Keywords Abstract
Coutinho, Filipe, Eduardo Costa, José Duarte, and Mário Kruger. "A computational interpretation of ”De re aedificatoria”: Translating Alberti s column system into a shape grammar." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 788-798. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Alberti's De re-edificatoria is considered one of the most influential treatises of architecture. Historic approaches aimed at tracing such an influence on European architecture have relied mainly on documental sources. The extent of such an influence, however, remains elusive. The research described in this paper is part of a larger project aimed at using the computational framework provided by shape grammars to determine the extension of such an influence on the architecture of the Portuguese empire in the counter-reform period. The idea is to translate the treatise into a shape grammar and then determine the transformations required for the grammar to account for the generation of the buildings designed and built in this geographic region. The paper presents a grammar for the Albertian column system, focusing on the Doric order. Subsequent work will be concerned with identifying the transformations of this grammar in the Portuguese context.
Kunze, Antje, Jan Halatsch, Carlos Vanegas, and Martina Jacobi. "A Conceptual Participatory Design Framework for Urban Planning: the case study workshop 'World Cup 2014 Urban Scenarios, Porto Alegre, Brazil." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 895-903. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper focuses on the definition of a conceptual participatory design framework for urban planning. Traditional planning methods can no longer satisfy the growing demands on sustainable urban planning in regard to factors such as complexity, problem size, and level of detail and these limitations make the development of new approaches necessary. Expert knowledge as well as insights from stakeholders and community members needs to take part equally in the decision-making process since they are responsible for a broad understanding and acceptance of final planning decisions. Therefore, a participatory framework is presented in the following, which integrates needs and requirements of stakeholders. In order to enable diverse groups of stakeholders to act conjointly, we propose the application of interactive decision support tools, which will leverage general conclusions especially to solve crucial zplanning decisions.
Güngör, Özge, Gülen Çağdaş, and Özgün Balaban. "A Mass Customization Oriented Housing Design Model Based on Genetic Algorithm." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 325-331. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Today, right along with the products marketed and manufactured by the mass production techniques, continuously developing computing and technology have an undeniable impact on customized design, in which the users have a say on the products design and manufacturing. Mass customization is slowly settling down in architectural design concepts as well, like housing which is one of the best areas where users can reflect their living habits and preferences. In this study, user centric mass customization based model is developed, which creates housing floor plan combining the user-supplied data with the best possible creations generated by the genetic algorithms.
Da_lar, Özgür, and Togan Tong. "A Method on Using Video in Architectural Design Process: Matchmoving." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 339-348. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Computer technologies are used frequently and effectively in film-making. It is almost inevitable to exclude computer aid in different phases of the process such as video editing, compositing and generation of visual effects. Therefore, techniques and software used in this field are improving every day. In this paper, potentials of a technique known in film making industry as matchmoving will be elaborated to be used in architectural design process. The types of software available for matchmoving purposes excel at generating 3D environment data from video shots, making them very useful tools for architects.
Kukul, Tu_gen, and Emirhan Coskun. "A Stratified Space by the Integration of Physical and Digital Spaces." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 951-959. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Today's spatial formations are based on tectonics and forms of physical environments in terms of dealing with the envisioned and finished configurations. However, as a result of media and information technologies, digital space brings out a new interpretation and aspect to the architectural space within the new concepts of space, time and reality. By digital space, users can imagine, produce, share, and store their perception and experiences in a new kind of territory which is based on data and information. The incremental and ever-changing needs of user and inclusively improving environments are the most common impacts of this information age that give rise to the importance of information rather than material. Stratified space is a combination of the physical space and digital space. Within this combination, we suggest a new concept of architectural space which will respond the dynamic, unpredictable and ever-changing needs of its users and environmental conditions.
Ma, Jin, Seung Choo, Ji Seo, and Seung Jeong. "A Study on BIM based Energy Efficient Design Improvement for Rural Standard Drawing and Specification in South Korea: Focusing on Using Buffer-Zone." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 430-438. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Throughout the world, global warming has been considered a severe problem, which has led to efforts being made for technical development to reduce greenhouse gases in the building sector. As more attention has been paid to energy consumption by residential housing in the building sector, policies and studies on domestic dwellings tend to focus on quality improvement and energy-efficient housing development rather than quantitative housing supply. Yet, policies and guidelines considering residential energy efficiency are inclined to focus on performance and lack in integrated consideration in connection with design. Hence, it seems necessary to compare and analyze design and energy efficiency and to study correlations between housing design and energy. Lately, BIM technology has been used in buildings domestically and proved reliable in respect of its features that enable overall comparison and prediction of housing design, performance and efficiency. The present study is to use the BIM technology to analyze energy consumption and the standard drawing schemes for rural areas to find ways to improve efficient design in singles housing sector and to suggest how to take advantage of buffer zones and how to improve housing design in favor of energy efficiency.
Gallas, Mohamed, Didier Bur, and Gilles Halin. "A “green design” method to integrate daylight in the early phase of the design process: the use of intentions knowledge base to generate solutions." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 309-317. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. In order to assist the designer to integrate the daylight on the early steps of the design process, we propose a computer aided method that uses designer intentions to generate potential solutions materializing these intentions. The early evaluation of the energetic implications of the generated solutions helps designers to think about a green way of design. An intentions knowledge base is created to characterize the designer intentions and to provide the necessary information to make possible the solution generation process. The intentions features will be characterized at different levels and will use the concept of indices and parameters. The parameter values will be defined by analysing the simulation results of different spatial configurations applied on a parametrical model.
Wiertelarz, Kathrin. "An exploration in teaching architectural design for construction and fabrication." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 35-42. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011.

The intent of this paper is to examine experimental design methods in the field of architecture and their implementation in academic settings. The projects emerged during design research studio at the institute of digital design techniques at the university of Kassel and collaborative workshops with several institutes. The starting point of the teaching concept was a divergence from the usual methods and ways of thinking, allowing for new, innovative solutions to emergence during the design process. The main point was a development of novel spatial modules in coherence with material and structural considerations. The question of materiality becomes a crucial consideration. The characteristics of different materials used for models development did not just influenced geometrical possibilities but also intensify, explore and organize spatial and structural qualities of the projects.

Coskun, Emirhan, and Gülen Çağdaş. "An Integrated Model for Emergent City Behavior Based on User Movements." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 159-165. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Today, with rapidly evolving information technology, computer technologies has become an interface rather than a tool for design process. With the development in computer applications it has become possible to solve design problems which were not possible to handle before. Computer environment which has become an interface rather than a tool for design has also led to the emergence of a number of concepts. New concepts such as Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) are being involved in design process. With the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI), AI has earned an interdisciplinary position. Agent based systems which are contained in the fields of AI have become the subjects of many researches in design basis. Approach to the problem solving process in the process of architectural/design problems is to be addressed as an important point within the scope of evaluation process. In this context user movements have a very critical role in process of problem solving according to the design problems. While designing or solving a design problem, ignoring the user movements can lead to unwanted results. Within the scope of this study user movements in city are considered in the context of emerging urban part/particles as a preliminary study.
Weston, Mark. "Anisotropic Operations: a study in directed material weakening for solar shading." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 595-602. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011.

Deliberately introduced unidirectional material weakening is explored as a means of producing material properties which exploit natural material tendencies rather than as a means to compensate for them. Such anisotropic operations take natural systems as a point of departure for man-made approaches to the augmentation of building performance in the realm of solar shading, but also for the creation of materially complex architectural environments.

Vettoretti, Ana, Pablo Resende, Mário Gonzaga, and Benamy Turkienicz. "Anthropometric and behavior data applied to a generative design system: a study of public benches." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 469-476. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper discusses ergonomic human body support in regard to people reading and talking on public benches. An applied experiment has been developed where design parameters are structured and associated to anthropometric dimensions relating to observed ergonomic postures. These are incorporated to a procedural design strategy using a geometric model with combination rules. The procedure has been tested, allowing a generation of alternative designs to emerge from ergonomic fitness parameters. The experiment helped to formulate a design methodology for optimizing the information during the product design and manufacturing processes.
Hunter, Moira, Scott C. Chase, Bradley Kligerman, and Tadeja Strojan Zupancic. "ARCHI21: Architectural and Design based Education and Practice through Content and Language Integrated Learning using Immersive Virtual Environments for 21st Century Skills." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 725-733. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper offers insights into innovative practice being undertaken in higher architectural and design education, where both language and content teaching and learning are integrated as interwoven parts with joint curricular roles. Using Expansive Learning Theory as an analytical framework to examine potential tensions and contradictions arising from the educational approach of Content and Language Integrated Learning, reference is made to three very recent pilot studies of the EU funded project, ARCHI21. The experiential learning in these studies adopted a blended approach, where classical face-to-face learning-teaching scenarios were supported by immersive 3D virtual environments together with social networking media and Web 2.0 tools. This paper uses these pilot studies to speculate on aspects of fragility and offers reflection on future project activity.
Noriega, Farid, Victor Barba, Jose Merino, Jose Zancajo, and Teresa Pérez. "ArchiInspection Project: Integrated Non Destructive Testing, a Building Information Model Approach." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 383-392. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. A non destructive testing process is becoming a technical need, thousands of buildings and huge urban areas will have to be adapted to restrictive energy-saving standards and sustainability criteria. Analysis and diagnostics are required on a massive scale. Building Information Modeling seems to be the adequate environment to assemble huge amounts of data. At this moment both hardware and software technologies are performing moderately well separately. The challenge is to connect them and in the long run automate data collection and conversion to a unified model that could be maintained during the programmed building life cycle. The aim of this research is to discuss the challenge of NDT hardware and BIM software systems integration and define the basic steps for the best practices to undertake it in a fast and accurate manner as well as to define the present and future connections to be developed. A 3 phase joint research project is proposed here and basic needs are analysed. Many lessons have been learned from field work, data translation and data incompatibilities with many shortcomings being detected.
Tauscher, Helga, and Raimar Scherer. "Area cartograms in building product model visualization: a case study on the presentation of non-spatial object properties in spatial context with anamorphic maps." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 444-450. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Existing presentation of building information models is mostly based on a 1:1 mapping of spatial information to spatial visualisation parameters. This approach limits the presentability of non-spatial properties and can even produce misleading presentations. An area cartogram is a type of map where the size of the areas is tied to some non-spatial value instead of the real size of the object. We identified five types of cartograms, applied them to typical building geometry and evaluated the resulting presentations in terms of readability. Finally a use case scenario is given to prove the need of such formal studies and to provide the basis for further evaluation.
Emmett, Mathew, Anke Tiggemann, and Katharina König. "Artist Residency at the Roman Baths, Bath Heritage Services UK: Mapping multidimensional perception experiences." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 261-268. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The emergent research project explores mediated realities and mnemonic structures by examining the modality of performative engagement through raumfindung (felt-presence), in an attempt to originate composition strategies and ordination opportunities for the creation of “amplified somatosensory environments”. The research promotes a synergistic relationship between space, time and perception, and throughout the investigation, the paper aims to advance a theory of PhaseSpace, a theoretical model for exploring the polarity of estrangement and niche environments. The project is an international collaboration between Estranged Space, a spatiodynamic research group co-founded by Mathew Emmett and PerceptionLab from Detmolder Schule fur Architektur und Innenarchitektur, Germany.
Webb, Nicholas, and Andre Brown. "Augmenting critique of lost or unbuilt works of architecture using digitally mediated techniques." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 942-950. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The paper explores how digital techniques can be applied to lost or unbuilt works of architecture in order to enhance our understanding of a particular architect or building they designed. For example, if current knowledge of a historic design is based on surviving literature or fragmented images, the new arrangement introduced using digitally augmented techniques allows a clearer reading of these original sources. Case study examples are used to demonstrate how this is achieved.
Araújo, Leandro, and Roberto Andrés. "BIM.BON. a BIM system for architectural practice in Brazil." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 439-443. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This article discusses the difficulties faced by the BIM (Building Information Modeling) systems to be widely adopted among most part of architecture and engineering professionals in Brazil. A revision of the issue and investigation of possibilities for improving the practice of architecture were made by creating a new model of BIM software addressed to a wider audience. It lists the main critical points in the usability of BIM software, based on a survey made with 300 professionals. The analysis is followed by a study of a new BIM software that could reach a wider audience of architects by implementing a tool that directly links the users to the construction materials market, also including a tool for easy budgetary calculations.
Schubert, Gerhard, Eva Artinger, Frank Petzold, and Gudrun Klinker. "Bridging the Gap: a (Collaborative) Design Platform for early design stages." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 187-193. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The motivation behind the CDP interdisciplinary research project is to resolve the current discrepancy between familiar, analogue ways of working in the early architectural design stages and the ever increasing use of digital tools in office practice. The project's objective is the conception and prototypical realisation of an interactive work environment for use in the early design phases. By directly linking familiar analogue ways of working with digital computer aided design tools, the CDP represents a working environment that allows designers to work the way they are used to while making use of the potential of computers. This paper describes the first results of a design environment for supporting the conceptual phase of urban design.
Kligerman, Brad, and Jamil Mehdaoui. "Building Fragile Places: Mixed Reality as an architectural platform." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 653-662. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper will explore the hypothesis that Mixed Reality is a differentiated media and credible framework for the generation, fabrication and communication of projects that are explicitly engaged in design research. This will be shown through a critical presentation of three built and unbuilt projects by Building w/immaterials in the domains of architecture, installation and education. These projects will demonstrate the creative and theoretical application of Mixed Reality from within the differentiated social system of Architecture. While the majority of research into Mixed Reality seems to concern its technical aspects, we will explore its application as a creative system for project development, realization and diffusion.
Weissenstein, Charline, Jean-Claude Bignon, and Pascal Humbert. "Building s environmental design: Proposal for an assessment help method." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 302-308. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This research concerns the development of an environmental quality assessment in the early design. We suggest a global, progressive and contextualized approach. The method consists of various assessment criteria, considers the context and the project progress that guide and adapt the environmental assessment. This paper deals firstly with taking into account various aspects such as the progressivity and the contextualization in the method. Secondly, we present the application of the method in a tool.
Tiggemann, Anke, Marco Hemmerling, and Lemberski. David. "Camera Musica: Compositions in music and space." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 374-380. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The relationship between music and architecture in the European context, the similarities, interdependencies and differences of both disciplines, served as starting point for the academic project “Camera Music”. In this project interior design students composed animated spatial interpretations based on the characteristics of pieces of music “ video clips “ by using visualization- and compositing-software. The goal was to convey specific knowledge in animation techniques as digital design tool and to discover experimental design concepts which arise between the disciplines of music and space.
Fleischmann, Moritz, Julian Lienhard, and Achim Menges. "Computational Design Synthesis: Embedding Material Behaviour in Generative Computational Processes." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 759-767. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper presents strategies for the design of bending-active structures through the introduction of modern computational design methods, exploring their architectural potential through contemporary means of design, engineering and robotic manufacturing. As a case study the ICD/ITKE research pavilion's information modeling process is depicted: how form-finding experiments guided the development of various models that synthesize data for design, simulation, analysis and fabrication. The paper explains the integration of relevant material information into generative computational design processes and concludes by comparing the resultant data models with a scan of the built prototype.
Sorguç, Arzu, Semra Selçuk, and Fatma Cakici. "Computer Simulation as an Integral Part of Digital Design Education in Architecture: the Modulator." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 43-50. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. It has been more than a decade that the first discussions on the integration of computational technologies into architectural education, especially into the design studios have been started. Since then, the use of CAD from drafting to complex solid modeling and manufacturing in design studios has been mostly achieved. Yet, persisting on the discussions within the same context, mostly focusing on the studio education and CAD/CAM rather than CAAD avoids inquiring other potentials of them as being a learning and implementation media of different knowledge domains. In this context this papers presents a discussion on andragogic learning by the integration of simulation technologies to architectural education to synthesize the fragmented knowledge that provides new learning media.
Fioravanti, Antonio, Gianluigi Loffreda, and Armando Trento. "Computing Ontologies to Support AEC Collaborative Design: Towards a Building Organism delicate concept." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 177-186. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. To help architects in real life work it is needed to clarify what a building is from their point of view. Till now we have seen that building design aid programs are mainly conceived from an “external” perspective, that of computer scientists. Difficulties related to architectural design support programs result from: an insufficient overall model of the building, an inadequate formalization of information, an underestimated complexity inherent in the design process. To overcome these difficulties we introduce a “systemic” building model that takes into account discipline-specific goals by means of relation structures to relate entities of domains and ontologies to formalize knowledge.
Achten, Henri. "Degrees of Interaction: Towards a Classification." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 565-572. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. In architecture various approaches have been developed do deal with changing demands on the building. The most recent development is interactive architecture. In this paper we aim to outline what interactive architecture is. First we define the type of performance behavior that an interactive building or environment has. Following, we consider the relation between the system and the user. We derive four types of relations, characterized as perfect butler, partner, environmental, and wizard. Interactive systems are composed of sensors, controllers, actuators, and materials. Various degrees of interactivity can be achieved with such systems, ranging from passive, reactive, autonomous, to agent systems. Complete with earlier discussion of design methods this provides the range of aspects that should be considered when designing interactive architecture.
Wikberg, Fredrik, and Anders Ekholm. "Design Configuration with Architectural Objects: a Platform Organization Model for Industrialized House-Building." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 393-402. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The paper presents the intermediate results of an ongoing research project with the aim to develop concepts and tools for architectural design in industrialized house-building. Architectural design aims to enable different “situations” in the built environment involving people, behaviour, experience and environment, with desired technical, functional and aesthetic properties. “Situations” may be represented by configurable modular “architectural objects” that also reflect the variability of an industrialized building system. In three case studies the relevance of the concept of architectural object is investigated, in architectural design, and through modularization, development and organization of technical platforms. The results however also show a need for further research concerning the implementation in a BIM environment.
Ryu, Han, Kwon Lee, Jung Ryu, and Seung Choo. "Development of optimized geometry for low energy super tall office with BIM: Decision on ratio of lateral to longitudinal length and orientation in early design stage." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 811-818. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. There are many researches to make low energy demanding building. Lots of them focus on facility systems and insulation performance of building materials. However, not only systematic solutions but also design solution can reduce building energy consumption. This study focuses on development of optimized geometry for super tall office building in Seoul, Korea. Specifically, ratio of lateral to longitudinal length and building orientation are main topics of this study because these are the most primitive and preceding factors deciding mass design. To analyze the energy efficiency of masses, energy simulation is necessary at the initial design stages. In this study, BIM and BIM based energy simulation tools are arranged to compare the alternatives.
Kudumovi, Lana, Amra Taso, and Omer Hasanbegovi. "Digital design and fabrication: Case study: seashell." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 779-787. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Computational aspects of architectural design have revolutionized actual process, and have made a new platform for cooperation that spans across all disciplines. The focus of this study is to understand how the seashell form can be applicable in design process of human architectures. Our approach will show the act of choosing an inspirational natural form and its application into the virtual world, then digitalization, transformation, and evaluation of the form that are suitable for human architecture. 3D model generating would be performed by doing the scan of a selected seashell form. Further action would be to import the object as a tool in the Zbrush application, and continued modeling transformations. This phase would include other parameters that need to be integrated during the architectural design process since architecture usually exists in a radically different environment in comparison with the seashell.
Veliz, Alejandro, and Pablo Sills. "Digital design of reconstruction proposals in Chile." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 673-678. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. After the earthquake and tsunami occurred in Chile on February 27th 2010, the Technical University Federico Santa Maria was asked to contribute with reconstruction proposals for the commercial infrastructure destroyed in the town “San Juan Bautist”. Located 600 km (~370 mi) away from the continent, this town is not just the home of several endemic species, but is also located next to a National Protected Area and UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Within this context, the design problem consisted on the development of a component-based strategy and prefabrication requirements, and to reduce to the minimum the implied logistics and environmental impacts of the new buildings. With a Studio of 23 final year students and the support of the Architecture Firms Association, 11 projects were developed using digital tools such as visual programming and digital fabrication. Finally, technical documentation was produced and delivered to the local and government authorities.
Grobman, Yasha, and Ruth Ron. "Digital Form Finding: Generative use of simulation processes by architects in the early stages of the design process." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 107-115. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The paper presents performance oriented approaches to digital form finding which stems from the lines of research on performance and morphogenesis in architectural design. The main contribution to the earlier research is threefold, it examines the potential of the presented design processes to integrate interdisciplinary approach based on the use of simulation tools by architects or direct data exchange between simulation tools and design. Secondly, it explores new methods to generate initial architectural form based on performance information that apply to both building scale and urban scale, and lastly, it develops the theoretical framework on the ramifications of employing simulation technology and techniques in architectural design.
Górczy_ski, Micha_, and Jan Rabiej. "Digital Master Builder: from 'Virtual' Conception to 'Actual' Production through Information Models." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 412-420. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper investigates relationships between the process of conception and production in digital domain with reference to the very nature of architect's profession. Authors combine some theories of actual paradigm shift with specific mechanisms of digital fabrication. A scope of control and collaboration strategies will be cited and a few next will be developed as an aftermath of the FABRICATE 2011 conference and publication. These remarks can be seen as an attempt to outline essential design principles for digital master builder architects.
Barros, Mário, José Duarte, and Bruno Chaparro. "Digital Thonet: an automated system for the generation and analysis of custom-made chairs." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 521-529. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. A system is presented to support the designer in creating custom versions of chairs within a predefined design language using Thonet chairs as a case study. The system consists of parametric models based on shape grammars linked to structural analysis to provide an integrated generative process for mass customization in the furniture industry.
Vrontissi, Maria, and Styliani Azariadi. "Digital tools in the architectural design of a geodesic dome: the case-study of the bearing structure of an artificial sky lighting installation." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 511-520. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This article discusses the use of digital technology in the design and construction of a geodesic dome built in a student workshop as the bearing structure for an artificial sky lighting installation. Digital tools were used for the whole process from preliminary to detailed design, fabrication and assembly, in order to allow the investigation and precise representation of the geodesic geometry. However, limited possibilities, in combination with the intrinsic nature of the geometry, which allowed segregation of tasks, did not permit a full exploration of the potential of the digital continuum at that time, even though taking advantage of digital technologies, the process maintained some of its linear characteristics. A couple of years after the successful completion of the installation, the project is “revisited” in retrospect, and the design process is “reengineered” considering the design potential of recent advances in digital technology. In this work in progress, an attempt is made to work with an inclusive model that contains geometric, structural, material and manufacturing input and constraints and can inform design, fabrication and assembly processes, allowing for dynamic manipulation and control of parameters at any given time, thus, reconfiguring in real time the design, as well as the related processes.
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "Digital “serial vision” - new approach in urban composition teaching." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 716-724. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The paper discusses the following problem: How can digital technology are integrated with urban composition teaching to provide a better understanding of the aesthetical and emotional aspects of the city? It argues for the current need for an integration of computer modelling and the approaches developed form the work of K. Lynch, G. Cullen, R. Krier, F. Ching. The paper is based on the experience in design studio teaching and an experiment completed with students. The exercise shows the students that different spatial organization may cause different emotions according to the treatment of space-defining elements. The paper presents the background and context as well as describes the experimental environment and the student work.
Velasco, Rodrigo, and Daniel Robles. "Eco-envolventes: a parametric design approach to generate and evaluate façade configurations for hot and humid climates." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 539-548. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper presents the current development of an in-progress academic research project where a particular design problem, that of building envelopes for tropical climates, is parametrically defined and its possible solutions assessed by means of data correlations and virtual simulations. In doing do so, the authors have devised a parametric structure based on factorial definitions whereby environmental, structural and life cycle analyses are taken into consideration to determine the design possibilities subsequently defined in terms of their physical configuration, constituent materials, construction processes and dynamic behaviour. Particular emphasis is placed on the embedded energy and functional performance of the resulting designs. The proposed methodological model is graphically presented, and its practical potential illustrated by a particular case of application. It should be taken into account, however, that this is a work in progress, and only the first step towards theconstruction of a simulation based methodology for architects and designers.
Paio, Alexandra, Joaquim Reis, Filipe Santos, Pedro Lopes, Sara Eloy, and Vasco Rato. "Emerg.cities4all: Towards a shape grammar based computational system tool for generating a sustainable and integrated urban design." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 152-158. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The ongoing research project called Emerg.cities all is focused on the development of a generative computer-aided planning support system for cities and housing to low-income populations, using a descriptive method as the Shape Grammars and based on multi-agent rule-based system. The goal is to develop a system that could reveal the cultural, social and spatial dynamics involved in the genesis of informal settlements (favelas, musseques and caniços) and use it to generate contemporary humanized urban morphologies. The multi agent shape grammar implementation could generate automatically designs according to different types of users: urban planners, architect and local end users. This paper presents the methodology and the initial results of the research, using an informal settlement as a case study.
Sarhan, Ahmed, and Peter Rutherford. "Environmental Design eTutor: Utilizing Games Technology for Environmental Design Education." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 699-708. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The design paradigm has shifted from addressing geometric masses and social spaces to integrate a whole new set of variables and criteria evolving from the environmental aspect of the design. Architectural design is confronting a mounting challenge with the ever-growing complexity of design concepts and the increasing pressure to incorporate aspects of energy preservation and sustainability. Such challenge is clearly noted and sensed within the pedagogical realm. There are many calls to bridge the gap through assisting design students to assimilate environmental analysis data in their design and decision making process. This paper presents a framework for a proposed method and relating tools aiming to utilize games technology with multi-agent systems and data mining techniques to assist design students and untrained professionals in comprehending various aspects of environmental design, with guidelines to incorporate these aspects in their design iteration process.
Janssen, Patrick, Cihat Basol, and Kian Chen. "Evolutionary Developmental Design for Non-Programmers." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 245-252. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Evolutionary developmental design (Evo-Devo-Design) is a design method that combines complex developmental techniques with an evolutionary optimisation techniques. In order to use such methods, the problem specific developmental and evaluation procedures typically need to be define using some kind of textual programming language. This paper reports on an alternative approach, in which designers can use Visual Dataflow Modelling (VDM) instead of textual programming. This research described how Evo-Devo-Design problems can defined using the VDM approach, and how they can subsequently be run using a Distributed Execution Environment (called Dexen) on multiple computers in parallel. A case study is presented, where the Evo-Devo-Design method is used to evolve designs for a house, optimised for daylight, energy consumption, and privacy.
Poblete, de, and Carlos Ignacio. "Evolutionary Strategy to Design Optimized Architecture." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 293-301. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The purpose of the present experiment consists in optimizing a building modifying its apertures (windows) and its geometry to reduce heating and air conditioning consumption. The optimization is performed using a Micro-Genetic Algorithm (Micro-GAs) programmed in C# embedded like a series of functions into GenerativeComponents (GC). EnergyPlus (E+) software is used to evaluate the HVAC consumption levels of the building. The aim of the optimization is to keep the temperature at 20ºC on the hottest and coldest day using the least possible energy (Jules). In conclusion, this article proposes a new technique based on parametric modelling, evaluation and evolutionary optimization to generate efficient buildings with HVAC consumptions.
Ibrahim, Mohamed, Alan Bridges, Scott C. Chase, Samir Bayoumi, and Dina Taha. "Experiencing design with grammatical explorations in the beginning design studio: the after-recognition experiment: designing with constraints." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 689-698. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper describes a teaching experience conducted and carried out as part of the coursework of first year students of architecture in two different countries. The workshop is the second of three workshops planned to take place during the course of the first year studio, aimed at introducing new ways of thinking and introducing students to a new pattern of architectural education. The experiment was planned under the theme of “Production” in the mid-stage that is considered the operational stage of the design process. It also succeeded a recognition stage in which the students visual reasoning skills were targeted with more open and less determined design tasks. A grammatical approach was chosen to deliver the methodology in the design studio, based on the shape grammar methodology.
Jutraz, Anja, A. Voigt, and Tadeja Strojan Zupancic. "Exploring Urban Experimental Lab for public participation and education in urban design." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 904-912. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper deals with visual digital collaborative tools for public participation in urban design. First it addresses the problem of the diversity of skills and knowledge levels of all the actors involved. The main focus is on exploring Urban Experimental Lab (Voigt, Kieferle, Wässner, 2009), developed for public participation in urban design, shifting the research focus towards the questions of educating both lay and different professional public through this process. Public participation in urban design is seen as an opportunity for lifelong urban design learning, offering a wide variety of different actions, problems and educational elements. All the participants are expected to improve their knowledge levels through participating in design process.
Lee, Seongki. "Feasibility Computation of the Perimeter Block Housing in Early Design Process: a Perimeter Block Housing Design based on Zone Ordinance of Seoul." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 235-244. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The goal of this paper is to present the feasibility computing tool for the perimeter block housing design in early design process. Firstly, the paper describes briefly issues of perimeter block housing focusing on block design cases of Seoul. Secondly, constraints and requirements of perimeter block housing are analysed and formulated based on specific zone ordinance and regulation. Thirdly application of half-edge data structure is presented for interconnected geometric problem solving. Fourthly, multi-objective optimization algorithm developed is shortly explained as problem solving method. Finally, feasibility-computing software using Java object oriented programming is developed. This can contribute to the tool development that can generate, optimize, evaluate and visualize perimeter block housings in early phases of design process by providing reliable design solutions for stakeholders.
Riether, Gernot, and Knox Jolly. "Flexible Systems: Flexible Design, Material and Fabrication: the AIA pavilion as a case study." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 628-634. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper is about the fabrication process of the DesCours pavilion, a project that was realized in the context of a graduate design studio in the Fall Semester of 2010. The assembly and construction process of the pavilion will be used to show how parametric software, such as Grasshopper can inform fabrication and material systems. The paper will explain the fabrication process of a pavilion in detail and make an argument for plastic as a material that not only responds to the malleable characteristic of digital tools but also to environmental issues.
Koch, Volker, Sebastian Ritterbusch, Andreas Kopmann, Marius Müller, Thorsten Habel, and Petra von Both. "Flying Augmented Reality: Supporting planning and simulation analysis by combining mixed reality methods using multicopter and pattern recognition." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 843-849. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The article presents an immersive tool to support early planning stages in building construction and town planning. It combines concepts of augmented reality technologies with radio controlled multicopter aircrafts to visualize virtual information in direct context of the build environment within a highly flexible operating range.
Okuda, Shinya, and Chua Ping. "Form Follows Performance: Structural Optimisation and the Cost-effectiveness of Digital Fabrication." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 837-842. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The presented paper describes a series of studio-based research projects on structural optimisation and the cost-effectiveness of digital fabrication that aim to balance stress distribution across thick walls or a rib density of slabs. As a consequence of the structural optimisations, the results tend to be non-uniform shapes that are not ideal for cost-effective fabrication. This paper introduces a few simple models to balance structural optimisation and fabrication cost-effectiveness. It involves relatively simple structural simulations as the design inputs, and then converts the simulation results into various architectural forms using parametric 3D modelling tool (McNeel Rhinoceros v4, Grasshopper v0.8) before fabricating them using digital fabrication technologies. The major challenge of this study is how to translate simulation results into architectural components/overall building shapes and how to fabricate complex forms in a cost-effective manner.
Di Mascio, Danilo, and Pierpaolo Palka. "From the 3D survey “ad Oggetto” to the technological representation of the architecture: the case study of Caporciano." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 829-836. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. In this paper we are to present a research, still in progress, whose main objective is the desire to develop and test an alternative method of surveying, representing and analyzing buildings that are part of a minor historical-artistic heritage. The instruments used and the proposed methodology want to give an alternative to other solutions such as 3D laser scanners and photogrammetry, which would be not only expensive, but also difficult to use in small and irregular spaces, typical of the old Italian villages. The case study that will be presented is Caporciano, a small medieval village in Abruzzo (a region at the centre of Italy), in the internal area of the region affected by a violent earth quake in 2009. This tragic event has put the spotlights on the problems and the fragility of these small villages, which represent an important local resource of cultural importance, and therefore must be preserved for the future generation. In order to properly act in these areas, it is necessary to thoroughly know the actions to be taken for its recovery or conservation, and the present methodology allows the creation of this knowledge made up of several drawings, both two-dimensional and three-dimensional.
Nardelli, Eduardo, and Charles C. Vincent. "Generative and parametric design in Brazilian social housing production." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 93-98. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper aims to present an on going research about the use of digital technology to improve the production of the Brazilian dwelling program so called “My Home, My life”, one of the majors current social housing programs in the world, which goal is to build about 1 million houses for low-income population located in areas of illegal occupation in Brazilian large urban centers where the high cost of the land and the specific characteristics of each area make unfeasible the use of the modernist paradigm, based on repetitive standards.
Popov, Nikolay. "Generative sub-division morphogenesis with Cellular Automata and Agent-Based Modelling." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 166-174. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper reports on some recent research carried out to develop computational generative urban design system that can be used as an alternative approach to master planning. The focus of the investigation is an 11 ha site located in the South-East edge of Auckland, New Zealand. The urban (or sub-urban) morphology is modelled as cellular automaton based on Hillier's (1984) x-y syntax in order to resemble the morphology of the existing village. An agent based system based on Reynolds (1987) flocking algorithm evolves synchronously with the automaton and tests its ecological fitness. The emergent pattern of development therefore results from the mutual co-adaption of the cellular automaton and the agent based model. The outcomes are variety of spatial morphologies that connects well with adjacent existing village and at the same time take into account landscape and ecological peculiarities of the site.
Kim, Yoonhyun, Sangjin Park, Jieun Park, Sunjoong Kim, and Ji-Hyun Lee. "Home suggestion service in real estate searching system: Using ontology and case-based reasoning." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 605-614. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Real estate search system currently supports users search for sale and consumption. However, the quality of the search results is unsatisfactory in most cases. This is due to the lack of system capacity to accurately understand and process all-different userpreferences. Therefore, this study aims to solve the said issue by newly constructing real estate information via “Case-based Reasoning” and “Ontology” We conducted research on the terminology related to real estate search that could be seen in a number of Q&A communities. Based on the work, a hierarchical structure of the concepts was reorganized. In addition, a real estate search system was developed to authenticate its effectiveness while dealing with several exemplary cases.
Wurzer, Gabriel, Sema Alacam, and Wolfgang E. Lorenz. "How to Teach Architects (Computer) Programming: a Case Study." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 51-56. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Computer programming in architecture seems to be commonplace throughout the eCAADe Community. Yet, a critical evaluation of a programming course as seen from a student’s side is still missing. During a week-long programming workshop in a fellow university, we have been assessing subjective parameters such as mood, quality of presentation and comprehensibility, comparing these to the actual topics that were covered at this instance. Our results contribute to understanding architecture students in their quest towards algorithmical thinking. We are convinced that the discussion given in this paper will help other teachers to further increase the quality of their lectures. Furthermore, the structure of our approach may serve as basis for further research into recording student behavior during programming courses.
Bourdakis, Vassilis. "Interactive Spatial Design course analysis: 10 years, 150 projects." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 647-652. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The paper is giving an overview and analysis of an undergraduate, sixth semester, compulsory course titled “Virtual Reality: Interactive Spatial Design” at the department of Architecture, School of Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece. It is one of the very few courses on designing digital/synthetic and interactive space_and not merely utilising Virtual Reality (VR) technologies for architectural visualisations_in architectural curricula. The aim of this paper is to primarily draw on a ten year experience on teaching the course and to open up a discussion on the implications of such digital design courses and address emerging problems. This is achieved through a reflection on the teaching process (interaction as design process, curriculum and attained goals) and an analysis and genre classification of the 150 submitted projects.
Verovsek, Spela, Matevz Juvancic, and Tadeja Strojan Zupancic. "Interpretation Model of Urban Space Coherence." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 886-894. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The paper presents our efforts to establish a model for urban space interpretation (IMUSC Interpretation Model of Urban Spatial Coherence), intended as a pragmatic instrument for recognizing elements and phenomena that affect actual use of urban spaces. The initial premise proposes the mechanism for traceable linkage between the basic, mostly visible elements and features in the urban space, and three qualities concerning actual use: (a) access to the space, (b) movement within and through the space and (c) permitted/ tolerated and stimulated sojourning of the users in the space. The model aims to assist with bridging the communicational gap between expert and lay public occurring in the formal or informal process of spatial co-deciding, by increasing comprehension of spatial complexities and hence developing common priorities concerning spatial values.
Koziko_lu, Nilüfer, and Emrah Kavlak. "Introducing Architectural Design Foundations Through Algorithmic Design and Experimentations with Materials: a methodology for freshman class in architecture." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 70-76. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper presents a lecture methodology using pattern based and algorithmic design principles for an introductory architectural design course aimed towards students who are not oriented in design practices but in natural sciences. This methodology is built upon eights interconnected steps, starting with analytical pattern extraction from nature - from the unique texture and structure of a plant (seed or fruit) and also from its lifecycle and relation to the existing habitat. The steps include abstract pattern making with the use of software tools and material building of abstracted geometries as standalone structures. Throughout these steps, principles of information design field is demonstrated to improve students abilities to analyze visual information.
Colakoglu, Birgul. "Introduction to Architecture Studio: Geometry, Rules and Patterns." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 745-750. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Introduction to architecture studio introduces students of architecture with fundamentals of design and design thinking. Here, the students learn: analytical thinking by constructive analysis of precedents, language of design by using basic geometric elements and operational/transformational principles among them, and principles of form making by engaging in constructing the form. The paper explains the process of the studio in which shape grammar methodology is utilized in teaching analytical thinking, language of design and principles of form making to architecture students.
Langenhan, Christoph, Sebastian Ha, Markus Weber, Frank Petzold, Marcus Liwicki, and Andreas Dengel. "Investigating research strategies for accessing knowledge stored in semantic models." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 403-411. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Current data storage and retrieval strategies usually use keywords and are not well suited to retrieving spatial configurations, the proportions of rooms or their interrelationships. Instead of using text-based research, a graphical inquiry and query system is proposed that can recognise formal structures on the one hand and concept sketches on the other. Using artificial intelligence methods and multimodal interaction, knowledge is stored in semantic models. From previously stored planning solutions in a BIM, semantic fingerprints are derived that describe their functional and topological characteristics. The search system likewise derives a semantic fingerprint from the spatial configuration of a concept sketch and compares it with fingerprints stored in the repository. Similar matches are then shown to the designer.
Janssen, Patrick, Kian Chen, and Cihat Basol. "Iterative Virtual Prototyping: Performance Based Design Exploration." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 253-260. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper proposes a digitally enhanced type of performance driven design method. In order to demonstrate this method, a design environment is presented that links the SideFx Houdini modelling and animation program to the Radiance and EnergyPlus simulation programs. This environment allows designers to explore large numbers of design variants using a partially automated iterative process of design development, design evaluation, and design feedback.
Bohnenberger, Sascha, Klaas de Rycke, and Agnes Weilandt. "Lattice Spaces: Form optimisation throgh customization of non developable 3d wood surfaces." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 751-758. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper discusses a collaborative project by RDAI architects, Bollinger+Grohmann and the timber construction company Holzbau Amann. The project is located in a former swimming pool in Paris and it is part of the new interior of a flagship store of the French fashion label Hermes. In late 2009, Rena Duma Architects, asked Bollinger+Grohmann to collaborate as structural engineers on a challenging design proposal within a very short timeframe. Three wooden lattice structures, the so-called'bull'and one monumental staircase with a similar design approach characterize the interior of the new flagship store. The lattice structures are dividing the basement into different retail spaces. They vary in height (8-9 m) and diameter (8-12 m) and have a free-form shaped wicker basket appearance. Wood was the chosen material for these structures to strengthen the idea of the wickerbaskets and to create an interior space with a sustainable and innovative material.
Sampaio, Alcinia, Ana Gomes, and Augusto Gomes. "Maintenance and Inspection of Façades of Building Supported on Virtual Reality Technology." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 332-338. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. A Virtual Reality model was created in order to help in the maintenance of exterior closures of walls in a building. It allows the visual and interactive transmission of information related to the physical behavior of the elements, defined as a function of the time variable. To this end, the basic knowledge of material most often used in façades, anomaly surveillance, techniques of rehabilitation, and inspection planning were studied. This information was included in a data base that supports the periodic inspection needed in a program of preventive maintenance. The results are obtained interactively and visualized in the virtual environment itself. This work brings an innovative contribution to the field of maintenance supported by emergent technology.
Villazón, Rafael, R Romero, A William, and José Tiberio Hernández. "Media Space for Architecture Studio Courses: Interactive project analysis and discussion in Architecture Studio." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 285-292. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper presents a Media Space designed to reinforce the learning experience in the context of Architecture Studio courses by supporting interactive analysis and discussion of architectural projects. Based on the utilisation of information technologies, this initiative attempts to interpret the meaning of the traditional master/apprentice relationship and the project-based learning model. This paper summarizes the course methodology and outlines the aspects of interest in order to improve the learning experience. Also presents the main concepts behind the users interaction process in a session such as Catalogue, Stage, Mosaic and Sketch-Based Annotations. The result is a suite of modular applications and hardware engineered to provide interactive visualisation, collaborative tools and teleconferencing.
Zarzycki, Andrzej. "Mediated Lives." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 877-885. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper presents landscape as the continuous interface between urban media facades and the ever-expanding use of digital devices and their content. It investigates contemporary attitudes toward digital public spaces, such as mainstream media facades, interactive art installations, and mobile apps. Media-infused landscapes could, if handled properly, transfer the public domain back from corporate ownership to public authorship. This paper discusses examples of public participatory spaces mediated by new technologies and emerging opportunities associated with virtual social networks. The types of interactions and experiences that in the past were predominantly confined to art gallery installations or online chat rooms become main street events with broader participation and authorship. While perceived by some as invasive and overreaching, media participatory landscapes could also help us to reclaim the public realm and democratize its content.
Ahlquist, Sean, and Achim Menges. "Methodological Approach for the Integration of Material Information and Performance in the Design Computation for Tension-Active Architectural Systems." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 799-808. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. As computational design processes have moved from representation to simulation, the focus has shifted towards advanced integration of performance as a form defining measure. Performance, though, is often assessed purely on the level of geometry and stratified between hierarchically independent layers. When looking at tension-active membrane systems, performance is integrated across multiple levels and with only the membrane material itself, defining the structural, spatial and atmospheric qualities. The research described in this paper investigates the integrative nature of this type of lightweight structure and proposes methodologies for generating highly articulated and differentiated systems. As material is a critical component, the research focuses on a system-based approach which places priority on the inclusion of material research and parameterization into a behavior-based computational process.
Rua, Helena, Pedro Alvito, Duarte Ramos, Bruno Fernandes, and Susana Martins. "Modelling as Communication: the use of 3D models for developing architectural ideas." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 859-867. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Regardless of its size or scope, the preparation of an Architectural Project, is perfectly well defined. The first phase of conception, drawn up according to the statement of intentions provided by the Owner of the Work (preliminary Program), usually is the only one in the whole process which draws on the abilities of the Author of the Project. Thus, with the aim of speeding up this process, an experimental model which can be used as a tool for negotiation between stakeholders in a project of Architecture has been developed. This implies giving priority to the graphic aspects of the model, such as visualisation, texturing, manipulation and automatic data updating. What is left to be developed is the desire to associate sensorial information to these scenic “ models sound, smell and time ” and to study the means of converting the results of this informal communication into documents that may come to be used in the subsequent phases of the Architectural Project.
Marcos, Carlos. "New materiality: ideation, representation and digital fabrication." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 351-360. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Digital fabrication has become the true counterpoint to computer aided design in architecture. Thanks to new C.A.D./C.A.M. technologies architectural design can now manufacture complex buildings that only a decade ago could have been almost impossible to develop. This convergence between C.A.D./C.A.M. technologies is producing a trend from construction to manufacturing. Arbitrariness of architectural form should not be confused with arbitrariness of architectural design, the latter being contradictory with the very essence of design. Conventional or digital architecture must achieve design consistency and must rely on architecture's basic principle, that of necessity. New materiality is a term being coined in relation to digital fabrication and the way it should address materiality in architecture. Innovation in the use of conventional materials, the ways in which they may be manufactured or tiled, as well as the emergence of new materials may outline what new materiality is about.
Hakak, Alireza, and Nimish Biloria. "New perception of virtual environments, Enhancement of creativity: Increasing dimension of design starting point." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 967-975. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The digital era allows for a new domain of architectural experience. Within a virtual environment designs can be created that go beyond the mere accommodation of literal functions, and that affect and contribute to the human experience by dynamically interacting with and affecting the in habitants life. A key point in “creativity”, considering different disciplines, is the role of previously gained experiences, which cause the emerging of intuition. Accentuating the role of new experiences in enhancing the intuition, by designing in an imaginary world, stands to be an interesting move. Detached from the real one in sense of time and matter, the imaginary world enables the designer to cross the borderline of reality. The hypothesis underlying this ongoing research, from a cognitive point of view, is that the extensiveness of experiences gained by exploring unconventional virtual environments relates positively to both creative performance (enhancing interactivity, lateral thinking, idea generation, etc) and creativity-supporting cognitive processes (retrieval of unconventional knowledge, recruitment of ideas from unconfined virtual environments for creative idea expansion). Practically, the authors propose starting the design from a point cloud in a virtual environment that can be manipulated by the designer immersing in this environment.
Celento, David, and Rebecca Henn. "Nimble Urban Dwellings: Re-enabling Permanent Impermanence." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 635-644. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper considers an evolutionary type of urban dwelling where permanent impermanence may be a preferred state for those who favor nimble dwellings that are better able to respond to change. These changes may be socio-economic, geographic, technological, environmental, cultural, employment-related, or simply the result of unanticipated disruptions. The goal of this research is to describe a system which enables improved functionality, flexibility, and desirability for modest, yet highly diverse, urban dwelling solutions based upon an evolving, open-source system of digital design standards. Given that consumer product designers have, for more than a decade, successfully utilized digital technology to design and produce highly desirable products, this paper asks whether urban dwellings might benefit from concerns more in keeping with those of consumer products.
Madrazo, Leandro, and Paul Riddy. "OIKODOMOS Virtual Campus: Constructing learning processes in collaboration." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 194-202. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The OIKODOMOS Virtual Campus is a learning space where teachers and students of schools of architecture and urban planning collaborate in the design and implementation of learning activities dedicated to the study of housing in contemporary Europe. Its pedagogic model is based on the intertwining of on-line and on-site activities and on the integration of different types of courses following a blended learning approach. A technological platform has been specifically created to support the project's constructivist pedagogy. In this paper we describe the main components of the pedagogic model, the technological platform, their implementation and application for delivering learning activities.
Vergopoulos, Stavros, and Dimitris Gourdoukis. "Operating within Fragile Environments: Operating within Fragile Environments." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 768-778. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. As the architectural community becomes more and more “ware” of the ecological problems that our environment faces, digital tools gain a prominent position in the attempts to inform the design process with environmental sensibilities. However digital tools could provide more than the means to evaluate the energy efficiency of a design. The paper discusses the possible “digital-to-analogue” design methodologies that are developed through the use of advanced computational techniques, alongside with material explorations, through example-projects designed and constructed by the students of the School of Architecture of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki during an intensive, one week workshop.
de Boissieu, Aurélie, Caroline Lecourtois, and François Guéna. "Operation of parametric modelling' and/or “operation of architectural conception”?: Expressing relationships in parametric modelling." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 530-538. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This research paper presents a specific understanding of the relations between parametric modelling activities and architectural conception activities. Our main question is: Can we make a distinction between cognitive operations of parametric modelling and cognitive operations of architectural conception? To shed light on this question, this paper is leaning on analyses of some uses of the parametric modeler Digital Project. The cases studies are students projects from two Architecture Studios: the Cross Over Studio of the Universitat die Angewandte in Vienna, and the Studio P9 Digital Knowledge of the Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture de Paris Malaquais in Paris. Our main result is the observation of a distinction between cognitive operations of parametric modelling and cognitive operations of architectural conception. The distinction of these two kinds of operations leads at questioning the relation between them. We have questioned these relations in terms of induction from one to another. But some interesting merging of these two kinds of operations appeared also.
Celani, Gabriela, José Beirão, José Duarte, and Carlos Vaz. "Optimizing the “characteristic structure”: Combining shape grammars and genetic algorithms to generate urban patterns." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 491-500. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The present paper is part of an undergoing research that aims at developing software that can generate urban plans, based on contemporary urban design concepts, in an optimized way. As a design method, the project proposes the use of the trilogy formulation/ generation/evaluation, which starts with an outline of the design requirements, proceeds with the definition of generative procedures that can result in these requirements, and follows with the evaluation of the generated designs. The paper describes the development of a computer program that implements some of Marshall's evaluation methods, and further elaborates them to define generative criteria and to optimize the resulting designs with GA techniques. The program aims at generating what Marshall calls a “characteristic structure”, a type of urban fabric that is usually found in vernacular urban fabrics.
van der Zee, Aant, and B. De Vries. "Out of the box design: Pedagogical approach on generative design teaching." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 709-715. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. A traditional design studio is organized round tutors who give the students an assignment, more precisely a design problem which the students have to solve in 12 weeks. Since 2006 we run at our University a design studio which is focused on a new way of thinking in and about architecture. In many aspects the organization differs greatly from the more traditional organized design studios. In the first part of the paper we will discuss the pedagogical organization of “our” studio and how this new way of generative design is used in architectural training. In the second part we will show and discuss some students work, one project will be discussed in more detail. Finally, we will summarize our experience with this design studio and provide some guidelines for successful implementing Generative Design in architectural design teaching.
Hulin, Jaroslav, Jiri Pavlicek, and Martin Kaftan. "Parametric bus stop shelters in rural areas: Automating custom design." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 485-490. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper describes the first stage of an applied research project that explores parametric design strategies in a context of rural bus stop shelters. The aim of the research is to propose a possible method for improving current state of public infrastructure in rural locations of the Czech Republic. The research project examines, in a practical way, how advanced design techniques and new technologies could help architects and designers participate in some areas of the building industry that have been out of reach of professional designers. Rural bus stop shelters in Czech Republic serve as an example of one particular “unreachable” area. During the first stage of the research (described in this paper), we developed a parametric system of design and production of a bus stop shelter and we commissioned a fully functional prototype to be built. In the outlook of the research, participation of users in the design process is outlined.
Beirão, José, Pirouz Nourian, and Bardia Mashhoodi. "Parametric urban design: an interactive sketching system for shaping neighborhoods." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 225-234. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. In this paper we show the structure of an urban design parametric system. The system is dynamic and builds an interactive relation with the designer updating the layout and related data at each input change. The responsiveness of the system allows the designer to gain awareness on the qualitative consequences of each design move by comparing a design state with a set of urban indicators and density measures which are automatically calculated along with the geometrical updates.
Kontovourkis, Odysseas. "Pedestrian Modeling as Generative Mechanism for the Design of Adaptive Built Environment." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 850-858. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The investigation of the relationship between pedestrian modeling and the built environment is essential in the process of analyzing, evaluating and generating new architectural spaces that can satisfy circulation design conditions and respect the surrounding environment in the best possible way. In order to achieve the direct interaction between the users and the environment, current work attempts to examine how pedestrian models can be used as generative mechanisms for the production of adaptive spaces, which can be optimized according to human movement behavior needs. In this investigation, an existing computer program will be further developed in relation to its ability to inform the environment in an adaptive manner resulting the formation of spaces that can influence and can be influenced by pedestrian movement behavior and hence circulation systems. This can be done by creating new rules of interaction between components, for instance between pedestrians and the geometry of environment, and by taking into account pedestrian movement behavior conditions, as well as functional and morphological architectural design criteria.
Krieg, Oliver, Karola Dierichs, Steffen Reichert, Tobias Schwinn, and Achim Menges. "Performative Architectural Morphology: Robotically manufactured biomimetic finger-joined plate structures." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 573-580. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Performative Architectural Morphology is a notion derived from the term Functional Morphology in biology and describes the capacity of an architectural material system to adapt morphologically to specific internal constraints and external influences and forces. The paper presents a research project that investigates the possibilities and limitations of informing a robotically manufactured finger-joint system with principles derived from biological plate structures, such as sea urchins and sand dollars. Initially, the material system and robotic manufacturing advances are being introduced. Consequently, a performative catalogue is presented, that analyses both the biological system's basic principles, the respective translation into a more informed manufacturing logic and the consequent architectural implications. The paper concludes to show how this biologically informed material system serves to more specifically respond to a given building environment.
Albayrak, Canan, and Bige Tunçer. "Performative architecture as a guideline for transformation: Defense Line of Amsterdam." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 501-510. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Since 2003, we have been developing a pedagogic proposal and didactic material for teaching Light and Optics to kindergarden children that enhances the construction of the first scientific thinking schemes. The design (industrial and graphic) applied to this project has generated an educational product composed of 44 objects. These materials allow teaching concepts such as: combination of colors, light indispensable to see, formation of shadows and images are not objects. These have been developed as inciters of curiosity, capable to awake the innate restlessness of children, achieving to stimulate their creativity. The purpose is to explore knowledge and construct their own ideas, enrich their experiences and inquire a reality that was drawn grey and tedious, generating a process of manipulation-action and then representation-conceptualization. This product has been successfully used as a pilot test in a kindergarden, reflecting significant gains in studentsi science learning. [Full paper in Spanish]
Spaeth, Benjamin, and Achim Menges. "Performative Design for Spatial Acoustics: Concept for an evolutionary design algorithm based on acoustics as design driver." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 461-468. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The paper presents a performance-oriented design explorer tool focusing on finding spatial concepts based on acoustic parameters. The design explorer is a genetic evolutionary algorithm realizing evaluation through room acoustical and room morphological criteria. The paper describes the concept of the design system focusing on the synthesis of geometry, assignment of material properties, on the implementation of evaluation criteria and on the description of relevant acoustic criteria. The presented experimental algorithm is part of doctoral research work in progress. It marks a research milestone describing the concept and implementation of an evolutionary algorithm for spatial acoustics and presenting results produced by the proof of concept algorithm.
Leitao, Antonio, and Luís Santos. "Programming Languages for Generative design: Visual or Textual?" In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 549-557. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. In this paper we compare visual and textual programming languages for generative design. We argue that, in the past, this comparison has been flawed and that it is now time to reconsider the potential of the textual programming paradigm but using modern programming languages and development environments specifically targeted to the generative design domain. We present VisualScheme as a prime example of such language and we compare it with the most used visual programming language in the generative design field.
Montenegro, Nuno, José Beirão, and José Duarte. "Public Space Patterns: Towards a CIM standard for urban public space." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 79-86. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper describes public space patterns (PSP) used as basic elements of the City Information Modelling (CIM) model proposed within a larger research project that aims to develop an urban design support tool.
Peters, Brady, Martin Tamke, Stig Nielsen, Søren Andersen, and Mathias Haase. "Responsive Acoustic Surfaces: Computing Sonic Effects." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 819-828. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time, however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces.
Wassermann, Klaus. "Sema Città : Deriving Elements for an applicable City Theory." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 134-142. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. We approach the issue of city theory from three perspectives, the (i) methodological perspective, (ii) the perspective of the theoretic concept, and (iii) the perspective of an explication that folds the first two perspectives together. The methodological perspective focuses on the status of theory in an area of research, where the subject “the city” is a complex entity. The second topic of the paper is the derivation of the Sema Cittã, which describes the city as an entity of intended semiosic productivity instead of conceiving it as a built entity of storages, heterotopic consumption and metabolism. The third part investigates how the concepts information, complexity and evolution can be adapted such that they can be operationalized for research, design and planning.
Chronis, Angelos, Prarthana Jagannath, Vasiliki Siskou, and Jonathan Jones. "Sensing digital co-presence and digital identity: Visualizing the Bluetooth landscape of the City of Bath." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 87-92. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The impact of ubiquitous digital technologies on the analysis and synthesis of our urban environment is undoubtedly great. The urban topography is overlaid by an invisible, yet very tangible digital topography that is increasingly affecting our urban life. As W. J. Mitchell (Mitchell 2005) pointed out, the digital revolution has filled our world with electronic instruments of displacement that embed the virtual in the physical, and weave it seamlessly into daily urban life. The mobile phone, the most integrated mobile device is closely related to the notion of a digital identity, our personal identity on this digital space. The Bluetooth is the mainly used direct communication protocol between mobile phones today and in this scope, each device has its own unique ID, its MAC address. This paper investigates the potential use of recording and analysing Bluetooth enabled devices in the urban scale in understanding the interrelation between the physical and the digital topographies.
Kolovou, Eleni. "Sensitive skin design: a generative approach." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 453-460. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper presents a framework of study of an iterative evolution of a modular component designed in an attempt to simulate material constraints and motional response with the perspective to be multiplied into a dynamic system. The main scope of this project was to investigate the process that maps a territory of possibilities, among which lies the potential architectural solution. In order to explore this field a parametric model has been developed. The simulation of the materials nature has been embedded in the algorithm on a geometry constraint basis in an attempt to simulate the behavior of the system comprised by elements in tension and torsion. A multiplication process of the module was introduced at a following stage of the research focusing on regular tessellations and circle packing on the plane. Responsive performance has been studied on a selected specimen of the evolution given a hypothetic context scenario according to which the scale of the design was set at a faade component level. The resulting responsive permeable skin was presented as a potential design solution among the successive approximations of this algorithm. Along the course of the research the parametric tools were used not only as a medium of synchronous output visualization but also as a mechanism to simulate material properties, structural constrains, environmental data, and worked as stimuli of inspiration driving the overall design process.
Tellios, Anastasios, and Stylianos Psaltis. "Sensitive transformations of physical territories: Digital and material procedures in designing." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 589-594. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper focuses on two issues concerning advanced architectural design techniques. The first issue has to do with design methodology and more precisely with the analysis of the fundamental “components”, which might compose a fragile place or environment and bear a clearly distinctive character. The second issue is related to a more architectonic agenda and concerns the consequent creation of a holistic architectural product, aiming mainly to the basic architectural concept of “inhabitation”, Furthermore, concerning the overall process, the idea of metabolism is becoming the central point, when referring, both to the attempt of conceiving a specific natural territory within the digital realms, and to the architectural form-finding process.
Gmelin, Sebastian, Kristian Agger, and Michael Lassen. "Simulation Design Tools: Using Parametric Building Information Modeling and Physical Simulation for Form Finding of Double Curved Surfaces." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 215-224. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Parametric modeling is a powerful tool to create variations of a design following specified criteria. Physical modeling provides flexible relationships between design elements and can simulate the behavior of hanging chain models. Building Information Modeling can contain geometry and design properties and relations. In this paper it is proposed to join all three to create a Simulation Design Tool that allows the intuitive creation of double curved surfaces which follow the rules of funicular systems. This tool is implemented in B-Processor, open-source Building Information Modeling software to bridge the break that occurs when moving from a design software package to Building Information Modeling. It is shown how the tool balances intuitive sculpting and accurate simulation and how the user can interact to mediate different design requirements.
Stojakovi_, Vesna, and Bojan Tepav_evi_. "Single Image Ambiguity and Adjustment of Cultural Heritage Modeling Approach." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 99-106. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The objective of this research is to point out the deficiency of the modeling from a single image and give suggestion for the improvement. In the domain of cultural heritage visualization, single image modeling is mainly used to recover the scene shown in the historical photographs. In this paper, some common ambiguities in the area of the historical architectural environments are highlighted. In most approaches user is the one to introduce and choose constraints, and therefore he must have control over the ambiguity problems. We propose suggestions about how to adjust the single-image-based modeling in order to minimize chance for irregular 3D shapes to emerge due to ambiguity. Simple examples are used to illustrate how ambiguity of a single image can affect the models veridicality, which are the common mistakes that inexperienced user can make and how and when they can be corrected.
Czerkauer-Yamu, Claudia, and A. Voigt. "Strategic Planning and Design with Space Syntax." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 125-133. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. In strategic planning and design, planners can benefit a great deal from planning models and simulations (2D, 3D and 4D). Carrying out strategic planning and design with the support of (spatial) models can open up a bright spectrum of opportunities and insights that were not evident before. Planning models and simulations support an awareness-raising process. In this context, space syntax also fits in. In the following we will discuss the constraints and opportunities of space syntax and show how space syntax can add value to strategic planning and design (based on the Ljubljana masterplan) for a sustainable and sustaining built environment.
Jacquot, Kevin, Christine Chevrier, and Gilles Halin. "Study of the Fortification of old scale models in order to automate their 3D modelling." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 915-924. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The creation of virtual models of Plans-Reliefs (sometimes called relief maps) is a project to preserve and to make known masterpieces of European Cultural Heritage. In this paper, we present the first experiments carried out in the automatic reconstruction of the fortifications modelled in every plan-relief. Their scale, size and state mean that digitising data alone is not usable. The study of historical documents like the many treatises of fortification allows us to fill in the gap by retrieving all the modelling information required in the creation of a library of parametric components with canonical values. These components are then adjusted according to theoretical ranges with a first set of reference documents like the plans that have been used by the original model makers.
Varoudis, Tasos, Sheep Dalton, Katerina Alexiou, and Theodore Zamenopoulos. "Subtle interventions: How ambient displays influence route choice in buildings." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 933-941. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Ambient displays allow physical space to be transformed into a dynamic and ever-changing environment in which boundaries are dissolved. However, it is likely that the incorporation of such digital elements affects people's perception and understanding of space. In this particular study, a series of experiments were conducted to examine how a skewed perspective projection via an ambient display influences people's navigation in public spaces. The findings are then presented showing how the participants responded to the presence of the skewed projection and the effects on the movement patterns. This study discusses the ability of an ambient display to influence navigation paths and suggests that a projection with skewed perspective can determine the creation of new movement patterns.
Garner, Steve, Nicole Schadewitz, Georgina Holden, Theodore Zamenopoulos, and Katerina Alexiou. "Supporting Fragility in Distance Design Education." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 663-672. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper outlines work in progress that seeks to support and develop online distance design education for adult learners. At the core of this paper is the belief that design thinking is fragile and the systems we create to support design thinking are fragile. This has important implications for those seeking to implement immersive environments for teaching and learning in disciplines such as engineering, product design, environment design and architecture. This paper suggests we need to look backwards in order to look forwards, that by examining the characteristics of the traditional atelier model of art and design education we might observe clues to a framework of teaching and learning in design that can embrace the opportunities presented by new digital technologies. The paper focuses on the use of Second Life as a component of a wider virtual design atelier and explores how Second Life might potentially offers a means of addressing fragile collaborative learning.
Gil, Jorge, Júlio Almeida, and José Duarte. "The backbone of a City Information Model (CIM): Implementing a spatial data model for urban design." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 143-151. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. We have been witnessing an increased interest in a more holistic approach to urban design practice and education. In this paper we present a spatial data model for urban design that proposes the combination of urban environment feature classes with design process feature classes. This data model is implemented in a spatial database that becomes the backbone of a City Information Model (CIM), integrating urban neighbourhood formulation, design, and evaluation methods into a comprehensive urban design support system. We demonstrate its application to urban design analysis and evaluation through the development of a tool for AutoCAD Map 3D that is integrated with the PostGIS spatial database.
Piga, Barbara, Eugenio Morello, and Valerio Signorelli. "The experience of an academic simulation laboratory: the use of visual simulations for education and research." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 734-742. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. An overview of the research activities of a university simulation laboratory is presented. The mission of the laboratory is to anticipate the design and to support the evaluation process of urban design projects from a perceptual viewpoint through the use of digital and physical models. We have research and educational purposes. Founded five years ago, the laboratory has implemented different simulation tools, often combining existing techniques and finding new applications of existing ones. In particular, we focused our interest on visual perception tools, investigating the use of physical models and digital ones, and combining them in different ways in order to enhance the experience offered by the perceptual simulation.
Sdegno, Alberto. "The Masieri Memorial by Frank L. Wright in Venice: Reconstructing an Unbuilt project on the Canal Grande." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 960-966. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The research that is presented here was developed to understand the impact of a new building in a very delicate context, such as the venetian one. The case study was a very important project for the history of architecture, because it is the only design by Frank L. Wright for an Italian customer. The Masieri Memorial was projected by the author on Canal Grande and near the Rialto bridge. The very detailed drawings and notes helped us to reconstruct in digital form the architecture, to study the representation of it in Venice and to verify the effect with the other ancient venetian palaces, such as Palazzo Balbi. The simulation was taken to the photorealistic perception, applying all the textures and materials as found in the sketches and reserved notes of the architect. The final step was the realization of a video to simulate the perception from a boat and the materialization of a maquette using the Rapid Prototyping techniques, in nylon powder.
Ettlinger, Or. "The Perceptual, the Virtual, and the Real: on the experience of place in the digital age." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 925-932. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Since the dawn of philosophical thought man has questioned the validity of his experience of the world around him: Is the world just as we perceive it to be, or does its true essence lie beyond our reach? In our own time, technological, social, and economic developments have made such philosophical concerns more relevant to our everyday lives than ever before. However, the available terminology for discussing such matters is often too limited to fully capture their nature. This paper proposes a consistent terminology for the discussion of such matters and suggests a model of the different aspects from which they are comprised. This terminology will be applied to, as well as presented through, issues that are pertinent to architectural theory, to the experience of places, and to the intangible sense of place which digital phenomena can sometimes provide.
Hamadah, Qutaibah. "The Polymorphic Diagram." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 318-324. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Thinking about space and its conception lies at the very essence of architectural design, yet only limited attention has been afforded towards developing and advancing its medium of conception. With the objective of better understanding and shaping spatial design workflows, the study sets its attention on what is widely embraced as the medium of thinking about space and its conception in architectural design: The diagram. The study begins with examining the cognitive affordances of the diagram in architecture design, discusses its limitation, then propose a computational-augmented concept for a new class of diagrams, the polymorphic diagram, to assist spatial thinking and cognition during the conceptual design phase.
Lassance, Guilherme, Cédric Libert, Patricia Lassance, and Maria Feghali. "The sensitive tower: Architectural and urban design education faced with fragile metropolitan ecologies." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 581-588. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Neighborhoods that are still outside the market target can find alternative ways of re-development. Therefore, it is necessary to design architectures compatible with their fragile ecologies. This research benefits from a previous study where we tried to observe the evolution of the uses of buildings and ways of living faced with changes in environmental conditions in a given urban context. Increased automobile traffic has led to changes in the use of residential spaces whose function was gradually replaced by commercial activities. Making use of graphic-oriented interpretation of urban ambiance and landscape analysis methodology applied to the design of different floor levels, this paper aims to introduce the concept of sensitive tower defined on the basis of observations made in our post-occupancy survey as a teaching strategy for the design studio faced with the current challenges of the contemporary metropolis.
Lemberski, David, and Marco Hemmerling. "TouchControl: an interactive multi-touch 3D design tool." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 279-284. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Today's architectural design is changing rapidly through the scope of new digital design tools (software like parametrical modelers) on the one and the use of digitally controlled fabrication techniques (hardware like 3D CNC-milling) on the other side. However the full intuitive and experimental potential of the software has to be accessed through the sometimes limiting bottleneck of the traditional mouse-screen user interface although alternative interaction methods like multi-touch became available. This paper focuses on extending the usability and spontaneity in a common architectural design process using an iPad as an external hardware controller.
Nováková, Kateřina, Henri Achten, and Dana Matejovska. "Towards Improved Architecture Education: a Research Framework." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 63-69. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. In this paper we report on a PhD research project that has just started. The main question of the research deals with improvement of architectural education, and we are concerned in particular on the influence of CAD. First we outline the basic assumptions and major considerations of the research, following we describe the research methodology, and show the principal direction of the work. Some work has already been done, and the paper ends with a few tentative “educated guesse” what the possible outcomes of the work may be.
Droste, Stephan. "Turmitecture: a generic approach for autonomous topological generation." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 558-562. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The paper describes and discusses a generic approach for generative design by Turing Machines operating on a three-dimensionally folded surface. It is part of an on going research on concurrent cooperative design processes in architecture. During the development of systems for simplified generic interaction in spatial design, it turned out that the basic operations are applicable to be processed by non-sophisticated automata. If the spatial configuration is interpreted as the medium for an ordinary state machine, the whole system adds up to a kind of Turing Machine. Since 2D-Turing Machines are often referred to as “turmit”, and the proposed system is based on a yet three-dimensional folded, but still twodimensional surface - the automaton will be called “Turmitect”.
Schindler, Christoph, and Kyeni Mbiti. "Urban Furniture: Introducing Parametric Modelling and Digital Fabrication in a Part-time Study." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 368-373. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper discusses the current proceedings in a joint research project, focused on a complete integration of all tasks involved in a refurbishment under use. All relevant matters have to be modeled in a common internet system, developed by a company for internet based project management. A special focus is lead on - the integration of the needs of lodgers. - the quantification of ecological impacts. - the optimization of the refurbishment process with an integrated scheduling method. - the development of database elements, consisting of information for invitation of tenders, ecological benchmarking, time, cost, exposures for the renovation tasks. It is a work in progress article.
Pak, Burak, and Johan Verbeke. "Usability as a Key Quality Characteristic for Developing CAAD Tools and Environments." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 269-278. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. In this paper, we will stress the importance of usability as a key quality characteristic for the Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) software prototypes. We claim that usability evaluation practices can assist the integration of human factors and the accommodation of local differences. These practices are not solely limited to interface tests, but they can also provide valuable information on the possible added values of CAAD software prototypes, increase the overall product quality and thus contribute to the sustainable development of the CAAD research field. In this context, we aim to initiate a constructive discussion on this topic by reviewing various usability frameworks and highlighting possible opportunities and challenges of applicable evaluation methods. Consequent to this discussion, we will elaborate on our recent findings relating to the reliability and effectiveness of particular evaluation methods applied to a web-based geographic virtual environment prototype. In conclusion, we will introduce a new “design usability” framework that is suitable for CAAD software development, which suggests a variety of design usability quality characteristics, cost-effective evaluation methods and possible influence factors in the evaluation process.
Svetel, Igor, Milica Pejanovi_, and Nenad Ivaniševi_. "Using Open Standards Based Building Information Modelling to Simulate Actual Design and Construction Processes." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 421-429. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The paper describes pilot project conducted to achieve first understanding of the IFC standard and BIM process in Serbia. During the project a research team have developed information model of the actual building using IFC standard and BIM technology and used that model to simulate an actual construction processes. The experience from this project shows that BIM principles and the way IFC standard is incorporated in applications are still a set of recommendations that each software developer interprets separately. At the end of the paper a possibility of further development that would bring BIM and related ICT standards to expected functionality is discussed.
Schirmer, Patrick, and Noboru Kawagishi. "Using shape grammars as a rule based approach in urban planning - a report on practice." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 116-124. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. With the development of user friendly software, using procedural shape grammars has become productive for urban planning projects. Little about the experience of their use by architects and urban planning agencies has been reported yet. This paper will thus discuss the experience gained with the use of shape grammars in the projects of KCAP. We will show how the different scales of urban planning and urban design can be handled and how design concepts can be integrated into the procedural “pipeline” using the software “CityEngine”. We will also present an approach of “typological testing” that allows to test various design concepts for their possible developments. This work is the base for current research at ETH, integrating geometric aspects into behavioural simulation processes of urban simulation.
Pak, Burak, Johan Verbeke, and Chotima Ag-Ukrikul. "Utilizing a Web-based Geographic Virtual Environment Prototype for the Collaborative Analysis of a Fragile Urban Area: an “Open-Source” International Urban Design Studio organized in Brussels." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 679-688. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. In this paper, we will discuss the opportunities and challenges of using a Web-based Geographic Virtual Environment Prototype, primarily developed in the framework of a long-term research project by Pak and Verbeke (2011), as a complementary medium to support an international urban design studio. We reconfigured and rescaled this prototype with the objective of encouraging students to make a collaborative, open-source and location-based analysis of the fragile project area (the Brussels-Charleroi Canal) and share their findings with each other. During this eight week long experimental study, the students were able to effectively use the environment during the analysis phase of the urban design studio, despite their heterogeneous profiles. They created an online inventory that covers five gigabytes of analysis findings, sketches, photos, maps, studio presentations and texts describing their experiences. This environment shows the power of crowdsourcing and online collaborative analysis. Moreover, the findings of our online student survey demonstrate a general positive attitude towards the use of the Virtual Environment Prototype.
Lonsing, Werner. "Virtual Spaces in Urban Landscapes: Locative Exhibitions on Mobile Devices." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 615-618. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. A concept of POIs renders the physical space in urban landscape as subject, which is being explored with a wide spectrum of digital media functionality as virtual spaces, hereby becoming accessible. The usage of mobile devices for locative exhibition spaces and location-based gaming is a new method to present information bound to physical locations.
Mark, Earl. "Visualizing the Unknown in Historical Vernacular Architecture: Making Speculation from Archaeological Fragments Explicit." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 868-874. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Computer based visualization tools have the capacity to create convincing reconstructions of historical structures that appear to be authentic and complete but where inferences have been drawn from relatively limited evidence. The challenge is how to make the exciting process of discovery, argument and reasoning more self-evident in the model and also make known the alternative constructions that were plausible but less likely. This paper refers to two computer visualizations developed by the author for world heritage building sites. In both cases, a similar geometrical modeling technique was used. However, in the second case, the 3D modeling approach is developed for juxtaposition with captured dialogs, the evidence used, and the process followed so as to make level of speculation more explicit.
Achten, Henri, K. Koszewski, and Bob Martens. "What happened after the “Hype” on Virtual Design Studios?: Some Considerations for a Roundtable Discussion." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 23-32. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The issue of collaborative design has been elaborated extensively within the framework of previous CAAD conferences. Today, an appreciation for traditional attitudes and methods can be observed, but interestingly, a mixture of approaches is also noticeable (computational techniques used in low tech fabrication environments, for example). This allows for a round table survey of the current state of the art focused on experiences related to distant learning in the architectural curriculum. To make VDS viable, not only are technological solutions necessary, but so are social (among people) and professional (ways of behavior) ones. In this round table we aim to identify critical factors of success (or failure).
Mat_jovská, Dana, and Henri Achten. "What is the Goal in Teaching Basic CAD?" In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 57-62. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. In this paper we report on ongoing monitoring of the entering situation of students at our faculty in terms of their computer and CAD skills. By means of an online enquiry developed by Liverpool and Graz we also investigated the attitudes towards CAD by architects in practice. Based on these findings, we aim to identify what we should teach our students in terms of CAD skills.
Gül, Leman F.. "What we learnt from design teaching in collaborative virtual environments." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 203-212. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. Collaborative virtual environments clearly have potentials to enable innovative and effective education, involving debate, simulation, role play discussion and brain storming and project based group work etc. Integration of the collaborative virtual environments into the design curricula offers significant potentials for design schools. In this paper, based on our previous teaching in collaborative virtual environments, the student's perceptions and evaluations of the courses, we discuss the pedagogy of design teaching in collaborative virtual environments, considering what skills the new generation of designers should have in terms of collaboration, communication and design.
Marques, Luis, José Duarte, and Joaquim Jorge. "When form really follows function: Developing the prototype of a responsive exhibition pavilion." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 619-627. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. The paper describes research developed with the aim of enquiring into the concepts of adaptability, transformation, and interactivity between the built space, its users and the surrounding environment to find appropriate responses to variations in spatial and functional needs, prompted by different uses and activities. After a look into the roots of kinetic architecture and a brief survey of the state of art, it presents the prototype of a responsive kinetic structure for a multi-purpose pavilion, concluding that by the integration of existing and emergent technologies, we now have the basic means to design and implement such structures.
Schneider, Sven, Reinhard König, and Robert Pohle. "Who cares about right angles?: Overcoming barriers in creating rectangularity in layout structures." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 361-367. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. This paper examines methods for the generation of structures that exhibit rectangularity. Rectangularity in architectural and urban structures can be traced to various reasons, including facilitating the design process, since the use of rectangular geometry limits both the space of possible solutions and the operations necessary to search the solution space. With the help of computer-based methods it becomes possible to explore huge solution spaces, however most existing methods stick to traditional concepts for the generation of geometric structures, such as the use of predefined elements (rectangles). These approaches do not take into account geometric irregularities which the structure to be generated may be subject to. In this paper we present a method that makes it possible to create a nearly rectangular structure within a freely definable boundary.
Schindler, Christoph, and Margarita Espinosa. "ZipShape Mouldless Bending II: a Shift from Geometry to Experience." In Respecting Fragile Places: 29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 477-484. eCAADe: Conferences. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Architecture, 2011. ZipShape is a universal method to fabricate single curved panels from any plain material without mould was the first statement of a paper presented at the Antwerp eCAADe conference in September 2008 (Schindler, 2008). In contrast, the paper at hand introduces ZipShape as a highly specific composite combining different materials and their characteristics. Between those two texts, a paradigm shift took place  from abstract geometrical concept to experiencing the inseparable relation of form and material behaviour. This second step of ZipShape-research was initiated by Swiss design office schindlersalmerón through several workshops with Fachschule für Holztechnik Hamburg, CITA at Royal Academy of the Fine Arts Copenhagen, Bern University of Applied Sciences BFHAHB Biel and The Detmold School of Architecture and Interior Design.