Keywords Abstract
QaQish, Ra’Ed K.. "15 Years of CAD Teaching in Jordan: How Much Has Been Accomplished? A Comparative Analysis of the Use of CAD in Architectural Schools Between 1997 and 2012." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 23-32. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The paper reports on a study which examines the evolution in architectural education trends arising from the changes brought about by both Socioeconomic Factors and the implications of CAAD in the last 15 years in Jordanian universities. The findings reflect the views of thirteen (13) architecture faculties/schools through a nation-wide questionnaire survey conducted in the spring of 2012. The survey was structured to cover both private and public universities in Jordan, represented by faculties of engineering, architecture and design. Structurally, the main fi ndings of this study are summarized under six areas, namely: 1) General Studentsí Information, 2) Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors, 3) CAD Competences amongst both Staff and Students, 4) Program of Study and CAD Courses, 5) Overall Satisfaction of CAD Courses and Training , 6) CAD and Social Networks. The majority of student respondents were females (144) (53.3%). The top laptop brands used were HP (17%) Toshiba (12.2%) and Dell (7.8%). The CAD packages found to be most highly used throughout universities were AutoCAD, 3D Max, Sketch-up, and Adobe Suite. The importance of new technologies, electronic book, and the social network aspects in enhancing CAD and 3D modeling software integration with the design studio was affi rmed yet no relationship to the gender was noted.

Kubicki, Sylvain, Annie Guerriero, Pierre Leclercq, Koenraad Nys, and Gilles Halin. "4D modeling and simulation for the teaching of structural principles and construction techniques. Towards modeling and visualization guidelines for high-rise buildings." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 87-95. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

4D CAD is more and more used in construction education curricula. The main interest of this technology is its ability to simulate real sequencing of construction tasks in order to confront the student with real-life construction management issues. This article presents a course for architects and construction engineers. It describes the teaching of the structural principles of high-rise buildings, using 4D simulations as a support to the analysis of the characteristics of existing projects. The pedagogical interest of 4D CAD is described in the article through assessments of students and the teaching team. Particular feedback is given about modeling and visualization guidelines for the purpose of the pedagogical use of 4D CAD.

Boeykens, Stefan, Caroline Himpe, and Bob Martens. "A Case Study of Using BIM in Historical Reconstruction: The Vinohrady synagogue in Prague." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 729-737. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This article refl ects on the digital reconstruction of the Vinohrady Synagogue in Prague, which was demolished in 1951. Based on an international collaboration through the Erasmus program, expertise derived from other Viennese synagogue reconstructions at TU Vienna was combined with a resource organization methodology developed at KU Leuven. The reconstruction process is carried out using BIM software, which poses some particular attention on the software methodology and model structure, but at the same time illustrates the added value of a BIM approach, when comparing with more traditional CAD modelling systematics. Of particular interest is the approach for modelling complex geometry, integrating with more traditional 2D documents and for visualizing reconstruction assumptions within the 3D model representation.

Mohammad, Kareem El Sayed, Mohammad Assem Hanafi, and Mohammad Nasr. "A Closer Perspective on Fabrication Realities." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 169-179. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Digital Fabrication has arguably stirred the return of the architect to the long-held position as a master builder. The close engagement with materials offered by the digital fabrication technologies places necessary limitations and calls the architects for a deeper understanding of and awareness about the fabrication realities during the design process. The research conducted uses parametric modeling for the alteration of the design according to a wide range of infl uences, one of which is fabrication. This paper offers a close perspective on some fabrication necessities and limitations that emerged through the manufacturing of a number of scaled models of a parametrically designed shed and a full scale pavilion. The scope of this work falls into the realm of physical testing, tolerance, structure and assembly. It also points out the fabrication parameters that were part of the digital setting used to create the physical models. The paper argues that craft is still practically alive when deploying digital technologies as it has been ever present in the pre-digital era.

Shin, Dongyoun, Stefan Müller Arisona, Sofia Georgakopoulou, Gerhard Schmitt, and Sungah Kim. "A Crowdsourcing Urban Simulation Platform on Smartphone Technology: Strategies for Urban Data Visualization and Transportation Mode Detection." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 377-384. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

We propose a crowdsourcing simulation environment that brings human intention into the urban simulator. Our fundamental goal is to simulate urban sustainability by employing direct human interaction. In this paper we present a prototype mobile phone application that implements a novel transportation mode detection algorithm. The mobile phone application runs in the background and continuously collects data from the built-in acceleration and network location sensors. The collected data is analyzed by the transportation mode detection algorithm and automatically partitioned into activity segments. A key observation of our work is that walking activity can be robustly detected in the data stream and acts as a separator for partitioning the data stream into other activity segments. Each vehicle activity segment is then sub-classifi ed according to the type of used vehicle. Our approach yields high accuracy despite the low sampling interval and not requiring GPS data that bring minimized device power consumption. Ultimately, the collected information can be translated into real-time urban behavior and will indicate sustainability, both on the personal and the city level.

Prousalidou, Elena. "A Digital Model for Fabric Formwork Panels: Using Physical Data to Train the Digital Model." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 159-167. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In the context of a wider inquiry on the integration of material properties and construction processes in computational models, this paper proposes a digital model for fabric formwork panels. Plaster cast in different types of fabric can produce a significant variation of resulting forms. The aim is to investigate whether data retrieved from physical models with 3D scanning techniques can improve the accuracy and efficiency of a simulation based on geometric principles, and better predict the behaviour of cast material in relation to the type of fabric. Setting up the computational model and choosing its parameters and constraints is based on the physical construction process, highlighting the relationship between material and form. As part of the cyclical exchange, evaluation of the digital model with physical testing demonstrates that the simulation can actually be trained by reducing the physical/ digital discrepancies.

Pitts, Gregg, and Mark Luther. "A Parametric Approach to 3D Massing and Density Modelling." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 157-165. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper addresses the current void between social agendas, environmental criteria and design methodology in urban planning through the implementation of new computational systems. It considers the application of digital design tools such as GIS and parametric systems towards more effi cient and effective design solutions. The digital design methods have been developed and tested within Grimshaw Architects Design Technology Group on both Australian and international urban development projects. A methodology for the use of parametric design for urban design development is suggested for defi ning, simplifying and categorising planning and design strategies. The following tools are a means of generating urban design concepts as digital forms in order to better inform the designer during the design process.

Kotsopoulos, Sotirios D., Federico Casalegno, Bob Hsiung, and Wesley Graybill. "A Prototype Hut for the Post-Digital Age." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 317-326. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The paper presents how the latest advances in autonomous building management and electrically activated materials affect the design, production, and operation of residential buildings. The innovative features of an elementary prototype house, which is at the fi nal stage of construction in Trento, N. Italy, are discussed with a view to expose the opportunities and the problems that these new technological developments pose to design research.

Reinhardt, Dagmar, William Martens, and Luis Miranda. "Acoustic Consequences of Performative Structures Modelling Dependencies between Spatial Formation and Acoustic Behaviour." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 577-586. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The paper discusses an interdisciplinary exchange between parametric design and acoustic simulation. It reviews a strategic development of temporary dynamic structures that can be manipulated by intersecting variations of formation in generative architecture with acoustic simulation. The research investigates drivers that interface knowledge between parametric design, structural engineering and fabrication, interaction design and acoustics, and theatre and performance. It reviews the simulation of a temporary theatre installation into an existent industrial hall, whereby different formation of a modular structure are explored, and the acoustic effects of this installation are evaluated in relation to an enhancement of the audiences spatial and acoustic experience. The research goes beyond the morphological, aesthetic or structural values that have become key aspects of contemporary digital architecture, and relates them to the field of auralisation (forecasting acoustic behaviour). In that manner, the simulation and analysis of a future (material, spatial) objects is developed through the communication of an interdisciplinary team, thus exploring synergetic qualities of the physical and the digital.

Foged, Isak Worre, Anke Pasold, Mads Brath Jensen, and Esben Skouboe Poulsen. "Acoustic Environments: Applying Evolutionary Algorithms for Sound Based Morphogenesis." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 347-353. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The research investigates the application of evolutionary computation in relation to sound based morphogenesis. It does so by using the Sabine equation for performance benchmark in the development of the spatial volume and refl ectors, effectively creating the architectural expression as a whole. Additional algorithms are created and used to organise the entire set of 200 refl ector components and manufacturing constraints based upon the GA studies. An architectural pavilion is created based upon the studies illustrating the applicability of both developed methods and techniques.

Pak, Burak, and Johan Verbeke. "Affordable Web-based Collaborative Mapping Environments for the Analysis and Planning of the Green Networks of Brussels." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 413-422. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In this paper, we will discuss the potentials of affordable Geoweb 2.0 technologies. We will reveal two affordable open-source collaborative mapping frameworks and explore their potentials, strengths and weaknesses through two different field implementations in the form of case studies. Refl ecting on our experiences with these cases we will compare the two technological frameworks in terms of participation and mapping support as well as data security, cross-browser compatibility, interface customizability, import-export capability and required level of expertise for setup and management. Moreover, with a designerly lens, we will discuss the levels of design empowerment in two cases in relation with user profi les and pre-designated contribution styles. Finally, we will identify open challenges and suggest future directions.

Marqueto, Priscilla, and Marcelo Tramontano. "Among Communities: The Collective Construction of Hybrid Spatialities Through Remote Communication." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 309-316. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents considerations and refl ections based on experiments conducted in the course of cultural activities within the Hybrids Territories Project for Public Policies, fi nanced by FAPESP and in force at Nomads.usp since March 2011. Starting from previous experiences using classical methods of qualitative research, such as semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, other ways of approaching and understanding the complexity of urban and social realities were sought. The reflections here presented were formed from the trial of methodological procedures, derived from other fields of knowledge and practices already recurrent in some communities. The aim is to verify the limits and potentialities of previously tested procedures and instruments, structured through digital media, to understand the diversity of ways of living in social housing estates with housing units similar to each other and located in the outskirts of two different cities.

Simeone, Davide, and Yehuda E. Kalay. "An Event-Based Model to simulate human behaviour in built environments." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 525-532. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

During a design process, few methods allow designers to evaluate if and how the future building will match and affect its intended use and its intended users. Computer simulation techniques have focused on prediction of human behavior in built environments in order to overcome this lack; nevertheless, their applications are limited to representation of specifi c behavioral aspects while a reliable representation of building response to actual use is still missing. Based on current developments in the video game industry, the research described here aims to establish a new approach to simulating human behavior in buildings, centered on a clear definition of use scenarios as specific structures of active entities called Events. They provide information about occurrences happening during the use process in terms of Actors involved, Activities performed and Space where the event takes place. Equipped with AI engines, events control and coordinate the actorsí behavior during the simulation, representing their interaction, cooperation and collaboration.

Kocaturk, Tuba, Riccardo Balbo, Benachir Medjdoub, and Alejandro Veliz. "An Innovative Approach to Technology Mediated Architectural Design Education: A Framework for a Web-Based Socio-Cognitive Eco-system." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 55-65. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Learning in architecture has shifted from an individual focused approach to a larger system of interacting individuals in a situated, tool-mediated and socio-technical context. In addition to developing essential skills to work with diverse design software and taking part in collaborative design activities, learners also need to be equipped with competencies that will allow them to operate intelligently outside of situations of distributed cognitions. The challenge in present educational climate is to develop pedagogical approaches where situations of distributed cognition are not the ends themselves but are the means for improving mastery of solo competencies. The paper contributes to the current discussion about the need to re-orient architectural education and proposes a pedagogical framework for the development of a new web-based teaching/learning environment (socio-cognitive eco-system) as an integrated platform to support both autonomous and distributed learning.

Wierzbicki-Neagu, Madalina, and Clarence Wilfred de Silva. "Application of Fuzzy Logic for Optimizing Foldable Freeform Geometries: An example of a practical application ñ a foldable window shade." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 709-717. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper concerns the current discourse on computer-aided design tools for architectural design. There are drawbacks of purely analytic design tools which hinder a system-level, end-effect oriented ideation. For instance, most freeform quadrilateral meshes are fully constrained and therefore not capable of folding. They can only fold under special circumstances ñ when their geometry satisfi es the conditions of over-constrained kinematics. However, such intent of folding cannot be captured using simple modeling based on parameters and constraints. Furthermore, algorithmization of mesh kinematics using formulas is infl exible, it cannot handle topological variations, and it inhibits the interactive control of the model. In this paper, a fuzzy logic algorithm which uses a goal-oriented, human-like reasoning to control the parametric model is proposed. The algorithm applies easily observable behaviors of the geometry to adjust the selected patches until the entire shell can be folded. The algorithm relies on designer-observable characteristics of motion rather than on formulaic representations. Such approach directs the designersí focus on the desired outcome while avoiding the drawbacks of analytic modeling of complex kinematics.

Langenhan, Christoph, Arne Seifert, Astrid Teichert, and Frank Petzold. "ar:searchbox - Knowledge management for architecture students." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 639-645. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

As media-orientation and access to media becomes increasingly widespread in society, so too is the availability of architectural designs on the internet. In most cases these are published in the form of raster images of plans, elevations and perspective drawings together with written descriptions on architecture databases and platforms such as archINFORM or nextroom, as well as on the homepages of the respective architecture offi ces. Knowledge is generally regarded as useful information. However, the literature does not elaborate clear differentiations between what is knowledge, and what is information and data. In our view it is the preparation of information in data structures that makes it useful as knowledge. Knowledge management systems are therefore intelligent information systems in which knowledge is presented and made useful through representation and modelling methods (Abeckerand Decker, 1999).

Jones, Paulo, Sara Eloy, Rui Ricardo, and Miguel Sales Dias. "Architectural Rehabilitation and Conservation Processes Informed by Augmented Reality." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 411-418. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The goal of the presented research is to explore human-machine interaction and to study how Augmented Reality (AR) may be a potential tool to inform Architectural Rehabilitation and Conservation processes. Nowadays obtaining data to inform both marchitecture projects and real estate investments is a very bureaucratic process. City councils technicians suffers from the same diffi culties when are in fi eldwork to do inspections and lack a complete sort of information. This proposal considers that the use of mobile technologies as smart phones and tablets can empower these technicians to obtain building related data. The specifi c goal of the study aims to develop a data model and an interface that can be made available to professionals which allows an efficiently reply to the userís needs as the system enables the gathering of updated information considering a particular building.

Stavric, Milena, Dragana Stokic, and Maja Ilic. "Architectural Scale Model in Digital Age ñ Design Process, Representation and Manufacturing." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 33-42. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The topic of this paper is the concept and outcomes of the new syllabus of the course Visualization and Modeling. The aim of the course is to introduce students to digital and analog methods of design, visualization and fabrication. In order for students to acquire such complex matter more effi ciently, the classes are held in the form of a five-day workshop. Topics to be covered in the workshop are selected based on their character, which is meant to bear a resemblance to that of architectural design, scaled down to match the scope and goals of the workshop.

Kurilla, Lukas, Marek Ruzicka, and Milos Florián. "Architectural software tool for structural analysis (ATSA) intended for intuitive form-fi nding process." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 547-553. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents Architectural software Tool for Structural Analysis (ATSA) which is designed as a software bridge between architectural and structural software programmes. It has been developed at university in cooperation with architects and structural engineers, intended to make their interdisciplinary cooperation more efficient. ATSA is aimed to provide structural analysis of drafts created by an architetct in the early stages of design in order to enable the architect to understand the mechanical responses of the structure to loading, and thus optimise it creatively through an intuitive form-finding process.

Varoudis, Tasos. "Augmented Visibility: A Visibility Graph Analysis for Hybrid Architectural Spaces." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 401-409. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The introduction of digital technologies in architecture formed new relations between space and people that are affected by the redefi nitionof the spatial properties. Ambient projections can augment walls creating hybrid spatial confi gurations without changing the physical morphology of space. Such augmentations allow space to be transformed into a dynamic environment where visual boundaries are dissolved. This paper argues that in order to adapt our understanding of spatial analysis we need to look space as a dual system of physical and virtual properties incorporating humanís behavioural and perceptional changes.Extending the idea of visibility graph analysis by using the ëaugmented visibilityí representation, which includes a joined set of spaces in both physical and virtual domain, the paper presents interesting fi nding and correlations with data fromexperiment observations.

Balaban, Özgün, Elif Sezen Yagm Kilimci, and Gülen Çağdaş. "Automated Code Compliance Checking Model for Fire Egress Codes." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 117-125. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Architecture today has come to its most complex form. There are lots of criteria such as fi re safety, structure, sustainability etcÖ which must be controlled by the designers. To improve the performance and accessibility of buildings, governing bodies publish different codes for each of the different criteria. Buildings must comply with these codes to get a permit for construction. The checking of the buildings according the codes is done manually by code offi cials. This process is time consuming, high in cost and prone to errors. To remedy this problem by using the tools like BIM and AI, systems that can automatically check the code compliance of projects are being developed. In this paper we provide an overview of the structures and capabilities of these systems and present the automated code compliance checking system that we develop for checking building models against some parts of the Turkish Fire Codes.

Casucci, Tommaso, and Alessio Erioli. "Behavioural Surfaces: Project for the Architecture Faculty library in Florence." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 339-345. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Behavioural Surfaces is a thesis project in Architecture discussed on December 2010 at the University of Florence. The project explores the surfacespace relationship in which a surface condition, generated from intensive datascapes derived from environmental data, is able to produce spatial differentiation and modulate structural and environmental preformance. Exploiting material self-organization in sea sponges as surfaces that deploy function and performance through curvature modulation and space defi nition, two different surface definition processes were explored to organize the system hierarchy and its performances at two different scales. At the macroscale, the global shape of the building is shaped on the base of isopotential surfaces while at a more detailed level the multi-performance skin system is defi ned upon the triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS).

Marcos, Carlos L.. "Beyond Phenomenal or Literal Transparency: Physical Digitality." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 551-560. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The interesting distinction established by Collin Rowe and Robert Slutzky regarding the concept of transparency in modern architecture can be further enriched in relation to digital architecture and the new ways in which architects may address the design of material limits. The polarity between materiality and virtuality, between being and appearance is challenged with the concept of eversion and could lead to what we have referred to as virtual transparency. The intricate performative latticed skins designed and fabricated thanks to C.A.D./C.A.M. techniques have produced different states of transparent visual effects that either conceal or partially suggest silhouettes producing latticed transparencies. Finally, the development of next generation liquid crystal displays may introduce highly responsive transparent membranes in architecture allowing a one step further virtual transparency that could be described as translucent transparency.

Baerlecken, Daniel, Matthew Swarts, Russell Gentry, and Nixon Wonoto. "Bio-Origami: Form Finding and Evaluation of Origami Structures." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 497-504. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents a concept of origami as a form-generator for a structural system that allows deployability for structures with large spans. The presented approach studies the embedded kinetic possibilities of folded structures and focuses on a parametric modelling process that allows evaluating the structural performance of different types of the same origami family in order to optimize the geometry for a given scenario. The workfl ow between scripting based form generation ñ within Rhinoceros and Excel ñ and LS-DYNA is presented in detail. In addition to that the question of scalability from a thin microstructure to a thickened roof structure is discussed in the context of an architectural project.

Doelling, Max, and Farshad Nasrollahi. "Building Performance Modeling in Non-simplified Architectural Design Procedural and cognitive challenges in education." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 97-106. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The building technology class ìParametric Designî simultaneously teaches thermal and daylight performance simulation to novice users, usually Master of Architecture students. Own buildings are created, analysed and geometrically modified during the design process, resulting in structures that are energetically pre-optimized. It is shown that energy demand and daylight utilization can be signifi cantly improved while taking into account formal considerations. Departing from a design process model that gives preference to either engineering or design thinking, multi-modal decision-making is diagnosed to be mediated by hybrid or multivalent representations, necessitating a shift in how inter-domain design knowledge flows might be understood. Opposed to purely linear or iterative process assumptions, a fluent state model of interconnected domains of analytic inquiry is proposed.

Trento, Armando, Antonio Fioravanti, and Davide Simeone. "Building-Use Knowledge Representation for Architectural Design: An ontology-based implementation." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 683-689. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

During building design processes, designers have to predict and evaluate future building performances oriented to its intended use and users. Current BIM and IFC technologies support designers allowing data exchange and information interoperability but, since their lack in semantics, they donít provide any knowledge implementation about how the designed building will be actually used and how people will interact with it. The research described in this paper aims to overcome this shortcoming by developing a new modelling approach, oriented to representation and management of knowledge related to future building use and users. The proposed representation model is based on an already accepted ontology-based structure and will make this large amount of knowledge accessible and usable by designers during architectural design processes, in order to enhance the final quality of the design product.

Thompson, Emine Mine. "Cities and Landscapes. How do they merge in visualisation: An Overview." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 145-155. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Tools and technologies are developing to help us to simulate the cities and landscapes for visualization, analytical and information modeling purposes. This paper, as well as offering an overview of the issues with regards to merging virtual city and landscape models in order to visualize the urban environment as a whole, is investigating various stakeholder requirements in relation to the Virtual NewcastleGateshead (VNG) project.

Dorta, Tomás, Annemarie Lesage, and Carmelo Di Bartolo. "Collaboration and Design Education Through the Interconnected HIS: Immature vs. Mature CI Loops Observed Through Ethnography by Telepresence." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 97-105. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper documents the very first use of the interconnected HIS in a pedagogical setting. For this Augmented Design Studio, where three interconnected HIS were set up, the aim was to foster collaboration and co-design between the project participants as a new approach to teach the virtual design studio and to study the collaborative ideation process. The HIS (Hybrid Ideation Space) is an immersive system that uses freehand sketches and models to exteriorize conceptual ideas. Two innovative research methods have been used to assess this studio: the Collaborative Conversation framework that analyses the design discourse and the Ethnography by Telepresence, a non-intrusive observation method through an unused HIS. The Augmented Design Studio has been observed to help the design students push their project from abstract concepts to formalised concepts because in a pedagogical setting, it fosters collaboration over traditional top-down teacher-student interactions.

Santos, Luís, José Lopes, and António Leitao. "Collaborative Digital Design: When the Architect Meets the Software Engineer." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 87-96. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Increasingly more architects use programming as a means for form finding and design exploration, a tendency that is expected to continue. Even though significant progress has been made in the simplifi cation of programming languages, complex design tasks might still require large coding efforts. We do not think it is wise to force architects to also become experts in programming languages and software engineering. Instead, similarly to what happened with other design and building disciplines, we think that the future of digital design lies in the collaborative effort of architects and software engineers. In this paper we analyze different situations where such collaboration increases productivity and frees the architect to more creative tasks.

Araujo, Bruno, Joaquim Jorge, and José Duarte. "Combining Virtual Environments and Direct Manipulation for Architectural Modeling." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 419-428. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In this paper we present an environment for conceptual design which mimicsthe interaction of designers with physical mockups. We present novel three dimensional on-and-above-the-surface interactive techniques which combine asymmetric bimanual operations with multi-touch direct manipulation on a fl at surface and depth cameras. These take advantage of a continuous interaction space to create and edit 3D models in a stereoscopic environment. To allow modeling architectural shapes directly, we combine hand and finger tracking in the space above the table with multi-touch on its surface without the need to change modes. This provides an alternative design environment where users can seamlessly switch between interacting on the surface or in the space above it depending on the task, which makes it easier to model complex shapes using simple operations.

Zarzycki, Andrzej. "Component-based Design Approach Using BIM." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 67-76. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The promising directions in current design practice and teaching relate to creativity with digital tools in the context of building information modelling (BIM), performance analysis, and simulations as well as digital materiality (computational simulations of materials) and dynamics-based behaviour. This line of research combines spatial design with building and material technology in search of effective and effi cient architecture. It reconstitutes questions of what to design by interrelating them with questions of how and why to design. This paper focuses on the appropriation of BIM tools for architectural curriculum teaching, from the design studio to building technology courses. It specifically focuses on BIM-based parametric modeling in discussing construction details, assemblies, and design explorations in the design studio context.

Nicholas, Paul, and Martin Tamke. "Composite Territories: Engaging a Bespoke Material Practice in Digitally Designed Materials." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 691-699. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Today, material performance is regarded as one of the richest sources of innovation. Accordingly, architecture is shifting to practices by which the computational generation of form is directly driven by material characteristics. At the same time, there is a growing technological means for the varied composition of material, an extension of the digital chain that foregrounds a new need to engage materials at multiple scales within the design process. Recognising that the process of making materials affords perspectives not available with found materials, this paper reports the design and assembly of the fi bre reinforced composite structure Composite Territories, in which the property of bending is activated and varied so as to match solely through material means a desired form. This case study demonstrates how one might extend the geometric model so that it is able to engage and reconcile physical parameters that occur at different scales.

Krieg, Oliver David, Boyan Mihaylov, Tobias Schwinn, Steffen Reichert, and Achim Menges. "Computational Design of Robotically Manufactured Plate Structures Based on Biomimetic Design Principles Derived from Clypeasteroida." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 531-540. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The paper presents the current development of an ongoing research project about the integration of robotic fabrication strategies in computational design through morphological and functional principles derived from natural systems. Initially, a developed plate structure material system based on robotically fabricated fi nger joints is being informed by biomimetic principles from the sea urchin Clypeasteroida in order to be able to adapt effi ciently to its building environment. Consequently, the paperís main focus lies on translating the biomimetic design principles into a computational design tool, also integrating fabrication parameters as well as structural and architectural demands. The design toolís capability to integrate these parameters is shown by the design, development and realization of a full-scale research pavilion. The paper concludes with discussing the performative capacity of the developed material system and the introduced methodology.

Farzaneh, Ali. "Computational Morphogenesis of Architectural Objects." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 593-597. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Dynamic models are embedded with dynamic qualities of complex, non-linear processes that take place over time. The simulation of such processes is new to the field of design and architecture and while they offer potential in the process of design, their implementation has been slow. The purpose of this research is to explore the morphogenesis (process of formation) of digital objects as a collection, by formulating dynamic organizational models.

Hanna, Raid. "Computer Aided Cognition and Creativity: A Three Year Monitoring Exercise." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 233-243. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper tracked the progress of 24 students who were ëintensiveí users of CAD and 26 ëoccasionalí CAD users over a 3 year period. At the end of each year, student attitudes toward creativity dimensions were monitored, using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The statistical tests displayed a signifi cant difference between both groups in terms of ideation fl uency and ideation fl exibility (P<0.05). Within the intensive CAD group the tests also yielded signifi cant differences between years (P<0.05). Ideation fl uency correlated positively with years of study and was infl uenced by CAD and design maturity both as a ëmain effectí and as an ëinteractioní. The cognitive preference for complexity as a design trait in the intensive group also correlated with the increased complexity of the digital tools used; preference for low complexity correlated with the use of direct CAD tools whereas higher levels of complexity correlated with the deployment of parametric and generative tools.

van Stralen, Mateus de Sousa, Ana Paula Baltazar, Lorena Melgaço Marques, and Guilherme Ferreira de Arruda. "Congonhas Media Cascade - Ituita: A Permanent Urban Interactive Interface For Citizenship." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 293-300. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents the process behind the design of an interactive Media Cascade in the historic city of Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. It first introduces the physical and social context of the rehabilitation of the city, in which the cascade, called Ituita, was proposed. Different to the ephemeral character of most urban interactive installations, Ituita intends to become a permanent reference for the citizens, being as much as a playful interface for interaction as a place for raising and putting in evidence issues related to the city. This paper, thus, presents the three different levels of interactionóreactive, pro-active and dialogicalóproposed in the interface designed for Ituita. Then, it discusses the possible urban benefi t of such a proposal and concludes with assessments of both technological and social slant.

Chen, Ting-Han, and Kai-Tzu Lu. "Creating Spatial-Interactive Service Experiences: A Framework for Designing Interactive Service Spaces." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 327-335. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Inspired by the emergence of interactive space design and service design, this paper explores the concept of interactive service space and proposes a framework for designing interactive service space experiences. The framework has been applied in two design projects of successful commercial setting, mojo iCuisine interactive restaurant and Yun-Ching Real Estate VIP Center, as validation of its feasibility and applicability. We believe that this framework is beneficial for designers who have interests in creating service experience with interactive space approach, and for further studies regarding the concept of interactive service space.

Marin, Philippe, Xavier Marsault, Renato Saleri, and Gilles Duchanois. "Creativity with the help of evolutionary design tool." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 319-327. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The general thematic of our work tackles the question of the generative design tool efficiency to stimulate a creative architectural conception in the context of sustainable development. We focus our point of view on the conceptual research phases. We would like to characterise the human creative mechanisms in a situation of generative assistance where digital tool reveals some degree of autonomy and incorporates environmental constraints. Thus, we implement an evolutionary design tool in which energetic performances of the analogon are used in order to orient the evolution. Our tool is based on an interactive genetic algorithm that ensures both a broad exploration of the solutions space and the subjective user preferences accounting. Users groups were confronted to the tool in a conception situation and creativity was evaluated and characterized.

Oxman, Rivka, and Ning Gu. "Crowdsourcing: Theoretical framework, computational environments and design scenarios." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 393-401. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Crowdsourcing is a new concept for breaking with the traditional hierarchical model of collaborative design. Crowdsourcing is based on web-based contributions of individuals in a decentralized digital environment that supports the sharing of opinions and creative ideas. This article develops the concepts and issues associated with the possibility of crowdsourcing design as well as discussing its relationship to prior developments of media environments for collaborative design. Three scenarios for crowdsourcing in architectural design are developed as a basis for considering the requirements for the design and function of crowdsourcing media environments in architectural design.

Chase, Scott, and Lesley Scopes. "Cybergogy as a framework for teaching design students in virtual worlds." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 125-133. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In recent years, 3D virtual worlds have been explored for design teaching, yet it is unclear whether a specifi c pedagogy is used or adapted for such activities. Here we describe the pedagogical model of Cybergogy of Learning Archetypes and Learning Domains, developed specifically for teaching in 3D immersive virtual worlds, and its application to introductory building classes in the virtual world Second Life for architectural design students and teachers as part of the ARCHI21 project.

Hua, Hao. "Decoupling Grid and Volume: A generative approach to architectural design." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 311-317. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Computational design is apt to address all design problems in one model, though these problems usually originated from distinct models. The method of employing one model follows the problem-solving paradigm developed in the early years of CAAD. The paper argues that employing multiple models in one generative process is valid. Furthermore, it can be more productive than using single model. Two experimental programs are implemented. They suggest that each model could work without interrupting other models, thus multiple models can interplay in one design task.

Feringa, Jelle, and Asbjorn Sondergaard. "Design and Fabrication of Topologically Optimized Structures; An Integral Approach - A Close Coupling Form Generation and Fabrication." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 495-500. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Integral structural optimization and fabrication seeks the synthesis of two original approaches; that of topological optimization (TO) and robotic hotwire cutting (HWC) (Mcgee 2011). TO allows for the reduction of up to 70% of the volume of concrete to support a given structure (Sondergaard & Dombernowsky 2011). A strength of the method is that it allows to come up with structural designs that lie beyond the grasp of traditional means of design. A design space is a discretized volume, delimiting where the optimization will take place. The number of cells used to discretize the design space thus sets the resolution of the TO. While the approach of the application of TO as a constitutive design tool centers on structural aspects in the design phase (Xie 2010), the outcome of this process are structures that cannot be realized within a conventional budget. As such the ensuing design is optimal in a narrow sense; whilst optimal structurally though, construction can be prove to be prohibitively expensive.

Sharaidin, Kamil, and Flora Salim. "Design Considerations for Adopting Kinetic Facades in Building Practice." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 629-637. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Interactive architecture plays an increasingly important role in todayís building practice. This includes design and implementation of kinetic facades. However, in the age of digital architecture, design and construction of kinetic facade has been under-explored and not well practically implemented. Hence, new design approach to integrate kinetic facade and architecture is needed for physical and content integration, instead of the traditional design approach. The ultimate objective of this study is to formulate a suitable design method to integrate kinesis with a building. Furthermore, this research aims to establish effective tectonics for kinetic facades through the exploration of different perspectives of practitioners involved directly with kinetic facades.

Macris, Vincent, Lieve Weytjens, Kenny Geyskens, Marc Knapen, and Griet Verbeeck. "Design Guidance for Low-Energy Dwellings in Early Design Phases: Development of a simple design support tool in SketchUp." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 691-699. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Considering the energy effi ciency and comfort levels of dwellings, stricter legislation will be applied towards 2020. To reach these requirements, an insight into the energy effi ciency becomes essential from the start of a design. However, the uptake of building simulation tools by architects and students to evaluate the energy performance during the architectural design process remains very limited, mainly due to the complexity of these tools. Therefore, this research aims at early design support through an easy-to-use application adapted to the modelling logic of a designer. As architects often use simple CAAD design tools for design exploration, a prototype was established in Google SketchUp. In this context, the paper presents the development of a support tool for low-energy dwellings in early design phases, allowing designers to quickly assess the thermal comfort and energy performance of early design alternatives.

Das, Subhajit, and Florina Dutt. "Design optimization in a hotel and offi ce tower through intuitive design procedures and advanced computational design methodologies. Facade design optimization by computational methods." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 235-243. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The research topic of this paper exemplifies design optimization techniques of a hotel/office tower in Central China (Nanjing city), which faces subtropical humid climate throughout the year. The main intent of the project is to fi nd optimized design solution with the aid of parametric design tools and Visual Basic Scripting techniques (in Rhino Script & Grasshopper) combined with intuitive design process. In any urban context, we firmly believe that architectural design is a responsive phenomenon, which faces diverse interaction with the user & the local climate. The building design of the proposed tower acknowledges these responsive factors of the design with the environment along with building users or residents. Consequently, we strive to develop a sustainable design solution, which is ecologically efficient and psychologically conducive to the wellbeing of the user. We developed our intuitive design product with complex computational design toolsets to leverage design and energy efficiency. In this procedure, we draw major design concepts and geometrical typologies from natural systems in the form of bio mimicry or biologically inspired design process. Overall, this research paper outlines the significance and relevant benefi ts of the combination of intuitive design (from experience, expertise and architects skills) with parametric scripting tools.

Hradecny, Martin, and Zdenek Kolár. "Design Process in the Stage of Changes: Architects Learning New Role." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 201-209. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Many researchers spent time analyzing design process, some of them were focused even on architectural design. Many of them presented possible views how to understand (architectural) design. They try to fi nd universal description of what design might be and how and what principles it uses. Concern in their approach is given on Ñconceptualì stage of the design process, or simply all design process is referred as conceptual, with some features of Ñproductì design. That is an aspect, which we, as practitioners, see from a slightly different point of view. It relates to what we consider to be architecture. In our point of view architecture is completed building.

Asanowicz, Aleksander. "Design: Analogue, Digital, and Somewhere in Between." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 273-280. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The problem considered in this paper is: ìIn what way do we design?î This paper concentrates on the early creative stages of the design process during which the designer gradually gathers the information about the problem, applying appropriate rules, tools and media. If the tools are chosen as a starting point of consideration, designing may be analysed as manual or digital. If we chose the medium - design may be considered as physical or virtual. The main thesis of this paper is that designing proceeds somewhere in between. ìSomewhere in betweenî means the space where manual, digital, virtual are mixing, overlapping, and transforming one into the other. As a case study the process of designing of blurred function object is presented. In this experimental design studio we paid particular attention to the design process and we searched for the answer to the following questions: how to find an idea (what tools/media are helpful), how to express, fi x and transform that idea? In the paper the examples of studentsí work will be presented and discussed.

Ham, Jeremy J., Marc Aurel Schnabel, and Sambit Datta. "Developing Online Construction Technology Resources in Tectonic Design Education." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 135-142. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

We outline issues of importance in relation to tectonic design within the architectural profession and the relationship to architectural education in Australia. Twelve years of research and curriculum development at Deakin University is discussed, involving the creation of online resources and case studies, digitally-integrated projects relating to building construction and design studio education. The ethos behind the Construction Primer of engaging students as ëamateur researchersí in a way that ensures ëthat student research work is worth more than course assessmentí forms the pedagogical foundation of much of this work. A model of Socially Networked Construction Technology education has been developed that integrates social networks and the Internet to engage students in tectonic design within and outside the classroom through authentic curricula. Through the use of Virtual Galleries, Blogs, YouTube and social networks, a culture of peer learning and sharing has ben developed. Through shared knowledge facilitated through social networks, great potential lies for expanding the synergies between higher order learning and online resource development for design decision support.

Veliz, Alejandro, Tuba Kocaturk, Benachir Medjdoub, and Riccardo Balbo. "Dialogs Between Physical and Digital Modelling Methods on Architectural Design." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 281-289. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

As the current digitally-mediated architectural practice evolves, architectural models, regardless of their expressiveness or type, are a way to craft the interaction between the designer and the designed object. Models become artefacts that engage on a continuous interaction with the designer via different media, interpretation and knowledge retrieval schemes, organizational fl ows and tools. These interactions have recently been facilitated by the use of physical and digital production and analysis methods. In this report, we introduce a novel understanding of the relationships between physical and digital modelling techniques. We propose an updated framework that allocates these relationships into four categories: directed production, non-directed production, dual modelling, and mixed modelling. A review of different modelling classifications and frameworks is presented and exemplary case studies from the design domain are introduced for each category.

van Ameijde, Jeroen, and Brendon Carlin. "Digital Construction: Automated Design and Construction Experiments Using Customised On-Site Digital Devices." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 439-446. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents a currently on-going research trajectory, investigating integrated design and build work-fl ows using generative design strategies and custom built fabrication devices. The aim of the research, which is being developed through a series of experiments and workshops, is to explore scenarios in which these work-flows can produce emergent architectural structures which are highly adapted towards the intended performance within their specifi c context and site. The research has produced a number of installations and prototypical structures which test the practical and theoretical dimensions of the methodology explored. This paper will introduce intriguing new scenarios in which the architectsí role is focused on an indirect, advanced level of control of the process of design, allowing for a more open-ended method of negotiation between structure, users and environment.

Jutraz, Anja, and Tadeja Zupancic. "Digital system of tools for public participation and education in urban design: Exploring 3D ICC." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 383-392. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This article is a starting point for the development of experiential urban co-design interfaces to enhance public participation in local urban projects and to be also used as a communication and collaboration tool in urban design. It is based on the previous research involving 3D city models utilized as understandable design interfaces for the non-technical public (Jutraz, Zupancic, 2011), where we have already explored different views (pedestrian, intermediate and birdís-eye view), as well as the means by which the information obtained from these different views may be combined by shifting between viewpoints. Previous work was conducted in the ìstreet labî as well as the Urban Experimental Lab, which was developed specifi cally for the publicís participation in urban planning (Voigt, Kieferle, Wˆssner, 2009). Presented in this article is the next step that explores the immersive collaboration environment 3D ICC [1], formerly known as Teleplace. The environment was developed for effi cient collaboration and remote communication and shifts the research focus towards questions regarding how to employ both labs as interfaces between the non-technical public and design professionals. As we are facing the lack of digital systems for public participation and education in urban design, different digital tools for communication and collaboration should be combined into a new holistic platform for design. A digital system of tools needs to be developed that supports the urban design decision-making process and focuses on improved final solutions and increased satisfaction amongst all participants. In this article the system of digital tools for public participation, which include communication, collaboration and education, will be also defi ned, with its basic characteristics and its elements.

Gül, Leman Figen. "Educating new generation of architects." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 77-85. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Recently the developments in and the extensive use of digital design technologies have brought about fundamental changes in the way architects design and represent. As a result of the changing architectural design practise, there have been significant changes in architectural curricula to accommodate new demands, opportunities, processes and potentials provided by advance digital design tools and fabrication-based design techniques. Based on this new demand in design education, a number of additional subjects have been introduced in architectural curricula facilitating the experimentation of free-form /complex design artefact, building components and material attributes. Reported in this paper is the experience of the students as well is a commentary on the quality of the outcomes they achieved whilst confronting this new learning experience. Based on the analysis of collected questionnaire answers, this paper will document the issues that the students experienced during digital design development, the modelling and assembling level as well as in the process of fabrication.

M. Ferreira, Piedade, Duarte Cabral de Mello, and José Pinto Duarte. "Embodied Emotions: A Phenomenological Approach to Computation to Explore Empathy Through Architecture." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 599-604. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In this paper we present a PhD research that aims to develop a design methodology that, using computational tools can generate livable spaces that allow the design of user centered architecture. We propose that a ìcorporeal architectureî might be able to work in a prophylactic or therapeutic way that can face some adversities generated by the contemporary impact of technology in the human body. We are using motion as the basis the tool to simulate the bodyís motion as a spatial generator. We hope to understand how an embodied space, generated by motions that refl ect emotions, can create a sense of attunement with its dwellers. We also wish to achieve the holistic stimuli of the human body in a naturally immersive environment, with the induction of the bodyís motions in space by the physical properties of the architecture.

Bus, Peter. "Emergence as a Design Strategy in Urban Development: Using Agent-Oriented Modelling in Simulation of Reconfiguration of the Urban Structure." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 599-605. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Agent-oriented modelling is one of the simulation methods for emergent behavior of a complex system that could be considered for application of urban city structures. Using advanced script techniques, the behavior and evolution of structures in the bottom-up strategies for the development of environment could be simulated in architecture and urbanism as well. The paper presents a research subproject in the area of verifi cation of the processes of spatial and social interaction of the agents according to the logic of defined intrinsic rules of Swarm behavior in the simulation model of the selected area. The research builds mainly upon two selected requirements of the bottom-up strategy: the approach distances to places of interest and mutual standoff distances between urban elements.

Zomparelli, Alessandro, and Alessio Erioli. "Emergent Reefs." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 329-337. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The purpose of Emergent-Reefs is to establish, through computational design strategies and machine-based fabrication, seamless relationships between three different aspects of the architectural process: generation, simulation and construction, with the intent of exploiting the expressive and tectonic potential of D-Shape technology for underwater reef formations as a design response to coastal erosion. Starting from a digital simulation of a synthetic local ecosystem, a generative technique based on multi-agent systems and reaction-diffusion (through continuous cellular automata - CCA) is implemented in a voxel fi eld at several scales. Discrete voxel space eases the simulation of complex systems and processes (including CFD simulations) via CCA algorithms, which then can be translated directly to the physical production system, which in case of addtive technology can be specifi ed as guided growth.

Mavros, Panagiotis, Richard Coyne, Jennifer Roe, and Peter Aspinall. "Engaging the Brain: Implications of Mobile EEG for Spatial Representation." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 657-665. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

We canvas issues in using neural imaging via EEG to map human responses to spaces. We describe the technology, some experiments by others relevant to architecture, and two of our own studies. One involves testing EEG as a supplement to user preference studies of urban typologies. The second involves recording the movement and affective (emotional) states of a pedestrian while moving through open spaces in Edinburgh. We produce map overlays of several such walkers as a method of mapping responses to urban spaces.

Okuda, Shinya, Xiaoming Yang, and Stephen K. Wittkopf. "Equalizing Daylight Distribution: Digital simulation and fabrication of optimized inner reflectors and bottom extractors for a light-duct." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 607-612. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The present paper explores the implementation of a light-duct in order to equalise daylight distribution in an office space. While the illuminance level near windows in a building tends to be higher than that necessary for the working environment, artificial lighting is often used to ensure that the workspace further away from the windows has the required level of illuminance. Equalising daylight distribution from the periphery to the inner part would thus provide signifi cant advantages for energy-efficient lighting as well as the fl exible and efficient use of offi ce space. In order to achieve this goal, anti-glare devices in the perimeter zone such as louvers and daylight distribution devices such as light-ducts are required. In this paper, we focus on light-ducts in the first instance, with an emphasis on their two key components for controlling the direction of daylight, namely inner reflectors and bottom extractors.

Lorenz, Wolfgang E.. "Estimating the Fractal Dimension of Architecture: Using two Measurement Methods implemented in AutoCAD by VBA." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 505-513. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The concept of describing and analyzing architecture from a fractal point of view, on which this paper is based, can be traced back to BenoÓt Mandelbrot (1981) and Carl Bovill (1996) to a considerable extent. In particular, this includes the distinction between scalebound (offering a limited number of characteristic elements) and scaling objects (offering many characteristic elements of scale) made by B. Mandelbrot (1981). In the fi rst place such a differentiation is based upon a visual description. This paper explores the possibility of assistance by two measurement methods, fi rst time introduced to architecture by C. Bovill (1996). While the box-counting method measures or more precisely estimates the box-counting dimension D b of objects (e.g. facades), range analysis examines the rhythm of a design. As CAD programs are familiar to architects during design processes, the author implemented both methods in AutoCAD using the scripting language VBA. First measurements indicate promising results for indicating the distinction between what B. Mandelbrot called scalebound and scaling buildings.

Juvancic, Matevz, and Tadeja Zupancic. "Evaluation system for Content and Language Integrated Learning in Architecture Using Immersive Environments." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 115-123. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Based on the experience from EU project ARCHI21 (Hunter et al, 2011) and long-term commitment to research of architectural presentations and educational approaches to expert and non-expert public (i.e. Juvancic, Mullins & Zupancic, 2012), the paper aims to clarify the terms used in CLIL-architecture context, identify the variables that have, in practice so far, proven to infl uence the learning outcome and learning experience both in architectural and language sense, and systematize the findings into the useful system. The result can be envisioned as the potential ëladder of the CLIL & architecture integrationë. The system would be of help to anyone trying to integrate language learning at different stages of architectural education, pointing out the required fundamentals, predicting the possible learning outcomes or benchmarking them after the experience. The basic terms/variables divided into three major infl uencing groups - competence, work environment and course settings - are described first, proceeded with the scheme connecting them into the system and two actual examples ëruní through the matrix for illustrative purposes. The paper also looks specifi cally into the use of different immersive environments and digital communication tools for teaching the architecture/designñother language combination and adapts the system to this segment, while also briefly comments on learners and teachers responses to CLIL-architecture integration.

Ryu, Jung Rim, Seung Bae Kim, Jun Gyu Kim, Sang Bok Lee, and Seung Yeon Choo. "Everyone has Idea, Everyone Can Be Architect: Our First Step for Finding a Good Architecture." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 667-676. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

It is an immutable truth that architecture ultimately exists for humans. Similarly, it is a well-known fact that countless architectural concepts derived and evolved to restrain development, to control building projects and to consider environment are eventually for the benefit of humans. Architecture today, however, is in the hands of a few renowned architects even though it is supposed to refl ect human beings and times and to work for everyone. Is it too much to say that everyone should have a say in the space used by many? In that respect, we have devised DADL System. Anyone, Anytime, Anywhere. The system is an architectural game that stimulates human instincts, has online communities and is easily accessible by Anyone Anytime and Anywhere (3A Rules). DADL System aims to gather usersí ideas and develop architecture, which is essentially enabled by the ëAdviseí feature. Advise is designed to lead users to think about architecture voluntarily and to guide them to express their ideas. The structure and contents of Advises are very important factors in DADL System. Also, it is divided into two domains, i.e. Web and Mobile, where data exchange is enabled via cloud computing, establishing a base in compliance with the ë3Aí Rules. The DADL System supports the architecture of everyone without relying on opinions of a few, so as to open the infi nitive potential for communication between architecture and humans, which todayís architecture should advocate.

Krijnen, Thomas, Jakob Beetz, Jacob Voorthuis, and Bauke de Vries. "Explauralisation: The experience of exploring architecture made audible." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 593-598. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In this paper we propose an open source design tool that allows designers to easily conceive, evaluate and design the full auditory experience of a building, based on a digital three-dimensional model. A guiding principle has been the dynamic nature of the confi guration of sound sources and listeners. Hence, a system is created that enables sound sources as well as listeners to be defi ned as moving entities. Furthermore, the ability exists for listeners, in their own movements and interactions, to generate sounds as well. In the system, proposed in this paper, ray-tracing is used to simulate the spatial acoustics. The paper discusses the considerations regarding several implementation choices and regarding adoption of the tool in the architectural design process.

Ron, Ruth. "Exploration of Eco-Kinetic Systems in Architecture: Development of Dynamic Interactive Building Elements." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 391-399. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper explores the potential of smart, moveable building components to achieve customized shading, variable privacy properties, and introduce complex visual qualities. The research combines performative design strategies and sustainable design principles, with parametric modelling and digital fabrication, within the contemporary theoretical and cultural context. The focus of this research is on architecture where physical movement is an integral part of the primary functional and formal nature of the building component. With embedded computing using input and output devices, the systems are no longer static but dynamically move and respond. The paper presents several case studies of working prototypes.

Schneider, Sven, and Reinhard König. "Exploring the Generative Potential of Isovist Fields: The Evolutionary Generation of Urban Layouts based on Isovist Field Properties." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 355-363. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Isovists and isovist fields can be used to numerically capture the visual properties of spatial configurations (e.g. floor plans or urban layouts). To a certain degree these properties allow one to make statements about how spaces affect people. The question that serves as the starting point of this study is to examine whether spatial configurations ca n generated on the basis of these properties. This question is explored using an experimental approach for the computer-based generation of two-dimensional urban layouts. The spatial arrangements of two-dimensional elements (building-footprints) within a given boundary is optimised in terms of the desired isovist field properties by means of an evolutionary strategy. The paper presents the results of this optimisation and discusses the advantages of this method compared with pattern books as commonly used in architecture.

Nováková, Kateřina, Henri Achten, Lucas Treyer, Gerhard Schmitt, and Stanislav Moravec. "FOR STUDENTS: Sketching Apart Together - A Collaborative Seminar Focused on Architecture Studio Education." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 77-85. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The paper describes a possible way of teaching design studio over distance. Diverse experimental settings in terms of using different technology were tested with a group of students located at remote places. In this paper we describe the use of high sophisticated collaborative technology such as Value Lab in combination with ordinary computing equipment on an individual basis such as Prague Lab. It points out the advantages and weaknesses of both Labs. The aim is bringing facility and transparency into remote collaborative process in order to implement them into regular architectural studio education. Authors developed new application ìColLab sketchî in order to understand, simplify and facilitate digital sketch processes on diverse platforms.

Talasova, Zuzana. "Fuzzy approach to the analysis of architectural composition: As applied to villa design by Adolf Loos." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 425-432. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The fuzzy sets theory enables to mathematically process uncertain information (uncertain data, uncertain relations). Natural language is also capable of dealing with this type of information. It was this capability of natural language that inspired Lotfi Zadeh in creating the concept of fuzzy sets. Linguistic fuzzy models are models with two levels of description: linguistic (intelligible to humans) and fuzzy, i.e. mathematical (intelligible to computers). They operate on linguistic variables and linguistically defi ned functions, rule bases. Substitution of input values into a linguistically defi ned function, and calculation of output values are performed through approximate reasoning. The application of linguistic fuzzy models to the analysis of A. Looseís architectural work is described in the dissertation thesis of the present author. The aim of this contribution is to apply linguistic variables in describing architectural composition.

Caldas, Luísa G., and Luís Santos. "Generation of Energy-Efficient Patio Houses with GENE_ARCH: Combining an Evolutionary Generative Design System with a Shape Grammar." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 459-470. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

GENE_ARCH is a Generative Design System that combines Pareto Genetic Algorithms with an advanced building energy simulation engine. This work explores its integration with a Shape Grammar, acting as GENE_ARCHís shape generation module. The urban patio house typology is readdressed in a contemporary context, both by improving its energy-effi ciency standards, and by rethinking its role in the genesis of high-density urban areas, while respecting its specifi c spatial organization and cultural grounding. Field work was carried out in Marrakesh, surveying a number of patio houses which became the Corpus of Design, from where a Shape Grammar was extracted. The computational implementation of the patio house grammar was done within GENE_ARCH. The resulting program was able to generate new, alternative patio houses designs that were more energy effi cient, while respecting the traditional rules captured from the analysis of existing houses. After the computational system was fully implemented, it was possible to complete different sets of experiments. The first experiments kept more restrained rules, thus generating new designs that closer resembled the existing ones. The progressive relaxation of rules and constraints allowed for a larger number of variations to emerge. Analysis of energy results provide insight into the main patterns resulting from the evolutionary search processes, namely in terms of form factors of generated solutions, and urban densities achieved.

Correia, Rodrigo, José Duarte, and António Leitao. "GRAMATICA: A general 3D shape grammar interpreter targeting the mass customization of housing." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 489-496. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents a general 3D shape grammar interpreter named GRAMATICA and illustrates its use for the implementation of several shape grammars, including the one used in the design module of a specifi c shape grammar for mass-customized housing, called DESIGNA. The underlying shape representation, generation and control are discussed. The resulting shape grammar interpreter tries to support designersí ways of thinking and working by acting as a bridge between shape grammars, the formalism that captures a design process, and a CAD application, for post-processing the computed design. This bridge is implemented by Rosetta, which ensures portability among different CAD applications.

Koch, Volker, Angelika J. Lückert, Thorsten Schwarz, Petra Von Both, and Peter Diziol. "Haptic Paintings: Using Rapid Prototyping Technologies to Grant Visually Impaired Persons Access to Paintings, Sculptures, Graphics and Architecture." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 511-517. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The paper describes an ongoing cooperation of architecture students with museum educational services and visually impaired persons. The project aims at conveying non-haptic art like paintings or graphics in public exhibitions to visually impaired people (blind or partially sighted). The concept combines rapid prototyping technologies with art interpretation and strategies for transporting visual information by haptic expressions. To reach this goal the students produce small and haptic explorable exhibits of the paintings by using rapid prototyping technologies and manufacture hand-outs, which can be touched by the blind people during guided tours at the exhibition.

Gürer, Ethem, Sema Alacam, and Gülen Çağdaş. "How to Deal with Novel Theories in Architectural Education A Framework for Introducing Evolutionary Computation to Students." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 107-114. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Evolution of/in artificial systems has been discussed in many fields such as computer science, architecture, natural and social sciences over the last fifty years. Evolutionary computation which takes its roots in computation and biology has a potential to enrich ways of thinking in architecture. This paper focuses mainly on the methodology of how evolutionary computation theories might be embedded in architectural education within the theoretical course in graduate level.

Tramontano, Marcelo, and Denise Monaco dos Santos. "Hybrid Territories Project: Cultural Actions and Digital Media." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 649-656. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents the Hybrid Territory Project, a cultural public policies research project carried ou by Nomads.usp, the Center for Studies of Interactive Living, of the University of S„o Paulo, Brazil. The central theme of the project is to understand how public cultural policies can make use of digital media in an effort to connect people and groups living in social realities apart from each other. The project seeks to bring physical and virtual instances together by means of cultural actions in urban areas. Moreover, it aims to design coexistence from joint work carried out by diverse actors, including architects, who have a voice in defi ning the project goals, actions, and methods. It is expected that the project will provide strategies for public policies to lay down conditions favoring the coexistence of differences in cities as enriching and desirable.

Biloria, Nimish, and Jia-Rey Chang. "HyperCell: A Bio-Inspired Information Design Framework for Real-Time Adaptive Spatial Components." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 573-581. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Contemporary explorations within the evolutionary computational domain have been heavily instrumental in exploring biological processes of adaptation, growth and mutation. On the other hand a plethora of designers owing to the increasing sophistication in computer aided design software are equally enthused by the formal aspects of biological organisms and are thus meticulously involved in form driven design developments. This focus on top-down appearance and surface condition based design development under the banner of organic architecture in essence contributes to the growing misuse of bio-inspired design and the inherent meaning associated with the terminology. HyperCell, a bio-inspired information design framework for real-time adaptive spatial components, is an ongoing research, at Hyperbody, TU Delft, which focuses on extrapolating bottom-up generative design and real-time interaction based adaptive spatial re-use logics by understanding processes of adaptation, multi-performance and self sustenance in natural systems. Evolutionary developmental biology is considered as a theoretical basis for this research.

Fioravanti, Antonio, Gianluigi Loffreda, Davide Simeone, and Armando Trento. "ìDivide et Imperaî to dramatically and consciously simplify design: The mental/instance path - How reasoning among spaces, components and goals." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 269-278. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In our times, in a complex and universal village where problems are intertwined and pervasive beyond our imagination, we need new approaches to deal with them ñ appropriately. In a previous work we highlighted the importance to reason ontologies: a ëworldí f.i. a building ñ as a mental image ñ is not a Linnaeusís classifi cation (structured set of entities) but a system (goals oriented set of classes) able to reasoning upon selectively chosen entities belonging to different Realms (ontology universes) (Fioravanti et al., 2011a). The general aim of our researchñ to be an effective aid to design ñ is to simulate wo/man as designer and user of designed spaces, hence how mental skill can be computably included in new tools able to tackle these problems. This paper is focused on the fi rst role: how actor-designers approach design problems and how the inference mechanism can help them and affect the design process. A ëBuilding Objectí - the dual system of Spaces and Technology elements ñ is inferred in several ways according to different goals and the inference mechanism can, simulating human mental shortcuts, optimize thinking.

Kepczynska-Walczak, Anetta. "Impact of digital design methods on physical performance." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 23-28. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper deals with relationship between the digital and the physical on the basis of retrospective of previous eCAADe conferences and the authorís didactic experience. In order to show a scope of issues, different methods and tools are described and analyzed. Author believes that described approach may contribute to the ongoing discussion on recommendations for CAAD teaching. Refl ecting the conference theme, author poses the question whether digitality can be identifi ed as intangible physicality.

Derix, Christian. "Implicit Space." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 583-591. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Algorithmic design must start with the observation of physical behaviours. When applied to designing spatial confi gurations, correlations between occupation, experience and spatial properties as implicit performances require mapping that can be abstracted into notations for algorithmic encoding. The algorithmic descriptions of space are calibrated by physical models. Both algorithms and catalogues of physical models are weighted and compiled into a heuristic design system that enables the generation of spatial confi gurations based on behaviours of occupation observed in real spaces. The final designs of this Implicit Space course constitute diagrammatic building configurations designed from the inside-out through encoded occupant experiences.

Schaeverbeke, Robin, and Ann Heylighen. "In Search of the ëIn Betweení." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 49-57. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Our paper presents a teaching project in the context of architectural education which inquires the fusion of learning processes within both physical and digital media. Our approach, situated within an undergraduate program, aims to blur the boundaries between physical and digital activities in order to enhance and amplify their qualities and, by doing so, broadening studentsí understanding and awareness of extending design-based media. The program relies upon an open, design-driven, game-inspired process. While the games allow to explore form and space by following a set of simple directions, the gamesí constraints guide the teaching of specifi c drawing and representation techniques. The exercises span two semesters of the fi rst year curriculum. Within the exercises we re-approach the embodiment of skill based upon possibilities, paths and strategies to combine design-based media as a conglomerate to draw from rather than as a set of singular techniques

Neuenschwander, Noemi, Ulrike Wissen Hayek, and Adrienne Grêt-Regamey. "Integrated Multi-Criteria Modeling and 3D Visualization for Informed Trade-Off Decision Making on Urban Development Options." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, .203-211. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Cities all over the world are faced with growing population pressure and are challenged by decreasing environmental quality. Development strategies and planning processes often fail to involve local environment knowledge. We present an approach to integrate environmental aspects into a two-step urban modeling framework, generating 3D visualizations from GIS-based and procedural modeling. The dynamic nature of this approach provides considerable support for transdisciplinary communication processes in urban planning.

Sharaidin, Kamil, Jane R. Burry, and Flora Salim. "Integration of Digital Simulation Tools With Parametric Designs to Evaluate Kinetic FaÁades for Daylight Performance." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 701-709. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This research presents a solution for evaluation of kinetic faÁades system performance via experiences and lessons learnt from experiments. We bridge between architects and engineers to address limitations associated with incorporating performance criteria in the design of kinetic faÁades by integrating different simulation tools. The experiments focus on optimization of the daylight performance through the design and motion of kinetic faÁades using various integrated software. The research is developed using real time data feedback processed through various digital tools from three domains: (1) Architectural design, (2) day-lighting performance and (3) parametric design computation. From the evaluations, the paper demonstrates the analysis of kinetic motion for daylight optimization at the early design stage and suggests possible configurations for daylight performance.

Ladurner, Georg, Markus Gabler, Achim Menges, and Jan Knippers. "Interactive Form-Finding for Biomimetic Fibre Structures: Development of a Computational Design Tool and Physical Fabrication Technique Based on the Biological Structure of the Lichen." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 519-529. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This contribution shows a biomimetic approach to design and produce fibrous structural elements derived from the morphology of the biologic archetype ëthe lichení. The physical form fi nding strategy allows for a novel self-organised reinforcement for fibrous composite systems. A computational design tool has been developed, based on the fi ndings of various physical models. The digital device allows for shape control and therefore an interaction to and manipulation of the fabrication process. Since the form fi nding algorithms of the tool are based on physical experiments,every geometry is derived through the program and has its counterpart in production. For example: the fibre density in the model can be adjusted which leads to different geometries. In production the chosen denseness is utilised, thus, the production yields automatically to the desired load-optimized geometry found in the form-finding tool.

Roça, Luciana, and Marcelo Tramontano. "Intercultural Dialogues: Exchanging Sounds to Create Hybrid Spatialities." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 639-645. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper discusses sound and space instances supported by practices pertaining to the cultural action Intercultural Dialogues. This action is part of a larger protttject named Hybrid Territories, which involves digital media, communities, cultural activities, and the proposal of public policies, funded by FAPESP (S„o Paulo State Agency for Research Funding), Brazil, by means of a partnership with the Arts and Culture Bureau of the city of S„o Carlos. The cultural action in question is based on the construction of hybrid spatialities by the use of live-stream communication of sounds, thereby favoring the exchange of sound readings between S„o Carlos, Brazil, and L¸neburg, Germany.

Colakoglu, Birgul, Elma Durmisevic, and Adnan Pasic. "International Collaborative Design Studio: Green Transformable Buildings." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 107-114. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Current trends in architectural practice such as an increased focus on sustainable design, integrated design, and the globalization of architecture are increasing the need for practitioners that are skilled in collaboration. Collaboration fosters innovation and creativity. It is a key operating principle for the 21st century and an important skill that an architecture student must be exposed to. The change in knowledge generation and creative problem solving is transforming education towards collaborative learning forcing architecture and engineering schools to address new course structures with ìcollaborativeî aspect. The work presented in this paper draws its base from collaborative design learning. It describes an international collaborative design studio titled ìInternational Design Studio: Green Transformable Buildingsî conducted between three institutions, Y_ld_z Technical University (YTU)ñIstanbul, University of Twente (TU)-Enschede Engineering Sciences and Industrial Design School, and Architecture Faculty of Sarajevo (AFS).

Jura, Jakub, and Jiri BÌla. "Interpretation Method for Software Support of the Conceptual Redesign Process: Emergence of new concepts in the interpretation process." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 227-233. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper deals with the process of synthesizing the innovative concepts, and especially with software and methodological support of this process. Our approach emphasizes the importance of the interpretation of the suggestions, which are generated by the system of software and methodological support of conceptual design. Just an interpretation is in this systems usually missing. Herein described method is based on the interconnection of the contexts in which the solution lies. For this contextís interconnection a psychological approaches are used (especially the mind mapping). The core of this interpretation method is creating of the interpretation map.

BÌla, Jiri, and Jakub Jura. "Interpretation of Emergent Situations in Conceptual Design." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 605-612. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Interpretation process is usually oriented to some purposes, e.g., for identifi cation, for explanation, for inference, for translation, etc. By the interpretation in this paper is understood not only the explanation of a confi guration of signs (symbols) in general (how it functions or how it works within a higher whole). This general interpretation is oriented in our paper to conceptual design and it is modifi ed to the goal of the solved problem. The concept of emergent situation was defi ned in general and in special case of interpretation process in conceptual design. A limited model of the description of interpretation process was introduced as a semiotic phenomenon on connections of Interpretation Space and Sign Model. Two relevant cases of interpretation process were introduced. The condition of induction of emergence in interpretation process was formulated.

Janssen, Patrick, and Vignesh Kaushik. "Iterative Refi nement through Simulation: Exploring trade-off s between speed and accuracy." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 555-563. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Iterative Refinement through Simulation: Exploring trade-offs between speed and accuracy

Baerlecken, Daniel, Judith Reitz, and David Duncan. "Junk: Reuse of Waste Materials." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 143-150. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The paper presents a series of design build studio that investigate the role of waste as building material. The series develops proposals for constructions that use CAAD and CAM tools in combination with traditional fabrication tools to design and build an installation out of waste materials. The fi rst construction uses waste to create two installations that questions human consumption, The second project is a future project, that intends the use of waste as an actual building material. Recycling is in the process of becoming an integral part of sustainable architecture. However, there are very few digital design projects that use re-used or recycled materials in combination with their architectural and aesthetic qualities and potentials. The potential of such an investigation is explored within these design build studios. What is junk? What is a building material? What are the aesthetics of junk?

Wurzer, Gabriel, and Burak Pak. "Lawnmower: Designing a web-based visual programming environment that generates code to help students learn textual programming." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 655-663. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Learning programming can be a challenging task for design students, especially when code is to be entered in textual form. Visual programming languages, such as McNeilís Grasshopper, have helped students to engage in scripting without having to deal with lower level syntax that is often hindering them in expressing their thoughts. However, the problem with learning how to program textually is only postponed: When switching to a new platform, students may be forced to learn coding from scratch, and, even worse, to do so in a textual environment that is yet unfamiliar. Our idea is simple: Connect visual programming with textual coding, using code-generation as means. Using this approach enables students to think visually, and see the results textually. An added bonus is the possibility to use debugging, a feature that is yet lacking from Grasshopper. By this way, our language aims to enable students to gradually move from visual to textual programming in a comfortable manner.

Barczik, Günter. "Leaving Flatland behind: Algebraic surfaces and the chimaera of pure horizontality in Architecture." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 433-441. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

We argue that the prevalence of continuous flat floor surfaces in architecture is comprehensible but fallacious, and that this chimaera can be overcome through studying and employing the sculptural potential of algebraic surfaces which suggest spatial possibilities that enrich designersí vocabulary enormously. We continue, deepen and extend research the basics and early results of which were presented at the last two eCAADe conferences in Istanbul and Z¸rich. We present and discuss a university-based experimental design and research project that demonstrates how Algebraic Surfaces can drastically amplify the so far only tentative exploration of the possibilities of non-fl at fl oor surfaces in Architecture.

Araya, Sergio, Ekaterina Zolotovsky, and Manuel Gidekel. "Living Architecture: Micro Performances of Bio Fabrication." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 447-457. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This ongoing research study explores novel modes of design and fabrication by combining digital tools and technologies with living biological systems within controlled environments in order to induce specifi c biological functions and material production processes. The main objective is to design and implement a biological fabrication technique, using bacteria, to produce physical components for architecture and product design.

Slyk, Jan. "Low-Tec Sensor Concept for Reactive Space Programming." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 353-359. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents a case study of the pavilion built with the participation of students during experimental design course of ASK studies, master program in Warsaw. The installation was developed to research programming behaviour of augmented space. Pavilion generates acoustic signals in relation to user actions. It does so, according to the rules stored in a program that can be changed through the user interface. The pavilion serves both as a didactic and experimental installation. Therefore, a single low-tec sensor was invented, which operation can be easily understood. Optical mechanism analyzes the image of a shadow to obtain information about interior use. Components of the experiment are used to control process and establish rules. Mode of action is defined by independently designed system procedure.

Dierichs, Karola, and Menges Achim. "Material and Machine Computation of Designed Granular Matter: Rigid-Body Dynamics Simulations as a Design Tool for Robotically-Poured Aggregate Structures Consisting of Polygonal Concave Particles." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 711-719. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Loose granulates are a relevant yet rarely deployed architectural material system. Their significance lies in their capacity to combine fluid-like amorphousness with solid-like rigidity, resulting in potential architectural structures capable of continuous reconfi guration. In addition aggregates allow for functional grading. Especially if custom designed concave particles are used, full-scale architectural structures can be poured using a six-axis industrial robot, combining the precise travel of the emitter-head with the self-organizational capacity of granular substances. In this context, the paper proposes Rigid-Body Dynamics (RBD) simulations as a design-tool for the robotic pouring of loose granular structures. The notions of material and machine computation are introduced and RBD is explained in greater detail. A set of small tests is conducted to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of a specifi c RBD software. Conclusively, further areas of research are outlined.

Wurzer, Gabriel, Nikolay Popov, and Wolfgang E. Lorenz. "Meeting Simulation Needs of Early-Stage Design Through Agent-Based Simulation." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 613-620. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

During early-stage planning, numerous design decisions are taken in an argumentative manner, based on occupation with the building site according to the different infl uencing aspects (e.g. topology, wind, visibility, circulation, activities etc.). In this context, sketches, diagrams and spreadsheets are the workhorses for elaboration. However, some of these phenomena are dynamic by nature, and are rather poorly modeled when utilizing static media. In our work, we thus show how agent-based simulation can be used to compute and visualize dynamic factors, in order to inform the decision process on a qualitative level. As a matter of fact, simulations may be used as a design tool in their own right, for analysis and objectifi ed comparison among multiple design variations.

van der Zee, Aant, and Bauke de Vries. "Modeling of RL- cities." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 375-380. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In this paper we present an outline of a newly started project to develop a city generator for use in urban planning. The aim of the project is to develop a rule-based system which is capable of generation lookalike cities. Lookalike cities are cities which resemble real life cities without being an exact copy of it. A city consists of several zones; each zone has it own identity. In order to generate lookalike cities, these zone-identities need to be capture into rules which the system can ëreadí.

Costa, Eduardo Castro e, Filipe Coutinho, José Duarte, and Mário Kruger. "Modelling Albertiís Column System: Generative Modelling and Digital Fabrication of Classical Architectural Elements." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 469-477. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The research presented further is part of the Digital Alberti research project, which aims to assess the infl uence of Leon Batista Albertiís theory on Portuguese architecture, through the use of digital technologies. One of the project tasks implied computational and physical modelling of Albertiís column system. Development of the computational model implied decoding Albertiís treatise on architecture De re aedifi catoria into a consistent set of parameters and relationships, and then implementing these into generative parametric computer programs through visual programming language Grasshopper. This computational model is able to automatically generate physical models of classical columns according to Albertiís canons. These digital models were then materialized through production of physical models, through rapid prototyping and digital fabrication technologies. Special attention is given to the CNC stone milling of a Corinthian capital.

Chien, Sheng-Fen, and Yee-Tai Yeh. "On Creativity and Parametric Design: A preliminary study of designerís behaviour when employing parametric design tools." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 245-253. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This research explores the relationship between unexpected outcomes generated through parametric design tools and the design creative process. We conducted an empirical study to observe how designers behave while encountering unexpected outcomes using parametric design tools as well as other kinds of design tools. From our study, there are some indications that the space of possible design solutions of the participants was expanded with the existence of unexpected outcomes. The preliminary result is encouraging. Further studies may need to address experience designers and novice designers separately.

Stouffs, Rudi. "On Shape Grammars, Color Grammars and Sortal Grammars: A sortal grammar interpreter for varying shape grammar formalisms." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 479-487. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Grammar formalisms for design come in a large variety, requiring different representations of the entities being generated, and different interpretative mechanisms for this generation. Most examples of shape grammars rely on labeled shapes, a combination of line segments and labeled points. Color grammars extend the shape grammar formalism to allow for a variety of qualitative aspects of design, such as color, to be integrated in the rules of a shape grammar. Sortal grammars consider a compositional approach to the representational structures underlying (augmented) shape grammars, allowing for a variety of grammar formalism to be defi ned and explored. In this paper, we revisit and explore an exemplar shape grammar from literature to illustrate the use of different grammar formalisms and consider the implementation of rule application within a sortal grammar interpreter.

Steinfeld, Kyle, Stefano Schiavon, and Dustin Moon. "Open Graphic Evaluative Frameworks: A climate analysis tool based on an open web-based weather data visualization platform." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 675-682. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Buildings are the worldís largest consumer of energy, accounting for 34% of total use. In the United States residential and commercial buildings are responsible for 72% of electricity use and 40% of CO2 emissions. In order to reduce the impact of buildings on the environment and to utilize freely available environmental resources, building design must be based on site climate conditions, e.g. solar radiation and air temperature. This paper presents a web-based framework that enables the production of user-generated visualizations of weather data. The Open Graphic Evaluative Framework (Open GEF) was developed using the Graphic Evaluative Frameworks (GEF) approach to authoring design-assistant software, which is more appropriate than the now dominant ëgeneralized design toolí approach when supporting design processes that require a high level of calibration to the cyclic and acyclic shifting of environmental resources. Building on previous work that outlined the theoretical underpinnings and basic methodology of the GEF approach, technical specifi cations are presented here for the implementation of a Java driven web-based visualization platform. By enabling more nuanced and customizable views of weather data, the software offers designers an exploratory framework rather than a highly directed tool. Open GEF facilitates design processes more highly calibrated to climatic fl ows that could reduce the overall impact of buildings in the environment.

Fischer, Jan-Ruben. "Optimizing Digital Organic Freeform Modelling for Fabrication by Using Parameterization With Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics (GRP): A Case Study." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 191-200. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In the fabrication of organic free-form shapes in architecture one is constantly faced with specifi c planning and design challenges. This paper examines these problems as well as possible solutions for the design of a completed and built prototype using the example of an organically shaped pavilion made of glass fi bre reinforced plastic modules. The paper describes which adjustments to the original design were required to take the step from ìdigital physicalityî to ìphysical digitalityî to realize a constructive and economically successful implementation. The solutions discussed combine modern digital software methods such as parametric design with innovative 3D modelling principles.

Salim, Flora, and Rafael Moya. "Parallel Analysis of Urban Aerodynamic Phenomena Using High and Low-Tech Tools." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 621-629. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The study of wind conditions in cities is a significant factor in urban design in order to deal with issues related with pollution, wind pressures on buildings, and comfort on public spaces. This paper presents some results of a four-day workshop where some of the different techniques for simulating and visualising aerodynamic phenomena were explored. These technologies, classified as high-tech and low-tech tools, were used to investigate urban aerodynamic phenomena through parallel experiments, analysis, and eye observations. The experiments demonstrated that getting live feedbacks while interacting with the simulated aerodynamic phenomena is essential to improve the observersí general comprehension of the phenomena. Our proposed method for studying aerodynamic phenomena, which integrates both low-tech and high-tech tools, facilitates designers to explore multiple options and configurations in the early stage of a design process.

Kunze, Antje, Julia Dyllong, Jan Halatsch, Paul Waddell, and Gerhard Schmitt. "Parametric building typologies for San Francisco Bay Area: A conceptual framework for the implementation of design code building typologies towards a parametric procedural city model." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 187-193. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This research paper concentrates on a conceptual framework for the creation of high-level procedural city models. A workflow is presented, which enables users to create city models in an intuitive way by using design-code-driven building typologies. This drastically advances traditional procedural city modelling where usually low-level implementations of city model components take place. New planning methods and instruments have to be developed for the growing demand of the rapid environmental, social and economic changes in cities and agglomerations. The presented method allows for quick visualization and iteration by using urban planning typologies.

Pavlicek, Jiri, and Martin Kaftan. "Parametric Design System for Passive Houses." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 487-494. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The intention of this research is to develop a design system for geometrically complex passive houses. Research focuses especially on the link-up of the CAAD (Computer-aided architectural design) and the CAM process (Computer-aided manufacturing) and deals only with timber structures. The aim of the project is to develop a system that would automate a creation of the computer model of the geometrically complex timber structures and link it to fabrication process. It should be possible to use the system for houses of the size of a family house up to an apartment house. The advantages of the system ought to be the fabrication preciseness, economical availability, high speed of construction, eco-friendliness and above all absence of geometrical constraints.

Riether, Gernot. "Parametric Folds: Using the Elasticity of Polymers For a Light Weight Structure." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 181-189. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This project takes advantage of a dynamic structural quality found in high-density polymers in the development of a self-supporting lightweight structural envelope for the Nuit Blanche pavilion. The pavilion was developed to display a series of interactive art projects as part of the annual Nuit Blanche Festival in Paris. The project combines concepts from biology with digital design and fabrication methods to speculate on a new relation between structure, geometry, material and appearance. Before discussing the design research of the pavilion the paper will elaborate on our larger research goals in using digital technology to promote more environmentally responsible construction methods and the research values of projects at the scale of a pavilion.

Koltsova, Anastasia, Bige Tunçer, Sofia Georgakopoulou, and Gerhard Schmitt. "Parametric Tools for Conceptual Design Support at the Pedestrian Urban Scale: Towards inverse urban design." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 279-287. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents an inverse pedestrian urban design method and an initial set of parametric tools for conceptual design support at the pedestrian urban scale. Inverse pedestrian urban design concerns the derivation of urban design parameters from a local context in order to produce better informed and situated designs. The tools concern the rationalization of street network and building form. Some of the parameters that are used within the tools are view angles (visibility analysis) and distances between target points (accessibility analysis). The paper elaborates on inverse urban design, presents some case studies and tools, and touches upon design patterns and their alignment to design processes.

Beirão, José, Pedro Arrobas, and José Duarte. "Parametric Urban Design: Joining morphology and urban indicators in a single interactive model." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 167-175. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

A parametric urban design system integrating GIS data in a CAD environment is proposed as a platform for discussing urban plans providing flexibility and information access in an interactive fashion. The proposed system links calculations of urban indicators with the parameter manipulation of the layout geometry, therefore allowing for a systematic update of indicators according to design modifi cations. Hence, design may be fine-tuned in an informed manner enhancing the quality of design decisions.

Bielik, Martin, Sven Schneider, and Reinhard König. "Parametric Urban Patterns: Exploring and integrating graph-based spatial properties in parametric urban modelling." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 701-708. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The article presents a graph-based spatial analysis toolset (ìdecoding spacesîcomponents) which we have recently developed as an extension of the visual scripting language Grasshopper3D for Rhino. These tools directly integrate spatial analysis methods into CAD design software which can have a signifi cant effect on current design workfl ows. However,grasshopper doesnít only enable the results of analyses to be used in the standard Rhino modelling environment. It also makes it possible to integrate spatial analysis into a parametric design approach as discussed in this paper. The functionality of this toolset is demonstrated using a simple urban design scenario where we introduce the idea of parametric patterns based on graph-measures.

Sdegno, Alberto. "Physical and Digital Models for Electronic Spaces: The 3D virtual re-building of the Philips Pavilion by Le Corbusier." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 747-754. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The aim of this academic research was to analyze one of the fi rst architectures designed and built with the fi nality to present electronic potentialities to people. The design was developed by Le Corbusier and his studio for the International Expo held in Brussels in 1958, for the Philips fi rm, and it was destroyed some months later, after the event. The research investigated the complex geometry of the structure in order to understand the strict relation between the physical perception of the space and the electronic aspects of them, using advanced technology, but, above all, if it is true that the best way to understand the physicality of a destroyed architecture could be a virtual visit using electronic devices and digital procedures.

Fleischmann, Moritz, and Achim Menges. "Physics-Based Modeling as an alternative approach to geometrical constrain-modeling for the design of elastically-deformable material systems." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 565-575. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Physics-Based Modelling can be considered as an alternative approach to geometrical constrain-based modelling for form-active material systems such as gridshells. Here we explain a vector-based method that works in R2 and R3 to determine momentum forces at the node level, which can easily be implemented into (existing) particle systems and - together with the simulation of tension and compression forces - can be used to model the behavior of such material systems.

Von Both, Petra. "Potentials and Barriers for Implementing BIM in the German AEC Market: Results of a Current Market Analysis." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 151-158. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The research project ÑBIM ñ Potentials and Barriersì aims to analyse the existing practice concerning BIM and the barriers for the implementation of this approach in Germany. Accompanied by an Çadvisory boardí with nameable representatives from practice, the public authorities and AEC associations, a set of hypotheses has been elaborated that could be evaluated by a detailed survey. Based on the detection of relevant stakeholders, the survey fi rst tries to disclose the real situation of how BIM is currently used in practice. Furthermore the potentials of the application of BIM in the different processes and target groups are determined as well as the barriers and constraints. Thereby the enhancement of the considered thematic areas is an important solution approach of the project: besides technological aspects, the analysis is also focusing on contracting, norms and processes as well as education, knowledge and role perception.

Bourdakis, Vassilis, and Ioulia Pentazou. "Real City Museum/Virtual City Model: Real Datasets/Virtual Interactions." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 337-341. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Creating virtual city models at different scales, emphases and overall orientations is a topic that has attracted great interest in architectural and urban planning context over at least the last two decades. However the complexity of the city as a historical formation demands new methods of representation embracing interactive technologies. The work discussed in this paper is part of a large multidisciplinary project for the development of the Volos city museum. Enhancing the interaction between the public and the museum exhibits is essential. The paper focuses on the definition, complexity and orientation of the data structures and the integration of 3D contemporary and historic data that is the backbone for the digital representations and the interactive applications developed for the museum.

ElBanhawy, Eiman Y., Ruth Dalton, Emine Mine Thompson, and Richard Kottor. "Real-Time Electric Mobility Simulation in Metropolitan Areas. A case study: Newcastle-Gateshead." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 533-546. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper discusses the potential of emerging digital representations of built environments coupled with agent-based modelling (ABM). A new set of urban transportation data is provided as an input which is the electric vehicles (EVs) population of one of the UK metropolitan areas. The study is a part of a PhD research that focuses on investigating computer-aided software to develop a virtual route for electric mobility in the North Sea Region. An overview of agent-based simulation platforms is discussed. Electric mobility system has particular paradigms that differ from conventional urban transport systems; a comparison is presented followed by the recommended approach of integrating the two techniques (visualization and simulation). Finally, the architecture of agentsí algorithm within the EVs network is presented through a case study of virtual Newcastle-Gateshead model.

Braumann, Johannes, and Sigrid Brell-Cokcan. "Real-Time Robot Simulation and Control for Architectural Design." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 479-486. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Industrial robots for architectural fabrication have not yet been directly linked to the design process, as current research focuses mostly on the automated generation of robot control data for mass customization. In this paper, we will discuss the use of a real-time programming environment for robot simulation/control and introduce a virtual robot, that allows architects to digitally prototype fabrication processes. While such a real-time approach is also suitable for mass customization, the main advantage is that this interaction with the virtual-robot can be used to intuitively solve complex fabrication problems.

Meyboom, AnnaLisa, Marcin Strzala, and Jerzy Wojtowicz. "reCHARGE w/ ROBO: Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Design Studio." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 43-48. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Current emerging urban infrastructure increasingly depends on control systems and the understanding and application of these systems in design can create re-imagined urban spaces. The use of this technical fi eld of mechatronics in architecture requires interdisciplinary collaboration and a working understanding of control systems, sensors and actuators. Through a research and related graduate design studio, this paper discusses the potential for reimagining urban infrastructure in relation to the electric vehicle recharging process. The new infrastructure of the electric vehicle recharging station provides an interruptive urban site for applying the technology as well as for developing synergistic adjacent programs.

Muslimin, Rizal. "Recursive Embedding of Gestalt Laws and Shape Grammar in the Weaving Design Process." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 443-449. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The occurrences of structural weaving patterns, ranging from the architecture built in the 12th century to the contemporary building designsof the 21st century, have been anachronistic and geographically dispersed. This suggests that some of these patterns may not have been transferred from one culture to another but instead have emerged locally from other existing plaiting. This paper explains why, despite geographical limitations, these designers have developed similar designsto each other, as well as proposes a framework to computationally improve the synthesisof new weaving designs based on our visual perceptions.

Wu, Tienyu, and Taysheng Jeng. "Reforming Design Studios: Experiments in integrating bim, parametric design, digital fabrication, and interactive technology." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 49-54. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Building Information Modelling (BIM) has been widely accepted as an integration tool that enables modelling of form, function, and behaviour of building systems and components. Using BIM, building design can be approached in a more logical way by integrating spatial, structural and mechanical systems as well as cost and energy performance in the early design stage. In this paper, we develop a design framework using BIM in varied design processes, including architectural programming, conceptual design, parametric design, digital fabrication, and interaction design. We conducted an experiment to reform design studios using BIM throughout the design process. A classroom of the future called iSTUDIO is constructed by applying BIM, parametric design, interactive technology, and digital fabrication.

Stavric, Milena, and Martin Kaftan. "Robotic Fabrication of Modular Formwork for Non-Standard Concrete Structures." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 431-437. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In this work we address the fast and economical realization of complex formwork for concrete with the advantage of industrial robot arm. Under economical realization we mean reduction of production time and material effi ciency. The complex form of individual formwork parts can be in our case double curved surface of complex mesh geometry. We propose the fabrication of the formwork by straight or shaped hot wire. We illustrate on several projects different approaches to mould production, where the proposed process demonstrates itself effective. In our approach we deal with the special kinds of modularity and specific symmetry of the formwork.

Pasternak, Agata. "Robotic Prototypes Optimization: Incorporation of Optimization Procedures in the Design Process." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 265-272. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The use of computer-aided design combined with robotics and evolutionary principles of optimization, during the architectural design process, is discussed in this paper. The research is based on the examples of four case studies out of six projects designed during the Experimental Design Studio: ROBO Studio and a parallel seminar on optimization techniques on Architecture for Society of Knowledge Master course at Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture. The projectís main goal was to combine robotic prototypes construction with an optimization process executed in parallel within one design procedure. The results of the course and the discussion about the impact of both factors on the architectural design process are presented in this paper.

Barbosa, Wilson, André Araújo, Guilherme Carvalho, and Gabriela Celani. "Samba Reception Desk: Compromising Aesthetics, Fabrication and Structural Performance in the Design Process." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 255-263. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The present paper describes an integrative design experiment in which different types of models were used in order to achieve a design that compromises aesthetics, lightness, fabrication, assembly and structural performance. It shows how an integrative approach, through the use of both virtual and physical models, can provide valuable feedback in different phases of the design and fabrication process. It was possible to conclude that the design method used allowed solving many problems and had a significant impact in the resulting object.

Hanzl, Małgorzata. "Schizoanalytical Digital Modelling for Urban Design: Incorporating the indexed keys methodology into the anthropological analyses of urban structures." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 177-186. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Schizoanalytical digital modelling serves description of processes occurring in urban settings. Schizoanalysis serves to ëmeta-modelí the everyday world around us, where ëmetaí means inclusion of different perspectives. The paper formulates few hyphotheses concerning the relation between the crowd of people representing a specifi c culture and the urban settings, which constitute their habitus. The methodology of analysis of urban structure is proposed, which is based on the urban closures cross-sections analysis with the use of Line of Site method (LOs), as complimentary to the Space Syntax methodology of pedestrian simulation and analysis of fi eld of sight, based on isovists. The paper presents the results of the descriptive analysis of the former Jewish district in Lodz, research on which is to be developed with the methodology proposed.

Sopeoglou, Eva. "Scripting shadows: Weaving digital and physical environments through design and fabrication." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 255-258. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper considers the opportunities of engaging in a creative dialogue between the physical and the digital, through the use of generative design tools and digital fabrication technologies. Digital iterations on an open-air installation for a pavilion take the shape of research in design. The design is partly driven by environmental parameters, such as the movement of the sun and shadows across a site in the Mediterranean. A fabricated microclimate is tailored through bespoke scripting and fabrication. In this project, rather than being used to optimise environmental parameters, scripting intents to offer a delightful milieu for human comfort.

Khoo, Chin Koi. "Sensory Morphing Skins." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 221-229. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Contemporary responsive architecture often tries to achieve optimised building performance in response to changing environmental conditions. In the precedents a key area of responsiveness is in the building faÁades or skins. Often however, the skin is made from discrete components and separated equipment. T his research explores the potential for designing responsive architectural morphing skins with kinetic materials that have integrated sensing and luminous abilities. Instead of embedded individual discrete components, this approach intends to integrate the sensing devices and building skins as one ësingleí entity. This investigation is conducted by project. The project is Blanket, which aims to provide an alternative approach for a lightweight, fl exible and economical sensory architectural skin that respond to proximity and lighting stimuli.

Liapi, Marianthi, Konstantinos-Alketas Oungrinis, and Maria Voyatzaki. "Sensponsive Playscapes: A Pedagogical Design Approach to Manifest and Promote the Physical Digital Continuum." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 343-351. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper chronicles an intensive student workshop on sensponsive architecture, from the educatorsí point of view, underlying the pedagogical notes on this new design approach that employs digital design tools and electronic assemblies to creatively experiment with human-computer interaction. The workshop presented the theoretical, computational and fabricating frameworks for a human-centered approach to spaces with sensponsive partitions that respond timely with sense, displaying an adaptive behavior through time. The workshop theme was further specialized to direct the design outcome toward sensponsive environments for children that can help them perceive, experience and develop a meaningful understanding of the world around them through play.

Cheng, Nancy Yen- Wen. "Shading With Folded Surfaces: Designing With Material, Visual and Digital Considerations." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 613-620. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper analyses a hybrid design approach; how physical and digital processes can inform each other in a multivalent design cycle. It describes the design of origami-inspired window shades, part of the Shaping Light project that explores how adjustable surface structures can modulate light levels and heat gain in response to the changing seasons. The screen uses sloped surfaces to diffuse light and create apertures that close when the screen is stretched and open when the screen is folded. The project complements digital methods for pattern proportioning and kinetic simulation with manual manipulation to generate 3D folding motifs and refi ne assemblies. Physical prototypes can shape digital refi nement by revealing visual and structural characteristics of materials, along with joint and production considerations. Physical models for simulating sunny and cloudy daylighting conditions provide a direct connection between spatial confi guration and visual effects. The paper concludes with guidelines for material-based digital-analog creation.

Andrade, Max, Leticia Mendes, Giovana Godoi, and Gabriela Celani. "Shape grammars for analyzing social housing: The case of Jardim S„o Francisco low-income housing development." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 451-458. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents an analysis of Jardim S„o Francisco, a lowincome housing development in S„o Paulo, Brazil, using shape grammar as an analytical method. It is part of an ongoing research that aims at analyzing the different types of sitting in low-income housing developments and their consequences for public spaces. The fi nal objective is to propose a design method that allows designing better quality urban spaces in this type of development.

Hemmerling, Marco, and David Lemberski. "Sparkler: The Vitruvian Man vs. Buckminster Fuller." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 127-132. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Every production technique requires a focus on their specifi c demands and possibilities. This paper shows the whole design, optimization and production process includingpreliminary studies, preliminary design, form-fi nding and assembly based on a case study. All needed data for optimization in external software and for digital production is derived from a central parametric model programmed in Grasshopper. The result in a collaborative process between theory/practice, human/machine, software/hardware and analogue/digital is the Sparklerpavilion.

Taron, Joshua M.. "Speculative Structures: Reanimating Latent Structural Intelligence in Agent-based Continuum Structures." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 365-373. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The potential afforded by the open search spaces of both agent-based models and evolutionary engines have given architecture yet another set of computational tools to play with, yet more often than not and with some cause, they are used in isolation from one another. This research explores the set of techniques and results of having combined swarm formations, FEM software and an evolutionary engine within a parametric modeling environment such that they induce materially intelligent and structurally viable swarmed formations. A set of protocols are developed for grafting these formations into the already-built environment, treating it as a resource to be accessed and exploited toward the production of novel morphogenetic results and architectural possibilities.

Angulo, Antonieta, and Joshua Vermillion. "Strategic Thinking on the Redesign of a Foundational CAAD Course: Towards comprehensive training on digital design." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 29-37. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The paper describes a new implementation of an existing course on digital design and its contribution to the curriculum of the undergraduate pre-professional architecture program at Ball State University. The strategic thinking behind the re-design of this course refl ects not only the need to update its content to reflect the state-of-the art in the domain but also responds to a diversifi ed context that exhibitschanging trends due to digital culture, use of digital media in learning and practice, and educational policy. The paper elaborates on these larger contextual elements and describes the new instructional methods implemented through a modular framework of assignments and a multi-layered delivery system. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations for the future improvement, constant assessment, and further development of the digital design course.

Sun, Chengyu, Junchao Lu, and Qi Zhao. "Study on an Architect-Oriented Workflow for Freeform Surface Design Tools." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 517-523. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

For most architects, it is not easy to transform their freeform designs into buildable constructions without precise knowledge on a specifi c material and its construction process.A workfl ow is introduced in this paperand it could be adopted by architects concerning the works of predicting the tiling results in the earliest design stage.The workfl ow involves pre-processing which could help architects design rational surfaces, thus saving a lot of work in the paneling process later on. The physically based modeling engine will simulate the constraints of a pre-selected material and therefore ensures a feasible result. The post-process involves visual feedback of the result as well as data formatting which help to establish a seamless connection between construction processes.

Felasari, Sushardjanti, and Chengzhi Peng. "Supporting Urban Design Learning with Collective Memory Enhanced Virtual City: The Virtual Jalan Malioboro Experiment." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 195-202. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The paper reports on the observation of how students can be supported in urban design learning through the use of an experimental collective memory enhanced virtual city - Virtual Jalan Malioboro. This study focuses on how instances of peopleís collective memory of the Malioboro Street could be digitally represented and connected with the 3D models of buildings and places of the street. An evaluative study was conducted in a real university educational setting to test how it can support urban design learning. The results show that by enhancing 3D models with collective memory, students are facilitated to become more engaged with the urban site and knowledgeable of historical contextual issues.

Tsiliakos, Marios. "Swarm Materiality: A multi-agent approach to stress driven material organization." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 301-309. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper sets out to introduce and explore a computational tool, thus a methodological framework, for simulating stress driven material growth and organization by employing a multi-agent system based in swarm intelligence algorithms. It consists of an ongoing investigation that underlies the intention for the material system to be perceived as design itself. The algorithm, developed in the programming language Processing, is operating in a bottom-up manner where components and data fl ows are self-organized into design outputs. An evaluation process, via testing on different design cases, is providing a coherent understanding on the systemís capacity to address an acceptable, within the ìstate-of-the-artî context, solution to material optimization and innovative form-finding. The analysis of the exported data is followed by a possible reconfi guration of the algorithmís structure and further development by introducing new elements.

Aschwanden, Gideon, Chen Zhong, Maria Papadopoulou, Didier Gabriel Vernay, Stefan Müller Arisona, and Gerhard Schmitt. "System Design Proposal for an Urban Information Platform: A systems proposal." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 665-673. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper focuses on information modelling and proposes a system design for an urban model encompassing multi-scale data. The system employs procedural modelling on top of GIS information to allow different simulation tools to interact with the data. This is a promising approach for an urban information platform integrating multi-scale urban information to support different simulations important in urban design. In an initial instance the information platform is used to scale-up and scale-down in information modelling, linking technologies on different spatial levels, and utilizing the advantages of different tools to evaluate the built environment. The platform is applied in Singapore to manage urban data and support urban formation.

Tang, Wen Yen, Sheng Kai Tang, and Yuzn Zone Lee. "Tangible Pixels: Interactive Architectural Modules for Discovering Adaptive Human Swarm Interaction." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 301-307. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In this paper, we design and implement 40 identical modular architectural blocks, named Tangible Pixels, with swarm computing mechanism embedded. Each unit of tangible pixels is a customized, which has three functions_sensing, communication/computing, and actuating abilities to collective reactions to its surroundings. We further arrange this set of tangible swarm into a public interactive installation to explore the potential research and design territories of human swarm interaction and adaptive artifact. Via a preliminary onsite observation, we prove that this adaptive interaction model did overturn the conventional space design and usage as well as user mental model.

Thomsen, Mette Ramsgard, Karin Bech, and Kristjana Sigurdardottir. "Textile Logics in a Digital Architecture." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 621-628. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper questions the representational logics of a new class of digital-material practices incorporating material performance. Presenting the concept of ëtextile logicí, the paper discusses how computational design tools that allow for a parametrisation of material behaviour are foregrounding the examination of structural principles that lie outside traditional compressive logic. By pointing to the structural thinking of Vladimir Shukhov, Buckminster Fuller and Robert Le Ricolais, as well as contemporary practitioners such as Cecil Balmond and Peter Testa the paper examines the precedents for incorporating tensile self-bracing as a structural principle and how textiles can become a model for architectural design. The paper presents the research by design enquiry ëShadow Playí examining the involved traditions, methods and material practices of textile design and the here embedded systems of material specification can be advantageously ported to digital design.

Psarras, Stamatis, and Katherine A. Liapi. "The Disassembly of a Musical Piece and its Conversion to an ìArchitecturalî Pathway: An algorithmic approach." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 289-297. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents and discusses a process of transferring the main features of a piece of music such as structure, notes etc., to a primarily spatial construction in architecture. The main objective of this effort was to convert the linearity of time during the hearing of a musical piece into a continuous pathway and an architectural stroll on a given site. To this end, the musical piece is used as a source of data, which, with the use of developed algorithms, are converted into spatial data. A purely instrumental piece, ìAir,î from the suite for strings in D major by Bach, provided the source data used in the design of Park D, a section of a Cultural Park in the suburbs of Athens, Greece. The developed algorithms presented in the paper include: a) an algorithm for generating the shape of the path and the space defi ning elements along the path, and b) an algorithm that generates the geometry of four harmonographic structures.

Huang, Yinghsiu, Kai-Wei Hsieh, and Huan-Nian Chen. "The Emotional Design by Combining Interactive Technologies and Imaginations." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 361-368. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

In product design domain, designers have to deal with not only the interface between human and hardware, but also the emotions while using products. However, imagination is an important ability in all design stages. How designers could combine interactive devices and emotions with their imaginations is the main problem of this research. At the end of this paper, the result will demonstrate an interactive and emotional design by combining some sensors to receive the usage from people, and some reactions to express productsí emotions. By wiring photosensitive resistor, pressure sensor, red LED, speakers, and programing in ARDUINO, this study assembled an emotional alarm, which can express his angry emotions by different levels of noise, lighting, and shocking. In this study, we conducted a workshop not only for combining interactive sensors into products, but also for expressing emotions in viewpoints from products. During this workshop, students have to trigger their imaginations for conceiving emotional products, which they have never seen and thought of.

Gürsoy, Benay. "The Hands-On Basics of Contemporary Design Education." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 59-66. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Learning in the design studio is usually fostered by doing and refl ecting on what is done. This paper fi rstly reiterates that the doing in design is computing, in order to argue for the need for a hands-on design learning even more so in the age of digital curricula. Secondly, it corroborates the importance of tactile involvement in doing, and thus computing, to foster design learning. An experiment is conducted with 15 first year students of architecture the results of which support the argument that hands-on involvement and its interpretation as computing is essential to learning in the studio.

Lonsing, Werner. "The Infliction of Reality Upon Virtual Architectural Models." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 385-389. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The inevitable and obvious distinction between virtual and real worlds is a result of an assumption, that objects in computation are either digital or not. With new concepts like Mixed- or Augmented-Realities this simple standardized differentiation has become questionable. The infl iction of real objects upon virtual models can not be ignored.

Wang, Chun-Yang, Jakob Przybylo, and Haidong Ma. "The Preliminary Process of Synthetic Digital Fabrication: In Terms of Sheet Metal Facade." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 459-467. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

With the development and maturity of various digital media, architectural design process has gained considerable more freedom as compared with modernism. Digitalized virtual environment and advanced industrial machines are continuously been discussed and applied to experimental projects, creating astonishing architectural shapes which have been diffi cult to create in the past. Under such digital architectural trend, this research analyzed various digital fabrication methods through different architectural projects. By comparing the properties and processes of each fabrication manner, we aim to come up with a preliminary framework of an executable fabrication process which synthesized advantages from multiple fabrication methods.

Meibodi, Mania Aghaei, and Hamia Aghaiemeybodi. "The Synergy Between Structure and Ornament: A Reflection on the Practice of Tectonic in the Digital and Physical Worlds." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 245-254. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The use of digital design and fabrication technologies in architecture has followed a paradigm shift, which has seen the topology, form and structure of architecture pushed to incorporate areas such as climate, construction, acoustic etc. While these digital technologies are intended to enhance the processes and performance, a discussion of aesthetics has been ignored. Surmising that the use of digital technology enhances the performability and effi ciency aspects of architecture as well as the aesthetics, this research questions what the new relationships and arrangements for structure and ornament are. What are the challenges when structure uses a process-based logic and is sensitive to materiality whereas the aesthetics has a representation-based logic and is not sensitive to materiality? The authors of this paper contribute to this debate by using the notion of tectonic as a platform for gaining and creating knowledge about this issue and examining the issues through the design and prototyping of a Multi-functional Pavilion.

Stolarewicz, Malgorzata. "Time as a Designing Factor in Architecture Creation: Application of Parametric Design in Dynamic Facades." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 561-566. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The presented paper is an introduction to a Ph. D. study which focuses on computer methods of formatting spaces in architecture. At this stage of research author tackles the topic of parametric designing in dynamic facades where great attention is put on time aspect and subjective selection of the parameters. The paper consists of four parts (explanation of subject and main research goal, description of theoretical background, discussion about different kinds of dynamic facades and case study) which are summed up in a conclusion.

Pihlajaniemi, Henrika, Toni Oesterlund, and Tuulikki Tanska. "Tools for Interaction and User Participation in Urban Lighting: Lightstories Case." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 677-687. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This proposed paper presents the results of a real world demo of adaptive urban lighting in a pedestrian oriented street in the core centre of a northern city of 65∞01í latitude, Oulu, Finland. The case project ñ LightStories (Valotarina) ñ explores the methods to enable city dwellers to participate in the design of public urban lighting, as well as interaction and communication through urban lighting. It applies a web-based design tool which offers city dwellers the possibility to design one hour long light animations to be displayed along a pedestrian oriented street. In addition to describing the design and development process of the lighting system and the participatory design tools used in this case, the paper presents general discussion about the process and tools, and also about the role of algorithm aided methods in enabling the user participation in lighting design with the tool.

Tessmann, Oliver. "Topological Interlocking Assemblies." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 211-219. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Topological interlocking is a concept developed in material science. Solid modules form a structural system without the use of glue or mortar. Given fixed boundaries the elements constrain each other kinematically. This project seeks to re-conceptualize the system within an architectural framework by embracing computational design, analysis and fabrication tools and procedures. The goal is to develop geometrical differentiated, reversible, force-locked systems and the processes and methods to design and manufacture them. Students of the Architecture and Performative Design Studio (APD) at the Staedelschule Architecture Class (SAC) and the author developed the presented projects. The paper discusses the pedagogical approach of starting a design research studio from a very narrow material system. The research is continued at the School of Architecture of the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm.

Noteboom, Chris, Gerald Lindner, Ralph Brodrck, Alexander Suma, and Faas Moonen. "Towards Intuitive Communication With Our Built Environment." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 369-376. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

An exploration study is performed to investigate how a dynamic (digital) structural expressivity can lead to a new intuitive relationship between the individual user and the building.The study links the structureís experience which can be described mathematically, and is theoretically exact, to the subjective userís experience that is studied in the fi eld of psychology and phenomenology. The dynamic nature of their interaction is studied and an interactive virtual design is made in which the structure shows the forces the user introduces and also adapts to them; it enables intuitive communication. This approach fi ts in the global shift from primarily static to a more dynamic, one to one, agent based understanding of our environment.

Burry, Jane R., Wojec Goscinski, Guillermo Aranda-Mena, Suleiman Alhadidi, Alex Pena de Leon, and Mani Williams. "Trade Off and Real Time Analysis Feedback for Designers: Sailing as a Research Vehicle for Developing Systems and Skills." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 543-550. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper describes the investigation and outcomes of a workshop aiming to answer the dual questions of how best to link technologies and how best to harness expert knowledge to capture and integrate dynamic performance feedback in the design process. In order to focus on these intrinsic questions, the workshop moved outside the domain most familiar to most of the participants, the built environment, and introduced the participants to design and performance feedback for what, to most, was the new domain of sailing and sail design. It resulted in novel and valuable prototypical systems for analysis and feedback to inform immediate design iteration. It achieved this through problem decomposition and synthetic design activity engaging integrated models and prototypes with components from multiple players and sources of informed or expert knowledge or knowing.

Eloy, Sara, and José Duarte. "Transformation Grammar for Housing Rehabilitation: From a specifi c to a general grammar." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 471-478. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This article focuses on the use of both shape grammar and space syntax as tools to identify and encode the principles and rules behind the adaptation of existing houses to new requirements. The idea is to use such rules as part of a transformation grammar-based methodology for the rehabilitation of existing dwellings. The developed grammar is a specifi c grammar to inform the rehabilitation of a particular type of building in Portugal ñ ìrabo-de-bacalhauî. In this article the goal is to explore how the ìrabo-the-bacalhauî transformation grammar can be transformed in a general rehabilitation grammar in order to inform the rehabilitation of various types of housing buildings.

Meyboom, AnnaLisa. "Tuning Heavy Design: Parametric Structural Form Generation." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 567-572. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper discusses a methodology for generating architectural form parametrically from structural logics such that an architectural vocabulary can be generated for use in design. It intends to further the discussion of how parametrics can play a role in architectural design. Parametric applications are facilitating the use of engineering design feedback into the architectural process, allowing architects to ëtuneí their designs. In this case, structural form is discussed. The nature of parametrics makes the use of structural principles relatively simple because they are already in the numeric form of equations. As well, parametrics make the generation of alternatives easy because of the iterative nature of the tool. As such, including the basis of structural principles in the logic of the parametrics allows the design to function performatively in both an architectural and a structural sense.

Gu, Ning, and Bauke de Vries. "Two Approaches to Implementing BIM in Architectural Curricula." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 39-48. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

BIM is an IT-enabled approach that supports enhanced design integrity, efficiency and quality through the distributed access, exchange and maintenance of building data (Haymaker and Suter, 2007; Fischer and Kunz, 2004). More recently, many universities have responded to the adoption of BIM in the profession, by gradually introducing the practice into the curricula (i.e. Cory and Schmelter-Morret, 2012; Ibrahim, 2007; Plume and Mitchell, 2007). Focusing on collaboration ñ one of the most important aspects of BIM, this paper presents two approaches to implementing BIM in architectural curricula with a focus on collaboration but from two different collaboration scales. Through observation and refl ection of these two approaches to teaching BIM, the paper concludes by discussing BIM curriculum design.

de Leon, Alexander Pena. "Two Case-Studies of Freeform-Facade Rationalization." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 501-509. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper will demonstrate two effective facade rationalisation patterns developed at Gehry Technologies for mitigating the tradeoffs between project constructability constraints vs. project aesthetic constraints. The two Case-Studies will present, fi rstly a method for dealing with large amounts of component instantiations and second with the economical delivery of complex project geometry through panelling. Both projects use design technology as a strategy for the integration of specialized knowledge and trades, through an effective use of information technology. The Case Studies will present the development of the Gridshell Digital Mock-Up of the Yas Island Marina Hotel in Abu Dhabi designed by Asymptote Architects and secondly the Museo Soumaya facade system in Mexico City designed by Fernando Romero LAR. This document will report the development process for obtaining relevant construction information, essential for the assembly of the facade systems by a third-party sub-contractor in support of the facade system coordination. The report concludes on the implementations of bespoke tools in support of the coordination and geometry description tasks. The tailored tool making process extends the parametric modelling system Digital Projectô in the design support role of obtaining aesthetically pleasing decompositions of the buildings Master Design Surface MDS into feasible constructible components.

Barakat, Merate. "Urban Acoustic Simulation: Analysis of Urban Public Spaces through Auditory senses." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 587-592. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper explores the sonic characteristics of urban spaces, with the application of apprehending acoustic space and form theory. The theory defines auditory spaces as acoustical arenas, which are spaces defi ned and delineated by sonic events. Historically, cities were built around a soundmark, for example, the resonance of a church bell or propagation of a calling for prayer, or a factory horn. Anyone living beyond the horizon of this soundmark was not considered citizens of that town. Furthermore, the volume of urban sonic arenas depends on natural. Digital simulation is necessary to visualize the ephemeral and temporal nature of sound, within a dynamic immersive environment like urban spaces. This paper digitally analyses the different morphologies of old cities and forms of growth in relation to the sound propagation and ecological effects. An experiment is conducted with the aid of an ancient North-African city model, exposed to a point cloud agent system. By analysing how the sound propagates from the known soundmark through the urban fabric, with the wind pressure interference; the paper compares the theoretical concept of soundmarks and the known perimeter of the ancient city

Zarzycki, Andrzej. "Urban Games: Inhabiting Real and Virtual Cities." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 755-764. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Virtual environments, originally seen as less-than-perfect replicas of physical world, acquire their own identity with unique visual and spatial logic. Identity that now starts permeating back into everyday life and informing what is expected or acceptable within physical reality. The distinction between the actual and virtual fades when seen through the screen of a smartphone, experienced through a navigational system of the video game console, or manifested by media rich culture often confusing a product with an image. The paper considers massive multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPG) as the analogy to an urban ritual/happening and places AR in the broader context of the mobility-on-demand culture, location-based and ubiquitous technologies, and the authoring of the public realm. It also explores how we can take an advantage of the urban mobility for crowd sourcing, social networking, and multi-player gaming as well as non-normative use of public spaces.

Orzechowski, Maciej Andrzej, and Agata Wloka. "Virtual Building Construction Laboratory in Undergraduate Engineering Education." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 631-635. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This article describes an initial stage of development of a computer system aimed at helping undergraduate students to understand behaviour and processes occurring in construction elements. The system can be seen as an interactive book presenting and familiarising students with real laboratory tests. Apart from concentrating on the development, authors offered an overview of various computer systems so-far used in undergraduate engineering education. At the end of the article first comments and conclusions are presented.

Morton, Peter James, Margaret Horne, Ruth Conroy Dalton, and Emine Mine Thompson. "Virtual City Models: Avoidance of Obsolescence." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 213-224. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper offers an initial and ongoing investigation into the research area of Virtual City Models (VCMs). It builds upon previous research carried out by the VirtualNewcastleGateshead (VNG) team by providing an overview of VCMs multifunctions and emerging issues but specifi cally investigating the obsolescence factors and obsolescence-prevention strategies. This paper is part of a PhD research and provides a preliminary exploration of the issues described above. The study will conclude by identifying the progress of VNG thus far and the strategies employed by the VNG team to tackle the obsolescence factors identifi ed in this paper.

Pektas, Sule Tasli. "Virtual Design Studio Revisited: A Blended Approach for the Digital Natives." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 69-75. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper presents a distributed and blended model for a virtual design studio and demonstrates the application of the model in a real-life case study. An empirical survey revealed that the proposed model was well-accepted by the current generation of architectural students. The complementary use of the tools with different representational capabilities and synchronization modes enabled effective learning processes. The study also suggested that characteristics of architectural education might entail customization in online and blended learning in several ways.

Kontovourkis, Odysseas. "Virtual Forces in Design and Fabrication Process: Assembly and Construction of Physical Prototypes." In Physical Digitality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 133-141. Vol. 2. eCAADe: Conferences 2. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper demonstrates a preliminary research and teaching investigation that attempts to use virtual forces in order to achieve interaction behavior between individual components as mechanism for the development of physical prototypes in various scales. Through case studies, the current research examines possibilities for the design of global systems, structural components and joints aiming to construct prototypes that can be characterized by continuity in their forms, structures and materials. In parallel, a number of questions are raised. Is the process from design to fabrication linear? What can be the relation between digital and physical processes? In which level this integration can be achieved? This work attempts to investigate the application of such methodology, both in design and fabrication, and to examine its contribution in the design and construction process.

Pak, Burak, Caroline Newton, and Johan Verbeke. "Virtual Worlds and Architectural Education: A Typological Framework." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 739-746. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This study introduces a conceptual analysis, a typological framework which aims to map a wide array of possible virtual worlds into a larger frame and explore their signifi cance for architectural education. Using this analysis, we discuss the properties of virtual worlds in four groups: ìthe real virtual, virtual augmented real, real augmented virtual and fantastic virtualî. Based on these, we propose four different strategies for integrating virtual worlds into architectural education. Overall, this contribution can be seen as a small step towards the revitalization of the architectural design curriculum.

Erhan, Halil I., Rodolfo Sanchez, Robert F. Woodbury, and Volker Mueller. "Visual Narratives of Parametric Design History: Aha! Now I see how you did it!" In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 259-268. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Histories are underdeveloped and underused features in parametric CAD (PCAD) systems. Designers employ backtracking and deferral strategies that both use and augment history. Using backtracking and deferral as a framework we present two classes of design process graph diagramming techniques for augmented history in PCAD. We compare the second version of these design process graphs across several designers who completed multiple tasks using two parametric systems (SolidWorks and GenerativeComponents). The two systems show similar types of action, with markedly more and deeper backtracking in GenerativeComponents. We present a third diagramming system as a design for a proof of concept prototype. This prototype aims to expand the capabilities of design histories beyond access to single prior states to visualize and enable direct interaction based on backtracking and deferral.

Verovsek, Spela, and Tadeja Zupancic. "Visual support for interpretation of spatial complexities in urban environments." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 403-411. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

The paper presents the second phase of our research efforts to further develop a model for interpretation of spatial complexities in urban environments (IMUSC ñ Interpretation Model of Urban Spatial Coherence). The modelís central structure is a result of our former research work being now further upgraded with the visual component and followed by the initial idea to extend it in terms of the pragmatic instrument and educational tool for the general public, participating in the process of urban decision-making. The paper concisely summarizes both theoretical and empirical phase of our research efforts; we explain the methodology used to gain novel knowledge regarding the abilities of the general public to decode professional visual messages. Further proposals are set by embedding the acquired empirical knowledge in the model structure as well as promote it in terms of a digital educational tool.

Patlakas, Panagiotis, and Hasim Altan. "Visualizing Post - Occupancy Evaluation Data: Rationale, methodology and potential of EnViz, a visualization software prototype." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 647-653. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

This paper introduces EnViz, a software prototype for the visualization of environmental data collected from post-occupancy evaluation surveys. The piece begins by introducing the rationale for the software, and why the authors believe it can be a valuable aid for environmental building design. The development methodology is described and the basic operability and interface are presented. A case study is introduced, and the results from the application of the software on the data from it are presented with accompanying images. Further results are presented, from the use of the software in workshops with undergraduate and post-graduate students, as well as researchers and professionals. Finally, future directions of the software development and the potential of the software are given.

Tonn, Christian, and RenÈ Tatarin. "Volume Rendering in Architecture: Overlapping and combining 3d voxel volume data with 3d building models." In Digital Physicality: Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, 719-726. Vol. 1. eCAADe: Conferences 1. Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, 2012.

Volume rendering is an illustration technique for visualising different 3D measured data or 3D simulation data interactively on screen. This paper introduces a method that overlays several types of volume data on an architectural surface model. This complex calculation takes place on the graphics card using hardware-accelerated shaders. An implemented software prototype entitled ìVolumeRenderingî is introduced. In addition to interactive visualisation, the objective was to create a user-friendly interface. Synergies and new evaluation possibilities arise through the overlay, e.g. of different measuring techniques, with a surface model. Finally the use of the software prototype is illustrated using examples from our interdisciplinary research project.