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 335-344. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Architectural Design; Evolutionary Search; Perception; Vision Modeling

A method for fusion of perceptions is presented. It is based on probabilistic treatment of perception, where perception quantifies the chance an unbiased observer sees an environmental object, and the associated probability can be interpreted as degree of awareness for the object. The approach uniquely accounts for the fact that final realization or remembrance of a scene in the brain may be absent or elusive, so that it is subject to probabilistic considerations. For objects that are to be perceived from multiple viewpoints, such as a sculpture in a museum, or a building in its urban context, the probabilistic approach uniquely defines the fusion of perceptions. This is accomplished by carrying out the probabilistic union of events. The computation is presented together with its geometric implications, which become rather intricate for multiple observers, whereas the computation is straight forward. The method is exemplified for two applications in architectural design at different scales, namely interior and urban design, indicating the generic nature as well as the large application potential of the method.

Bayraktar, Mehmet Emin, and Gülen Çağdaş. "Fuzzy Layout Planner." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 375-381. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Architectural Representation; Digital Design Tools; Early Design; Fuzzy Modelling

This study presents a digital architectural design tool named “Fuzzy Layout Planner” that helps architects create two dimensional sketchy footprints for their design. The purpose of the tool is to extend limits of early design thinking. It uses fuzzy modeling techniques to adapt the ambiguous design phase. There are several commands in this digital tool to generate and modify layouts. Users can create, move, combine sketchy bubbles to form bigger footprints and see them in action dynamically. The tool offers a manual creation process.

Baharlou, Ehsan, and Achim Menges. "Generative Agent-Based Design Computation." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 165-174. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Agent-Based System; Computational Design; Constrained Generating Procedures (Cgp’S); Robotic Fabrication

Agent-based systems have been widely investigated in simulation and modeling. In this paper, it is proposed that agent-based systems can also be developed as generative systems, in which different aspects of performative design can be defined as separate drivers in a proper computational framework. In this manner constrained generating procedures (CGP’s) are studied to integrate the discrete design processes into one system. Subsequently, this generative agent-based design tool is accompanied with generating and constraining mechanism which are informed by material characteristics and fabrication constraints, bringing to the forefront emergent complexity.

Vasku, Michael. "Generative Improvement of Street Networks Based on Space Syntax." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 367-374. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Design Computing; Slum Upgrading; Space Syntax; Urban Design

Space syntax is supposed to be an objective method for evaluating spatial configurations. Its contribution to a design process is dependent on the designer’s estimation. The paper describes a generative approach to finding particularly good interventions based on space syntax analyses of axial maps. More precisely, a case study was undertaken through applying such a strategy to improve and connect a segregated street network of an informal settlement to its neighbourhood. Controlling and redirecting movement in slums may cause positive effects. This research is based on and inspired by a consulting project by the company Space Syntax Limited for the Municipality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in which the consulting company designed a regeneration program for declining informal settlements. (Karimi and Parham, 2012)

Camporeale, Patricia. "Genetic Algorithms Applied to Urban Growth Optimization." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 227-236. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Genetic Algorithms; Solar Envelope

This work is a research on the application of genetic algorithms (GA) to urban growth taking into account the optimization of solar envelope and sunlight in open spaces.It was considered a typical block of a Spanish grid, which is the most common subdivision of the urban land in towns situated in Argentina. Two models are compared, one in which the growth has no more limitations than building codes. The other one, in which the growth incorporates the solar radiation as a desirable parameter.This way of parameterizing configures a bottom-up method of urban growth. No top-down decisions intervenes in the growth process.This tool proves to be useful at early stages of urban planning when decisions—which will influence along the development of the city for a long time—are taken.

Sun, Yimin, Lu Xiong, and Ping Su. "Grandstand Grammar and its Computer Implementation." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 645-653. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Grandstand Design; Parametric Modelling; Shape Grammar

In sports facilities, a grandstand is the structure which provides good sight quality and safety evacuation conditions for the spectators. Grandstand plays important functional and formative roles in sports facilities, and especially in large scale stadia. This paper argues the notion of shape grammar and its computer implementation will solve the difficulties in grandstand design. The authors identify the specific difficulties of grandstand design, then set the aims of the grammatical computer tool. Afterwards the shape grammar of grandstand design is formulated, and a computer tool is developed based on the grammar. At last, the paper discusses the application and usage of the grammar and the computer tool both in early design phase and design development phase with a design practice case study of a large scale stadium.

Koenig, Reinhard, Lukas Treyer, and Gerhard Schmitt. "Graphical Smalltalk with My Optimization System for Urban Planning Tasks." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 195-203. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Design Optimization; Evolutionary Multi-Criteria Optimization; Generative System Integration; Interactive Planning Support System

Based on the description of a conceptual framework for the representation of planning problems on various scales, we introduce an evolutionary design optimization system. This system is exemplified by means of the generation of street networks with locally defined properties for centrality. We show three different scenarios for planning requirements and evaluate the resulting structures with respect to the requirements of our framework. Finally the potentials and challenges of the presented approach are discussed in detail.

Xiong, Lu, Wei Xiong, and Hongxia Zhang. "Gulou Structure Grammar and its Computer Implementation." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 725-733. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Ethnic Building Technique; Gulou Structure; Parametric Models; Shape Grammar

Gulou is a type of building found in ethnic Dong people’s settlements in south west China. It plays a significant role in the traditional Dong architecture and shows both social and technical values. In the near future the technique as an intangible culture heritage would face the risk of extinction because of globalization. The paper argues that the use of formal grammar and computer tools could help the preservation and learning of the design knowledge of Gulou Structure and develop Gulou designs which would be adapted to modern needs. A shape grammar called Gulou Structure Grammar (GSG) and its computer implementation are made to achieve the goals of capturing the design knowledge of Gulou structure, generating new Gulou designs and promoting the education of Gulou building techniques.

Becker, Mirco, and Moritz Rumpf. "Heat-Pressure Lamination." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 643-651. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Curved Folding; Design Exploration; Digital-Low-Tech; Fabrication; Structural Analysis; Up-Cycling

Fabrication techniques and design potential of up-cycling plastic bags by heat-pressure lamination are explored. The material properties are tested and put into a digital design system. The main performance criteria is structure. Two design prototypes are being discussed. The first one is using a set of modular molds and a second one a techniques of inflated cushions resulting in shapes closely matching these in curved folding.

Fricker, Pia, Christophe Girot, and Georg Munkel. "How to Teach ‘New Tools’ in Landscape Architecture in the Digital Overload." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 545-553. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Computational Design Research And Teaching; Design Tool Development; New Design Concepts and Strategies; Parametric And Evolutionary Design

The central theme of the paper is the introduction of hands-on tools showing the integration of information technology within a postgraduate study program (MAS LA) for landscape architects. What has already become a part of the discourse in the field of architecture – generic design – is now also finding more resonance in the context of large-scale landscape architectural design. If one studies the educational backgrounds of landscape architects, however, they often do not match the same standard as those of architects. A solid background in the area of innovative use of information technology, especially computer-assisted design and CAD/CAM construction is only at a preliminary state at most universities. The critical arguments in the choice of the selected medium and the building up of a continuous digital chain stand here in the forefront. The aim is not to improve the quality of the landscape design based on the variety of the applied tools, but rather through the sensible use of the said. Reflections as well as questions of method and theory stand at the forefront of our efforts.

Trento, Armando, and Antonio Fioravanti. "Human Activity Modelling Performed by Means of Use Process Ontologies." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 385-394. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Design Knowledge Modelling; Knowledge Management; Process Ontology

Quality, according to Pirsig’s universal statements, does not belong to the object itself, nor to the subject itself, but to both and to their interactions. In architecture it is terribly true as we have a Building Object and Users that interact with it.The problem we approach here, renouncing at the impossible task of modelling the actor’s “libero arbitrio”, focuses on defining a set of occurrences, which dynamically happen in the built environment. If organized in a proper way, use process knowledge allows planners/designers to represent usage scenario, predicting activity inconsistencies and evaluating the building performance in terms of user experience.With the aim of improving both, the quality of buildings and the user experience, this research explores a method for linking process and product ontologies, formalized to support logic synchronization between software for planning functional activities and software for authoring design of infrastructures.

Biloria, Nimish, and Jia-Rey Chang. "Hyper-Morphology." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 529-537. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Adaptive Architecture; Cellular Differentiation; Evo-Devo; Evolutionary Computation; Self-Organization

Hyper-Morphology is an on-going research outlining a bottom-up evolutionary design process based on autonomous cellular building components. The research interfaces critical operational traits of the natural world (Evolutionary Development Biology, Embryology and Cellular Differentiation) with Evolutionary Computational techniques driven design methodologies. In the Hyper-Morphology research, genetic sequences are considered as sets of locally coded relational associations between multiple factors such as the amount of components, material based constraints, and geometric adaptation/degrees of freedom based adaptation abilities etc, which are embedded autonomously within each HyperCell component. Collective intelligence driven decision-making processes are intrinsic to the Hyper-Morphology logic for intelligently operating with autonomous componential systems (akin to swarm systems). This subsequently results in user and activity centric global morphology generation in real-time. Practically, the Hyper-Morphology research focuses on a 24/7 economy loop wherein real-time adaptive spatial usage interfaces with contemporary culture of flexible living within spatial constraints in a rapidly urbanizing world.

Rolando, Andrea, and Domenico D’Uva. "Hyperdomes." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 315-324. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Distinctiveness; Non-Standard Roofing Structures; Urban Environment

The development of new shapes in architecture has deeply influenced the current perception of the built environment. The analysis of the processes behind this evolution is, therefore, of great interest. At least two well known factors, influencing this development, may be pointed out: the great improvement of digital tools and the tendency toward building distinctiveness.In particular, the innovation of digital tools such as parametric modeling is resulting in an overall diffusion of complex shapes, and the phenomenon is also evident in a clear expressionistic search for architectural singularity, that some might consider as a negative effect of globalization trends.Though, if we can consider as a positive result the fact that parameterization allows a deeper control over design factors in terms of reference to cultural, historical and physical context, at the same time such control possibilities are sometimes so stark to be even auto-referential, stepping over site-specific parameterization, to create unusual shapes just for the sake of complexity.The ever-growing diffusion of generative design processes is in fact going to transform niche procedures, frequently limited to temporary decontextualized structures, into an architectural complexification as an end in itself.The hypothesis of this paper is to demonstrate that site-specific parametrization can be considered as a tool able to translate intentions into shape; it is necessary, for this aim, the widening of the meaning of the word singularity.

de Boissieu, Aurélie, François Guéna, and Caroline Lecourtois. "Identifying Cognitive Operations of Conception Implied in the Uses of Parametric Modeling in Architectural Design: Toward Pedagogical Tools." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 563-570. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Architectural Conception; Architecturology; CAAD Curriculum; Parametric Modelling

The research presented in this paper aims at identifying the cognitive operations implied in the uses of parametric modeling in architectural conception. The uses of parametric modeling in architectural design remain emergent and marginal. How can we teach these practices? The identification of the main cognitive operations of conception allows us to propose accurate pedagogical objectives. This paper presents: the research methods employed, the results achieved and propositions for pedagogical tools.

Ebertshäuser, Sebastian, and Petra von Both. "ifcModelCheck." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 525-534. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Building Information Modelling (BIM); Collaboration; Quality Assurance; Rule-Based Model Checking

On behalf of the BBR (German Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning) the development of an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) based inspection tool was accomplished as application on an underlying work-in-progress development framework. By providing a machine-based checking process the tool ModelCheck was rolled out to meet demands emerged during pilot projecting. Thus it is capable of processing automated compliance checks on quality criteria for the authorities, e.g. documentation guidelines of BBR regarding building and real estate documentation or building information modeling (BIM) quality criteria formed for the Humboldt-Forum project – a BIM pilot-project managed by BBR. ModelCheck supports checks on IFC models - formal against schemes and logical inspection with regards to alpha-numeric content by using xml-based configurable rules.

Wilkinson, Samuel, Sean Hanna, Lars Hesselgren, and Volker Mueller. "Inductive Aerodynamics." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 39-48. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. CFD; Machine Learning; Procedural Modelling; Tall Buildings; Wind Loads

A novel approach is presented to predict wind pressure on tall buildings for early-stage generative design exploration and optimisation. The method provides instantaneous surface pressure data, reducing performance feedback time whilst maintaining accuracy. This is achieved through the use of a machine learning algorithm trained on procedurally generated towers and steady-state CFD simulation to evaluate the training set of models. Local shape features are then calculated for every vertex in each model, and a regression function is generated as a mapping between this shape description and wind pressure. We present a background literature review, general approach, and results for a number of cases of increasing complexity.

Yazar, Tuğrul, and Fulya Akipek. "Infections." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 247-254. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Dataflow; Fabrication; Material Behavior; Parametric Patterning; Prototypes

This paper covers two workshops that are instances of a research on the feedbacks between parametric patterning and material behavior. Infection sets the conceptual background of these workshops utilizing pattern deformations as a generative technique. Gridal Infection workshop focus on real-time dynamic patterns while Reflex Patterning workshop integrates material performances to this exploration.

Papasarantou, Chrissa, Giorgos Kalaouzis, and Vassilis Bourdakis. "Info - Data Constructions." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 185-192. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Data-Mapping; Information Visualization; Multimodal; Museum Database; Timeline

Previous research dealt with the problem of successfully approaching the combination of multiple, marginally compatible, historical and other forms of digital abstract data. The initial challenge, from a designer’s point of view, was to define and create the database for the Museum of the City of Volos (MuCiV) that will contain these seemingly incompatible data to a formulation collaborated with a geo-referenced information visualization system. This paper aims to go a step further by defining and implementing such an information visualization system. Thus, visual structures digitally representing a variety of non-spatial data, as well as the ways that these structures can interact, are investigated. It is argued that the results of this research can have interesting implementations to the museum program; by organizing in alternative ways its content and context and by facilitating the dissemination of information to the public through interactive multimodal exhibits.

Kretzer, Manuel. "Information Materials." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 615-623. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Adaptive Architecture; Digital Materiality; Do-It-Yourself; Open Source; Smart Materials

This paper questions the current use of materials in architecture, which furthers the preference of surface and form over inherent material properties. It then investigates recent advancements towards the notion of a Digital Materiality, comparing various international research activities and approaches. It concludes with the potentials of Smart Materials for the creation of dynamic, adaptive spatial design. With a focus on the work of the Author it represents a number of projects that have been realized in this area within the past years and gives an insight in his recently established Materiability Research Network, a community platform that reveals Smart Materials, their properties and how to self-make them in an applied hands-on manner.

Makris, Michael, David Gerber, Anders Carlson, and Doug Noble. "Informing Design through Parametric Integrated Structural Simulation." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 69-77. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Design Decision Support; Design Optimization; Parametric Design; Structural Analysis; Structural Design

The paper describes the development, testing, and initial findings of a design tool that generates parametrically defined, semi-automatically analyzed, and visualized structural performance of specific truss designs. The prototypical design tool provides structural truss solutions for spans of uniform to non-uniform surface curvatures. Real-time visual structural performance feedback enables the designer to more rapidly develop viable and potentially more efficient designs under user defined load conditions. The research methodology is an example of reinforcing structural learning and intuition within the design process. The research presents findings of the impact of iterative and interactive structural feedback through the development of a parametrically integrated structural truss analysis tool for aiding in design decision support.

Folcher, Viviane, Khaldoun Zreik, Samia Ben Rajeb, and Pierre Leclercq. "Innovative Learning for Collaborative Design in Ergonomics." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 605-613. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Architecture; Collaborative Design; Ergonomics; Training Workshop

The proposed article deals with introducing collaborative architectural design into the training of ergonomists at the Master 2 level. The collaborative design workshop aims to confront ergonomists with the difficulties any design project involves, and which challenge architects, designers, engineers and so on: collaboration between people with different skills and different expertise; powerful time constraints; need for their work to converge; working together and/or at a distance; sharing documents; decision-making, etc. The article will present a short review of work carried out in the domains of architecture and design, and of the contribution of ergonomics within architectural projects. We shall then present the workshop’s educational aims, and give details of the way it functioned. Finally, observation results will be presented and discussed.

Gadelhak, Mahmoud. "Integrating Computational and Building Performance Simulation Techniques for Optimized Facade Designs." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 261-269. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Daylighting simulation; Form Finding; Genetic Algorithm; High Performance Facade; Optimization

This paper investigates the integration of Building Performance Simulation (BPS) and optimization tools to provide high performance solutions. An office room in Cairo, Egypt was chosen as a base testing case, where a Genetic Algorithm (GA) was used for optimizing the annual daylighting performance of two parametrically modeled daylighting systems. In the first case, a combination of a redirecting system (light shelf) and shading system (solar screen) was studied. While in the second, a free-form “gills surface” was also optimized to provide acceptable daylighting performance. Results highlight the promising future of using computational techniques along with simulation tools, and provide a methodology for integrating optimization and performance simulation techniques at early design stages.

Beirão, José, and Pedro Arrobas. "Interactive Urban Parametric Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 291-299. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Alternative Scenarios; Flexible Planning; Parametric Urban Design

This paper presents the use of a City Information Modeling (CIM) platform composed of a GIS platform, a SQL database, a CAD design interface and a VPI used to develop the parametric models of possible development scenarios. It calculates urban indicators and measurable design properties in order to better understand and support choices while making design decisions. Such approach improves the generation of alternative scenarios projections supported by the calculation of urban properties.

Schaffranek, Richard. "Inventing Circulation Patterns using Available Metaheuristic Solvers." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 347-355. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Circulation; Inverse; Metaheuristic; Procedural; Prototypical

The way people navigate through spaces has been studied for quite a while. Different models have been described and validated through empirical studies.This paper explores the use of such models in an ‘inverse design’ (Faucher and Nivet, 2000) process, applying available metaheuristic-solvers. More detailed, it showcases the description of an ambiguous fitness function as base to invent a new circulation pattern. As such technics are time consuming compared to the use of readily available patterns, an attempt is made to analyse and understand the invented circulation patterns, in order to come up with a procedural algorithm that would generate circulation pattern with the same characteristics.

Tompson, Tim, and Hank M. Haeusler. "Investigating Tools for Multi-Stakeholder Decision Making to Improve the Spatial Performance in Transport Interchanges." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 233-242. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Multi-Stakeholder; Participatory Design; Soft-Systems Methodology; Transport Environment; Urban Planning

Public transport interchanges often involve several stakeholders for planning and decision-making. As a result complexity leads to inefficient processes, leading to indecision, disruption, or costly delays. Consequently, the paper focuses on the application of tools for navigation and prioritization of opportunities in the need finding, fuzzy-front end, or mystery phase as introduced by Martin (2009). The paper outlines in a case study how a multi-stakeholder platform can progress from complete ambiguity in project definition through to clearly defined and understood projects that have a shared intent across the multi-stakeholder platform. These tools have been applied in a public transport context, by demonstrating the process of integrating digital innovation into various stakeholders through a participatory research process. The paper introduces the research background; discusses the hypothesis; outlines the case study; emphasizes its significance for multi-stakeholder decision-making and discusses the opportunities for the built environment.

Zajíčkova, Veronika, and Henri Achten. "Landscape Information Modeling." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 515-523. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Building Information Modelling (BIM); Landscape Design; Lim

In this paper we report on a recently started PhD project in which we investigate the extension of the concept of “Building Information Model” (BIM) to the domain of landscape design. The potential benefits of BIM in the field of architecture have been reported many times (e.g., Ibrahim et al., 2004; Eastman et al., 2008; Abdelmohsen et al., 2011). However, in landscape design an information model in the way of BIM seems to be missing. Benefits of a Landscape Information Model would be (a) formalisation of knowledge in landscape design; (b) information model to support multiple participants in landscape design; (c) improved information exchange between landscape design, architecture, and urban design. In this paper we set out the basic outline of the research.

Janusz, Jan. "Learning from Parametric Manipulation of Architectural Volume." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 91-100. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Energy Estimation; Maxscript; Parametric Design; Sustainable Design Education; Thermal Optimization

This study is concerned with the building thermal performance education in the context of computer application. The project contains the original script coded in Maxscript for use in Autodesk 3ds Max. The tool workflow and functionality focus on the thermal calculations connected with sculpturing manipulation of architectural volume in pre-conception project stages, when detailed project solutions are undefined. The algorithm is based on the manual methods included in the curriculum. The paper also presents a study of software analyzing thermal performance as a justification for the script vision and educational implementation. The script is rather an addition than alternative for existing software, so it does not assume any resignation from more sophisticated products.

Attia, Shady, and Marilyne Andersen. "Measuring the Usability, Efficiency and Effectiveness of CAAD Tools and Applications." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 147-155. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD); Effectiveness; Efficiency; Measurement; Usability

Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) decisions and judgments have been at the heart of architectural design practice. Despite the increasing popularity of computer aided design applications, measuring the decision making of designers empirically remains elusive. Past research claiming usefulness of the CAD has relied largely on anecdotal or case studies that are vulnerable to bias. The study reviews results of prior investigations. The relatively few laboratory experiments report hardly any empirical results regarding the measurement of CAD decision making. The study provides an overview of the literature of existing measurement methods that have been used in psychology and neuroscience to assess individual variations in design making, and highlight these different measurement methods’ strengths and weaknesses. We conclude with a comparative evaluation of the different measures and provide suggestions regarding their constructive use in building realistic theories of designer’s decision making measurement.

Simeone, Davide, Yehuda E. Kalay, Davide Schaumann, and Seung Wan Hong. "Modelling and Simulating Use Processes in Buildings." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 59-67. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Activity-Based Modelling; Bpmn; Building Performances Prediction; Building Use Simulation; Human Behaviour Modelling

In this paper, we propose a new approach to simulating users’ behavior in yet un-built buildings. For this purpose, we have developed a model that connects two different representations: a formal representation of the building use, by means of a method borrowed from Business Process Modeling and Notation (BPMN) approach; and a game-engine based 3D virtual environment, where this process is effectively simulated and integrated with some autonomous behaviour of users/agents. The model has been applied to two test cases, where the activities of doctors, nurses, patients, and visitors in different hospitals were tracked, simulated, and reviewed by medical professionals for validation.

Hanzl, Małgorzata. "Modelling of Public Spaces." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 319-327. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Anthropology; Outdoor Space; Parametric Modelling; Urban Design; Urban Morphology The relationship between the material settings and situational belonging to a more general notion of the culture of a given community remains the subject of inquiry of at least two scientific disciplines: anthropology and urban morphology studies. In this study an assessment of the various modelling platforms is performed with the objective of finding the most efficient method which allows the description of the semiotic features of urbanscapes. The ideal system should link the parametric definition of urban geometry with the high flexibility of data input and easy manipulation. In order to enable culture related analyses of urbanscapes, analyses should be performed which refers to the semiotics of morphological structures in the detailed scale of urban enclosure, which are streets or squares. Some elements of the proposed method of index key analyses are explained as one possible solution for the problems posed.
Junk, Stefan, and Samantha Côté. "New Methods for the Rapid Prototyping of Architectural Models." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 397-403. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. 3-D Printing; Architectural Detail; Architectural Model; Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD); Rapid Prototyping

Various Rapid Prototyping methods have been available for the production of physical architectural models for a few years. This paper highlights in particular the advantages of 3D printing for the production of detailed architectural models. In addition, the current challenges for the creation and transfer of data are explained. Furthermore, new methods are being developed in order to improve both the technical and economic boundary conditions for the application of 3DP. This makes the production of models with very detailed interior rooms possible. The internal details are made visible by dividing the complex overall model into individual models connected by means of an innovative plug-in system. Finally, two case studies are shown in which the developed methods are applied in order to implement detailed architectural models. Additional information about manufacturing time and costs of the architectural models in the two case studies is given.

Hergeršic, Ana Klofutar, Enej Pungerčar, and Tadeja Zupancic. "Non-Verbal Communication in Collaborative Architectural Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 227-232. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Architecture; Collaboration; Collaborative Design; Remote Communication; Visual Non-Verbal Communication

The paper introduces a novel approach to understanding the nature of visual communication within the design process in architectural education using open-source interfaces. It derives from the idea that visual non-verbal communication indicates the critical moments of the design process, where communication efficiency could be improved. The aim of this research is to evaluate how effective can non-verbal communication become in the early design phases. We will also discuss how this mode of communication works in collaborative design in architecture and how it relates verbal communication.

Dritsas, Stylianos, Raul Kalvo, and Andres Sevtsuk. "Packing Optimization for Digital Fabrication." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 655-664. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Automation; Design Computation; Digital Fabrication; Optimization

We present a design-computation method of design-to-production automation and optimization in digital fabrication; an algorithmic process minimizing material use, reducing fabrication time and improving production costs of complex architectural form. Our system compacts structural elements of variable dimensions within fixed-size sheets of stock material, revisiting a classical challenge known as the two-dimensional bin-packing problem. We demonstrate improvements in performance using our heuristic metric, an approach with potential for a wider range of architectural and engineering design-built digital fabrication applications, and discuss the challenges of constructing free-form design efficiently using operational research methodologies.

Steinø, Nicolai, Miray Baş Yıldırım, and Mine Ö. zkar. "Parametric Design Strategies for Collaborative and Participatory Urban Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 195-203. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Collaborative Design; Esri Cityengine; Parametric Design; Participation; Urban Design

Due to the complex nature of urban space and the multitude of interests vested in it, urban design can be described as a complex system. Various disciplines are involved in the analysis and development of urban space. In this respect, collaboration is key in creating socially and physically sustainable urban design. This paper, using a student workshop as a point of departure, discusses the potentials of parametric design as a methodological approach in collaborative urban design between disciplines and with non-professionals.

Vidmar, Jernej. "Parametric Maps for Performance-Based Urban Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 311-316. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Map; Parametric; Performance-Based; Urban Design; Urbanism

Urban design is a complex process which deals with multitude of aspects to shape quality urban space. On one hand, we have quantitative aspects such as land use, building heights or floor space index which are tackled on top-down approach. On the other hand, we need to take into consideration more subjective, qualitative aspects such as building shapes and space between them based on bottom-up principle.In order to connect both principles, a new, performance-based parametric urban design method is proposed. It is based on a concept of parametric maps, which represent spatial distribution of key building parameters (quantitative criteria, top-down) throughout the area and are preliminary loaded into the virtual urban development area. Once parametric maps are loaded, we begin designing a development by placing the buildings (qualitative criteria, bottom-up), which adapt their parameters while changing their locations. Parametric maps thus represent a link between a set of spatial parameters and the actual shape of each building in a way, which connects both, top-down and bottom-up principles of urban design into a single conceptual framework.In order to evaluate this new method, an interactive prototype application has been developed in Maya (3D modeling software) and the following results were obtained: 1.) a significant speedup is possible in the creation of different design alternatives in early stage of urban design process; 2.) use of parametric maps is most suitable for mid- to large-scale projects (+15 buildings), while they can be redundant for small-scale areas; 3.) possibility of inconsistency with site regulations is diminished.

Weston, Mark, and Dan Greenberg. "Passive Energy Devices in Ceramics." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 147-151. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Building Performance; Ceramics; CNC Tooling; Computer Aided Manufacture; Passive Energy Design

Buildings with scales, buildings that sweat: this paper proposes two strategies for a materially grounded, performance-based architecture which leverages the strengths of computation and CNC fabrication against the basic properties of traditional ceramics.

Yazici, Sevil. "Performance Based Pavilion Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 127-135. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Architectural Geometry; Fabrication; Material; Parametric Design; Performance

This paper investigates the design process of a performance based pavilion from concept towards construction phases, by challenging conventional form and fabrication techniques. The proposed project is considered as a temporary structure, located in Antalya, Turkey. A free-form structure and a parametrically defined cladding are designed to serve as an installation unit, a shading element and urban furniture. The pavilion geometry, performance assessments and proposed fabrication schemes are clearly described in the paper. The method integrates form, performance, material and fabrication constraints and exposes how environmental and structural performances, including Solar Access Analysis and Static Structural Analysis, may inform the design project.

Mostafavi, Sina, Mauricio Morales Beltran, and Nimish Biloria. "Performance Driven Design and Design Information Exchange." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 117-126. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Design Information; Design Technology; Parametric Design; performance driven design; Topology Optimization

This paper presents a performance driven computational design methodology through introducing a case on parametric structural design. The paper describes the process of design technology development and frames a design methodology through which engineering, -in this case structural- aspects of architectural design could become more understandable, traceable and implementable by designers for dynamic and valid performance measurements and estimations. The research further embeds and customizes the process of topology optimization for specific design problems, in this case applied to the design of truss structures, for testing how the discretized results of Finite Elements Analysis in topology optimization can become the inputs for designing optimal trussed beams or cantilevers alternatives. The procedures of design information exchange between generative, simulative and evaluative modules for approaching the abovementioned engineering and design deliverables are developed and discussed in this paper.

Vardouli, Theodora. "Performed by and Performative for." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 243-252. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Computer-Aided Participatory Design; Improvisational Performance; Infrastructure Model; Participatory Architecture; Perceptual Computation

In this paper I identify the “infrastructure model” as the predominant approach to computationally mediated participatory design from the 1960s until the present, and discuss its history, conceptual underpinnings, and limitations. As case studies for this analysis, I use the French-based architect Yona Friedman’s and the MIT Architecture Machine Group’s 1970s proposals for participatory design computational systems. I employ the polysemic notion of “performance” to interrogate the two systems in three levels: What rationale supports the authors’ claims that in order for design to well perform for its future users, it should be performed by them? What computational models are developed to enable users to perform their own designs? How can performance, as an intuitive, improvisational process, be used to criticize the traditional models of computation in design participation and devise new computational agendas?

Gün, Onur Yüce. "Performing Realism." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 61-68. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Computation; Immersion; Interaction; Stereoscopy; Visualization

Realistic renderings contain a large amount of information about the spatial, geometric and material properties of prospective buildings that can directly affect design decisions, yet these images are most of the time used as after-the-fact representational visualizations. In this paper we propose a model to make the realistic images a very part of the design and decision making process. If we are to utilize realistic images during earlier decision making stages of the design processes, then we should develop experiential workflows in which we can create and interact with immersive realistic images real-time. We take several steps towards establishing an interactive rendering-animating-editing workflow that enables the designers to work with real-time rendered stereoscopic animations. In our system, we use realism to create an immersive exploration environment, as opposed to underutilizing it to represent a static moment.

Kepczynska-Walczak, Anetta. "Performing the Past and the Present for the Knowledge of the Future." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 453-462. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. 3-D modelling; Cultural Heritage; London Charter; Virtual Reconstructions

The aim of this paper is to discuss the role three-dimensional models play in addressing performance issues in virtual reconstructions of the heritage buildings. Heritage visualisation is considered here as a process of representing knowledge about space, time, behaviour, light, and other elements that constitute cultural environments. The author aims to analyse the process of digital reconstruction of heritage buildings and the impact of the decisions taken during its development on the final performance. Based on the examples drawn from practice, various stages of development are discussed, confronted with the principles of London Charter.

de Abreu, Sandro Canavezzi. "Permeability Regimes between Man and Interactive Spaces." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 449-457. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Digitalization; Hibridization; Interface; Mapping; Permeability

In this paper we will present the permeability regimes: concepts conceived to contribute with the understanding of the new roles and necessary skills for the architect and designer to design performative and interactive spaces. This contribution, as will be shown here, is based on theoretical and empirical bases that will address a specific context: the methods for introducing and making tangible the relation between information, human and space for architecture students. Therefore, we will describe the dynamics of an interactive installation developed by undergraduate students, relating it to the permeability regimes.

Nielsen, Stig Anton. "Physical Form Finding by Embedded Sensors." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 413-421. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Air Flow; Form Finding; Sensor Chaining; Sensors; Tippu Tip

The paper concerns the potential of sensors as architectural design tools in different spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the focus is on how sensors are able to operate in a constantly changing environment, and how sensors might nurture an intuition of otherwise non perceivable aspects of performance within architecture.The study discus two set-ups. Firstly; an onsite sensor reading of changing performance between a refurbished and a classic Arabic house; the study is in large spatial and temporal scale. Secondly; a model design setup where the performance of the same Arabic house typology is tested in small spatial and small temporal scale. The study shows how large scale architecture can be investigated through the use of sensor chaining and how simple sensors can be implemented in a design task in order to give insight to certain aspects of performance. The paper concludes with a discussion on a more general sensor strategy for changing environments and design setups.

Oprean, Danielle, and Bimal Balakrishnan. "Quest for Efficiency: Examining Cognitive Processes Underlying the Use of 3D Modeling Tools." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 101-107. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Computer-Aided Design (CAD); Design Cognition; Efficiency; Modeling Strategies; Task-Analysis

In this paper we examine the strategies used in 3D modeling for their efficiency. Our study explores the underlying cognitive process that drives design thinking as well the choice of strategies for using specific features in a given CAD software. We take a cognitive task analysis approach to examine our question. Of a total sample of 19 participants, the strategies of the fastest and slowest users are compared to identify areas of improvement for software development as well as user training.

Paterson, Greig, Sung Min Hong, Dejan Mumovic, and Judit Kimpian. "Real-time Environmental Feedback at the Early Design Stages." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 79-86. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

It has been argued that traditional building simulation methods can be a slow process, which often fails to integrate into the decision making process of non-technical designers, such as architects, at the early design stages. Furthermore, studies have shown that predicted energy consumption of buildings during design is often lower than monitored energy consumption during operation.In view of this, this paper outlines research to create a user friendly design tool that predicts energy consumption in real-time as early design and briefing parameters are altered interactively. As a test case, the research focuses on school design in England. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were trained to predict the energy consumption of school designs by linking actual heating and electrical energy consumption data from the existing building stock to a range of design and briefing parameters.

Vrouwe, Ivo, and Peter van Swieten. "Reframing Structures." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 703-710. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Craft; Education; Framing; Parametric Design; Structures

This paper aims at the discussion of opportunities and challenges of using specific construction sub-problems as active parameters in the physical construction of digital parametric design models. To create an overview, a taxonomy of sub-problems for construction is introduced. By using prototypes as a physical interface for the digital model, the different sub-problems become an integrated part of the digital design process. By a reflective process the digital model is informed by the material parameters gradually.A case study is presented to discuss two different implementation strategies. The students acting in this study are presented with a combination of five sub-problems. Starting with these sub-problems, the student design a product digitally. By a reflective process, the object is materialized digitally and built physically.

Yoshida, Hironori, and Jessica In. "Rethinking Prototyping: Scan to Production." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 665-672. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper examines how digital scanning techniques can be utilised in the digital fabrication of hybrid materials. It explores how ‘imperfections’ discovered in natural materials can inform unique design solutions. In the first part of this paper, the technical scan-to-production process is explained. Secondly, the paper discusses this new production model against current standardised production processes. Third, the paper introduces ways in which the proposed research method can be incorporated into emerging design practices through three realised projects – Digitized Grain, STP @ Milano Design Week, and Timber X-Ray Scanning; Finally, an assessment of the Research through Design Production over the course of these projects details the key changes in each stage of the STP process.

Akküçük, Zeynep, and Mine Ö. zkar. "Ruling Im/Material Uncertainties." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 305-314. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Visual rules are powerful in loosely capturing the impact of material behavior on form in designer’s hands-on experimentation. They present a first step to translate the causal relations between material and form to computation without sacrificing the uncertainties in the designer’s interaction with the materials. This study investigates how to model the relation between material and form with visual rules so that the model embodies some of the phenomenological aspects of reality, rather than merely reproducing it.

Kurilla, Lukas, Henri Achten, and Miloš Florián. "Scripting Design Supported by Feedback Loop from Structural Analysis." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 51-59. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

In order to support an architect’s decision to evaluate and choose more efficient structural solutions in the concept design, it is necessary to establish an interactive feedback loop between structural solver and geometry modeller which would allow one to analyse a great number of solutions generated in the scripting design process. Defining a cross-disciplinary data structure as an analytical model, the communication between existing structural solver (OOFEM) and geometry modeller (Grasshopper) was established. Automation of the entire analysis process was done by the bridging tools MIDAS and Donkey, which have been developed. This paper presents the method of creation of an analytical model by Donkey, and deals with how to visualize, interpret and use the result values from the structural analysis.

Stojanovic, Djordje, and Milutin Cerovic. "Self-regulating Fields and Networks." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 633-642. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper will explore the connection between two theoretical models, initially identified as the Field and the Network Conditions (Allen, 1997; Wigley, 2001) and material based studies in architectural design, conducted as a sequence of experiments. A number of prototypical models have been produced to test the practical and theoretical dimensions of the design approach which employs elastic material performance to achieve highly versatile spatial organization. One of the concrete outcomes of the exploration is the specific software extension produced by the authors of this paper. Its purpose is to enable designers to maintain an indirect control of complex spatial models based on the use of two parallel sets of algorithmic protocols which define: a. geometric logic and b. intrinsic material behavior.

Schindler, Christoph, Martin Tamke, Ali Tabatabai, and Martin Bereuter. "Serial Branches." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 605-613. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013. Digital Fabrication and Construction; Furniture; Material Performance; Shape Recognition; Wood Construction

The question whether contemporary information technology with its potential for individual fabrication allows for a new approach to the uniqueness that is offered to us by nature was discussed within a 8-day workshop. 19 students of KADK explored the performative potential of naturally angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, but swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials.

Ozel, Filiz. "SolarPierce: A Solar Path Based Generative System." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 127-134. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

In hot and arid climates, limiting solar heat gain while also providing daylight into a structure is a major concern in building design. Building skin that gradually changes in porosity can help limit solar heat gain. Since solar heat gain is primarily a problem during summer, the path the sun follows during summer must be taken into account in determining opening sizes. In this paper, the researcher reports on a study where a generative system called SolarPierce was developed using AutoLISP, the scripting language of AutoCAD, to generate solid geometry for a building skin based on the sun’s path in a given geographical area. The system automatically punches different size openings in a given shell structure where openings facing the sun are the smallest and those fully facing away from the sun are the largest. Opening sizes gradually change from a given minimum to a given maximum depending on how much they face the sun.

Shah, Mahnaz. "Space-non-Space and the Role of Computational Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 329-335. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper questions the context and meaning of space or the ‘spatial’ within the current architectural and urban rhetoric as suggested by Vidler (2011) in his essay Transparency and Utopia: Constructing the void from Pascal to Foucault. As a case in point this paper further introduces the context of ‘non-space’ as supposedly introduced by Le Corbusier in his Potato Building typology studies conducted during the early 1960s. In both the above instances the concept of ‘enlightment space’ or a geometrical, rational gridded and above all transparent space is contrived and skewed to accommodate alternate determinates – space in this instance, according to Vidler; no longer operates as an instrument of monumental construction but rather as an agent of monumental dissolution. Given the above definition, the paper critically evaluates the role of computational design within this spatial decomposition.

Tomé, Ana, Teresa Heitor, and Mário Nunes. "Space-Use Interactions Described Through Computer Vision." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 403-412. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper examines analytical procedures aimed at the study of the functional condition of architectural artefacts and, as a result, the promotion of a better understanding of the connections established with spatial conditions. The goal is to contribute to the development of techniques based on computer vision of mobility and users’ interaction, producing non-arbitrary registries of their movement/navigation and occupancy/co-presence patterns via a quantitatively based analysis.Movement/navigation and occupancy/co-presence patterns were correlated with configurational properties obtained by applying the space syntax descriptive model (Hillier and Hanson, 1984). It was possible to analyse relations between the spatial configuration and the movement/navigation and occupancy/co-presence patterns, a key question within the architectural conceptual process.

Weston, Mark, and Dan Greenberg. "Sweetgum Panels." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 569-573. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

The paper describes a novel technique for creating flat, bi-layer, compliant mechanisms for adaptive building components to be used in solar shading. Micro-actuation of these periodic, flexible devices cause innumerable three-dimensional micro-loops to erupt in the panel surface, permitting passage of diffused light while maintaining visual privacy and shade.

Costa, Eduardo Castro e, and José Pinto Duarte. "Tableware Shape Grammar." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 635-644. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Mass customization is pointed as a means of improving a company’s competitiveness, which is an essential trait in Europe’s economic situation of today. This paper reports a mockup implementation of the mass customization paradigm to ceramic tableware design, through the use of shape grammars, parametric modelling and rapid prototyping. Focus is emphasized on the initial development of a parametric shape grammar as a design system, operating on curved surfaces and solids. Mapping operations are suggested for dealing with the formal complexity of these shapes. This initial academic experiment poses as a first step into the development of a mass customization system that is expected to meet industry standards.

Georgakopoulou, Sofia, Daniel Zünd, and Gerhard Schmitt. "The City Biosphere." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 255-264. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper introduces a new experimental city generation, assembly and development platform, the urban mutations platform. We describe in detail a methodology for modeling urban systems and their dynamics, based on self-organization principles. The urban area is seen as an organism comprised of different “body parts”, the urban subunits. Upon creation of an initial 3D urban environment, it is possible to add to the subunits the so-called mutations, i.e. structural and functional components that can have beneficial or detrimental effects to the future city development. After addition of the mutations we allow the city to reorganize itself and observe possible changes in the urban configuration. These changes can be directly correlated to the added mutations and their urban qualities and allow us to probe the effect that different structural and functional elements have on the dynamic behaviour of the city, when placed at specific locations.

Cohen, Itai, Michela Turrin, Florian Heinzelmann, and Ivo Welzner. "The Human Factor – Introducing Game Mechanics to Computerized Home Automation Systems." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 175-184. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

A method of integration of game mechanics and game dynamics into a user interface for a home automation system as means of reducing the inhabitant’s environmental footprint is described and detailed up to the point of proof of concept. In detail, the paper describes the game framework and the method in which the competitive game could be balanced between different dwellings to ensure a fair game. A unique and intuitive method of control via smartphone is described that aims at making the interaction with the device and game more intrusive and friendly. This method is prototyped and tested to the stage of proof of concept.

Araneda, Claudio. "The Jacobs´ Urban Lineage Revisited." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 355-363. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Since the almost simultaneous publication of Kevin Lynch and Jane Jacobs´ seminal and pioneer urban manifestos, the discipline has been increasingly permeated by what could be rightly called the phenomenological impulse. While sharing methodological principles, however, they represent two very distinct approaches to the study of urban matters, a distinction rooted on their chosen object of study. The drawing of this distinction constitutes this research´s point of departure. Its fundamental aim is to help further the development of what we characterize as the Jacobs´s lineage of urban thought. To this end, the paper outlines methodological rudiments for the development of a methodological tool that would allow the beginning of a systematic study of the patterns of people´s presence and absence in urban space (streets). We call it Urban Polaroid. This work is part of a government funded (fondecyt 11110450) project.

Barros, Pedro, José Beirão, and José Pinto Duarte. "The Language of Mozambican Slums." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 715-724. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

A shape grammar was developed for analyzing the evolution of Maputo´s slums with the strategic objective of capturing the evolution of house types and understanding the social agreements behind the spatial relations of their house elementary spaces in order to reuse such rules for the purpose of rehabilitation. This paper shows preliminary results of the research and aims at developing, based on the resulting grammars, a parametric tool able to execute morphological analyses, simulations and generate improved design solutions for the qualification of Maputo´s informal settlements.

Jabi, Wassim, Barbara Grochal, and Adam Richardson. "The Potential of Evolutionary Methods in Architectural Design." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 217-226. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

In this paper we examine the potential of combining 2D shape packing algorithms and evolutionary methods in the design process. We investigate the ways such algorithms can be used in architectural design and how they may influence it. In the first part of this paper we introduce the theoretical framework of packing algorithms and genetic algorithms as well as the traditional design process and the nature of design problems. In the second part of the paper we introduce a software prototype that tests these algorithms in two contexts: the preliminary design of a shading façade pattern and the design of commercial housing layouts. The aim for both experiments was to generate optimal configurations based on user-defined criteria without resorting to exhaustive search. Several lessons were learned that point to the potential of evolutionary methods in architecture as well as the limitations of such methods. We conclude the paper with recommendations for further developing this research project.

Coimbra, Eugénio, and Luís Romão. "The Rehabilitation Design Process of the Bourgeois House of Oporto: Shape Grammar Simplification." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 677-685. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This study was accomplished in the context of a broader research to be developed in an ongoing PhD program in architecture. The purpose of this study is to give a perspective of the research progress and to present a shape grammar simplification that will be improved to assist the rehabilitation design process of the bourgeois house of Oporto.The typology of the bourgeois house of Oporto, built from the late sixteenth century until the early twentieth century, is dominant in the ancient fabric of the city and in need of rehabilitation. From the analysis of a representative sample of a moment of its evolution, it is possible to verify patterns and to define rules.This first approach intends to validate the use of shape grammars as a tool, able to assist the architect in the rehabilitation design process of the bourgeois house of Oporto.

Schneider, Sven, and Dirk Donath. "Topo-Metric Variations for Design Optimization." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 487-495. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

The conception of a Generative Model (GM) is an important step when applying optimization methods in architectural design. The variant spectrum generable with a GM determines if an optimal solution for the different demands placed on a design can be found. Using the example of optimizing façades (more specifically window-layouts), it is shown that GM that exclusively vary either metric or topological properties of the geometry are not sufficient, because they only cover a highly restricted solution-space. To keep the solution space as large as possible, it is argued, that it is necessary to vary both topological and metric properties. The combination of both properties is called topo-metric properties. A GM for the generation of facade variants is presented, that is able to systematically vary these topo-metric properties. The effectiveness of the developed GM compared to conventional GMs is demonstrated using a simple test scenario.

Kanasaki, Kenji, and Hiroya Tanaka. "Traditional Wood Joint System in Digital Fabrication." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 711-717. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Tugite and Shiguchi are traditional architectural techniques of Japan, which connect materials without the use of nails or adhesives. Tugite is a technique to connect materials to augment the lack of length of available materials. Shiguchi is a technique to connect materials at an angle. With a firm basis in this tradition and the craftsmanship involved, we are aiming to apply these traditional joining techniques in digital fabrication. We expect that the application of Tugite and Shiguchi will refine digital fabrication methods and that the value of Tugite and Shiguchi will be rediscovered in the era of digital fabrication. This research was conducted in three steps. The first step was to research all patterns of Tugite and Shiguchi to define its foundation and typology. The second step was to modify Tugite and Shiguchi shapes to allow application in a digital fabrication environment, and also to add functionality. The third step was to create Lego-sized blocks with Tugite and Shiguchi to verify their applicability outside of the field of architecture.

Grasl, Thomas, and Athanassios Economou. "Unambiguity." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 617-620. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

The rule editor of a parametric shape grammar interpreter is presented. The problems that arise are discussed along with their solutions.

Di Mascio, Danilo. "Understanding and Managing the Constructive Characteristics of Vernacular Architecture." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 435-444. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

In this paper a methodology will be presented to investigate and document the constructive characteristics of two raw earth houses: artifacts that belong to the vernacular architecture. The comprehension, analysis and documentation of these architectures presents several problems mainly linked to the impossibility of using a predefined method, because the difficulties relating to each artifact and its characteristics, to particular geographic, cultural and social situations, are unique. To understand and document the constructive features it was decided to realize a three-dimensional digital reconstruction of the two artifacts, using 3D modeling software. Subsequently several graphic works have been elaborated (technological breakdown, sheets with detailed information about the materials, used constructive techniques, etc), useful in managing a recovery or maintenance project.

Androutsopoulou, Eirini. "Urban Body Mutations through the Use of the Network Configuration." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 275-281. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Taking as a starting point the hypotheses that the urban body is a self-adapted ecology made of material and non-material components (Bateson, 1972), relationships between elements are examined in an attempt to destabilize the static division of matter and idea and to inquire into those relationships that determine the structural coupling (Maturana, 2002) between body and environment, as well as the constitution of the body itself. Contemporary technology is used in order to trace these alterations and the urban body is examined as a network configuration. The importance of the methodology adopted by the current research lies in the fact that social and economic factors merge with spatial characteristics, allowing for a visualization and re-interpretation of the urban body mutations based on self-adapted reconfigurations and for a prediction of the structural alterations made possible through the reconfiguration of the synaptic forces between elements.

Wang, Pin-Hung, and Jui-Yen Lin. "Using Smart Controlled AC and Ceiling Fan to Save Energy." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 21-28. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This research aimed to explore the energy savings through the use of smart control as well as ceiling fan in intelligent building. As the energy consumption of air-conditioning (AC) accounts for about 40% of total residential energy, therefore, applying smart control system to the use of AC to achieve the effects of comfy and energy savings should be able to generate positive effect for the energy consumption of overall residential. This study used the smart control system in the intelligent building lab to transmit message to AC for its implementation of next operating step through the indoor temperature sensor in order to achieve energy saving effect.

Koltsova, Anastasia, Bige Tunçer, and Gerhard Schmitt. "Visibility Analysis for 3D Urban Environments." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 375-383. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper presents a visibility analysis tool for 3D urban environments and its possible applications for urban design practice. Literature exists for performing visibility analysis using various methods and techniques, however, tools that result from such research are generally not suitable for use by designers in practice. Our visibility analysis tool resides in Grasshopper, Rhino. It uses a ray casting method to analyze the visibility of façade surfaces from a given vantage point, and of a given urban setting, in particular, buildings and roads. The latter analysis provides information on the best visible buildings/building facades from segments of roads. We established a collaboration with a practicing architect to work on a design competition together, using this tool. The paper elaborates on the visibility analysis methods, presents the tool in detail, discusses the results of our joint work on the competition, and briefly reflects on the evaluation of the use of the tool by design practitioners.

Pak, Burak, and Johan Verbeke. "Walkability as a Performance Indicator for Urban Spaces." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 423-432. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

This paper frames walkability as a performance indicator for urban spaces and critically addresses some of the existing evaluation methods. It introduces alternative strategies and tools for enabling the collective evaluation of walkability and discusses how experiences of the citizens can possibly lead to a social construct of walkability. This discussion is elaborated by a pilot study which includes exploratory research, social-geographic web services and heat maps. Using these tools and methods, it was possible to derive various experiential and environmental spatial qualities, extract problems and identify problematic areas. From these we have learned that walkability may serve as a fruitful conversation framework and a participatory research concept. Furthermore, we were able to develop ideas for solutions to design and planning problems.

Duddumpudi, Krishna, Jules Moloney, and Tane Moleta. "Whispering Walls." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 507-516. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

A design project that explores how augmented reality may be incorporated within architecture to embed hybrid ‘info-tectonic’ detail, across a range of scales is documented. The context in which the project is undertaken is the legacy of South Indian temple design. This opens up a complimentary field of research within a cultural context, to locate another agenda for augmented reality in architecture. The idea of cultural augmentation and its articulation at a range of scales, from the tactile to the urban, was generated through the design project. By way of introduction this mode of research is discussed in relation to CAAD research methods. In conclusion, a general model for cultural augmentation with augmented reality as a scalar continuum is presented.

Ohshima, Taisuke, Takeo Igarashi, Jun Mitani, and Hiroya Tanaka. "WoodWeaver." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 693-702. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

In this study, we propose a novel computational system called WoodWeaver for fabricating curved surfaces from conventional materials without using moulds. We use a cutting-based material bending method called Dukta. Our system enables a user to design a single free-form curved surface and to fabricate it based on the bending deformation characteristics of the material. The system also indicates an invalid shape; that is, one that will break upon bending deformation. The user can then design a valid shape with this information. We also develop an optimal Dukta pattern that is the smallest-sized gap pattern necessary to represent a user-designed shape. Given a valid shape, the system generates the optimal pattern and a machine cuts four modules with this pattern. Finally, the user assembles these modules to obtain the desired shape.

Loffreda, Gianluigi, Antonio Fioravanti, and Luigi Avantaggiato. "[Architectural] Reasoning over BIM/CAD Database." In Computation and Performance - Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference, 495-503. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2013.

Design activity is pervasive as it is increasingly expanding into all sectors and every day it is increasingly difficult to anticipate the often unpredictable changes resulting from new inventions and changes in technology, tools, methods and social customs using current design systems, and at the same time we need to preserve and store knowledge and experiences that can help facing aforementioned problems. The present paper illustrates an innovative Rule Layer overlying existing commercial software in order to model Reasoning and Performance verification Rules to be applied to design instances. The authors developed two different prototypes, one on BIM and one on CAD commercial software in order to validate the proposed approach. Results demonstrate the general system potentials opened up to further research development and deepening.