Keywords Abstract
Murison, Alison. "A CAD Interface to Objective Assessment of Design to Support Decision Making in Urban Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The Department of Architecture at Edinburgh College of Art, Heriot Watt University, has an on-going project to create useful implementations of the method of spatial analysis called Space Syntax developed by Prof Bill Hillier at the Bartlett School of Architecture, London. Space Syntax can predict the potential usage of each route through an urban space or large building, some routes will be avoided by most traffic (pedestrian or vehicular), while other routes will become busy thoroughfares. It has been used by Architects and Urban Designers to support proposed developments, whether to show that potential commercial activity ought to be concentrated in an area of high traffic, or to change routes through troubled housing estates, bringing the protection of added traffic to areas previously avoided for fear of mugging. The paper describes how a specially written customized version of AutoCAD enables Post Graduate students of Urban Design and Undergraduate Architecture students to test their designs against the Space Syntax Measures. Simple interactive graphics enable plans to be entered and compared, so that plans may be evaluated during the design process, and decisions supported by objective tests. This improves both design decisions and the learning process, and should be useful to many professionals in urban planning.
Kurose, Shigeyuki, and Satoshi Hagishima. "A Comparative Analysis of the Road Networks of Premodern Citiesby Using the First Eigenvector of the Transition Matrix." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a method for comparing road networks from the view point of pedestrian flows. We constructed a type of spatial interaction model where the shopping trip distributions were determined using a partially doubly-constrained type of model. The method for comparing the road networks is based on this model. The method is as follows. The road networks are represented by nodes and links. Then, P, the probability for a pedestrian to move from node i to nodej is expressed by the following equation: Pij = Wj exp (- “Ÿcij) /  Wj exp (-iŸ Cij) where Cij is the distance between node i and j, W, is a measure of attraction of node), and beta is the distance-decay parameter. We proved that V., the first eigenvector of transition matrix, (Pij), indicates the ratio of pedestrian flows at node i at a steady-state condition. By using the first eigenvector of the transition matrix, road networks can be compared. In this paper, a general method for calculating the first eigenvectors of transition matrices will be described and several road networks of premodern cities in Europe, Middle East and Japan will be compared. The results indicate that the method of comparing pedestrian road networks by using the first eigenvector of the transition matrix is useful.
Kolli, R., J.M. Hennessey, and R. Stuyver. "A Conceptual Sketching Device for the Early Phase of Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Computer tools are still not popular among designers during early phases of design. Existing mouse-based software applications provide excellent features for constructing precise drawings and illustrations, but they are cumbersome to use during conceptual design phase for rapid free form sketching. We propose a user interface concept for a new pen-based computer device called IDEATOR. The functions and user interface style for IDEATOR were derived from our studies of industrial designers. Because of its simplicity and ease of use, we believe that the device will be of potential interest to architects, graphic designers, user interface designers and fashion designers as well. We interviewed practising industrial designers and several creative professionals at their work places to get an insight into user behaviour and work practices that are characteristic of the initial ideation phase [1]. Based on our observations, we envisaged a schematic user environment where several devices and systems support the various needs of designers. In a focused effort on sketching activity, we studied sketchbooks related to an entire project and video tapes of designers during sketching phase. From these, we derived the functional requirements for a sketching device [2]. In this paper, we describe the conceptual product form and user interface for IDEATOR which is based on LCD tablet technology and cordless electronic pens. We illustrate through our video prototypes, how it could be intuitively used to perform various ideation functions: sketching rapidly in colour, making quick collages of photographs, animating sketches and annotating animations or video. We are currently in the process of evaluating the concept prototype with several industrial designers.
Dasgupta, Shubhagato. "A Decision Support System for Architects in the Rural Housing Situation in India." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Even a conservative estimate of the rural housing short fall in India, is 20.6 million houses. There are three contexts under which external intervention is necessary, the endemic low housing quality of the poor and landless, the major development projects where displaced people have to be rehoused, and rehabilitation of victims of natural disasters such as the periodic floods or unprecedented earthquakes like the recent one in Maharashtra, Central India, where we successfully applied this method. Interventions by government agencies or charity organisations, have often failed to achieve a viable sustainable habitat, primarily because of misplaced perceptions in need assessment, resulting in disrupted societies. Tailored to the Indian rural housing scenario, the study developed a participatory interface to aid architects and planners in information gathering and systematization of need assessment for input into the designing and decision-making process. The method based on field tested participatory information collection games consists of three major stages. The first stage involves user-interactive documentation of the baseline data. The second, involves participatory group analysis and evaluation of issues coupled with rapid interactive verification of information collected in terms of spatial organisations and production mechanisms. The third is a tool for rapid systematised retrieval of information, for synthesis into preparation of an “user needs statement”.
Yaakup, A., F. Johar, and N.A. Dahlan. "A Decision Support System for Local Authorities in Malaysia." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Given the dynamic nature of urban development, if is particularly important to have a well conceived planning management activity which can serve as the eyes and ears of a large planning process, up-to-date and reliable. It provides monitoring and the surveillance of compliance with planning regulations and it serves as an easy warning system with regard to sources of shortfalls in the process of urban planning. Information is therefore needed at the local authority level to facilitate administrative procedures, policy planning and plan implementation. Also, the advent of corporate planning and the continued squeeze on local authority expenditure require local authorities to examine critically whether rational decisions are made. Against this background, this paper examines the functions of a local authority particularly in the context of planning and urban management. These and the types of data which support them provide the fundamental framework upon which a model of geographic data entities and their relationship is developed. Ultimately, it will be reasonable to assume that a local authority will have developed a GIS providing a complete local authority coverage of up-to-date and accurate information at the parcel base. Consequently, it will be used to assist planning decisions taking into account among other things, the current scenario of the proposed development, physical constraints and future impacts. Further, a customized menu driven user interface is developed to allow planners and decision makers to view and analyze the planning scenarios interactively before deciding on the final plan. The paper concludes with a discussion on problems encountered in the project namely data availability and organizational issues.
van Gorp, L.F.M., J.T. Gelder, and C.M. de Steenhuis. "A Functional Approach to Conceptual Modelling of Steel Structures." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The life cycle of a steel structure can be divided into six main stages: design, detailing, manufacturing, erection, maintenance and demolition. For each stage, a different party is responsible,often using its own automation aids to assist its specific task. Since all parties operate on the same steel structure, there is a need for integration between the islands of automation. Most of the developments in this area, including ISO/STEP, are directed towards the development of conceptual models carrying all relevant information through the life cycle of the product. The conceptual models are developed following a probabilistic approach. In this approach, a conceptual model is inductively developed by analyzing and modelling empirical similarities. In this paper we explain the problems resulting from following a probabilistic modelling approach by presenting its consequences. This is illustrated by the logical product model developed in Eureka project “CIMSteeli. A potential solution to these problems is proposed by presenting a functionalapproach to the development of an integrated system for design, detailing and manufacturing of steel structures. The strength of this approach is illustrated by a simple example.
Lucardie, Larry. "A Functional Framework for Conceptual Modelling." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. A conceptual model is not only indispensable for the design and implementation of knowledge based systems, but also for their validation, modification, maintenance and enhancement. Experience indicates, however, that in many cases reality is not well reflected in a full-fledged conceptual model. What is systematically lacking in the prevailing conceptualization methods is a well-developed theory of knowledge that underlies conceptualization methods: a theory that precedes the process of forming meaningful classifications and that precedes the specification of a conceptual model. To date, conceptualization methods are based on the probabilistic assumption that, in essence, all conditions necessary for creating a classification, are provided initially and can easily be revealed by utilizing mathematical measures of similarity. Another frequently occurring prototypical assumption is that for creating a classification, necessary conditions are sufficient. Furthermore, it is assumed that the categories of conditions are a priori fixed and unconditional. That conceptualizing takes place without any explicit background knowledge about goals of classifications and without contextual influences and that categorizations have an unconditional status are not viewed as problems. In contrast to these approaches, the functional view states that relevant descriptive attributes are not necessarily a priori given but should be acquired through knowledge about goals of classifications and about contexts. It is also asserted that an explicit concern for necessary conditions will not suffice for capturing the dynamics of reality. Furthermore, the functional view puts forward that a goal- and context-oriented strategy leads to the reconstruction of new attributes and categorizations with a dynamic status. The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretic and practical merits of the functional view compared to the probabilistic and prototype approaches. Conceptual models developed in the Computer Integrated Manufacturing-Project will serve as illustrations for the main ideas.
Chan, Chiu-Shui. "A Hypermedia Tutoring for Multimedia Tasks." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Using a computer or a software package involves procedural knowledge, or knowledge of a series of instructions. When a user recognizes the appropriate computer commands (the method) in a certain application, it is assumed that the user is capable of doing a computer-related or computera ided task. Based on this assumption, the current project explores methods of developing a computer tutoring system to convey know-how efficiently. The purpose of the project is to make novices familiar with machines and with techniques of handling multimedia for presenting design concepts. A teaching tool is designed that combines images, sounds, and movements to create an effective learning environment. The tool is a hypermedia system consisting of different software and hardware components implemented in the HyperCard. How to manipulate different media will be taught by means of cross-references, graphic display, text explanations, and background music. Hopefully, this project will suggest some useful methods for teaching CAD to novice computer users.
Saw, Seiji, and Takafumi Arima. "A Landscape Simulation System Which Integrates Geographical Feature Data and the Building Data." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Many researchers examine landscapes at the architectural scale. However, landscapes should be examined at different scales and we should include those elements in city development projects. This paper describes the results of a research project which aims at combining such data to create an image the landscape that comes close to reality. Oita City was divided into a grid of 250 meter * 250 meter. Each grid was divided into eight triangular polygons. The geographical features used include: (i) a three-dimensional image constructed by calculating the polygons altitude in relation to the altitude of the adjacent grid, (ii) the ground texture based on different land uses, (iii) coordinate values in the form of buildings in the city centre, (iv) the number of floors of buildings and patterns of elevation collected by field observation and classified into 12 patterns. The computer program was very successful in creating the desired realistic image
Arentze, Theo, Aloys Borgers, B. Dellaert, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "A Multi-Purpose Multi-Stop Model Describing Consumers' Choices of Shopping Centres." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Recently, a number of interesting extensions to traditional decompositional and discrete choice models has been introduced that allow one to combine parameters estimated in different phases ofcomplex choice processes. These extensions offer new possibilities to model combinations of choices consumers make if they select shopping centres to visit. This paper will introduce a modelling approach that describes consumer choices of shopping centres involving multiple shopping functions (multi purpose) as well as locations (multi stop). The approach extends traditional decompositional models of single choices to a model of combinations of choices. It uses a recursive scaling procedure that combines attributes related to different shopping functions and to shopping centres at different locations. The model will be tested on data collected on shopping behaviour in Maastricht, the Netherlands.
Geerling, Heinrich. "A Proposal for a Framework for Business Re-engineering in Design and Realization of Artificial Environments." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. According to the Top-Down design process', this paper gives a generic and qualitative description of a Concurrent Engineering Environment, that should support the problem solving procedure in town planning and architecture in a modern quality oriented society. A system that is based on the principal of democracy might guarantee the preservation of quality in the projection and realization of artificial environments. This environment can be seen as a part of the today often discussed “digital democracy”, which practically is based on a infrastructure of computers, interfaces, software systems, a network, databases and a data presentation, that is able to comprise the expectations of professionals involved in the architecture and town planning process. The paper will discuss what the role of the designer and coordinator of this computer environment looks like,in order to design, plan, build and coordinate activities for the realization of this Concurrent Environment and how several software engineers work concurrently to develop tools that guarantee a modular integration. The backbone of this environment is the definition and use of standards for data exchange. Basically those standards are derived from two domains: artifacts will be described in a product model data, while natural resources are described in spatial data. Town planning has to integrate both models. It will be discussed briefly how far the data modelling language EXPRESS of part 11 of the ISO 10303 (Express Language Reference Manual) might be useful to model GIS related problems. An example will describe how a scenario of activities, from registration of real world data to recognition of requirements of society, the definition of development plans through design(competition), lawfulness checking and construction until demolition should look like.
Engelen, Guy, and Roger White. "A Strategic Planning and Policy Decision Support Tool for Urban Regions." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. In this paper we present a Decision Support System developed to assist urban designers, planners and policy makers to explore and evaluate possible urban layouts and their growth patterns. Thecore of the system consists of a modelling shell allowing the user to specify cellular automata based models of urban and regional systems. These models capture the effect of local spatial processes in which the use, or desired use of each parcel or cell of land is determined partly by institutional and environmental factors, and partly by the activities present in its neighbourhood. Since each cell affects every other cell within its neighbourhood, a complex dynamic emerges. Unlike conventional cellular automata, the models are defined with a large neighbourhood --over a hundred cells-- a relatively large number of states --more than a dozen in some applications-- representing socio-economic and natural land-uses. The approach permits the straightforward integration of detailed physical, environmental, and institutional constraints, as well as including the effects of the transportation and communication infrastructure. These models thus permit a very detailed representation of evolving spatial systems. The current version of the system represents urban areas as consisting of up to 10.000 interacting zones, each roughly the size of an individual city block. These models are easy to build and apply, yet empirical tests show that they produce realistic simulations of urban land use dynamics. Consequently, they are well suited to form the heart of the DSS, which provides the user with a number of tools for exploration,analysis and evaluation of alternative futures of the system as they result from policy interventions that are imposed by means of what-if experiments and scenario analysis. For example, the DSS isable to identify areas in which pressure for change in land use restrictions may become critical under particular development strategies. In the DSS, the modelling shell is coupled to a simple,custom-built GIS. In the stand-alone application of the DSS, this stores the detailed geographical qualities of the area being modelled, and allows basic overlay manipulations. It also displays theresults of the model while the simulation proceeds. Alternatively, the GIS can serve as aninterface to more elaborate, commercial GIS systems.
Bax, Thijs, and Henk Trum. "A Taxonomy of Architecture: Core of a Theory of Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The authors developed a taxonomy of concepts in architectural design. It was accepted by the Advisory Committee for education in the field of architecture, a committee advising the European Commission and Member States, as a reference for their task to harmonize architectural education in Europe. The taxonomy is based on Domain theory, a theory developed by the authors, based on General Systems Theory and the notion of structure according to French Structuralism, takes a participatory viewpoint for the integration of knowledge and interests by parties in the architectural design process. The paper discusses recent developments of the taxonomy, firstly as a result of a confrontation with similar endeavours to structure the field of architectural design, secondly as a result of applications of education and architectural design practice, and thirdly as a result of theapplication of some views derived from the philosophical work from Charles Benjamin Peirce. Developments concern the structural form of the taxonomy comprising basic concepts and levelbound scale concepts, and the specification of the content of the fields which these concepts represent. The confrontation with similar endeavours concerns mainly the work of an ARCUK workingparty, chaired by Tom Marcus, based on the European Directive from 1985. The application concerns experiences with a taxonomy-based enquiry in order to represent the profile of educational programmes of schools and faculties of architecture in Europe in qualitative and quantitative terms. This enquiry was carried out in order to achieve a basis for comparison and judgement, and a basis for future guidelines including quantitative aspects. Views of Peirce, more specifically his views on triarchy as a way of ordering and structuring processes of thinking,provide keys for a re-definition of concepts as building stones of the taxonomy in terms of the form-function-process-triad, which strengthens the coherence of the taxonomy, allowing for a more regular representation in the form of a hierarchical ordered matrix.
McCartney, Kevin, and Ashraf Ismail. "A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Supplementary Planning Guidance and Local Planning Policies." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are being designed in order to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities, with regards to building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. The measures to determine proper evaluation will be based upon site-development briefs, and design guides produced by the local planning authorities. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment, the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. It will also provide many functions for editing two and three dimensional drawings specifically for the environmental analysis tasks. In addition to the common graphical output of Aut0CAD, i.e. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, the tool will generate textual analysis of the design in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Statement of proposed development. The speculative tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out tailor-made for architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of materials for environmental statements. Second, field observation will be carried out to observe the concerned professionals as decision-makers while assessing building design proposals. A prototype will be designed and then tested against the expectations of the tool designer, then the tool performance will be evaluated by a team of professionals participated in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the concluding study findings will be documented as part of a postgraduate research thesis to be completed in June 1995.
Tae, Won. "A Visualization Model for External Shading Devices Performance at the Early Design Stage." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Windows are used for the visual connection between indoors and outdoors, ventilation and daylight of our interiors and for the reduction of our heating energy through solar energy utilization. This solar energy, however, is often so intense that counter measures should be taken in order to maintain comfortable indoor conditions. Air conditioning is one counteraction. In order to reduce the cooling loads, it is highly recommended to use shading devices. When shading devices are applied in combination with the glass they can modify the thermal effect of windows to a very great extent. The most effective shading devices are exterior types such as overhang, fins and exterior venetian blind. The effectiveness of an external shading device depends on its geometry, sun path, and the orientation of the building. These factors are interrelated dynamically, it is extremely difficult to predict intuitively how the shadow is cast by the external shading device on the window. Due to the inherent complexity of calculation for shadow casting, building designers to fail often integrate them into energy-efficient building design. Since computer graphics can be a powerful visual communication tool, the above problem might be solved through a computerized graphical interface in the early design stage. The research described in this paper involves the development of a computer program which aims the following objectives: (1) to facilitate the description of a external shading device's geometry through an integrated graphic input model, (ii) to simulate the relationship of external shading devices and shadows based on sun path, the orientation of building, (iii) to visualize the shadow casting by shading devices, and (iv) to provide designers with possible solutions to create energy-efficient external shading device for a specific building.
Moore, Kathryn. "Abstract into Reality." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Skills associated with the art of design, imagination, intuition, visual, spatial and perceptual thinking, have generally been ignored by the educational system. These imaginal skills have been considered insignificant within a predominately positivist culture, disregarded as a valid measure of intelligence. Culturally, therefore, they remain relatively underdeveloped. A narrowly defined type of logic, reason and rationality has been regarded as the preferred form of knowledge, and as a consequence, significant and complementary ways of understanding and thinking have been neglected. This affects how we regard design, design processes and design theory. It is suggested that it also explains the divergence between design theory and design practice. This paper explores the relationship between the imaginal skills and design. Whereas the imaginal skills are often regarded as subjective and elusive, it is argued that the imaginal skills are cognitive abilities that can be taught, and that in doing so confidence is developed in different ways of thinking. This encourages qualitative or sensory understanding of space and place, a more comprehensive understanding of the vocabulary of design, and the ability to make connections between design expression and conceptual thinking. It considers the pedagogical programme of the undergraduate course in landscape architecture UCE, which aims to develop understanding of different ways of thinking as an integral, complementary part of the design process.
Schipper, Roel, and Godfried Augenbroe. "An Information Model of Energy Performance in Early Building Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Design is a creative and dynamic process. The level to which a future generation of Intelligent Integrated Building Design Systems will be able to support this process depends on the power of the underlying conceptual models to cover the semantics of design. In the definition of generic building models, the concept of constraints appears to be a powerful means to formalize those semantics. Both design performance goals, and rules and relations in design composition can be described as constraints. The Engineering Data Model (EDM), recently developed at UCLA, acknowledges this fact. It allows the formal definition of object oriented building models, using constraints as the central concept for describing relations. This paper will discuss the development of an EDM building model for the integrated design for energy performance, and the implementa-tion of this model in a small prototype system. We will specifically deal with modelling informati-on in the early design stages. This information typically consists of multiple global design alternatives on one hand, and a wide range of conflicting design goals on the other hand. In the paper, it is demonstrated that integration of these conflicting views on building performance in one coherent model is the key to obtaining an optimal design result. Using the Dutch building codes for energy performance (NEN 2916) as an example of design goals, the concepts and relations of these building codes were translated to a formal EDM model. A small shell was built on top of this computer-interpretable model, to demonstrate the useability of the model during the solving of a concrete design problem. It is shown that the EDM building model is able to provide the designer with integrated information through combining different sets of performance constraints and design alternatives in one environment.
Mustoe, I., and Alan Bridges. "An Intelligent Architectural Design Resource." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. With the development of optical disc technology very large resources of visual material are becoming available to designers. For example, the School of Architecture at University College Dublin has compiled a 30 cm Phillips Laser vision disc containing some 20,000 images of buildings from all parts of Europe. Conventional methods of accessing such large bodies of information tend to be based on formal query languages and are unsuitable for designers searching design precedents or other forms of inspiration. Conventional expert systems, based on deductive inference engines, are equally unsuitable. The difficulty stems from design being an exploratory rather than deductive process. The paper describes a novel type of pattern matching expert system, referred to as “image”, which has been developed to provide a method of search which is more appropriate to designers. By the use of image, designers can make meaningful but non-deductive connections between their attitudes towards design and the contents of an optical disc. The bit-string manipulation algorithm underlying image is explained and an example of the use of the system in controlling the Dublin disc is also described.
Jabi, Wassim. "An Outline of the Requirements for a Computer Supported Collaborative Design System." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) systems have adequately satisfied several needs so far. They have dramatically improved the accuracy and consistency of working drawings, enabled designers to visualize their design ideas in three-dimensions, allowed the analysis of designs through data exchange and integrated databases, and even allowed the designers to evaluate (and in some cases generate) designs based on comparisons to previous cases and/or the formalization of specific rules and grammars. Yet, there is a general consensus that CAAD systems have not yet achieved their full potential. First, most systems employ a single-user approach to solving architectural problems which fails to grapple with the fact that most design work is done through teamwork. Second, current systems still cannot support early design stages which involve client briefing, data collection, building program formulation, and schematic design generation. Thus, if CAAD is to ultimately benefit the design process, it must (1) emulate and support the design team approach to architectural problem solving and (2) be deployed in the earliest possible stages of the design process. This paper seeks to study remedies to both of the afore-mentioned limitations through focusing on the interaction between a set of requirements (the building program) and the architectural solution that satisfies them (the schematic design). The core of this interaction forms the fundamental dialectic and collaborative nature of what is called designing: a concerned social activity that proceeds by creating architectural elements to address a set of requirements and their re-thinking as a result of architectural conjecture. To investigate this relationship, it is proposed to build a computer-supported collaborative design environment using the tools of conceptual modelling (based on the NIAM notation), object-oriented algorithms, and distributed agents. Based on a literature survey and earlier findings on the role of artifacts in collaborative design, this paper outlines the requirements for the above system and reports on initial experiments. Thus, it constitutes the first stage of a research project that will lead to a full implementation of a distributed collaborative computer environment addressing the above issues.
Hill, Shauna, and André Streilein. "Architectural Photogrammetry and Knowledge-Base Systems Record and Redevelopment." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. In redevelopment projects, the purpose of heritage recording is part of an investigative process to achieve understanding about structures so that designers can make the appropriate design decisions. It is desirable to integrate the knowledge of the recording and documentation specialist, who has first-hand knowledge of the building, with the interpretative process of evaluating the building information and making design decisions. New developments in the fields of photogram-metric recording and computer science has led to improved “image understandingi. This paper describes research that is the result of exploring the concept of integrating new digital photogram-metric recording processes with an automated expert evaluation tool. The goal of this research is to expedite the acquisition of heritage building information for use by a knowledge-based system capable of providing the designer with building performance evaluations. Photogrammetry records all data as a series of three-dimensional coordinates which make it a natural partner for today's three-dimensional CAD systems. Generating a three-dimensional model of architecturally significant physical forms and details can provide a basis for evaluation, understanding, education, and design. The purpose of knowledge-based systems in construction is to enhance the decision-making process with specialized knowledge and experience. The linkage of CAD databases with knowledge-based systems provides a source of input data, such as a three-dimensional model, significant to a particular problem. This research is a collaborative effort between two groups, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich Switzerland, and the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada.
van Bakel, Anton. "Assesing Strategy Questionnaire for Architectural Styles of Designing (ASQ-FASD)." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. In this paper the first results will be discussed that were obtained by the Assessing Strategy Questionnaire For Architectural Styles of Designing (ASQ-FASD). This questionnaire was developed specifically for the assessment of architectural design strategies. The construction of the questionnaire will be discussed in light of previous protocol research on strategic styles of designing. With this questionnaire, we developed a tool to assess an architects design strategy in a faster, easier and more reliable way than used to be the case with conventional protocol studies and other knowledge eliciting techniques like Card Sorting, and Repertory Grid. This questionnairewas submitted in a pilot study to 10 experienced Dutch architects. R.esults show that architects do indeed have preferences for different design situations. Moreover results indicate that they havea preference with respect to their responses within such specific situations. Though the generalizability coefficient was calculated for no more than 10 architects with a value of.57 (generalizing across situations), we feel that this is reason enough to assume that the questionnaire can be used to assess design strategies of architects. These results will be discussed with respect to the development of new design and decision support tools. The fact that designers have preferences for specific design problems and that they respond differently should be considered in the implementation of user interfaces and data base technology where possible.
Wong, W.C.H., C.Y.P. Yau, and John Bradford. "Authoring and Delivering in a Hypermedia System for Architectural Education." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper will describe the major technical considerations for gathering, coding, storing, and displaying the various types of information needed for a multimedia CA! system to be used by students of architecture. Topics covered include hardware requirements, media types (audio, text, drawings, images, models and movies), hyper links and database organisation.
O'Brien, William, and Martin Fischer. "Boundaries, Interdependence, and Coordination in ConstructionNetwork Organizations." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Of the profileration of new business paradigms in recent years, one of the primary foci has been building closer relationships between firms in the value adding chain. Lean production, which encompasses J1T, supply-chain management, and TQM/continuous improvement, has provided an important paradigm for reorganization of business practices and is in the process of revolutioni-zing western mass production industries, particularly the automotive industry. While lean production is attractive, it is not appropriate for all industries or production requirements. Lean production works best within a relatively stable production volume and stable range of products. “Mass customizationi has proven difficult for accomplished lean producers such as Toyota, and requires a different set of organizational disciplines than those used in lean production. For example, in the lean production paradigm, relationships with suppliers are long-standing and steady, while in a mass customization paradigm, relationships with and between long-term suppliers will vary over time, and new suppliers will enter and leave the organization in a transient fashion. The organization form appropriate to mass customization is the network organization (also known as the virtual corporation in the popular business press), of which construction project organization is an instance, At the project level, we examine construction organization in the context of network organization theory. In particular, we examine boundaries between firms to highlight problems of coordination in a multi-firm environment, and the interdependencies that arise due to coordination needs. We provide a conceptual framework to describe these aspects of construction network organization, and discuss ways that different construction firms are dealing with coordination and boundary problems by rethinking contractual relationships and building closer ties with other firms in the network.
Kraria, H., and Alan Bridges. "Building Integration Tools for Collaborative Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. For many years, research in CAAD systems has been mostly oriented towards single environ-ments, thus restricting the designer to a static environment. In reality the activities of user designers constantly interact with other participants activities (i.e. a structural engineer, services engineer, etc.). For instance, the architect is heavily influenced by the nature of the structural engineering process. It defines the character and integration of the basic components in other words, design is a collaborative process carried out by several participants with a single overall objective. The separation of architectural and engineering aspects in building design has brought on isolated computer tools. These tools are not interchangeable, the situation demands for their integration, all the interaction are supported by the social aspect of members of group participa-ting in collaborating work. The benefits of sharing CAD tools and related data between all members of the design team are that everyone works on the same information, co-ordination is easier and more accurate, and there is a reduction in the amount of repetition, as the need to redraw information is eliminated. The result is an increase in the accuracy and speed of the production of drawings. The technological aspects to support collaborative work and in particular the interaction process in design, is the main work issue being carried out at Strathclyde University, Department of Architecture and Building Science, Glasgow, Scotland U.K.
Branki, Cherif. "Communicative Acts in Cooperative Architectural Design Environments." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The purpose of this paper is to present a scheme, that can be used to support the communication process in cooperative design. Computational aids for design have largely been for a designerworking by himself/herself. These aids have also been supplemented by the widespread use of artificial intelligence approaches. However, design is so complex, and very rarely acted upon by a single designer but many more working towards the same aim. This involves a new paradigm in which designers need to cooperate with each other using a computational medium. A protocol analysis in cooperative design has been carried out and technological support has been proposed.Cooperative design becomes an important paradigm for the next generation of intelligent computer aided design systems. It will be conducted in many forms among several designers and willrequire the support of advanced communication facilities beyond the “passivei transmission of data and messages. Technological advances in communication networks have opened up new ways for cooperative design interaction across several processes of cooperation among designers, designers and computer aided design systems, computer aided design systems and knowledge based systems, and knowledge based systems themselves. In cooperative design environments, aunit of communication among designers is the transfer of a message from one designer (a sender) to another (a receiver). The aim of such communication is to provide the receiver with some information or to have the receiver take certain actions. Inspired by the speech act theory, a branch of the philosophy of language and linguistics, such a unit is called a communicative act. By analogy to architectural design, a communicative act is a performing act in designers communication.
Hammond, Barbara. "Computer Aided Urban Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The product of the Urban Design process in the public sector in the UK is usually a briefing document of some kind which communicates design ideas in outline both to the lay public and to private developers. The problem with briefing effectively is that outline expression of ideas does not provide a strong basis for negotiation with developers, the temptation therefore is to work up one proposal in detail and to present it as the only option. This type of prescriptive briefing may be successful in situations where the public body has control over the land, the economy is buoyant and the site has a simple context. Its problems are that it is labour intensive, so some areas are covered in detail, others not at all, it is seen as restrictive by developers, so may create a climate of conflict rather than certainty, it is not responsive to change, it covers specific sites thoroughly but does not deal well with large, complex areas, on large sites it tends towards a homogeneous environment whereas the nature of towns and cities is pluralistic and heterogeneous, it confines the Urban Designer to site specific work rather than allowing concentration on the whole urban system. Urban Designers at the London Docklands Development Corporation felt that CAD might present some answers to these problems in facilitating an iterative, interactive briefing process which could respond quickly to change, whereby varying options for development could be investigated fully but quickly and resource-efficiently, which could be used to communicate design ideas effectively to non-professionals, which could help to make negotiation with developers more effective, less confrontational, which could deal with large, complex sites effectively. The idea was that a piece of city could be modeled on the computer and an urban design study would then be carried out on it which would test varying options for development, resulting in an outline, but three dimensional, model for an area which could be used in three ways: as a briefing tool, as part of a marketing exercise and as a tool to aid effective negotiation and consultation at the planning stage. A pilot project was carried out on a set of development sites at East India Dock and, following the success of this, a full study was carried at Surrey Quays Centre. The paper describes these projects and discusses both their products and their effect on the developmentprocess as aids in decision making.
Shyi, Gary, and Tina Huang. "Constructing Three-Dimensional Mental Models from Two-Dimensional Displays." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. In the present study we adopted the tasks and the experimental procedures used in a recent series of study by Cooper (1990, 1991) for the purpose of examining how we utilized two-dimensional information in a line-drawing of visual objects to construct the corresponding three-dimensional mental structure represented by the 2-D displays. We expected that the stimulus materials we used avoided some of the problems that Cooper's stimuli had, and with that we examined the effect of complexity on the process of constructing 3-D models from 2-D displays. Such a manipulation helps to elucidate the difficulties of solving problems that require spatial abilities. We also investigated whether or not providing information representing an object viewed from different standpoints would affect the construction of the object's 3-D model. Some researchers have argued that 3-D models, once constructed, should be viewer-independent or viewpoint-invariant, while others have suggested that 3-D models are affected by the viewpoint of observation. Data pertinent to this issue are presented and discussed.
Halin, Gilles, Jean-Claude Bignon, and D. Leonard. "Contributions of a Complex Object Retrieval Model to a Dynamical Architectural Design Process." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. When a new Architectural Construction Project starts, all the steps of the technical design are completely redefined. The experience gained in old projects is not easily reusable. Only personal experience of each project member is relevant. The global experience of a project is difficult to manage and to define. The designers of new project have many things to learn from previous experiences that may or not be good. The use of experiences may avoid either looking for asolution to previously resolved problems or making the same mistakes. To realise experience reuse during an architectural technical design we proposed to combine two actual research works:(i) a Dynamical Architectural Construction Process (DACP), (ii) a Complex Object Management System (COMS). The first work puts forward an original construction process based on a model that uses a geometrical definition of an architectural object to produce the constructive definition of this same object. The original features of this model are: (i) the insertion of a logic level between the volume level of an architectural object and its element level, (ii) dynamic management of the different representations of an architectural object during its technical life cycle. The COMS capabilities concern memorisation and retrieval of complex objects. The use of classicalData Management Systems to store these objects is either impossible or unusable due to data dispersion. In our approach, an architectural experience is viewed as an complex object. The COMS manages an Object Base which contains different Architectural Construction Experiences in previous projects forms. At any time during the DACP, the designer can asked the COMS to retrieve a part or a whole of a previous project that illustrates its current technical state. Thearticle presents two research projects and a study of the contribution of experience reuse in a construction process.
Kendall, Stephen. "Control of Parts: Identifying Patterns of Control in Production Chains." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. If we examine the stages of production of complex physical systems, we notice that parts change as they progress along a value chain. Parts are deformed, have parts removed, and are assembled and disassembled, in various sequences. In such processes, production operations (milling, cutting, aligning, attaching, and so on) are of particular interest, as are the sequences of production, since some operations and sequences have been found to be more efficient than others, lead to fewer mistakes and produce higher quality results. Research continues to be produced seeking to optimize production operations, sequences and product quality. The production operations we can observe in the making of artifacts are also of interest because they are by definition the result of action taken by certain agents. Parts are changed or controlled by human beings, employing their own hands or sophisticated machines. Today, we are used to making a distinction among agents involved in production: some agents specify what is to be made, and others make what is specified. One agent can do both, but specialization and division of labour has presented us with this distinction. This is now conventional, aside from whether it is “good” or not. The distinction is the basis for the interest in “concurrent design and production of products”, the renewed focus on distribution and coordination of work in teams, and the related interest in understanding the dynamics of building systems in terms of the agents who control them. This paper focuses on the place certain kinds of agents take in complex production flows. Since production of parts is both a technical and a social enterprise, we will discover, when we look closely, complex webs of interactions which can be mapped, showing how agents relate to each other through the parts with which they are concerned. In examining the class of agents who control parts, we can see two patterns of control, termed DISPERSED PATTERNS and OVERLAPPING PATTERNS. These become palpable in a graphic diagramming tool, which is demonstrated in what follows. These diagrams also provide a means to consider the agents whose role is to specify what is to be made. The paper includes notes related studies in other fields.Finally, the paper suggests how this perspective can be useful, and several research topics based on it are sketched.
Wahab, Ibrahim. "Creating a Data Base for Parking System in Cities - Malaysia." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994.

Transport, one of the major urban systems somehow give rise to a varying degree of problems in many different cities. Malaysia being among the developing nations is no exception to such problems. When urban development takes place, infrastructure has to be provided adequately. The needs of an efficient parking system have to be at par with the development itself. Parking for example plays a similar role and it is indeed vital for every motorists. This paper outlines the general problems related to parking in urban areas and a generalised software suitable for micro-computer system is developed. The rationale is to help local authorities improve financial management besides assisting them in physical planning and other aspects ofdecision making.

Gu, Jing-wen, and Bing-zhao Chen. "Data Structure and Its Processing in Planar Road Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994.

The planning of roads is one of the most important activities in urban planning and design. Even at the early stage of planning, a planner must take the roads and their planar layout into account and should design them as soon as possible. Then he can use the roads as building blocks for further planning, such as land use, underground layout, detailed district planning and road design. In conventional manual design procedures and according to the “Norm of Transport Planning onUrban Roadi, it is a tedious task to draw property and side lines of the road network in a city or district and to link them properly at road crosses. With the help of computers, it will be possible to do it automatically. In this paper, the data structure we constructed for our PC software for road processing is first introduced. This data structure defines the road level, the widths of side and property lines, the orientation and topological link of one road with other roads. The procedural considerations for road processing are then given. They include the generation of the side lines and property lines, smooth linking between adjacent roads, rounding of arc road segments and all of the physical coordinates for the control points on both centre-lines and property lines. When using this system, a planner only needs to input the centre lines of roads and their width. The roads can be either inputted by using a digitizer or directly sketched on the display. The subsequent processing mentioned above is completed automatically, and the resulting geometric data associated with the road network is stored in a database with the same data structure. The specification on the road cross, which is required during the processing, can be changed interactively and globally, and once changed the regeneration of the above process will be finished very fast.

Reuter, Wolf. "Design as Argumentation and Power-Acting - Theory and Methods." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The process of design is seen as the generation, transformation and communication of knowledge in the brains of the professional designers and other persons and groups, who are interested in or concerned by the design output and who would or should participate in the design process. Only if it is known how these kinds of information and communication processes work, computer support is possible. Design thinking follows a microstructural scheme. A steady change of the understan-ding of the problem also changes the sight of the solution and also changes the need for knowled-ge contributing to the solution. In all stages of the design process alternatives or alternative ways of action are generated. The participants communicate about questions feasibility, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages, expected consequences, and other possibilities. They exchange positions and arguments, upon which finally they base their weighting of aspects and their personal judgement. The process of argumentation and evaluation is considered, it can be formalized and supported by formal methods. The decision about a design alternative by different people is not only based on explicit argumentation and/or formal evaluation procedures, but also on the use of power. Different means of power are stated. Some decision making procedures which control the misuse of power, are discussed.
Arentze, Theo, Aloys Borgers, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Design of a View-Based DSS for Location Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper describes the design of a DSS for locating facility networks. The proposed DSS is based on the principle of dynamic data definitions. The declarative and procedural forms of knowledge involved are identified by a logical analysis of planning tasks. The DSS supports an iterating process of adjusting and evaluating plan options. A flexible and interactive problem solving environment is achieved by means of a user defined set of views that captures both forms of knowledge. Each view describes the system to be planned in terms of a set of variables and attached evaluation procedures. The views are dynamic and linked data structures, so that changes in one view automatically lead to updating all linked views. The DSS supports both the specification of the set of views and its application to solve a specific location problem.
Teldenburg, J.A.F., Harry J. P. Timmermans, and Aloys Borgers. "Design Tools in an Integrated Cad-Gis Environment: Space Syntax asan Example." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The focus of this paper is how to make good use of the possibilities offered by integrated CAD-GIS software. It addresses the problem of the difference in types of information required by urban designers and urban planners to perform their tasks. It is stated that there is an overlap in these types of information. Both planners and designers can benefit from the extension of information offered to them by the other party. Integrated CAD-GIS software facilitates the exchange of information. There is a need for implementation in the integrated CAD-GIS environment of a type of information that addresses designers and planners alike. The paper takes Space Syntax models as an example of such information.
Gilleard, John, and Yip Man-kit. "Development of a Graphic Interface for the Preliminary Design of Air Conditioning Systems." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The paper describes a preliminary design model for air-conditioning systems (ACS). Using a commercially available drafting tool (AutoCAD) and an ACS design program (HevaSketch) the model attempts to develop a comprehensive solution at an early phase of ACS design. Contextual knowledge (in the form of local building codes and equipment) is made available to the designer through a linked database. output from the model is in the the form of 2D and 3D drawings, parts and material schedules and detailed design calculations.
Kubota, Y., M. Yoshikawa, and E. Masaki. "Development of an Expert Cad System for Visual Design of a Bridge in a Landscape." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Architects, landscape architects and urban designers are often required to be involved in the process of bridge design from an aesthetic point of view. The authors have been developing a comprehensive CAD system to support such visual design works, especially at an early stage of design. Conventional complicated technical standards and guidelines tend to discourage creative design. In order to support free conception and creation of bridge forms, this system includes a visual design core system as a workshop, even enabling freehand sketch drawing on existing landscape images of the site. This is supported by a landscape simulation subsystem. The system can also provide initial design ideas with several different types of bridge form, derived from knowledge based subsystems on design guidelines and precedent examples which can be quoted also to examine the physical possibility of sketch drawn alternatives in terms of structural dimensions and construction costs. Created design alternatives will be analyzed by a visual impact analysis subsystem to assess their influences on surrounding environments from a visual geometri-cal standpoint. This system is intended to enable architects, landscape architects or urban designers to create and examine design alternatives on a real-time basis.
Tombre, Karl, and Jean-Claude Paul. "Document Analysis: a Way to Integrate Existing Paper Information in Architectural Databases." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. In any domain, the use of information systems leads to the problem of converting the existing archives of paper documents into a format suitable the computerized system. In this area, most attention has probably been given to structured document analysis, i.e. the automated analysis of business documents such as letters, forms, documentation, manuals etc., including the well-known area of character recognition. But document analysis is also a powerful tool in technical domains such as architecture, where large quantities of drawings of various kinds are available on paper. In this paper, we shortly present the state of the art in technical drawing analysis and propose some techniques suitable for the specific application of the conversion from paper to architectural databases.
Hensen, Jan. "Energy Related Design Decisions Deserve Simulation Approach." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Building energy consumption and indoor climate result from complex dynamic thermal interactions between outdoor environment, building structure, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and occupants. Apart from a few trivial relations, this reality is too complicated to be casted in simple expressions, rules or graphs. As shown in a previous paper, there are now tools available - in the form of computer simulation systems - which treat the building and plant as an integrated, dynamic system. It is argued that these can and should be used in the context of design decision support and design evaluation related to thermal energy. The paper will give ageneral overview of building energy design tools which range from simplified design tools (SDT's) to comprehensive modelling and simulation systems. It will be demonstrated why SDT's are very limited in scope and range of applicability. With respect to building energy simulation the paper will compare simplified models with comprehensive models in terms of ressource needs, applicability etc. In view of the risk involved when using SDTis or simplified models, the paper strongly promotes the use of comprehensive tools in combination with emerging intelligent front ends. The message ofthe paper will be: let the machine do the work.
Arima, Takafumi, and Seiji Sato. "Form Characteristics of Landscape Images: a Landscape Research by Computer Image Processing." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Landscape evaluation research examines how individuals perceive the landscape. Because the amount of the data to describe landscapes is huge, landscape research needs the technology of the computer. This paper describes a method to catch the amount of physical characteristics which were extracted from landscape images by using the technology of the computer image processing and verifies its effectiveness. To do this analysis, we took photographic slides of a landscape sample. Pictures were taken for three regions (the city centre area, the outskirts area, and the farm village area). The number of slides was 6 for each place hence 18 in total were used for theanalysis. Next, we stored these slides on a computer disk. Form characteristics of the landscape elements were extracted by using computer image processing. Borderlines were extracted usingthe algorithm of Robert and were converted into coordinates data by minute line processing and the vector processing. Other elements were extracted by label processing and were converted into the coordinates data by vector processing. These data thus are the vector data for two-dimensions of the image and not the data for a three-dimension space. The processing of these images enables the analysis of the form characteristics in the landscape images. We calculated the data such as appearing length, angle numbers of appearance of the vector data, and analyzed the characteristic of shape and the complexities of landscape applying fractal theory. We compared three districts and were able to find landscape characteristics of various places as a result.
Vriens, Dirk, and Paul Hendriks. "Functionally Defining Systems: a Systems Theory Approach to Decision Support." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Research into decision making seems to suffer from two related weaknesses. The first is lack of attention for the dynamic nature of the decision process and environment. Research attempts to encompass dynamic features are sparse. The second weakness is the allegation that decision alternatives can be discerned on an a priori basis, thus facilitating the use of a choice rule to pick the'optimal'or'satisficing'alternative (this is the basic assumption of the prevailing rationalistic approach of decision modelling). However, the assumption of an a priori conception of alterna-tives is not realistic, since it ignores the fact that the exploration and elaboration of alternatives forms an integral part of the decision process. Although several attempts have been made to overcome these problems, a coherent theory seems to be lacking. This paper explores the possibilities of systems theory as an offset for new decision modelling. A system (in the cybernet-ic sense) is, roughly speaking, a collection of elements related in such a manner that emergent properties (i.e., properties that consist the level of the whole, not at the level of its parts) come about. There are many different approaches to systems theory and not all of these are equally useful for decision research. For our purposes, systems that have'adaptive'properties are worthwhile because they may encompass dynamic features. Furthermore, the use of adaptive, dynamic systems leads to a solution for the problem of the'disembodied'conception and choice of alternatives, since the choice options automatically follow from the defined system and may change because of its dynamic nature. The important question is how a system can be defined in order to capture the dynamic nature of decision making. In order to answer this question, the paper starts with a short overview of problems with traditional modelling in decision making and systems theory. Next, it will be argued that the crux of defining systems that capture dynamics is to define them'functionally', i.e. regarding the goals that enter the decision process. An outline of a method to do this will be given. In the last part, the consequences for computerized decision support will be stated.
Pereira, A.G., G. Munda, and M. Paruccini. "Generating Alternatives for Siting Using Genetic Algorithms and Multiple Criteria Decision Techniques." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. It is believed that a fundamental step in the structuring of a siting problem is generating alternati-ves. This task should occur at the beginning of a process for facility location, giving a preliminary insight into the feasibility of the project in the area of concern by identifying a manageable number of feasible alternatives for careful review and consideration. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology aimed at generating alternatives for siting of facilities taking into account a number of criteria. These criteria comprise environmental, economical and the action's inherent technical aspects. The search is carried out by applying genetic algorithms (GA's) which are natural phenomena based algorithms for optimization and random search procedures. According to the GA's terminology, a fitness function measures the worth of each candidate alternative codified into a chromosome. It was thought that the merging of aspects of multiple criteria theory and genetic algorithms is essential for the problem of generating alternatives in location problems. The aim of this integration is the improvement of the theoretical principles upon which the fitness function is based, leading to the construction of a robust set of alternatives. The paper describes the integration of both multiple criteria theory and GA's and discusses the results.
Peckham, Robert. "Geographical Information Systems and Decision Support for Envi-ronmental Management ." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The growing requirement for spatial decision support systems in Urban and Regional Management is pointed out. This has come about due to the increasing complexity of modern human activities, the increase in awareness of the negative consequences of mankind's technological development on the environment, and also due to the need to respect new regulations and legislation regarding environmental impacts. Such spatial decision support systems need to manipulate and analyze a wide variety of spatially referenced information, frequently in large quantities. Geographical Information Systems are now the chosen means for supporting such information, but in order to arrive at decisions further analysis modules and decision aids frequently need to be linked to them, or integrated with them. Linking multicriteria decision aid with spatial analysis is one way in which spatially referenced information can be used to arrive at decisions in situations where there are many and conflicting criteria. Examples of applications of these ideas to real management problems, including waste management, river management and site management are used to show how spatial information can now be manipulated to aid decisions, and to arrive at some of the design requirements for more flexible and applicable decision support systems. The merits and disadvantages of several different approaches to design and implementation of decision support systems, especially from the users point of view, are discussed.
Campbell, Noel, and Thomas O'Reilly. "GIS: Science or Tool - the Built Environment Perspective." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper attempts to locate GIS in the context of the built environment professions, rather than in the context of computer science, recognizing the integrated but limiting approach of viewingGIS from a strictly computer / spatial science perspective. The paper reviews the conflicts and tensions appearing in the GIS debate seeing them as reflecting the differences between the perceptions and interests of software developers and those of the professions. The “spatial science versus professional tool” dilemma is therefore critically assessed. Science is identified as the dominant paradigm within which GIS development has taken place. This encompasses the emphasis on GIS as spatial science, the interest in particular forms of spatial analysis, a narrow approach to the idea of information, the debate about the appropriate emphasis on the location for GIS in undergraduate education. The interests and activities of the professions cannot be encompassed within the pre-existing science paradigm. The paper identifies the interest the professions have had in broad geographical issues (as distinct from narrow spatial issues). It recognizes the different conventions and procedures used in recording and using geographical information, not all of them objective or scientific. It views the computer, not as a “scientific engine”, but as a modern medium for representing and analyzing information. This includes storage and analysis, both internally (algorithmic manipulation) and outside (qualitative manipulation, beyond formal “icomputer”- logic). This approach suggests a framework for research of a nature more sympathetic to the needs of the built environment professions in particular and an agenda which would include an examination of: (i) the conventions and procedures used in the professions to collect, store and process information and how these translate to computer technology, (ii) the types of software used and the way procedures may be accommodated by combining and integrating packages, (iii) the dynamism of GIS development (terms such as “dedicatedi, “mainframe”, “PC-based”, “distributed”, “pseudo-”, etc. are identified as indicativeof the need for professions-based approaches to GIS development), (iv) a critique of “information” (modelling of information flows within the professions, may yield valuable insights into the (modelling of information flows within the professions, may yield valuable insights into the similarity of requirements for a variety of “workplace scenarios”).
Lee, Bing-Huei. "Graphic Data Comprehension in Design Thinking." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. There exist several kinds of data qualities when we see a graphic. In such a procedure, we rarely describe all the qualities by language. This is an interesting phenomenon. We are doing something that we understand but we cannot tell when we are thinking or drawing a graphic. A problem like this touches the central point related to the understanding of drawing in design. It is the purpose of this study. A series of experiments is conducted to compare two sets of data: design by drawing and design without drawing. The major result of this experiment is that the type without drawing contains less design contents and is easy to reassemble. The drawing type contains much richer design contents which easily disappeared when reassembled through the descriptions. We believe there exist two major characters of visual data: nameable and unnameable. Nameable data may be designed and communicated without drawing. For the unnameable one, we may proceed when its qualities show out. According to this study, we conclude that the mental representation of visual data is basically prepositional rather than picture-like. But, in design procedures, the picture-like one may appear when the figure comes out of the mental world, with lots of unnameable qualities.
Hillier, B., A. Penn, N. Dalton, D. Chapman, and F. Redfern. "Graphical Knowledge Interfaces: the Extensive and Intensive Useof Precedent Data Bases in Architecture and Urban Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Space syntax'is a family of techniques for the analysis of architectural and urban space which can be used both in research and design mode. This means, for example, that a redevelopment area in an urban context can be researched using space syntax models which can then be turned round and used as the basis for design idea of a'graphical knowledge interface'(GM) is a further development of this in feeding research into design. It starts from the important role that the analysis and comparison of'precedents', that is, cases with some similarity of the design problem in hand, often play in design. In a GM,'precedents'which have already been researched using the space syntax methodology and which are relevant to a particular design problem - say a set of urban areas or a set of housing estates - can be brought into the modelling technique, so that the designer has on hand not simply a space syntax model of the problem in hand but an intelligent'precedent'in the form of graphical and statistical representations which can be manipulated and interrogated during the design process, in much the same way as discussion of precedent are currently brought into design but with much more complex data and much more powerful theoretical tools. GM can be used as intensive mode, in which many different kinds of data - say on land uses, rents, or crime rates - are added to the model of an area, or in extensive mode where the emphasis is on comparing, say, the structures of a large number of urban areas. The GM will be illustrated through a worked example of a recent major urban design project in which the team has participated.
Erturk, Scvinc, and Zafer Erturk. "Historical Background of the Visual Simulation Models in Architectural Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. It is well known that every sort of visualization model has its own capacity to represent the reality and designers'concepts of space. To the authors'knowledge, there are very few attempts to measure and compare their relative potential power of presentation. Given this lack of academic studies, it would be necessary to give a historical background on the use of visual models. Basically those tools could be divided into two main types: traditional visula techniques such as drawings, scale models and most advance technological tools ranging from basic slidesand films to recentlydeveloped techniquessuch as relatoscope, and computer aided simulation models. This paper covers the historical background of visual models. 
Smeets, Jos J. A. M.. "Housing Performance, Data Management and Decision Making." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994.

This paper focusses on performance measurement in the framework of the strategic housing management. Reference is made to studies regarding two housing corporations in the Netherlands. The performance measurement is an element in the methodology of intervention planning and market positioning of housing estates. Aside of the measurement of technical and functional performances in this methodology market-technical and price-technical data are processed. These data sets, eventually, can be completed with data of consumer's living appreciation. An insight is acquired based on this methodology in (i) the market position of the estate, (ii) the performances of the dwelling and living environment, (iii) the relative position among estates. Diverse performance aspects and performance levels can be distinguished in the offered representation. The performance measurement is dealt with from 2 angles of incidence (i) from the dwelling and living environment, (ii) from the target group. On the level of the estate the performances are represented in the form of a quality profile. To enable the comparison of performances on the portfolio level a performance-index is developed, a so-called Housing Performance Rate (HPR). The performance measurement on estate and portfolio level is the basis of diverse management decisions, such as quality policy, rent policy, target groups policy and policies concerning neighbourhood management.

Bodum, Lars. "Hypermedia-aided GIS in Urban Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Town planning in Denmark is undergoing major changes from a planning approach focusing on regulation and individual frameworks for town districts, to a planning approach emphasizing the urban characteristics and drawing overall guidelines for planning. At the same time, attention has shifted to urban renewal and urban remodelling. This means that more qualitative data are needed.These new data types such as digital film, are to form part of a future GIS for the town. The digital film will change the impression of what data can profitably be used in a GIS. Even animations and 3D models, which were previously processed with considerable data power can beplayed as digital films. In the course of the next few years, the most ordinary applications will be able to play digital films and together with the progress made in other media, a development towards hypermedia will be a possibility. The paper will give some examples of how this integration may be carried out. In continuation of the preparation of a municipality atlas and in connection with an EC-subsidized urban renewal project, the municipality of Aalborg has chosen to work outa digital catalog which will in time replace the present local planning regulations.
Kubiak, Bernard, and Antoni Korowicki. "Identification and Analysis of the Recreational Behaviour Forms and the Needed Recreational Space Using the Integrated Spatial and Object-Oriented Gis: Concepts and Statements." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper is concerned with how to measure and investigate changes in the recreational behaviour and the required recreational space in Polish seaside recreational areas in last few years. Spatial information is an integral part of the identification and analysis of recreational behaviour and required recreational space. We postulate, therefore, that spatial information should be fully incorporated in integrated object-oriented GIS and Decision Support Technology. We argue in this paper that the existing theoretical approaches with their descriptive and technical basis do not offer directions for its application and evaluation. They do not seek to explain the processes undergone by spatial information, nor define appropriate data models. New approaches to GIS use object-oriented structures and expert systems concepts, and they will become increasingly helpful in understanding GIS. It is not unreasonable to expect that the most important issue is to use a data model or object-oriented models which closely represent the user's concept of the geographic object for representing spatial phenomena. We have discovered that most Polish users in this field are unable to collect the data they require directly. Thus they have to use methods and techniques, which cannot be found in GIS such as SWOT analysis. According to our experiences, the identification and analysis of the recreational behaviour and the required recreational space should be defined as a system approach where: (i) recreational space requires an object, (ii) state of recreational space is defined by the set of values of recreational space features, and (iii) the utility of the recreational space is defined by a set of features. The identification and analysis of the recreational behaviour in the presented approach are based on the features/utilities matrix of the recreational space and the computer map. The development of such a system needs many organizational changes. It is shown that in many applications organizational rather than the technical aspects of GIS determine their future and open the way to new spatial analytical techniques.
Liggett, Robert, and William Jepson. "Implementing an Integrated Environment for Urban Simulation CAD, Visualization and GIS." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Using technology which has been adapted from military flight simulation hardware and software, researchers at UCLA's Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning are currently developing an integrated computing environment for Urban Simulation which includes a high-level visual simulation package, an industry standard CAD system, and a traditional two dimensional geographic information system and data bases. The focal point of the integrated system is a visual simulation engine which has been developed using Silicon Graphics'IRIS Performer application development environment. With this system, aerial photographs can be combined with street level video to efficiently create a realistic (down to plants, street signs and the graffiti on the walls) model of an urban neighbourhood which can then be used for interactive fly and walk-through demonstrations. Links have been established between this visual simulation system and AutoCAD to allow models (at varying levels of detail) to be generated using the CAD system and translated into the form required for the visualization system. Links between the GIS system (in this case ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW) and the visual simulation system provide the capability for dynamic query and display of information from the GIS data base in a real-time 3-dimensional format. Links between the CAD and GIS systems allow common base maps to be used for the GIS and modelling systems as well as automatic generation of 3-d form. While an earlier paper by the authors discussed proposed strategies for such an Urban Simulation System, this paper focuses on the results of actual implementation of these strategies, as well as the use of the system for modelling, exploration and display of alternative physical environments.
Gross, Mark. "Indexing the Electronic Sketchbook: Diagrams as Keys to Visual Databases." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The question is how to index a visual database. Consider a visual database -- collection of drawings, three-dimensional models, scanned photographs, video, and text -- as a kind of modernmultimedia architectural sketchbook. It can be shared among a wide group of users with different purposes, and who may think about the contents in rather different ways. The connections -- perhaps hypertext -- among the entries may be complex and the organization difficult to comprehend. How then, to index the collection? Certainly traditional techniques -- looking for a concert hail -- built of concrete and glass -- in the 1970's in Utrecht and the architect's name is H* -- will help. But suppose we do not know so precisely what we are looking for? Might we appeal to the language of diagram? Can we add to our schemes for search and retrieval a diagrammatic index? We propose to try this idea. The paper describes our “computer as cocktail napkini system for recognizing and interpreting diagrams. It consists of a pen-based freehand sketching program that recognizes simple symbols the user has trained (such as lines, shapes, letters, etc.) and spatial arrangements of these symbols. A graphical search procedure finds occurrences of a drawn configuration of symbols in the pages of a sketchbook made using the program. By extending thepages of the sketchbook to include photos, drawings, and text in addition to diagrams, we can use this technique to find items whose diagrams match a drawn search configuration. The paper will demonstrate this prototype program and explore its use for indexing visualdatabases in architecture.
Dave, Bharat, and Gerhard Schmitt. "Information Systems for Spatial Data." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper describes a continuing research project aimed at the development of a prototype information system to represent and manipulate models of urban settlements. This inter-disciplinaryproject involves researchers and teachers in the fields of urban design, photogrammetry and CAD. Based upon the requirements identified by the urban design team, the photogrammetry teamused aerial imagery to produce accurate digital models of various features of urban settlements. The models comprise natural features like terrain data, water and vegetation systems, and man made features like transportation networks, land parcels, and built-up volumes. These data are represented in the three dimensions, and they are further linked with nongraphic attributes stored in an external database schemata. The architecture of the system under development has been described previously. In this paper, we focus on the generation of thematic abstractions. The working hypothesis for our current work is that (i) to enable reliable decision-making in urbandesign contexts, we require digital models that are complete and accurate at a certain degree of resolution, and (ii) during various stages in the decision-making, we need useful abstractionswhich encode only the salient information and no more. In more specific terms, we are interested in finding computational means to automatically generate schematic generalizations of data that succinctly represent some information without  recomputing or displaying all the vectrs and other details. In this papar we present some of the strategies that we employ to support such operations in our system and also present graphic examples that demonstrate the potential andlimitations of our approach.
Cajati, Claudio. "Innovative Expert Systems with Hypertextual User Interfaces: a Special Support for the Building Recovering Project." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. In this paper, first of all a short account on the peculiarity of knowledge in the domain of Architectural and Building Project, particularly in the Building Recovering Project is given. Thatmeans to focus the concept of “degree of authority” of different types of knowledge with regard to project: regulations, specialist literature having in practice the value of self-regulation, technical updating, exemplary design cases, warnings, analysis methods, heuristics, orientating references. Consequently, the different roles of two basic design & decision support systems, that is expert systems and hypertexts, are considered. The former seem to be quite fit for representing information and knowledge linked to a clear “authority”, the one of experts in a certain domain, the latter seem to be quite fit for illustrating the interdisciplinary complexity, different historicinterpretations, various analogous references, and so on. Afterwards, the limits of expert systems based on the logic “true-false” are underlined, and the perspective of expert systems based on more sophisticated and appropriate rules and metarules is proposed. At last, the possible structure of such an innovative expert system, with a hypertextual interface, in the domain of Building Recovering Project is exemplified.
Duijvestein, Kees. "Integrated Design and Sustainable Building." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. In the international student-project “European Environmental Campus 91 TU Delft Dordrechti 20 students from 13 European countries worked in september 1991, during three weeks on “EcologicalSketches for the Island of Dordrecht”. They worked on four different scales: the region isle of Dordt / the district Stadspolders / the neighbourhood I the house and the block. The environmentaltheme's Energy, Water, Traffic & Noise, Landscape & Soil were together with spatial analyses combined with the different scales. This combination was organised following the scheme mentioned below. The characters stand for the students. During the first period they worked in research groups, during the last period more in design groups. For instance: student L works in the beginning with the students B, G and Q in the research group water. In the last period sheworks with K, M, N and 0 in the design group Neighbourhood. Those students worked earlier in the other research-groups and contribute now in the design-group their thematic environmental knowledge. The results were presented to the Dordrecht council, officials and press. In the next project in september and october 1993 we started earlier with the design groups. Ten Dutch and ten “Erasmus” students worked for six weeks on proposals for the Vinex location Wateringenthe Hague. Each morning they worked in the research groups each afternoon in the design groups. The research groups used the EcoDesign Tools, small applications in Excel on Apple Macintoshto quantify the environmental pressure.
Deguchi, Atsushi, and Satoshi Hagishima. "Integration System for Urban Design from Planning Management to Visalization." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Advanced tools based on CAD or GIS systems and simulation methods have recently been introduced to support the many aspects of urban planning (design, analysis, evaluation, presentation). This research aims at constructing a system by integrating these support tools and linking GIS and simulation tools. The major purpose of this system are to manage the geographical data base of the target urban area, utilize the digital information of the area for planning and analysis,evaluate the impact of alternative proposals on the physical environment such as sunlight and daylight, visualize the results of analysis, and support the management of urban redevelopment /development projects. This paper shows some applications to illustrate usefulness of the system. These examples are concerned with a contemporary problem in urban planning of Tokyo: redevelopment of low-rise high-density residential districts and high-rise development in the central business districts. Urban redevelopment for the high-density urban areas in Japan requiresa evaluation of alternative plans by visualizing their environmental impact. This system enables the quantitative analysis of the environmental impact by using 3-dimensional geographical data andsimulation methods. In general, the merit and effect of planning support systems are recognized in terms of the “efficiency” of the planning process. The primary function of GIS is thought to bethe unification and management of various pieces of information. In addition, this research indicates the effectiveness of the integrated system in terms of utilizing the geographical information and visualizing the image of the future environment.
Schmitt, Gerhard. "Interaction with Architectural Cases in a Virtual Design Environment." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The prime business of architecture is change through design. While most architects will welcome any tool which supports this activity with minimal effort, they will not embrace a tool which either seems to automate design or requires major efforts to understand and use. Conventional databases - be it in the form of books or computer applications - are normally in a serving function to support the activity of design and to provide reference. Visual databases have a long history in architecture in the form of drawings, photographs and, more recently, computer-captu-red or computer-generated images. Whereas the first computer-based image libraries closely followed the existing paradigm of existing paper-based libraries, new developments both in software and in computing media offer different opportunities. Knowledge-based and case-based descriptions of architectural features increasingly replace the traditional, passive representations. While in the past these images were subject to more or less random interpretations, the new computer-based images are only one representation of a model which includes many other aspects. The visual aspects of a building are thus no longer restricted to the finished drawing, but new representations of the abstractions of a building become possible. True and direct interaction with visually presented objects thus becomes a reality. The paper presents a prototype of a visual database in a virtual design environment in its critical aspects: (i) the architectural content and representation of such a database and the criteria for the cases in it, (ii) the enabling computing and software environment, and (iii) three practical applications. The prototype is presently being implemented in the Architectural Space Laboratory (ASL) in the Department of Architecture at ETh Zurich.
Kane, Andy, and Peter Szalapaj. "Intuitive Analysis as Mediator Between Concept and Representation." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Representation in Computer Aided Architectural Design Systems has to date largely focused on the presentation of the end product of design activity, namely the ultimate built form. In thisrespect, 3-dimensional representations traditionally associated with CAAD visualization have relied heavily upon verisimilitude for their efficacy, and have therefore necessitated high levels of dimensional accuracy together with exhaustive description, both of which are absent in the early stages of design formulation. This paper investigates the desired structure of a computational design formulation system which is based, not upon the representation (or presentation) of ultimate form, but instead upon the representation of architectonic ideas resident in the designer's mind, which are central to the organization and generation of proposals. These ideas are of two kinds: conceptual generators, both poetic and architectonic, and the organizational parti or schematic proposals, which embody them. The representation of ideas rather than end form has two primaryobjectives. Firstly, it enables the designer's realization and clarification of concept or parti, and secondly, but most importantly, it enables the designer to critically assess these ideas in relation tothe contextual situation and brief. The computational representation must be structured in a manner which supports the designer's intuitive critical assessment of it, to in turn induce a modification and development of the initial design ideas. Repeated transformation, representation, and intuitive analysis, can then continue in a cyclical manner until an end proposal is achieved. Intuitive analysis, which becomes the mediator between idea and representation, is itself computationally supported by the dual methodologies of comparative and modal superimposition. Superimposition of previous with present representation (either in two or three dimensions)enhances comparative assessment of design developments. Modal analysis, on the other hand, facilitates the superimposition of schematic representations of modes of design thought (circulationpattern with volumetric arrangement, say) in order to intuitively assess their interaction or conflict.
Barrett, P, D. Baldry, M. Sexton, and C. Stanley. "Key Decisions Within a Generic FM Framework." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Based on extensive fieldwork a generic framework for the facilities management function will be presented within wich a comprehensive range of decisions related to key relationships will be identified. Examples will be given of the application of the framework to a wide range  of organisation types. The decision types(pricipally strategic v operational) and techniques to identify which is being confronted will be prposed. Examples will be provided of how, in practice, different organisations approach a given type of decision in a variety of ways.
Choukry, Maha. "Knowledge Acquisition by Measurement: the Domain of Building Change." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper presents a study that is aimed at finding a basis for systematic knowledge acquisition. More specifically, it attempts to introduce, knowledge acquisition by measurement: a method thatallows objective evaluation of empirical observations. Measurement has proven to be a significant tool to acquire, evaluate, and upgrade knowledge in some knowledge domains. In other domains,such as the domain of building change, measurement is barely subject of study. Building change knowledge acquisition by measurement seems to become a significant subject of study for several reasons: (i) increase our objective knowledge of previous building changes, (ii) allow systematic monitoring of present changes, and (iii) assist decisions planning for change in new buildings. In current studies, questions such as what were required changes, what were the building elements that fulfilled a change, how often did a building change, and what were the costs related to a change, often get no systematic or objective answers. Hence, to overcome that, I am concerned with finding a method that is to answer the following questions: 1) What is the domain of building change, 2) Is a method of knowledge acquisition by measurement adequate to represent buildingchanges, 3) Can empirical observations of building change be systematically represented and objectively evaluated using this method, and 4) How can this method be applied to assist theunderstanding of previous changes, the control of present changes, and assist planning for building change. The method introduced is based on three modules: (i) domain of building change, (ii) modelling this domain, and (iii) measurement. These three modules enable the formulation of the measurement of building change, namely the change indicator. Multiple change indicators, such as cost change indicator, or occurrence change indicator can measure empirical observations ofbuilding change. Sequential steps that lead to the development of this method start by section 1, where the domain of building change is specified. In section 2 this domain is modelled, and in section 3, knowledge acquisition by measurement method is introduced. A case study, shows how empirical building changes can be measured is explained in section 4. In section 5, three possible applications are introduced, and in section 6, I explain how a computerized prototype would enhance the efficiency of using such applications. Findings and conclusions resulting from this study are summarized in section 7.
Bouillé, François. "Mastering Urban Network Intersection and Superimposition, in an Object-oriented Knowledge System Integrating Rules, Neurons and Processes." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Many networks cover the urban texture, either superimposed at a variable distance, or really intersecting, or even in interconnection. We briefly recall the HBDS model, working on persistent abstract data types associated to graphical representations and carrying algorithms expressing conditions to be verified and/or actions to be performed. HBDS is an integrated system too, including database, expert system dealing with fuzzy rules and facts, discrete simulation engine, and neural engine, it has a general purpose programming language. Any urban network is associated to a given prototype, according to the same scheme named prototype with more specific components. These prototypes allow to build the different thematic structures instantiations of the prototypes. All possible cases of arc intersection or “pseudo-intersection” (simple superimposition)or interconnection are obtained by, owing to new prototypes. Moreover, such (pseudo)-intersections are automatically recognized and processed without a human intervention, owing to classes ofconstraints and classes of rules. They deal with particular constraints concerning the location of some urban furniture, and rules concerning the way a cable or a pipe must follow according to thepre-existing other networks in a given area, the minimal distances, minimal or maximal depths, and some required equipments. Urban classes of (pseudo-)intersections inserted in the hyperciassineuroni, inheriting of neural features, may be used for automated learning of urban knowledge, owing to their “behaviour”, these neurons can communicate and perform actions on other components. Urban classes inserted in the hyperciass “processi may be used for building very large models simulating complex urban phenomenons, thus allowing a better understanding of the real phenomenons. As a conclusion, we emphasize the methodological aspects of object-oriented integration for an efficient processing of the urban context, based on prototyping and mixing rules, neurons and processes.
Daru, Roel, and Wim Adams. "Matchmaker: an Instrument for Matching Demand for and Supply of Buildings and Revealing Specific Discrepancies." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994.

To match supply and demand of buildings, various approaches are possible. While artificial intelligenceis favoured by some, we think that a less 'heavy' approach can be more cost and time efficient. The case we have chosen to exemplify our approach concerns architectural heritage. To match supply and demandwhile at the same time respecting the constraints imposed by cultural heritage, it is necessary to bringthem together and to effectuate feasibility studies in the shortest possible time. The feasibility study shouldbe served by tools allowing the various partners to communicate on the level of the match between them, translated in terms of spatial organisation and building constraints. In the past years, our designmorphology group has developed and tested a graphic-based reordering tool which has been applied to large governmental buildings, both existing and new. The same tool can be used for weighted objectives ranking and evaluation, to have a synthetic view of the combined basic preferences and differences of the involved parties as for example in a jury wise evaluation and ranking of alternative proposals. The proposed tool is the electronic and graphic version of the data and association matrices, which have been for a long time recommended for use in the preliminary phases of design. But as long as these instruments could only be drawn and redrawn on paper they were much too ineffectual and found little real application. The developed tool is connected by sub-routines to a computer aided design package, within which the spatial patterns are translated into plans and attached data bases. The matching takes place in a number of steps. The first is to describe the organisation (the demanding party) as functional units which can be made corresponding with spatial units. The prescription of spatial needs can take place in both quantitative and qualitative manners. The Matchmaker tools offer the possibility of interactive clustering of spatial needs. Another step, which can be taken concurrently, is to describe the monument in spatial units and distance relationships. The input can be generated directly within the matrix, but it is much easier, more self evident and realistic to generate this automatically from the draughted plan. The following step is the input of constraints originating from heritage preservation objectives, expressed in levels of authorised intervention. Again, the Matchmaker tools offer here the possibility of visual clustering of spatial units, their relationships and associated properties. In the next step, the matching takes place. In this step the actual positions, properties and constraints of existing spaces in the monument are compared (and visualised by discrepancies views) to the optimised and clustered spatial needs of the end user. In the following phase, the feasibility in terms of space, building fabric and costs can be appraised. Once a compromise has been attained, preliminary proposals can be designed and laid down in terms of drawings. The spatialdesigns can then again be translated into matrix views and evaluated.

Stevens, Rene. "Measuring Occupancy Performance of Real Estate with the Ren-method." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. To support the analysis and marketing of real estate, a normative systems called the Real Estate Norm has been developed in The Netherlands. This paper discusses the background of the system and its application. Moreover, the findings of a research project “Irrational and rational selection criteria for offices” will be presented. Finally, new developments such as guarantee during the occupation of the property for the agreed performance specifications will be outlined.
Schmid, Peter. "MHP: Method Holistic Participation, Research and Experience During the Decades ." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Design Decision Support Systems always are closely related to the cooperation of more (than single) people and mostly even of several groups of people. Hence teamwork is an important part inorder to support (design) decisions or systematical and methodical collaboration and cooperation or participation. A system(atic) approach towards these participatory processes will be given in this paper. The MHP can get a place and meaning in the fields of the most urgent problems and within the discussions concerning SBS and ecological disaster (as significantly pointed out in already so many scientific reports and conferences). Collaboration and cooperation is needed more than ever before - although we can find examples and models already long ago. Two main problems can be answered by using the method - as already proofed in several cases: the facing of the environmental demands for building activities, because of the ecological crisis - worldwide combined with the SBS and the necessity for the different (power) groups to come together in order to reach some consensus for our common survival. The paper presentation will be enriched by many illustrations.
Sklar, Hinda. "Opening Doors at Harvard's Graduate School of Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Design communication has many forms and employs a wide array of references. Design pedagogy uses a rich body of sources and is informed by deep communication between faculty and student. Advancing technology for distribution and manipulation of digital design media and a pervasive computer network at the Harvard Graduate School of Design provide an ideal environment for investigating new methods of access to design resources. A research initiative called the DOORS project (Design-Oriented On-line Resource System) will make a variety of design reference materials available over the GSD's computer network Potentially, DOORS will provide access to: - the Frances Loeb Library's visual and special collections, - slides, drawings, photographs, videos, - private faculty slide collections, - maps and geographic information systems of text, numeric and other visual databases of three- dimensional computer models, - computer-generated animations and digital video segments with sound of multimedia projects. As early pilot versions of DOORS are released, faculty and students will gather visual information for study and modification, analyze images and models, compare and link design documentation in different formats, develop lectures and make presentations from computers in offices, classrooms, and studio work areas. Emphasis will be placed on flexibility, as this particular tool's success will hinge on its ability to respond to different approaches to design and instruction. DOORS proposes to offer three modalities, browsing, composition and presentation, to enable searching, organizati-on, and display. Using established library standards for record format, subject access and keyword indexing, browsing will offer flexible and diverse search criteria. Composition will provide tools for linking, annotation and manipulation of assembled materials. Individual presentations will be viewed in classrooms, studios or offices. A pilot project to assemble some of the basic technology and expertise required is currently under way. The objective of the pilot is to deliver a slice of material over the GSD's local area network in order to raise awareness of the tool's potential among faculty and students, to evaluate its effectiveness, and to formulate technical specifications for later project phases.
Veenendaal, Martin. "Optimalization of Visualization: Graphical Diagonalization and Clustering of Combinatorial Data." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The analysis of combinatorial data is common to many disciplines as diverse as ethology, mathematics, computer science, psychology, demography, and architecture. Combinatorial data concern single relations that exist between the element pairs within one single pool of elements. TRI is a computer program that enables users to manually order combinatorial OTdangular) data matrices. “Ordering” in this context means placing high cell entries, coded as large dots, close together in clusters and close to the matrix's diagonal. Ordering, however, constitutes a very complex task. In order to support the ordering process, a straightforward measure has been developed which weighs the “amount” of clustering and diagonalization. The measure's value can be projected onto the monitor and perhaps serve as a “success indicator”. A first experiment assessing the usefulness of the measure revealed that it does not consistently reflect subjective judgements of perceptual “order'. People may discern salient (although task irrelevant) patterns and regularities in dot configurations, for which the measure's cold calculus is insensitive [1]. In ongoing “human factorsi experiments, the capability of experimental subjects to see through such “would be” order will be tested. One group will be amply instructed as to what the measure measures and how, and a second group will receive extensive visual instruction, using example matrices. The results of these and other experiments will help us decide whether or not to implement the measure in 1'RI, and how we can otherwise improve TRI as a powerful design and decision support tool.
McLennan, Peter. "Organisational Structure and Strategic Facility Planning Decisions." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Organisational group size data from a variety of organisational types are developed into a model for understanding the implications of changing organisational structure on strategic facility planning decision making. The purpose of this model is to develop a better understanding of the user requirements across a range of organisational types and the implications for strategic briefing documents and corporate real estate development strategies. A discussion of the theoretical implications of a time series data model of group size and its implications on strategic facility planning decision making is developed.
Venemans, P., Roel Daru, and A. van Wagenberg. "Orientation in and Around Large Buildings: Guidelines and Architects." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Wayfinding and orientation problems for visitors of large buildings such as hospitals and offices are still prevalent in spite of a long tradition of research on spatial cognition. Analysis of suchproblems indicates that the characteristics of the building mainly cause these problems. These problems can be prevented by a design tool that aims at improving the orientation of users in large buildings, as changing a building afterwards is often expensive and impractical. As a base for such a design tool, guidelines are derived from the research on wayfinding and orientation. However, guidelines are only part of the solution. This design tool should be structured and presented in a form useful to architectural designers. In order to enhance its usefulness, architects of large public buildings studied a draft version of the tool and were interviewed about: (i) presentation form preferred for the tool and the guidelines, as well as the guideline contents, (ii) the function of the design tool with regard to the architects'design style, (iii) typical design solutions which specifically support or conflict with the guidelines, (iv) possible conflicts resulting from the guideline suggestions, in relation to other goals of the client or the architect. In the paper we discuss the results of the interviews and present our conclusions. We also demonstrate a prototype of the design tool.
van der Waerden, Peter, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Parking Simulation with a Geographical Information System: a Basic Framework." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Nowadays, parking is one of the most important elements of urban transportation and environ-mental planning. It is important to integrate parking planning with for example urban transporta-tion and environmental planning. To do this, a tool in which all these planning activities can be brought together, is essential. A Geographical Information System (GIS) might offer opportunities to combine such activities. It offers possibilities to manipulate, analyze and present data from different kind of databases, and ties different databases directly to some spatial entities. This paper describes a framework for parking simulation, the needs to conduct such a simulation, the tools a GIS offers for this and a hypothetical case to show how a parking simulation modelling can be integrated with G1S-technology.
Horgen, Turid. "Post Occupancy Evaluation as a Strategy to Develop an Improved Work Environment." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. A post-occupancy evaluation is a formal way of finding out whether a recently occupied, remodelled, or built environment is performing, as was intended in its programming or design, and a term which has been developed in the professional field in the United States over the last 20 years. The Scandinavian approach to the same question has emphasised surfacing the values of the users of the work environment as a tool for a more comprehensive approach to space planning and design. A recent case-study of the Taubman Building at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government was aimed at blending the two strategies for evaluation, defined postoccupancy evaluation as a dialogue with the client, as a process to help the client reflect on spatial and technological improvements, or alternate strategies for organisational locations in buildings, and offers an interesting example of a possible future direction for POE's. Sheila Sheridan, Director of Facilities and Services at the Kennedy School, commissioned the case-study, and has been using it result in her daily work. Jacqueline Vischer, who has developed a survey of seven key dimensions of work-place comfort for commercial office buildings throughout eastern North America, and Turid Horgen, who has developed tools for participatory environmental evaluation and programming, widely used in Scandinavia, carried out the study and facilitated the evaluation process. The study is also done in the context of the ongoing research on these issues in the design Inquiry Group at the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT, which is involved in a larger program for developing strategies and tools for more effective programming and management of corporate space. This research defines the workplace environment as the interaction between four dimensions: space, technology, organisation and finance. Our approach is to integrate programming and evaluation with organisational planning and organisational transformation.Post occupancy evaluation is seen as a way to inform the client about his organisational culture as he manages the fit between a facility and its uses, and as one of several tools to bridge the frameworks and viewpoints and the many “languagesi which are brought into the decision making process of designing the built environment.
van Wagenberg, Andreas. "Post Occupancy Evaluation Methodology and Results for Assessing Spatial Organization of Hospitals." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper describes a Post Occupancy Evaluation methodology that assesses the spatial organiza-tion of hospital designs. It consists of measuring four concepts: distance, orientation (wayfinding), social contact and privacy. Thirteen standard hospital routes are examined, routes that are followed by four different user groups: visitors, in-patients, out-patients and hospital personnel. The results can be of use to facility managers, designers, hospital organizations and in the construction of future POE methodologies. The results of all studies conducted with this methodology may be collected to build a reference base, which could be used to increase our understanding of the spatial organization of hospitals. The methodology is first presented in short, and the results of four case studies of hospitals in The Netherlands are presented and discussed.
Krantz, Birgit. "Post-Occupancy Evaluation in the Swedish Context: Some Critical Aspects." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Evaluation theory and methodology will be discussed by focusing two issues: (i) the traditional evaluation in Sweden, considered as an established research activity, (ii) the contributions of recent POE and its theoretical and methodological implications. An important and crucial question is how the outcome of the different approaches can serve design and planning practice. The Swedish experiences are concentrated to the fields of housing, quality of life and social care.
Thomas, Tom, and Karen Saslaw. "Post-Occupancy Evaluations: Research of New Initiatives in Health Care Facilities." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. American health care is undergoing an evolution of epic proportions and medical centres throughout the country are responding by restructuring the delivery of patient care services. Changes in professional staffing, technology and locations of services are just a few actions underway to create operationally efficient, more cost-effective institutions. Facility planning and design is equally challenged to present new facility models for these retooled medical centres. In 2025, American hospitals may bear little resemblance to the imposing medical structures which form this country's historical health facility reference points. This presentation will focus on the use of post-occupancy evaluations to improve innovation of health facility planning and design. We will discuss the use of post-occupancy evaluations to analyze the functional and environmental aspects of operational departmental areas, and the utilization of research conclusions to improve innovation and creativity in the design of new facilities. Ms. Saslaw, a health care administrator and planner, and Mr. Thomas, a health care architect and planner, will introduce the process issues of POE in design, and then present case studies and facility plans which demonstrate the value to new innovative environments. Specifically, individuals attending this session will: (i) understand the contemporary use of post-occupancy evaluations in facility planning and design, (ii) review several cases and discuss alternative facility responses derived from use of post-occupancy evaluations (iii) discuss the “Patient Focus Carei trend and the architects/planners response in improving health facility design.
Akin, Ömer. "Psychology of Early Design in Architecture." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Lately there has been a good deal of emphasis on the early stages of the design process, particularly by developers of computer aids and quantitative design models for both evaluation and generation of designs in a variety of domains. Yet, there is little understanding of the early design-process. While the early design process as manifested by human designers need not be the sole basis of the description of this phase, it certainly represents and important kernel of knowledge, especially for those who are interested in developing models, systems or merely interfaces for such systems. This paper focuses on the characterization of the psychology of the early design phase in architecture. It is described in terms of the general design strategies and problem solving tactics used, and is contrasted against some of the process characteristics that
Szalapaj, Peter, and Andy Kane. "Putting Cad in Perspective." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. New developments in CAD software technology should allow users more freedom in the kinds of visual metaphors they choose to work with. CAD systems currently exploit only a small subset of both 2-D and 3-D graphical options. The options that are used are predominantly targeted at supporting the general trend towards a very narrow understanding of realism. Perceptual and artistic evidence points to a much wider range of possible images than that currently represented within CAD software. This extended range of graphical knowledge includes both perceptually “real” images, as well as constructed, “artificial” images. It is our contention that in order for CAD software to support analysis of design proposals, a much wider range of both 2-D and 3-D transformations should be supported, such as explosion, distortion, post-hoc decomposition, superimposition, etc. The consequences of such transformations frequently result in the formation of co-existing, multiple images, each of which may then be manipulated further in distinct ways. Support for user-interaction with such graphic objects, therefore, requires computational representations of multiple conceptual objects. Issues related to multiple representations and multiple viewpoints, therefore, are of paramount importance. Typically, designers use many representations and move rapidly between them. They tend to tolerate and even exploit inconsist-ency between different representations as they develop a design. Consistency is only relevant at certain stages and cannot therefore be enforced as a matter of course. The paper describes in detail each type of transformation that we consider to be of benefit for use in design analysis, together with a description of how each transformation can be integrated into a multiple viewpoint knowledge-based framework.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Recognition and Retrieval in Visual Architectural Databases." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The development of visual architectural databases is heavily constrained by two technically, practically and conceptually intricate problems, input and retrieval. Input of visual images indifferent forms and from a variety of sources results into computer documents which can only be reproduced and disseminated. Any other use requires extensive annotation of the images with respect to indexing terms and other conceptual structures that make the images identifiable. The bulk of even modest visual databases and the complexity of the images and of the conceptual schemes means that interactive processing is labour-intensive and unreliable. Retrieval also relies on the same processes of annotation and indexing, which make possible the correlation of database contents with user queries. The paper presents the potential of automated recognition for inputting architectural floor plans into visual databases. An optically digitized image is segmented and each segment recognized as an instance of a building element (wall, door, window, etc.). The array ofrecognized elements is then controlled for recognition and segmentation errors. Further processing allows identification of spaces in the floor plan and of their interrelationships. The output of the process is a symbolic array that is much more compact than the original pixel array and also amenable to abstract and /or specific user queries, such as “How many doors are there in the floorplan” or “Which floor plans contain a double loaded corridori. These queries can be input verbally or graphically. Identification of building and spatial elements in a floor plan also allows use of vocabulary control in retrieval: user queries are checked against a thesaurus of architectural terms for accuracy and precision. The user is then presented with options for the improvement of the query before proceeding with identifying relevant entries in the database. Use ofvocabulary control as a search intermediary improves performance and reduces user frustration by making explicit the relevance of a query.
Heijs, Wim J. M.. "Residential Comfort as a Tool for the Design and Evaluation of Dwellings." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The term comfort plays a not inconsiderable role in scientific housing research, for example as a predictor of household energy behaviour and of residential satisfaction. Nevertheless, its meaning is mostly ill-defined and it is unclear which properties of the dwelling are associated with the concept. In an exploratory study the meaning and structure of comfort were established on the basis of an etymological analysis, interviews with occupants and experts, an extensive review of the literature and a survey of 500 respondents in the Netherlands. It is shown that residential comfort is a useful and meaningful concept in housing research. It can be regarded as a variable which represents the totality of properties of a dwelling which are important for the well-being of occupants, including its social and psychological aspects. The structure of comfort is captured in a model that can be used in the designing process and the evaluation of dwellings. The model enables an organized overview of the needs of (intended) groups of occupant, of sub-fields of comfort (e.g. sub-properties of the dwelling) associated with these needs and of possible housing characteristics that are necessary for the presence of the sub-fields. The scheme of analysis appears to be a good instrument for the construction of comparable models for other types of building.
Langelaan, Willem. "Sequential and Concurrent Cad Layering." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Most CAD software allows graphical and text objects to be grouped into layers. There are two fundamentally different methods for layering: sequential layering and concurrent layering. With sequential layering, layers are attributes of the CAD database and objects are attributes of a layer. With concurrent layering, objects are attributes of the CAD database and a layer is an attribute of an object. Sequential layering emulates the pinbar drafting technique. As a result, it is output oriented. Only one layer at a time can be edited. Concurrent layering is uniquely a computer based layering method which has no manual equivalent. User specified sets of layers can be edited concurrently. It makes it possible to organize the infrastructure of the CAD database which equally facilitates input, i.e. editing design information, and output, i.e. presenting construction information on paper. Specification levels are related to design levels and to construction phases. Specification levels can serve as interfaces between input and output. In particular, a concurrently layered CAD database can be structured in layers which conform to specification levels. Furthermore, the layers can be subdivided by sub-system such as construction discipline, and by partial-system such as room finish schedules. It is demonstrated how a concurrently layered environment for computer aided design can be developed which permits deductive and inductive design activities. The appendix provides a detailed example of a concurrently layered CAD file with a default input and output environment of layers and layer groups. The environment was developed to coordinate the design and production activities of an architectural practice. The connections between layers and layer groups are illustrated in a 22 x 32 matrix.
Grimshaw, Robert. "Simulation Models and Facility Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The paper is based on a now completed research project funded by SERC and carried out by the author and former colleagues from the University of Salford in a multi-disciplinary team comprising building maintenance experts and operational researchers. The project sought to develop a model to simulate manpower deployment in a building maintenance organisation using a single case study. Although the results of the project were limited in scope, being more concernedwith the development of the methodology to deal with such problems, the work did have useful outcomes including the development of a database which contained detailed information on the hourly deployment of labour  on maintenance and facilities work over a 12 month period. The proposed paper will consider the implications of the output from both the database and the simulation model for the planning of facilities and the deployment of labour in developing and maintaining those facilities.
Daru, Roel, and Philip Snijder. "Sketch-Trigger: a Specification for a Form Generator and Design Analysis Toolbox for Architectural Sketching." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. In order to develop design and decision support techniques in the early sketch design phases, weshould (1) experience and (2) observe real behaviour in practice, (3) transform observations intoideas for improvement, (4) develop behaviour models to explain the sketch design activities and(5) to evaluate between the proposals, (6) decide between the alternatives, (7) implement theselected option in a supporting tool. Our paper reports about the results of step 3 in particular inthe first phase of a Ph D project, started this year. Our main objective is to amplify the effects ofthe sketch as a very effective instrument to generate original forms and to stimulate the mind to discover new shapes and meanings in the roughly sketched patterns. Instead of considering the sketch only as a representation of what the designer has in mind as is usually assumed in CAD systems, we see sketching as form activation. Thus, we want also to offer triggering images to spark off the imagination of the designer while generating images which are practically impossibleto create by hand and certainly not at short notice. The main improvement proposed is the use of an evolutionary form breeding system: one or more sketched parent images (either ready-made'partis'or basic schemes drafted by the designer) presented in the centre of the screen, will generate surrounding mutated children as defined at random but constrained by default or customization of the available transformations. By selecting one or more children a next generation will be produced in the same way. At all times the designer can introduce or reduce constraints. To complete the usually offered'classical'symmetrical, spatial and logical operations,we want to introduce dis-functional operations like dislocation, explosion, deformation, anti-logic etc, in short all kinds of antagonistic operations, among them the transformations applied indeconstructionist and post-modern design. Our expectation is that these operations will correspond roughly to the'move'pertaining to a design entity as the operational unit most appropriate for design behaviour research, in particular the analysis of the chunking and parsing behaviour of the designer. The applicability of the'move'approach has been shown experimentally by Habraken and others. Goldschmidt has abandoned the usual typology approach of protocolanalysis based on moves and concentrated on the linking of moves, but has been hampered by the lack of a good representational instrument. This brings us to the representation of moves and linkages as a research instrument. The'linkograph'approach as proposed by Goldschmidt is a first step towards a graphical representation of the designers associative reasoning mode, necessary for tracking the heuristics of designers at the most basic level, but its practical implementation remained as yet incredibly laborious. What is proposed here is an instrument and approach which makes such registration and analysis possible within a structured software environment.
Kohsaka, Hiroyuki. "Spatial Decision Support System for Retail Activity." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This presentation proposes an architecture of Spatial Support System (SDSS) for retail activity. This SDSS is made up of four key modules: data, monitoring, spatial analysis/modelling, and map and report generators. In the data module, spatial shopping data are gathered from Point of Sales (POS) Systems as well as trade area surveys. Two examples will be presented to collect spatial shopping data. One is from an ordinal trade area survey and the other is from point IC cards. The monitoring module can represent retail trade areas as three-dimensional surfaces as well as contour maps by using a colour graphics display after a cartographic analysis which consists of gridding and interpolation of these data. As an application example of monitoring module, retail trade area for a store or a shopping street will be shown as a three-dimensional surface. In addition, themonitoring module can describe a retail structure consisting of the trade area of several retail stores to analyze the spatial competition of them. In the spatial analysis/modelling module, optimization methods search for an optimal location of a new store and an impact analysis assesses the locational impacts of the store upon the existing stores. An optimal location of new supermarket will be solved as an example for this module.
Wang, Ming-Hung, and Hua-Yu Chao. "Spatial Schemata and Design Competence: a Case of Beginning Designers." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. In the course of learning professional skills in architectural design, students will develop, usually with the help of instructors, certain ways of analyzing spatial relations. Such spatial schemes are considered critical means to the comprehension of the graphical representations of spaces, and therefore schemes of different kind will have different effects on design performance. This study intends to explore this issue. Three sets of experiments are conducted to test our working hypotheses as stated as follows: (i) to reproduce a plane graphic requires knowledge and skills different from those to recognize, (ii) some schemes are more effective than others in reproducing plane graphics, (iii) the kind of schemes that can effectively reproducing given forms (in plane graphics) can also have positive effects on design capabilities. It is interesting to further differenti-ate the kinds of schemes and their power as design tools. All these experiments employ three kinds of spatial schemes: the categorical, the referential, and the hierarchical from the results we can reach the following conclusions: (i) reconstruction is a different mental activity from recognition which is mainly a comparison between the input data and the known characteristics reconstruction relies more on the structured relations among data that should be established in the course of recognition. Therefore, effective cognition is a part of design competence, (ii) categori-cal schema is found most effective in recognition test. The quality of this type has to do with the quality of its contents. Referential schema can effectively relate elements to one another and to the context in which they are located. This schema contributes to the quality of spatial compositions. Hierarchical schemata are more general that can help identify dependent relations among elements, and therefore reduce the complexity. Conceivably this can increase the efficiency of problem-solving in design.
Wyatt, Ray. "Strategic Decision Support: Using Neural Networks to Enhance and Explore Human Strategizing." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper focuses on a mechanism by which planners and designers are thought to reduce complexity. The mechanism involves choosing a potentially profitable direction of search, or choosing potentially profitable set of aims to pursue, within which a detailed solution might be found, and rejecting all potentially unprofitable directions of search. The literature of psychology, planning and operations research is drawn upon to argue that designers base such initial choice of direction on their candidate aims'relative scores for eight key parameters: probability, returns for effort, delay, robustness, difficulty, present satisfaction and dependence. The paper then describes a piece of decision support software which, by eliciting any user's scores for their candidate aims on the eight key parameters, is able to order such aims into a strategic plan. Such software also incorporates a simulated neural network which attempts to “learni, from users'recorded responses to the software-suggested strategies, how users actually weight the relative importances of the eight key parameters. That is, it is hoped that the neural network will “converge'to some prototypical pattern(s) of weightings. Having such a tool would certainly constitute an advance in the state of the art of computer-aided strategy development. Alternatively, if the network never converges, the use of neural networks in computer-aided planning is perhaps not advisable. Accordingly, a test was conducted in which a group of planners used the software to address a typical spatial problem. The results, in terms of whether or not the neural network converged, will be reported.
Beekman, Solange, and Herman Rikhof. "Strategic Urban Planning in the Netherlands." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Since the mid-1980s, several Dutch towns have initiated many urban planning and design activities for their existing area. This represented a shift in that previous urban planning projects typicallyconcerned expansion in the outskirts of the city, or urban renewal. The complex and expensive renovation of the existing housing stock rarely allowed a deep interest in urban design. Since 1985, attention shifted from the housing stock to the city as a whole. Furthermore, public andprivate actors increasingly become involved in the planning process. It became clear that a more comprehensive plan for the whole existing town or region was needed. Conventional planning instruments were considered ill-suited for this new challenge. The paper discusses promising attempts of various urban planning instruments to get a stronger but also more flexible hold on thetransformation of the urban planning area in the Netherlands. These new planning instruments have three common characteristics: (i) they give special attention to the different levels of urban management needed for different urban areas, (ii) these strategic plans provide an integral view on the urban developments, and (iii) these plans introduce a new strategy to deal with both private initiatives to transform urban sites and monitor wishes, proposals, etc. from inhabitants in the neighbourhoods. A comparative analyses of several cities indicates, however, that, in addition to these common characteristics, major differences between their strategic plans exist depending upon their historic patrimonium, economic status and planning tradition.
Habraken, Wouter. "Structure and Flow of Design Information in the Construction Process." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. At every step in the construction process different individuals (architects, engineers, project managers and workmen) make use of design information, yet the requirements they have for the contents and structure of this information are radically different. This paper makes some general observations on the structure, productions and manipulation of design information, concentrating specifically on the form in which information is passed between individuals, the relationship between graphic and text based information, and the interaction between design information and materials flows in the constructions supply chain. On the basis of these observations, this paper presents a general conceptual framework for describing the information flow with the aim of understanding and controlling it. Within this framework, some conceptual tools are proposed thatcan be used to structure design information including abstraction, dependent relationships, and control and identify hierarchies. Next, this paper illustrates how one company, Matura Nederland, has used these concepts and tools to develop design processes and computer software to integrate its operational process from design to installation. Finally, some suggestions are made as to how these ideas relate to some current developments in CAD, database and process control software.
Chan, Chiu-Shui. "Style: Approach from a Cognitive Point of View." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This research sets up a theory about style from a cognitive point of view. It has been observed that the constant applications of some factors in a design process constitute the formation of a style. Those factors included design constraints, search methods, goals, and the sequential order of applying them. A style may result from certain actions and interactions of these factors. And because of the constant applications of the factors, constant forms by which a style is manifested. The contents of the factors determine the expression of a style  which can be imitated and changed from time, whereas the quantities of the factors determine the degree of a style. Thus, this theory provides, explanations about the cause, the degree, the change and the imitation of style.
van Leusen, Marc. "System of Types in the Domain of Residential Buildings." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. At the early stages of the architectural design process, general decisions are made with respect to a building's spatial organization. These concern its overall shape and size, as well as its internal organization. Characteristics of a building's spatial organization, however vaguely and incompletely described at those stages, may have serious consequences for various aspects of its performance. Those consequences are often difficult to determine in advance and emerge only during time-consuming elaboration of the design or even not before the actual building is in operation. A designer's ability of foreseeing them is much dependent on his knowledge of existing buildings. More particularly, it depends on his understanding of the performances of types rather than specific precedents. In general terms, the present study aims at supporting design decisions at the early stages by improving the awareness and understanding of types. Many architectural handbooks particularly those in the domain of housing attempt to support access to and acquisition of such knowledge through so-called typologies, in which types are described by means of graphical descriptions, and illustrated with one or more precedents. The effectiveness of such books as design supporting tools is limited by the fact, among others, that type descriptions are not based upon a well-defined representation of spatial organization. This leads to uncertainty as to the handbook's completeness and to unreliability of performances associated with types. The present study explores the possibilities of dealing with these shortcomings. It is limited to the domain of the complex residential building. After a review of existing work in the area of housing typology, the study presents and discusses the following products: (i) a type-representation of basic arrangements of dwellings, that is, a representation which retains only the most general characteristics of spatial organization, (ii) a demonstration of the potential of this representation, this demonstration involves the enumeration and limited exploration of certain ranges of type descriptions.
Park, Mungo. "Text, Model, Image, the Inconsistent Cycle of Reflective Design in Architectural Speculation." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The paper will examine the sites of imaginal or creative'events'set within the discourse of architecture and landscape design. It will discuss the cognitive and reflective actions implicit in creating or opening up the spaces of thinking in design. Notions of'linearity'and'intuition'in the emergence of discursive design work will be tested with reference to the textual work of Barthes, Foucault and Baudrillard, and to the imaginal work of Lebbeus Woods, Piranesi and Daniel Liebeskind. The potential for relocating terms and collapsing conventional disciplinary boundaries to discover a creative field of discourse within architectural design will be discussed, together with the specific tactics and strategies which may be employed by the designer to achieve such a collision in the problematizing of a design project. Ideas of reality, simulation and materiality will be discussed in the context of the designer's external frames of reference (societal, ecological, political, aesthetic, cultural) and their possible relationship with the cognitive process in order to discover the terms under which an architectural discourse seeks validation.
Bright, Elise. "THe "Allots" Model: a PC-Based Approach to Demand Distribution for Siting and Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper reports on the development and application of ALLOT: a user-friendly, flexible computer model which has been designed to help governmental jurisdictions and private landowners throughout the world to achieve more economically efficient and environmentally sound land use and development patterns in a short period of time. ALLOT has the potential to drastically change the way that land use planning is conducted, since it has the capability to allow theincorporation of a wide variety of previously ignored environmental characteristics and up-to-date land use patterns. ALLOT, which is written in the SAS programming language, contains twomajor parts. The first part employs a GIS database to conduct land suitability analyses for the area. It then produces maps showing the most suitable areas for various land use types. The second part appears to be unique in the field of computerized land use planning models. It combines the results of the suitability analysis with forecasted demand for various land use types to produce “optimum” future land use patterns. The model is capable of quickly analyzing a wide variety of forecasts, allowing easy comparison of different growth scenarios, and it can also be modified to reflect community goals and objectives, such as protection of wildlife habitat orattraction of industry. The flexibility, combined with the fact that it runs on any IBM-compatible PC (286 or higher), make it a powerful land use planning tool. The model has been successfully applied in two “real world” situations. First, three alternative future land use patterns were developed for a rural lakeside area. The area had rural characteristics and was lacking infrastructure, but a large influx of people was expected as the lake was filled. The success of this effort led to decision to test itis use as a method for facility siting (using landfill siting as an example).
Smeltzer, Geert. "The Application of Virtual Reality Systems in Architectural Design Processes." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper describes the application of virtual reality systems in architectural design processes. It is based upon research on virtual reality technology to develop a more natural interface between men and design systems. It is also based upon the development of an integrated laboratory set-up for an immersive and a desk-top virtual reality system. This set-up should offer possibilities to manipulate 3D design models and to simulate the lighting situation in real time. Finally it is based upon an application of virtual reality technology for a design presentation. The research problem was determined by the question in which way the design process changes under the influence of technology. Other research questions, autonomous as possible, were how natural an interface can be using sensors, how a design model can be using real world features and how a representation can be as realistic as possible, using lighting simulations. The development problem was determined by the fact that the laboratory set-up had to be developed in co-operation with a hardware and a software vendor. This led to the development of two set-ups: one immersive virtual reality system and one desk top system. Another problem for the development of the set-up was that the project had to result in the presentation and demonstration of virtual reality technol-ogy that was not yet generally available to a larger group of organisations or enterprises. The first case study involved the development of a virtual reality presentation of a housing project in the Netherlands. The presentation was meant for people who were interested in the houses and was announced as a virtual open house. A potential buyer could walk through the model and move furniture around. The problem addressed concerned the relationship between the level of detail of the model, the speed of representation and the ease of interface system's. The second case study concerned the use of a virtual reality interface, model and representation for the evaluation of visibility and safety aspects of another housing project. At first this application was meant for the designers and their client. Based upon their evaluation of the design, several design improvements were made. Afterwards, this application was used for internal demonstrations. The application for the evaluation and the demonstrations were developed for an immersive virtual reality system and for a desk top system. The problem addressed was first of all a design problem and secondly a technical problem. This technical problem was related to the difference between the two virtual reality systems in terms of consequences for those applications. In the near future the research project, called the Asterisk project, will also examine and develop the possibilities of the simultaneous use of the system by more than one user, possibly on different locations. This means a development from single user single site to a multi user, a multiple site virtual reality systems. This project will also evaluate the feasibility of the application of virtual reality technology during an architectural design process. This research project will be followed by the development of a prototype of a virtual architecture system demonstrations of this system and an introduction to the market.
Nutt, Bev. "The Decisions of Facility Adaption." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994.

Obsolescence in buildings is driven today by functional, locational and financial factors rather than by physical deterioration alone. As a result, it is no longer reasonable to expect that new building stock will remain within its originally designed class of use throughout its effective life. It is also optimistic to assume that'change of use'adaptions, once made, will not be subject to further changes in due course. In these circumstances, the conventional notion of designing for a particular 'building type' must be questioned. The paper will describe current research into the adaptability potential of buildings, particularly the development of decision protocols to evaluate options for the adaption of vacant building stock to different uses. Speculative suggestions will be advanced concerning the probable impact of the research and on urban planning and building design.

Ayeni, Bola. "The Design of Decision Support Systems in Urban and Regional Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994.

Planning methodology over the years, has shifted from situations whereby planners think, plan and design for the people to one whereby both people and planners have become important components of the planning process. Consequently, the important urban planning methodology of the last two decades that utilized mathematical models in the planning process is fast becoming obsolete. The paper argues that model building should move to the creation of urban decision support systems for the planning process through the development of expert systems shells that interfaces existing planning models with the knowledge content of planning and planners. The expert system shells as the set of decision rules for determining how existing supply and demand relationships are applied for modelling land use and transportation would be responsible forguiding the development of appropriate geographical information systems, supporting land use and other models in a coordinated manner, for communicating with these other systems componentsand for guiding interactions between them and the user. Furthermore, decision support systems should be designed to bring the whole of the knowledge base to bear on a problem through a flexible and adaptive solution system that makes explicit use of both the analysts models and the decision makers expert knowledge. It is argued that this understanding leads to the development of three crucial issues for the design of decision support systems in urban and regional planning,namely the development of user friendly integrated urban land-use transportation models, the development of expert geographical information systems and the development of expert systemshells for many of the routine tasks planners deal with.

Schaefer, Wim. "The Management of Knowledge in Architectural Companies by Reconstruction of Problem Solving Systems." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The purpose of this paper is to present a theory for'knowledge management'in architectural firms. This theory is based upon the premise that knowledge as well as employees (..the designer as a knowledge worker..) are regarded as means of production and that for both of these resources economic values exist during a limited period of time. Similar to the management efforts to optimize the use of labour and'material'equipment the use of knowledge should be optimized by adequate management. The presented theory for the management of knowledge introduces a new profession in the organization of an architectural firm: the knowledge manager. And within this context a knowledge base is regarded as a tool to help to perform one of the tasks of this professional. The central part of this theory consists of a cognitive reconstruction of problem solving systems. This reconstruction provides a layout for a knowledge base as well as a'road map'to guide the discussions on'what knowledge is used','who learned what'and'to whom must experience be transferred'. Employees as the most'cognitive actors'in problem-solving in design processes can be traced. The management can decide on wether to emphasise the concentration of knowledge by these persons or to emphasize the transfer of their knowledge to others. The use and meaning of knowledge bases for each of these management approaches are completely different.
Oxman, Robert. "The Reflective Eye: Visual Reasoning in the Sketch." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Despite recent advances in our understanding of design thinking, we still lack a comprehensive theoretical approach to cognitive processes in design and particularly to visual reasoning. Of scientific interest in its own right, understanding non-verbal reasoning is also relevant to a wide range of subjects in the area of visual data resources for designers. This paper presents research into visual reasoning through the study of cognitive acts and processes associated with design drawing. Employing case studies in the design sketch, a vocabulary is defined for describing phenomena of visual reasoning in design as they are revealed in the sketch. Classes of reasoning processes are proposed as strings of graphic acts of state transformation. A theoretical schema is developed which relates the individual act of visual reasoning manifested in the sketch, of sketch sequences, with larger global cognitive phenomena such as analogical or associative reasoning in design. Based upon this schema, a symbol system for these acts and processes is proposed as a coding technique in the observation, analysis and recording of non-verbal processes in design.
Spreckelmeyer, Kent. "The Symbolic Dimensions of Workplace Evaluations." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) techniques have been used during the past twenty years in a variety of workplace settings to measure specific occupant responses to the physical dimensions of the office environment. Typically, these measures have been used by environmental researchers and designers to improve instrumental aspects of the workplace, such as increased levels of occupant satisfaction with lighting, temperature, privacy, and office configuration. A growing body of evidence has begun to suggest that while instrumental approaches to workplace evaluation have produced improvements in specific office conditions, overall levels of worker satisfaction and perceptions of the general character of the office setting remain low. It has also been suggested that future pressures for reconfiguring the workplace -- increased use of individual communication technologies, working away from the office setting, rapid and continual changes in working patterns - will exacerbate these negative perceptions of workers. This paper will suggest ways in which POEs can be employed to identify and measure the less tangible aspects of office setting and how this information can be used to enhance the designers ability to address the cultural and social dimensions of the workplace. The central thesis of this paper is that POE theories and research methodologies must be focused on the symbolic dimensions of the workplace (i.e., office image, organizational culture, work purpose) in order to understand the ways in which the environment contributes to specific improvements in worker productivity, health, and satisfaction. Data will be presented from the author's recent POE studies of governmental offices and published supporting material found in Environment and Behaviour and The Journal of Architectu-ral and Planning Research. The author has conducted evaluation and programming studies for a number of private and governmental client groups in both office and health-care settings during the past fifteen years, and he will use evidence from this body of work as well as parallel studies of colleagues to support the thesis of the paper.
Bradford, John, and Barry Will. "The Temple Tutor Teaching System." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Temple Tutor is a multimedia CA! system developed at the University of Hong Kong to help teach architectural design students about certain fundamentals of building design and construction. It uses 3-D Cad models as user orientation and database access devices. This paper will demonstrate the operation of Temple Tutor, and discuss the types of Information and media used in Temple Tutor.
Snijder, H.P.S.. "The Use of Genetic Algorithms in Spatial Optimisation Problems." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The manipulation of a set of associative data usually involves the search of a huge search-space (e.g. a set of 20 elements can be ordered in 20! ways, which is approximately equal to 2.4e+ 18). Rooms on a floor can be considered as a set of associative data. Optimising such a set according to some criterion (for example, minimising the distance between the related elements) can therefore be a daunting task. In order to assist in this task, a program (called ROP) has been developed, which graphically represents the relations in a matrix. The points in this matrix can be moved manually, thereby transforming the search process into a visual task. However, a considerable amount of skill remains required. In order to further alleviate the user in this task, ROP has been augmented with a Genetic Algorithm. A genetic algorithm is ideally suited to deal with very large search-spaces, and proved to be a valuable addition to ROP. In addition to employing the genetic algorithm for finding the optimal ordering, it can also be made to suggest several different orderings with approximately equal fitness, thereby providing elementary creativity support. The combination of ROP with a genetic algorithm provides a generic tool for the manipulation of all multivariate or associative data sets, in- as well as outside the design realm.
Porada, Mikhael, and Sabine Porada. "To See Ideas or the Visualizing of Programmatic Data Reading Examples in Architecture and Town Planning." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Whether images are still in the mind, metaphors, sketches or icons, they play a crucial role. They have always been the heuristic pivot around which the process of artefact design organizes itself, particularly in architecture and town-planning. “To see ideas” through computer ideograms is to experiment an interesting and new direction for “pictural approachi supported design. Cognitive psychology emphasizes the important part played by mental images in reasoning, imagination in the working of human intelligence and the construction of mental images as cognitive factors underlying reasoning. It also points out how close computerized objects and mental schemata are. “To reason over a situation is first to remember or build some mental models of this situation, second to make those models work or simulate them in order to observe what would happen in different circumstances and then verify whether they fit the experiment data, third to select the best model, a tool meant to sustain and amplify the elaboration of mental models, which is a spontaneous activity”. We introduce our exploration of the direct transmission of mental models through computer ideograms. We study the “operative” and the “expressive” aspects, and this allows us to analyze how some aspects in a field of knowledge are represented by ideograms, schemata, icons, etc. Aid to imagination, reasoning and communication by means of a graphic language must be limited to some figurative relevant aspects of the domain considered, it should not aim at a realistic simulation. Therefore, the important role played by icons and the spatial schematic representation of knowledge is emphasized. Our hypothesis is that an architectural concept does not result from an inductive process, but rather is built to solve problems through the direct representation of ideas with ideograms. An experiment was conducted with a graphic language, a dynamic scenography and actor-objects. The language allows one to build and visualize models from the various domains of knowledge of the object. The dynamic scenography can explore and simulate kinetically those models by means of staging various narrations and visual scenarios. The actor-objects play various and complementary parts in order to make the image explicit and link it with the concept. We distinguish between two parallel levels of reality in computer ideographics: one concerns the model, it represents the visualization of a graphic model at a particular moment and according to a particular representation, the other concerns the ideogram.
Solans, Joan, and Josep Fargas. "Towards Hybrid Technologies for Urban Design: Balancing Reliability, Power and Speed in Decision Support." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper constructs a theory of decision support system design, based on the three independent concepts of reliability, power and speed borrowed from epistemology. We say that a system is reliable if a large part of its performance is useful or correct, that it is powerful if it performs in a useful way in a variety of situations of interest, and that it is fast if its behaviour is consistently dynamic. An arithmetic calculator, for example, is more reliable than a mathematician, but the latter is more powerful. A programming language is as reliable as a calculator, but the calculator is faster. We use this framework to argue that a successful deployment of decision support technology must take into account the balance between reliability power and speed. We illustrate this approach with the case of a hybrid system for studying urban transportation issues in the Greater Barcelona Region based on land use, contrasting it with more conventional tools such as traditional geographic information systems or traffic analysis software. The hybrid system is shown to sacrifice the reliability and speed characteristic of commercially available software for a powerful set of computational tools developed specifically for the problem at hand. This tradeoff process is formalized using an analysis based on second-order reliability, power and speed concepts. We show that micro-level sacrifices of one of these properties are often inversely correlated with the same characteristics at the macro level. For example, the relatively slow performance of in-house software components on a given project can result in a high level of dynamism in addressing several related projects. We extend the design theory outlined above to a methodology for characterizing decision support systems in general, and argue that the hybrid technologies approach is more likely to result in systems reflecting the user's domain knowledge and skills.
Krafta, Romulo. "Urban Configuration, Attraction and Morphology." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994.

Spatial Interaction (SI), based on the principle of attraction, has set up a powerful way of looking at the behaviour of urban systems. Within-place activities generate and/or attract trips, due to their inner fragmentary nature, several activities articulate a system of locations and flows which is supposed to be regulated by concentration of those activities and distance between them. SI has been criticized for having a poor theory and little regard to spatial specifics. In general terms, planners and large-scale urban scientists have been more comfortable with it than designers and urban morphologists, whose questions about space configuration are awkwardly dealt with in such a framework. Recently, Space Syntax (SS) has been suggested as an alternative to describe possible roles of space in the urban system. Its theory looks very complex - a deep cultural, anthropological connection between man and space, an atavistic impulse driving the shaping of space. Teklenburg et al have shown, however, that it is, in fact, very simple and not far from the rude assumptions of SI: a matter of distance and orientation3. Hence, what does look new is just its way of describing orientation, through the axiallity of public space. Axial lines retain the fundamental issue of connectivity, so they describe space more efficiently than the traditional zones or links used in SI models. SI says little about configuration, SS says little about interaction between spaces and activities, and both say nothing about morphology, or the configurational development of urban systems. An alternative approach is suggested: (i) urban spatial configurati-on (urban grid and built form) strongly conditions activity location and flows, in the short term. In this way, a convenient description of such a configuration should denounce its potential to housing activities and generate flows. This required description should take the grid axiallity as a measure of connectivity and orientation, as in SS, as well as the built form as a measure of attraction, as in SI, (ii) activity location and flows strongly conditions urban spatial configuration change, in the long run. Location and flow patterns create values that are expressed by an increasing conflict between rising land values and declining building values. As a result, configuration is taken as a particular state of a morphology whose transformation rules are an economic expression of spatiality. Flows are cause and effect in the lagged process of mutual transformation which shapes the urban space.

Grant, M. "Urban Gis - the Application of the Information Technologies to Urban Management." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Many cities in the UK and indeed throughout the developed world are characterised by the all too familiar symptoms of urban blight caused by insensitive intervention in the environment. The common denominator within this class of problem is the lack of a coordinated, integrated approach to the planning, design and maintenance of our cities. The cycle of development and redevelopment calls for input from a diverse range of disciplines relating to architecture, civilengineering, transport engineering, and the management of city utilities. This lack of a common up datable information base renders access to a global view of the city difficult, if not impossible.This problem has provided the motivation to move towards an integrated philosophy regarding information collection, collation and dissemination. The impetus is provided primarily through theincreasing complexity of urban management but also through central governments policy to progress towards decentralisation of services. Fiscal pressure to increase efficiency, lower manpower resources and arrive at speedier judgements all point to an increasing reliance on the information technologies. Current work at ABACUS within Strathclyde University addresses research whose objective is to identify, and then prototype, a relevant urban information system. It is proposed that by attributing a geometrical framework with those physical quantities thatare relevant to the formal and functional evaluation of the urban environment, the means of evaluating the qualities and quantities of the buildings aswell as the social and economic prospects may be realised.
Christie, Colin. "User Interfaces and Systems for Remote Design Working on ISDN Systems." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. This paper will discuss the requirements and possible configurations of user interfaces suitable for remote working multi-disciplinary design practices. Telecom companies throughout Europe are making heavy investments in digital communication technology (ISDN). The networks being created will form a standard method of high speed data transfer which can be readily accessed by any computer hardware platform. There are great opportunities for remote working by design groups, not simply sharing data but also interactive working and video communications. Digital communications provide the electronic arterial system to the new field of remote computing,whilst cheap and effective hardware and software support systems provide readily usable platforms on which to build remote multi-disciplinary design practices where the exploitation of specialistknowledge and skills is not limited by traditional methods of communication. ISDN networks allow real time video, voice and design software interaction - indeed, everything except the designer's physical presence. However as with all computer technology and indeed communications technology the user interface which gives access and control is vitally important. The user interface should provide the following features: be transparent to the user and simple and reliable to operate, allow an interactive window/s into the remote site's design information whatever the type of application being dealt with, carry out data compression, file transfer and file management procedures with minimum input from the user, cause no conflicts with design software or secondary applications,be able to access different platforms.
Zimring, C., Ellen Yi- Luen Do, E. Domeshek, and J. Kolodner. "Using Post-Occupancy Evaluation to AID Reflection in ConceptualDesign: Creating a Case-Based Design Aid for Architecture." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The design of large complex "real-world" objects such as buildings requires that the intentions of many potentially competing stakeholders be understood and reconciled. The process of conceptual design itself can be understood as a set of discourses among design team participants and between the designer and the design that gradually reveal these intentions and their relationships to design moves. Our goal is to aid this discourse by creating a Case-based Design Aid (CBDA) that provides design team participants access to specific evaluated cases of experience with previous buildings. This represents a merger of two sets of theories and methodologies: case-based reasoning (CBR) in artificial intelligence, and, post-occupancy evaluation (POE) in architectural research. In developing our CBDA, we have focused on several problems in architectural design: understanding the interactions between intentions, and making links between various modes of understanding and communication, and particularly between verbal description and visual representation. This has led to a particular way of parsing experience, and to several modes of entering and browsing the system. For instance, each case is accessible as a specific building, such as the Santa Clara County Hall of Justice, that can be explored much as an architect might browse a magazine article about the building, looking at a brief text description of the building, photos, and plans. However, each plan is annotated with "problematic situations" that are actually hypertext links into the discursive part of the program. By clicking on the button, the users reaches a "story" screen that lists the intentions of various stakeholders relevant to the problematic situation, a fuller text description of the general problematic situation with a diagram, text and diagram for a specific problematic situation as it operates in a specific building, several general design responses showing how one might respond to the problematic situations, and specific design responses from specific buildings. In addition, the user can browse the system by listing his or her interests and moving directly to stories about a given space type such as "courtroom" or issue such as "way finding." In addition, the designer can access brief synopses of key issues in a building type, for a space type, or for an issue. We are currently implementing the system on the Macintosh using Common Lisp and are focusing on libraries and courthouses as initial building types. Initial feedback from designers has been encouraging. We believe that this approach provides a useful alternative to design guidelines, that often tend to be too prescriptive, and the entirely inductive approach of many designers that may miss critical intentions.
Wineman, Jean, and Margaret Serrato. "Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns, perceptions of the ease of communication, and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990), a measure of visual field, based on the “isovisti fields of Benedikt (1979), and an “integration” measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
Pollalis, Spiro. "Visual Databases as Documentation and On-Line Information Systems." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. After the wide-spread use of computers as task processors, either for algorithmic operations, or for advanced interfaces, the emphasis has shifted on computers as communicators. Beyond basic serial communications, computers serve as providers of information, linking organizations and expanding the bounded rational of professionals. Based on the use of computers as communica-tors, a multiplicity of visual databases for architecture have emerged in the recent years. Building on a maturing technology, those databases address different domains of design, either aiming to provide the designers with information for making informed decisions, or aiming to document prior designs. However, a common characteristic of those visual databases is a separation between the design of the database, versus the entering of the critical amount of data that can make the databases useful. While the research has progressed in the designs, and technological problems of data presentation and data transfer have reached workable solutions, most of the efforts have not succeeded yet in providing the critical mass of information that is required to make the use of the databases desirable. Furthermore, this effort seems as having less research interest, while the necessary amounts of data, and especially the updating of those data, makes the task impossible for academic institutions, and requires interorganizational efforts. This paper focuses on the duality of the databases, either as a form of documentation, or as on-line interactive information systems. Based on that distinction, it examines the required technology and the critical success factors of each type, and proposes that these databases add value to design and they have considerable market effects, which will drive their development and diffusion.
Goldschmidt, Gabriela. "Visual Reference for Design: Analogy, Transformation and the Act of Sketching." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. All designers know that it is impossible to infer a design solution from the givens of a task alone, no matter how complete and well presented they are. Therefore, designers seek to complementinformation they receive, and the material they bring into the task environment includes visual images. Images may be gathered from every imaginable source, from domain-specific images (in architecture they are usually classified and pertain to building type, location, period, technology, style or creator) through'metaphoric'images (art, nature) to eclectic personal favourites. Inaddition, randomly encountered images may find their way into a database of references: a depository of potentially useful images. With the exception of factual information that fills in thetask givens, it is usually far from clear what purpose may be served by images in general, or to what use the specific images aligned for a particular task may be put. We propose that the singlemost significant'on line'role of visual references during the process of designing is to suggest potential analogies to the entity that is being designed. The process of discovering and exploitingan analogy in design is complex, we shall explain it in terms of Gentner's structure mapping theory, which we adapt to visual structures. We further propose that the abstraction process thatmust take place for the successful identification and mapping from source (visual reference) onto target (designed entity) requires transformations of images, and such transformations are bestachieved through sketching. Sketching facilitates the two way process of movement from the pictorial to the diagrammatic and from the schematic to the figural. Such transformations musttake place to arrive at the match that allows conceptual transfer, mapping of structural relations and insight through analogy.
Hall, Tony. "Visualisation for the Evaluation of Planning Proposals - an Example Based on Colchester, UK." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. Computer visualisation has an important role to play in the assessment of planning proposals both large and small but planning agencies have been slow to take advantage of it. Although appropriatehardware and software are now available at comparatively reasonable prices, staff time for data input is still a major cost. An economic way of proceeding can be to model in advance important and sensitive parts of a town so that small development proposals within them can be visualised comparatively quickly and cheaply as they come in. Following a request from the Borough Council, the High Street in Colchester, Essex, was modelled using 3D Studio. This model was then used to assess the visual impact of pedestrianisation and traffic control measures  and it was then available to assist the routine development control process in this part of town. The paperevaluates the success of this approachand makessuggestions for its future use. Its possible developmentinto a multi-media facility is also discussed.
de Gelder, Johan, and Larry Lucardie. "What Conceptual Modelling is and Isn't." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Book of Abstracts. DDSS. Vaals, The Netherlands, 1994. It is generally agreed that conceptual modelling is an important activity in the development of knowledge based systems. The availability of an adequate conceptual model is of vital interest notonly for the design and implementation of knowledge based systems, but also for their validation, modification, maintenance and enhancement. In order to be able to develop adequate conceptualmodels a theory about the nature of knowledge is required and, in line with this theory, a methodology to reconstruct the meaning of concepts. Additionally, techniques have to be selected which enable the modelling, representation, validation and simulation of reconstructed concepts. In the development of knowledge based systems often techniques are used which are not very wellsuited to the reconstruction and representation of the concepts of an application area. The selection of a technique is not motivated by an explicitly formulated theory, but by the representation formalisms applied within the software used for the implementation of knowledge based systems. This often leads to inadequate conceptual models and consequently poorly functional and hardly maintainable systems, mainly because the representation of concepts is adapted to the limitations of the applied representation formalism. In this paper we explain how the conceptual modelling activity isusually tackled in thedevelopment of knowledge based systems and what the related problems are.