Keywords Abstract
Hofmeyer, Herm, and J.G.M. Kerstens. "A Bird s-Eye View of Cyclic Spatial-Structural Transformations, Grammar Based Design, and Structural Optimization." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 483-492. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Recently, in the research field of combined architecture and structural design, the idea of a so-called research engine has been developed. During its development, initially the intention was to develop a design-support tool, however, it now becomes clear that it may serve as a general framework for several applications. In this paper the new possibilities for the applications will be presented. As a result, a birdis-eye view is developed on a set of applications that are often presented separately and without a larger framework in literature. In conclusion, several applications used for CAAD and CASD (Computer Aided Structural Design) can be seen as derivatives of a research engine. The other way round, the research engine can be modified and new applications may result.
Mark, Earl, Mark Gross, and Gabriela Goldschmidt. "A Perspective on Computer Aided Design after Four Decades ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 169-176. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. We offer a summary view of competing theories that have guided and inspired the development of computer aided design over the past forty years with attention to how they support design processes. We identify eight distinct approaches to design. We then speculate on what a collective view of these schools posits with respect of the next generation of tools. This perspective reflects our view as teachers and researchers at institutions with different curricula, a first-hand role in the development of computer aided design technology, and specialization in design theory and methods.
Cenani, Sehnaz, and Gülen Çağdaş. "Agent-Based System for Modeling User Behavior in Shopping Malls." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 635-642. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Agent-based systems are being used as decision support systems for solving architectural design problems. Usually in design phase, user behaviour is ignored by the designers. Therefore, after the construction, the users face difficulties in emergency situations and in daily usage. As a result, buildings become insufficient to respond to usersi needs and design goals of the building itself. Before construction, ability of testing the interactions between the building and its users is particularly important to solve the problems in early phases of the design. Hence, to design a building that functions better in certain situations and time loss decreases in the design process. For these reasons, the aim of this study is to develop a model to simulate users in shopping malls.
Durmazoglu, Mahmut Çagdas, Gülen Çağdaş, and Hakan Tong. "An Agent Based Approach for Evaluation of Free-Form Surfaces." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 405-412. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Designers, architects and artists in general always proceed with one crucial goal in their mind when they design: to be able to materialize the scheme in their mind. There are some tools that can help designers to test their design to see if it will be successfully constructed or functioned as close as possible as the way they imagined or expected, visual simulation models in digital environments of the designs are such important tools for architectural design process, but these models does not provide enough data to determine the design's applicability. Therefore, the need of a tool that would work with the designer in order to determine the possibility of whether the design could be built or not as the way designer imagined, is vital.
Fioravanti, Antonio. "An e-Learning Environment to Enhance Quality in Collaborative Design." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 829-836. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The research project is aimed at enhancing the overall quality of buildings through a suitable exercise of design collaboration, and a delocalized cross-disciplinary learning for university students in the faculties of Architecture and Engineering. The research defines methods, techniques and ICT programs to provide education in the culture and exercise of collaboration for future professionals and technicians who operate in the field of the design and construction of complex building systems.
Koehler, Tanja, Andreas Dieckmann, and Peter Russell. "An Evaluation of Contemporary Game Engines." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 743-750. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The paper deals with a close examination of several contemporary game engines regarding their usability for architectural visualisation that was conducted by third to fifth year students in a seminar context. The study examines the technology of these game engines with the main focus on graphic quality and adaptability to architectural purpose. The evaluation included not only the workflow of importing the 3D model into the engine but also general handling of the software and its user interface. The documentation of the test process and the evaluation of the various engines have been documented in a wiki compiled and written by the students. The information therein and the cost-benefit analyses provided for every engine should assist future users to quickly find the most suitable game engine for their specific purposes.
Tunçer, Bige, Paul de Ruiter, and Sander Mulders. "An Experiment in Multidisciplinary Digital Design." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 659-666. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The design and realization of complex buildings requires multidisciplinary design collaboration from early on in the design process. The intensive use of digital design environments in this process demands new knowledge and skills from the involved players including integrating and managing digital design data, developing custom design tools, and utilizing visualization and rapid prototyping techniques. In order to prepare our students for these evolving practices we have developed a multidisciplinary collaborative design studio, named XXL, where student teams work in groups and each students claims a role: architectural design, structural design, digital design, construction and cladding design, and process management. In this paper, we describe the studio, discuss the contributions of the Digital Design Manager, and relate these contributions to design education and practice.
Wang, Linan, and Peter Szalapaj. "An Interactive Cross-representational Data Modelling Approach for Early Stage Design Information." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 185-194. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This presents a systematic approach to the organisation of early stage design information, and the associated interactions among various types of representation. Scene-level representations are introduced as the complement of traditional object-level representations in an integrated information system. A cross-representational approach is proposed. The advantage of this approach is in the support of both user-definable representations, and cross-representational manipulations, including organisational transformation, information filtering, information aggregation, and simulations, which are essential for designers to dig into raw data. A prototype program called NetworkBuilder is being developed in order to explore the approach. 
Aslan, Sema, and Gülen Çağdaş. "An Interface Proposal for Collaborative Architectural Design Process." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 319-324. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The aim of this paper is to explore how new technological opportunities affect approaches of designers during collaborative architectural design process. Which factors affect the communication and the quality of interaction? The study is based on two phases: the data input by the designer via devices to the computer environment and the transformation of data into design product in the software by scripting addition. Input devices that are used are 3D mouse, graphic tablet as a tangible interface and implementation of second mouse besides a standard mouse and keyboard. The potential usage of these interfaces in collaborative architectural design process is discussed and proposals are developed in 3ds max scripting environment.
Niblock, Chantelle, and Raid Hanna. "An Investigation of the Influence of Using the Computer on Cognitive Design Actions: ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 693-700. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper documents a research pilot study, it is a comparative investigation between an expert designer and a novice designer. The study used protocol analysis to examine design cognitive actions whilst using 3D digital media during the conceptual stage of design.  The empirical study found novice designers capable of managing a design process of complex objects due to the increase in their contribution of design strategies to the overall process. The possible reason for this may be due to using free-form modelling with accuracy aids found in computing facilities. This provides evidence to suggest automated computing should be encouraged within the pedagogical framework of architectural design.
Hemmerling, Marco, and David Lemberski. "Anaglyph Representation as Medium for Spatial Design." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 209-214. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The paper discusses the use and possible applications of stereoscopic projection and anaglyph representation for the design-process and visualization of architectural spaces and three-dimensional objects. As the topic of stereoscopic vision is quiet broad and has a long tradition in various fields (photography, art, virtual reality) the paper focuses on the implementation of anaglyph representation in 3D-Modelling-Software as a tool to support spatial perception within the design process. Against this background and based on a test-series with 113 students the benefits and conditions of spatial perception, vision and sense using anaglyph representation are examined. 
Mark, Earl. "Animated Parametric Rapid Prototyping." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 897-904. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper reports on the use of animation to enhance the observable range of choices in parametric rapid prototyping. Animation extends parametric rapid prototyping in three ways. First, it is used to reveal dynamically a set of possible forms from which to pick out one that may best serve a particular design project. That is, by animating the parameters that drive the geometrical model, we can visualize the continuum of alternatives that lie between specific key-framed settings of an architectural form. Second, animation can be used to pre-visualize a series of geometrical constructions for transforming a relatively raw three-dimensional form into one that satisfies the demands of a completed architectural project. Third, animation can be used to pre-visualize transformations of a given structure based on parameters set to adapt to varied conditions. In each case study, physical models were assembled through CNC fabrication.
Gün, Onur. "Anti UV: Progressive Component Design in Cross Platforms." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 69-76. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The executive power of computation, once utilized to inform the discrete pieces of design, “component making” rapidly became one of the trends in architectural design. Idea of components conceptually transformed the enclosing forms of architecture into subdivision surfaces that act as fields for components to aggregate on. While a certain level of variety is achieved via manipulation of components, the characteristics of the surfaces become overlooked via common use of parametric (UV) subdivision. This paper, with a critical look at the current component field generation techniques, focuses on alternative methods of transforming a surface into a digital ground for component aggregation. Series of studies address and deal with various pitfalls of component design and application on software-dictated UV subdivision surfaces.
Rügemer, Jörg, and Antonio Serrato-Combe. "Architectural Toolkits." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 161-168. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper examines how, when, why and why not architecture students today use widely available digital toolkits. It also compares and makes observations on the work and nature of both analog and digital tools. The setting for the inquiry is an architectural design studio where, with no specific mandate to use specific tools from the part of the instructors, students were let free to use whatever tools they could find to explore, develop and finally present their design solutions. The paper reflects and focuses on the success and effective use of digital tools by students who opted to use new digital toolkits. 
Kolarevic, Branko. "Architecture in the Post-Digital Age: Towards Integrative Design." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 653-658. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. For many, integration within the building industry is an inevitable outcome as architecture, engineering, and construction enter a “post-digital” age. This paper argues that the challenge is to avoid closed systems of integration and to keep integrative tendencies as open as possible, conceptually and operationally. An alternative vision of integrated design is proposed that is more open, fluid, pliable, and opportunistic in its search of collaborative alliances and agendas. This alternative approach is referred to as integrative design, in which methods, processes, and techniques are discovered, appropriated, adapted, and altered from “elsewherei, and often “digitally” pursued.
Mahuzier, Branko, Claudio Montoya, and Macarena Araneda. "Architecture of Structural Membrane in Chile ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 593-600. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The present paper deals with the theoretical and technical reflection on basic structural principles that allow the generation and controlling of architectural complexity of double curvature surfaces.Despite the difficulties in designing and building such complex forms, Chile has several examples that were developed and built during the first half of the twentieth century. All of them were developed with local building technologies which studied the implementation of experimental and simple materials with innovative mounting techniques. All of them explored new structural concepts generating great interest of architectural spaces for religious cult, housing and civil works. The research objective of this work deals with the recognition and analysis with contemporary modelling and simulation tools that can reveal the type of relationship that occurs between the initial conception of the architectural shape and membranous structural surfaces. Their curvature and sleekness generated innovative structural spaces that contain an architectural envelope with clear and revealing expression of the acting forces. 
Belcher, Daniel, and Brian Johnson. "ARchitectureView." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 561-568. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. We present a system for viewing architectural building models - specifically Building Information Modelling (BIM) models - in 3D using an Augmented Reality Tangible User Interface (TUI) and a Magic Lens interaction metaphor. ARchitectureView is meant to facilitate communication and collaboration around a shared model. We present the system overview and a number of use scenarios in which the interface would serve to improve communication across disciplines and varied technical backgrounds, while supporting a rich and coherent common understanding.
Graf, Robert, and Wei Yan. "Automatic Walkthrough Utilizing Building Information Modeling to Facilitate Architectural Visualization." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 555-560. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper presents a new system that supports automatic path planning for walkthrough in building models, using information retrieved from Building Information Modelling (BIM). It can automatically generate a path that explores all or part of the rooms in a building. During a real-time walkthrough, users will be able to follow the path while interactively controlling their viewing angles. That way, users can take guided tours while simultaneously looking around to examine the spaces. We expect the system to be useful in design review because BIM models of design can be easily brought into the system that allows reviewers to start walkthrough immediately and interactively. The significance of the work is that the system has potential applications for visualization of complex building design.
Sweet, Kevin. "Binary Translation: a Positive Feedback Loop." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 391-396. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The proliferation of the computer as a digital design tool in architecture has allowed for the previously impossible rapid investigation of complex forms. Architects and students are borrowing ideologies and methodologies from other disciplines and utilizing computational resources in an attempt to generate unique form. This reliance on outside disciplines, while producing fascinating results, fails to consider the phenomenal properties of architecture achieved through the realization of the physical. Through a merging of these borrowed techniques from other fields and the traditional notion of architect as builder, two seemingly disparate conditions can be synthesized “ ideally producing architecture that responds to questions of our surroundings and ultimately proposes new solutions to these questions.
Lyon, Eduardo. "CAD and CAM Systems Integration:." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 837-844. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. CAM systems traduce design information from CAD systems in to different manufacturing routines in order to produce NC code for CNC machinery. The output from the CAM software is usually a simple text file of G and M code, usually containing thousand of lines of code. Later this code is transferred to a machine tool using a direct numerical control (DNC) program. This translation process becomes extremely important in developing a digital design and fabrication approach. Consequently the aim in this research is, to investigate CAD-CAM workflow, to analyze final product deviation from design intent, and to determine where in the workflow, and how design strategies and design decisions correlates to manufacturing results.
Breen, Jack, and Martijn Stellingwerff. "Capital a to Z." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 759-766. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Throughout the history of architecture, the Capital - the intermediate between a column and the beam or surface it supports - has been a recurring feature in architectural composition and articulation. In this paper we describe results and findings from the Capital A to Z exercise within the Ornamatics Course from the TU-Delft MSc curriculum. We will show how this exercise combines various digital and physical processes for form finding and how further insights can come from the actual production of models and prototypes. Conclusions will be drawn regarding the integrated educational setup and regarding the influence of different methods and tools on the design process and the design results. 
Celento, David, and Del Harrow. "CeramiSKIN." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 709-716. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. CeramiSKIN is the result of an inter-disciplinary investigation between an architect and a ceramics artist. We are exploring natural orders as generators for aperiodic (non-repeating) tiling systems in architectural ceramic cladding systems. Of particular interest are the possibilities offered by digital imaging of organic materials [at various scales from 1:1 to 1:1 nanometer] as a means of form generation. After scanning, shapes are computationally deformed to create a range of biophilic effects promulgated through unique large scale ceramic cladding systems constructed using digital fabrication techniques.
Park, Jae, Kostas Terzidis, and Takehiko Nagakura. "Chameleon ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 547-554. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper proposes an interactive façade system capable of displaying the meaningful information extracted from this interaction using RFID. This façade system is a domain-specific, embedded system composed of three parts: an input device that employs RFID, a physical facade model that includes an output device and a microcontroller, and an application that consists of a middleware for the connection between the input and the output. The array of meaningful information derived from the input device is displayed as aesthetically flexible patterns created by Cellular Automata algorithms through the middleware. We expect that this facade will contribute to enhancing the buildingis identity and to revitalizing desolate modem cities as an urban screen through the communication between people and buildings.
Palmquist, Erik, and Jonathan Shaw. "Collaborative City Modeling." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 249-256. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper presents an approach to creating an online real time rendering environment, upon which a large-scale, urban 3D model can be produced as a collaborative effort between initial content creators and outside parties with an interest in simulation and visualization. In 2007, the City of Atlanta, Georgia organized a taskforce to provide recommendations on the future development and mobility along the cityis signature street, Peachtree Street. To aid in the visualization of this area, datasets were converted into low polygon textured 3D models for the entire study area. This content will serve as the foundation of a collaborative effort to complete a high quality real time environment. The process for this project will be described and the means to extend the boundaries, maintain, and collaborate with this content will be proposed.
Hamid, Bauni. "Collaborative Design and Complex Organization." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 667-674. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper discusses our investigation on the potentials of CAAD system implementation to generate collaborative process in a complex organization of construction project. Housing reconstruction projects in disaster-recovery context has been taken as case study to examine some CAAD system that has been claimed as collaborative. Based on social organizational theory and complex adaptive system theory we attempt too test the claim by analyzing the flexibility of these CAD system on the real complex organizational project. We stratify the result based on the level of adaptability of each CAAD system to indicate the level of collaboration.
Hemmerling, Marco, Ulrich Knaack, and Jens-Uwe Schulz. "Complexity in Digital Architectural Design." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 85-90. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The association of complexity and geometry was the starting point for an academic project at the chair of Computer Aided Design in Detmold. The students were asked to analyze a complex structure - taken from nature, art, technology or society - regarding the underlying geometrical rules and principles. The translation of these abstract geometric principles (logarithmic spiral, polyhedron, rotational solids, mesh-work, double helix) into a three-dimensional structure was then realized in Rhinoceros. The 3D-modelling was followed by a transformation- and optimization-process of the initial shape by using the evolutionary principles of mutation and selection. The set-up for these variations followed predefined rules and principles for the manipulation of the original structure.
Kaijima, Sawako, and Panagiotis Michalatos. "Computational Design Consultancy ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 311-318. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The pervasiveness of the digital media has set the ground for tighter collaboration between the discipline involved in the architecture practice and potential for reconfiguring the well-established communication patterns in the industry to occur. Considering the context thereof, Computation Design Consultancy aims to connect different considerations and priorities raised by different parties involved in the architecture production system by means of digital computation. Here, we discusses the inefficiency of the existing system in engaging with the contemporary context influenced by the digital media as well as our approaches and findings thus far though the consultancy work.
Guéna, François, and Louis-Paul Untersteller. "Computing Different Projections of a Polyhedral Scene from a Single 2D Sketch." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 195-200. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper presents the development of a tool which is capable of compute several projections of a polyhedral scene from a single axonometric or perspective projection. This projection is hand-drawn and may be incomplete. This sketch can be rotated with a kind of trackball and the tool computes in real-time new projections. In that way the designer can choose another view from which he is able to control and complete the sketch and carry on designing. So this tool can be useful for exploring architectural forms in the early phases of the design process. Unlike others freehand sketching interfaces, the system does not operate any reconstruction in 3D. Everything is computed in a 2D world.
Indraprastha, Aswin, and Michihiko Shinozaki. "Constructing Virtual Urban Environment Using Game Technology." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 359-366. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Recent game technology ascends development of low-cost virtual environment to the next level in two domains: reality representation and user interaction or engagement. In architecture and urban design realm, realistic 3D representation become more important in such way of conceptualizing ideas and analyzing the context of design problem. This research will present development of virtual urban environment using game engine technology. Aim of this research is to promote game engine as a tool for visual representation, visual analysis and further basic tool for urban design study. At the end, we point out potentials as well as constraints both in technical and design method issues in game technology based on the research findings.
Kepczynska-Walczak, Anetta. "Contemporary Renaissance Architect - Yet Architect?" In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 445-450. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper is a contribution into domain of Generative Design and Digital Aids to Design Creativity. The outcomes of two workshops for the fourth and fifth year students of architecture are presented. The workshops allowed to draw particularly interesting lessons leading, in consequence, to more general reflections on questions such as the limits in design creativity versus unexpected outcomes calculated by a computer, the gap between boundless possibilities offered by digital design tools and real practice in building construction. And finally, how advanced research results can be incorporated in teaching. This is particularly important, as nowadays students, to become successful architects in the future, not only will have to be good in using CAAD software but also in programming and software development.
Chin, Chi-Ping. "Contextual Bricks." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 913-920. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Based on the importance of human behaviour analysis in HCI research, this paper discusses the property of interaction in sending/receiving direction with diverse cases. A unit of contextual bricks was created as research model continuing to discover the possible solution on the problem that how to merge the novel media and technology into our living space invisibly with the exhibition of appropriate information. The prototype of contextual bricks preserved the characteristic of stability with cellular hexagonal structure, and each unit was designed with communicable construction. The people could get the contextual information from other spaces as seeing through the walls. In the future study, the contextual bricks have good applied possibility and developments in each kind of areas.
Dokonal, Wolfgang. "Creating and Using 3D City Models." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 223-230. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. City modelling is a topic which has been on the agenda for a long time. Today crucial questions concerning the creation of a city model are resolved. The vision of the automatic generation of the 3D geometry of a city out of high resolution digital aerial images is a reality now. These new developments decreased the cost for creating and maintaining a 3D city model of a complete city significantly. This paper wants to outline the “history” of 3D city models and show recent developments in this field. An overview about current applications and uses in this field in Austria and the implementation into daily work is shown with examples (Graz and Vienna city models). Additionally the new developments like Street View in Google Earth or Birdis Eye in Virtual earth are discussed in relation to their 3D “relatives”.
Aschwanden, Gideon, Jan Halatsch, and Gerhard Schmitt. "Crowd Simulation for Urban Planning." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 493-500. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper presents a semi-automatic visualization method for the evaluation of urban environments that is based on artificial intelligence. It proposes the use of agent-based crowd simulation software on a mid-scale urban planning level for design evaluation. The information on agentsi movements is noted in standard raster images. The results are maps that are easy to understand. These maps show movement paths of the agents and density and give further conclusion on bottlenecks in planning contexts. Key measures, like the occupant movement in a given district, until now relied greatly on empirical knowledge or data that could be only gathered after an urban design had become built reality. Our method focuses on the adaptation of common software technology that is originally situated in film and TV productions. A practical workflow shows how our method can be easily integrated in daily design tasks.
Elsen, Catherine, Roland Juchmes, Sylvain Kubicki, and Pierre Leclercq. "DCDS - Distant Collaborative Design Studio." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 325-332. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper introduces new supporting tools in the field of distant collaborative design, namely DCDS and CRTI-weB. These prototypes respectively support: the early stages of design, through the support of the crucial initial step of free-hand sketches shared in real-time, and the asynchronous collaborative activities. The main goal of this paper is to propose the use of these innovative tools as an efficient and realistic way of managing long distance collaboration, to effectively serve the designersi needs. This proposition is analyzed and addressed through a real-size experiment featuring 30 architecture and architectural-engineering students, working together in real-time at different locations (Belgium and France). This experiment and the necessary survey open up interesting fields of investigation, such as the relevance of the proposed services in supporting distant collaborative design in architecture and the benefit this represents for students to merge the IT aspects and the design studio. The methodology and the replicability are analyzed to increase the level and quality of formation of our students and, finally, a criticism of the tools confirms a benefit for the developing teams.
Thorsten, Loemker, and Albrecht Degering. "Design to Cost with the Aid of Numerical Optimization Techniques." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 501-506. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper discusses the use of optimization methods in the architectural design process. It points out the possible scope of integration with regard to building costs in the design of new buildings.
Tamke, Martin, and Mette Thomsen. "Designing Parametric Timber." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 609-616. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a more suitable and sustainable solutions. A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on relational and evolutionary approaches. Parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilitate the emerging complex spatial constructions, as they are able to imply and feedback knowledge. Whereas the story of non-standard elements and mass customization is quickly told the actual facilitation of these techniques bears a lot of unresolved questions. We undertook a design based research taking in the whole process of digital design to production of complex shaped geometry. In close cooperation with wood construction software- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential of digital wood fabrication.
Kotsopoulos, Sotirios. "Designing with n Partial Descriptions." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 437-444. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Visual production rules and multiple graphic layers containing fragmentary graphic information are used to generate design descriptions from scratch. The rules are expressed by the means of shape grammar formalism. Two graphic examples of calculations with shapes made out of lines are presented.
Nardelli, Eduardo, and Charles C. Vincent. "Diagnosis and Strategies for a Digital Design Studio." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 177-182. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Recent studies have shown that despite some isolated initiatives digital tools education in the most important architecture schools in Sio Paulo has been done as something disjointed from the regular design studio activities. Actually, the existence of specific disciplines dedicated to digital tools education themselves is a symptom that something is wrong. In this Paper, we present a brief diagnosis and a first draft for the actions to be taken in order to supersede this situation.
Pinochet, Diego, Claudio Labarca, and Macarena Burdiles. "Dichotomy between Digital Project and Real Project Execution." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 587-592. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper relates the experience of the author in finding digital tools to generate diversity of results in the design process of one project, aiming to generate base tools developed in the form of script codes, that may operate in diverse fields of action reacting to the diverse variables characteristics of each place, The development of the script is what allows this to happen.
Pellitteri, Giuseppe, Salvatore Concialdi, Raimondo Lattuca, Giuseppe Conti, and Raffaele De Amicis. "Digital Architectures Generated Using Forces in Urban Environment." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 951-958. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. A paper, a description of a software application is given, which allows to generate tridimensional models of buildings, directly inside a geo referential context, following a parametric approach, in which the volume of the building is put in direct relation with forces/law bonds emerging from the urban context. The user is, therefore, able to interactively operate within a project process, in which, by changing the parameters values and by verifying in real time, the results of the changes, he/she is able to evaluate all possible infinite scenarios. The system, thought for Trentois (Italy) urban context, may also be applied on other cities.
Serrato-Combe, Antonio. "Digital Cocktail ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 145-152. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Digital design education has become, in a way, quite similar to Mixology, the art and science of mixing great drinks. Gone are the days when digital design educators only had a handful of ingredients to prepare their educational recipes. Today there are simply too many recipes. So, what should the core elements of digital education be today? What ingredients should be discarded? In what way should educators mix the ingredients? This paper presents highlights of a process followed by an experimental architectural digital design studio where students were served a special digital design cocktail exploring a new way to approach digital education today framed within the constraints of a typical architectural curriculum.
Vrontissi, Maria. "Digital Database of Building Structural Systems: an Educational Tool to Support Multi-disciplinarity and Enrich Design Vocabulary in Preliminary Conceptual Structural Design." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 397-404. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. In building design practice, especially in the preliminary stages, multi-disciplinarity is often ignored, due to the intrinsic characteristics of the design process, the features of design education, or lack of appropriate tools, resulting in a limited design vocabulary. This paper investigates the development of a digital multi-media database of building structures, operating as a supporting tool in preliminary structural design in order to enrich and justify design decisions. The proposed database responds to the need of bridging the gap between systematic, yet abstract, theoretical analytical approach of structural systems and descriptive, visual, yet fragmented, representations of architectural forms, through a highly visual, yet thoroughly systematic, approach based on case-studies. 
Skertchly, Marco, María Cavazos, and Álvaro de Oca. "Digital Environments as Facilitators of Architectural Space Perceptual Analysis." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 351-358. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008.

In this paper is presented the study of a student of the Design Master Postgraduate Program of the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, with it the student is expected to get his title. The study is about the useris perception of the architectural space and how it is influenced by it illumination conditions. The work is being carried by the digital modelling and the simulation of the illuminating conditions, using photorealistic virtual reality digital environments. It makes possible to manipulate the architectural space compound elements in a rapid and anticipated way, after the data analysis of the results the architectural space and their illuminating conditions are going to be modeled and simulated using the full scale (1:1) Architectonic Space Modelation and Simulation Laboratory of the University.

Vermisso, Emmanouil. "Digitality Controlled: Paradox or Necessity?" In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 701-708. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. In view of a possible a-historical development of an architecture that is solely reliant on technology, this paper attempts to address the need for a set of working rules for digital processes which are at once flexible and controlled. As examples, we have re-considered Classicism within the current temporal context and in relation to available technologies and methods, by looking at how the Classical system was appropriated by theorists and architects like Claude Perrault and Antoni Gaudi.
Martens, Bob, and Henri Achten. "Do you Moodle?" In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 153-160. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The authors follow up on their long-standing interest in Virtual Learning Environments (VLEis). They sketch out connected terms and definitions, taking into account the framework conditions of a design studio context as well as regular teaching. Subsequently, they describe the MOODLE-platform and supply arguments for selection along with alternatives. They particularly focus on enriching interaction targeted towards learning effects and discuss the connected pedagogical models. The selective use of features is also taken into consideration. The contribution concludes with a discussion of the pros and cons of MOODLE.
Theodoros, Dounas. "Dynamic Algebras and Grammars ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 429-436. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The research presented in the paper explores the creation of custom shape grammars with animation tools, either as learning or educational tool or for the purposes of architectural design. Standard shape grammars contain an initial shape or design and one or more transformation rules. The designer just applies the rules in the initial design or has to chose which rule to apply. Dynamic shape grammars on the other hand use animation tools to produce dynamic rules of transformation, or even dynamic - parametric initial shapes on which to apply the rules on. The dynamic state of the rules in our system allows the designer to change the rules during designing without having to abandon a core structural idea or concept. Furthermore the implementation with an animation tool allows the design system to be form-independent and express the underlying structure of an architectural idea with non-graphical connections like parent and child relationships, or other deformation rules.It can be shown that in a computation context dynamic shape grammars are actually groups of standard shape grammars where the grammars in the group share the classification of the transformation rules they contain. The system that we present allows the designer to change between the grammars in one group in a transparent way without expressing the grammar formally but by only manipulating simple objects inside the animation software package.
Colakoglu, Birgul, Tugrul Yazar, and Safak Uysal. "Educational Experiment on Generative Tool Development in Architecture." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 685-692. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper describes an introductory computational design course for graduate students of design in which Islamic star patterns are utilized in teaching computational logic and design rules. Formal descriptions of eight pointed Islamic star pattern that depict a variety of geometrical structures and constraints of the Euclidean shapes are extracted with the shape grammar method. Then star pattern generator that runs on a specific CAD system is developed by encoding these formal descriptions in systems scripting language. The examples of new designs are generated, and then fabricated using various CAM technologies.
Wu, Kuan-Ying. "Elastic Room." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 905-912. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper proposes a physical toolkit and a flexible software framework to simplify the design and exploration of interactive systems for multiple users, devices, and applications in a smart environment. The toolkit, called Elastic-Room, was designed as an infrastructure for interaction design, in which each device is a component that works collaboratively in the smart environment. The supporting software framework includes a dynamically reconfigurable intermediary which simplify the mapping of each device and also use simple protocol to broadcast information to each device. Finally, we demonstrate the Elastic-Room architecture by providing some implemented examples, which are organized in a prototype space of ubiquitous computing full of interactive components.
The?eling, Frank, Arno Schlüter, and Hansjürg Leibundgut. "Energy and Exergy Performance as Parameters in Architectural Design Sketching -a Case Study." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 477-482. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Buildings account for 40% of the worldwide CO2 emissions. These emissions are directly related to their energy consumption. 80% of the design decisions impacting energy consumption are made during the first 20 % of the design process and therefore address the architect. Necessary decisions do not only concern building geometry but also materialization and building service systems. Choices in either of these fields significantly influence the future energy consumption of the building. Therefore it is necessary to support the architectsi decision-making. From the first sketch on, the evaluation of energy performance needs to be incorporated into the design process. This paper shows a method and results which where produced in a case study at the ETH Zurich by using a special tool in early design phases for energy and exergy analyses.
Papanikolaou, Dimitrios. "Evaluating Assemblies of Planar Parts Using the Liaison Graph and System Dynamics ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 767-774. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Current research on design and fabrication of planar part assemblies focuses on generative design methods, leaving analysis and evaluation of assemblability to be studied with empirical methods such as physical mockups. As a consequence, there is little understanding on whether a design is assemblable, or on how much time the assembling process might take. This paper proposes a new formal method to evaluate assemblability of interlocking planar parts that uses Network Analysis to evaluate assembly structure and System Dynamics to evaluate performance of assembling process.
Rajendran, Puaneswaran, and Ahmad Rafi Moham Eshaq. "Experiential Design of Space in Virtual Environment: Cubism as an Art Application." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 383-388. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper presents an experiential design concept as one of the approaches to design a good storytelling in VEs. We tested this concept and related it within cubism art to understand spaces based on its original form particularly the shapes, planes and volumes. This experiment revealed elements of expression and abstractions through layers of intrinsic knowledge within the VEs that were extremely difficult to understand when viewed in their original forms. New spaces were also discovered within the VEs thus suggesting evidence on the stories within the art form. This paper also suggested that VEs provide a better understanding of spaces and abstract spaces, scale through different depth of illusions and spatial representation.
Schieck, Ava. "Exploring Architectural Education in the Digital Age ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 861-870. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper reports on work carried out within the module “Digital Space & Society as part of the MSc Adaptive Architecture & Computation course at UCL. I describe my approach in investigating possibilities for integrating digital media and computation into a module taught to students coming predominantly from a design background. The teaching adopts the design studio culture, which integrates: teaching, discovery (research), and application (practice). Here I present an attempt to develop new ways that extend beyond conventionally applied methods within traditional architectural education by adopting project based learning that is carried out in the real world. The project is driven by my recent research activities. Donald Schonis concept of the “knowledge in actioni provides a useful framework for interpreting my approach. 
Jabi, Wassim, Theodore W. Hall, Katia Passerini, Cristian Borcea, and Quentin Jones. "Exporting the Studio Model of Learning." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 509-516. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. We have conducted a series of interdisciplinary studios that partner students in the School of Architecture with peers in the College of Computing Sciences, with two principal goals: to foster creativity in the development of information technology, and conversely, to support creativity through information technology. Our studio project focuses on ubiquitous social computing as a topic of interest to both communities that requires their collaboration to realize a physical implementation. There are administrative as well as cultural hurdles in conducting such a studio. To assess the impact of the pedagogical approach, we employed qualitative observations as well as quantitative survey data. Best results depend on achieving a degree of parity in studio experience across disciplines.
Mat_jovská, Dana, and Henri Achten. "Five Experiments to Elicit CAAD Work Strategies of Students in Three Levels of Education." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 877-886. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. In order to understand the learning needs of our students, we have defined a series of five small experiments. In each experiment, a subject has to perform a limited task using a CAD system. The experiments are undertaken by subjects from three different groups: pre-university school goers, first year students of architecture, and advanced students of architecture. By comparing the differences between the groups we can identify the following aspects: (1) start level of students, (2) starting work strategies, (3) development of work strategies, and (4) deficiences in work strategies. On this basis, we can develop more specific teaching material that will be better suited to the needs of the students. In this paper we report on the experimental setup, research methodology, and preliminary results.
Fricker, Pia, Ludger Hovestadt, Markus Braach, Benjamin Dillenburger, Oliver Fritz, Kai Rüdenauer, and Steffen Lemmerzahl. "Form Follows Structure? ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 451-458. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper can be viewed as the continued development of a research project presented at last yearis eCAADe. The project focused on the potential and possibilities of cooperation among architects, investors with concrete building projects, and researchers at the university level working on generative design and parametric construction. After having spent several years of research on design techniques in a purely academic setting at the university we see, contrary to our fears, that reality and the integration of concrete factors such as budget, time management, etc. does not diminish but rather improves the quality of our work. This work is not primarily concerned with the development of a new architectural language but the intelligent use of modern computer technology based on digitized planning processes defined as “complex building design”. Designs developed in this manner can be distinguished by certain characteristics, the evaluation of which is a point critically discussed in the following paper.
Hudson, Roly. "Frameworks for Practical Parametric Design in Architecture." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 847-854. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper is aimed at the development of a theoretical framework that addresses practical applications of parametric design that have been observed in architectural practice. Existing theoretical frameworks are not aimed at addressing this specific use of parametric tools but do provide a set of key themes. Based on these themes a simplified structure is presented here as a means for tackling architectural design development tasks. This is then used in order to examine a case study, the parametric design tasks involved in the design development and documentation of the new Lansdowne Road Stadium in Dublin Ireland. This project was undertaken in collaboration with HOK Sport Architects. The findings from this examination are used to discuss proposals and implications for a practical framework for parametric design in architecture.
Kieferle, Joachim, Neil Katz, and Kruno Thaleck. "From Shape to Fabrication." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 537-544. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. There is a close relation between building design and fabrication. However still it is mostly a sequential process where the fabrication with its geometric chances and limitations is only to a small extend taken into account in early design phases. In this paper we describe a protoype form work project, realized out of styrofoam cut out with a CNC hot wire-cutting system and coated with the Claraporon coating system. Due to the linear nature of hot wire cutting the surfaces that can be created are ruled surfaces. They are discussed in a more general way as well as first exercises with ruled surfaces in teaching.
Chase, Scott C., Ryan Schultz, and Jon Brouchoud. "Gather round the Wiki-Tree." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 809-816. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The growth of internet based communication has facilitated the development of open source, collaborative projects. Here we describe the results of three “Wikitecture” experiments in collaborative, open source architectural design within the virtual world Second Life. We describe the in-world platform developed and its use for a design competition entry. Issues such as contribution assessment and the role of open source collaborative design in architecture and construction are discussed, concluding with a wish list for future enhancements.
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "How to Find an Idea? - Computer Aided Creativity." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 735-742. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. In this paper the possibilities of using computer software in creative searching of design ideas is analysed. At the basis of such psychological theories as Incubation, Synectics, Geneplore, Bisociation, Conceptual Blending, Visual Synectics the implementation of digital technologies in the idea searching - the main stage of design process - is presented. In all computer “metaphorisationi methods presented in this paper pictures are treated as idea triggers. Designer generate the ideas of the form by use the pictures as triggers for free association or for metaphorisation. The two cases of implementation of these methods, which based on graphic transformations, will be presented.
Andrés, Roberto. "Hybrid Art > Synthesized Architecture." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 267-274. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper investigates possible intersections between some contemporary artistic modalities and architectural practice. It observes the limits of looking at art as only “inspirationi for architectural form and points to the necessity of surpassing this formal approach. It discusses then, the confluence of architecture, information and communication technologies. The architecture has historically mediated the way people interact, but this interaction now has been greatly changed by new technologies. Then, it analyses the hypothesis that the experiments with new media art can bring the field of architecture closer to information and communication technologies. An educational experience is presented, aiming to verify some points discussed on the text. Concluding with an exposition of the potentialities of some hybrid art modalities in qualifying architectural practices.
Pauwels, Pieter, Ruben Verstraeten, Wim Meeus, Ronald De Meyer, and Jan Van Campenhout. "Industry Foundation Classes: a Space-Based Model Scheme?" In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 117-124. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper illustrates our findings concerning space based design methodologies and interoperability issues for todayis Building Information Modelling (BIM) environments. A method is elaborated which enables building designers to perform an automated energy use analysis, based on an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) model derived from a commercial BIM environment, in this case Autodesk Revit 9.1. A prototype application was built, which evaluates the building model as well as vendor-neutral exchange mechanisms, in accordance with the Flemish Energy Performance Regulation (EPR) standard. Several issues regarding the need for space-based building models are identified and algorithms are developed to overcome possible shortcomings.
Marin, Philippe, Jean-Claude Bignon, and Hervé Lequay. "Integral Evolutionary Design, Integrated to Early Stage of Architectural." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 19-26. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper deals with the architectural design process and the digital tools able to support a creative activity. Evolutionary devices are expected to support the architect in the initial phase of his work in progress and to stimulate his creativity through analogical thinking. An experimental tool is described, this one is using a genetic algorithm to explore the solution space, and it is based on both solar passive qualities and subjective interaction.
Jeong, Yongwook, and Armando Trento. "Interleaving Semantics: a Filter Mediated Communication Model to Support Collaboration in Multi-Disciplinary Design." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 643-652. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The purpose of collaboration is to integrate the separate knowledge possessed by the participants in the design process into one meaningful whole. Centralized data structures, showed that the AEC industry is so fragmented that the data-centric approach is not feasible, for technical and procedural reasons. The shared database, minimizing the complexity of translating different form of representation, quickly becomes too large and unwieldy to support the dynamic process of multi-disciplinary collaborative design. In this paper, we propose a distributed model that includes a mechanism to facilitate the participantsi intentions more effectively by incorporating semantics into their representations. We also present how the semantics would be authored and published through the mechanism so that a higher level of shared understanding among the participants would be achieved.
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, Radzi Hanif, and Fauzan Mustaffa. "Interpreting Traditional Malay Shadow Play Spaces in a Multimedia Environment." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 921-926. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper presents a research on the techniques of traditional Malay “shadow play” used in developing new concepts for representing interactive media. This funded research by the Selangor State Library is developed based on a book collection on the aural history of Sabak Bernam, one of the counties in Selangor located in the West Peninsular of Malaysia. It considers the domain of conceptual spaces within the shadow play setting and spaces by addressing the typology of the design. Representation of different character and environmental styles related to the Malay cultures were developed as multimedia content involving more than fifty local villages. It suggests form for background consideration of possible metaphors, the space arrangement of the elementary and actors, spatial relationships, audiences and the techniques of puppetry in the design for multimedia environments.
Pupo, Regiane, José Duarte, and Gabriela Celani. "Introducing digital fabrication into the architectural curriculum." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 517-524. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The present paper describes two similar experiences in the setting up of digital fabrication laboratories in architectural schools and the introduction of such techniques in the schools curriculum, with the aim of answering the following questions: how long - and how much - does it take to incorporate these new technologies in a traditional architectural course? Both experiences were held in Portuguese-speaking countries, but within very different economic and cultural contexts (Europe and South-America).
Reffat, Rabee. "Investigating Patterns of Contemporary Architecture using Data Mining Techniques." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 601-608. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper addresses the utilization of Data Mining as an advanced technique of information technologies to investigate and identify the patterns of architectural features of contemporary architecture in Saudi Arabia in two suggested building types: houses and commercial office buildings. Such patterns will help in developing a model of patterns of architectural features that can be utilized to augment the architectural context of Saudi Arabia. The paper presents a constructed framework that provides a comprehensive analysis of recognition criteria for identifying each architectural feature of the nominated set of nine features. These architectural features include: spatial relationships, space allocation, circulation, building form, façade treatment, building structure, external finishes, environmental aspects, and cultural features. The recognition criteria for these architectural features are expressed in the attribute-value format.  Such criteria are extracted for houses and commercial office buildings specifically within the context of Saudi contemporary architecture based on extensive case analysis that represents the diversity of architectural designs of houses and commercial office buildings. The paper also, introduces a process model of applying Data Mining for investigating patterns of contemporary architecture.
Lang, Silke. "Is it About Time to Investigate a Transdisciplinary Understanding of Design?" In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 283-292. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper claims that now the time is right to investigate a transdisciplinary understanding of design. Nowadays, design is excellent in many disciplines and specialized fields but not connected and coordinated to other fields. The benefit of a transdiciplinary understanding of design will open up new ways in teaching, research and business. The current activities in this field at leading schools worldwide evidence that the time has come to gain a fundamental understanding of design. In this paper we describe the phenomena that design as a research topic currently gains in importance. We then discuss why there is no unified definition of design. We explain our approach towards a transdiciplinary understanding of design and show how this differs from other initiatives.
Lyon, Eduardo. "Knowledge Based Design and Digital Manufacturing: ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 625-632. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This research explores new ways to integrate manufacturing knowledge in to design phases. Through the use of design for manufacturing (DfM) concept, and looking at relations between its potential application in component design and its implementation using digital manufacturing technologies, the author implemented a DfM model that varies from previous models by incorporated learning in the process. This process was based on the incremental development and refinement of design heuristics and metrics. The DfM model developed in this research is a process model to be implemented as a framework within educational settings. The final purpose is to provide better foundational constructs for design education and to improve teaching approaches that integrate design and manufacturing. 
Holzer, Dominik. "Let s get Physical." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 125-132. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper presents an approach for familiarizing architecture students with concepts of environmental performance in the early design stages. A design studio was run at the University of Technology Sydney by Leena Thomas and the author where students were applying building performance analysis to inform their design process from the very beginning of the semester. Students were using parametric design and evolutionary structural optimization in conjunction with environmental performance optimization. Michael Hensel and Defne Sunguroglu (Ocean North) joined the studio at half time for a workshop to investigate how processes occurring in nature can be mapped to inform the morphological design process. In spite the multitude of challenges put to the students during the semester in regard to their design methodology and techniques, they were able to produce highly performative and aesthetically pleasing design outcomes.
Gatermann, Harald. "Location-based 4D-Reconstruction." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 945-950. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Architects do not only need 3D-models for the planning process, but as well for the process of visualizing information. In this projects we as architects were asked to show the lifetime-process of an industrial complex (a colliery - now used as industrial museum) over a period of more than one hundred years: the growth of the complex, the demolition of certain buildings, the network between the collieries in the neighbourhood. Google Earth as software platform allows recipients from all over the world to get an insight in four dimensions: the location based context including the time axis. For showing the world under the surface interactive animations or films are included.
Bourdakis, Vassilis. "Low Tech Approach to 3D Urban Modeling." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 959-964. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Over the last decade various examples of urban 3D models have been created employing various techniques for data collection and model building. The problems faced are well documented, issues of accuracy, complexity and utility of the models has also been addressed. This paper presents a low tech approach to accurate city modelling focusing on engineering applications, browsing/experiencing applications as well as multi-layering time based analyses, historical info overlaying for use in interactive real time applications (museum exhibitions, research projects for behavioural patterns of users in 3D urban environments, marketing, tourism, etc). The pros and cons of the proposed methodology are analyzed and ways forward suggested.
Donath, Dirk, and Danny Lobos. "Massing Study Support." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 101-108. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Since Hugh Ferris in 1922 started with a series of massing studies the visualization of zoning planning began to be a topic for architects. Setbacks, plot area ratio, maximum building height, and other important attributes must be handled by the architect to fulfill the law, the needs of the clients and his own inspiration. This paper presents the problem of envelope design for high-rise isolated housing buildings, as well as a new Decision Support Systems tool based on the platform of a BIM software, that allows to simulate several options for building envelope according to the parameters required by the city Zoning Planning. These options deliver reliable data and geometry, to be analyzed in real time for the architects, engineers, builders, government and the client in the early stages of the buildingis design.
Baerlecken, Daniel Michael, and Olaf Kobiella. "Math Objects." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 677-684. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The paper discusses mathematical form generation as an academic methodology to develop new approaches to architectural design.  The academic design studio “Math objectsi investigates the relationship between complex 3d-surfaces and mathematics in order to expand the formal repertoire of architecture. It claims that the process of form generation can be seen as an autonomous entity, which is independent from an overall strategy or any a priori meaning. Architecture has always originated from a concept, eventually progressing towards a certain form. This methodology has been reversed. The paper discusses two studios undertaken in the last year, led by Daniel Baerlecken and Olaf Kobiella at the TU Braunschweig, Germany. 
Crotch, Joanna, and Robert Mantho. "Media, Technology and Teaching." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 293-300. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. With the growing reliance on technology and other visual media to explore architectural ideas, has architectural pedagogy realigned itself with the evolving possibilities of the new technological age? With the above in mind, we designed a program to explore and test this question. The programs encouraged experimentation and speculation. Technology was seen to be central to the program. The starting point was the selection of an activity. Each stage of the process required the student to firstly, carefully observe, then to create an image utilizing different “medium” to realize their observations. The chosen mediums were cubism, movie making and digital imaging. Conventional plans and sections were required to be made of each final outcome, of each stage. As part of and in response to each progressive stage, a space to house an element of the activity was designed. The concluding part required the design of a small urban building to accommodate the activity selected.
Riether, Gernot. "New Nomadism." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 413-418. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. We live in a digital world. This article proposes using digital media to intensify our perceptions. An architectural navigation aid by coupling digital media with cognitive processes, a design process will be suggested that requires a shift in thinking from tool to media, from descriptive geometry to constructive geometry, and from stirring media to media that does the stirring.
Penttila, Hannu, and Dietrich Elger. "New Professional Profiles for International Collaboration in Design and Construction." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 333-340. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper discusses the recent changes within the architectural profession: the growing demand for collaboration within design and construction and the recent transition to fully digitally enhanced design process. The aim of the paper is to stimulate the discussion within contemporary architectural profession. Profound discussions and re-evaluation is needed in the fields of design education, architecture related research as well as in current project practices. A proposed visionary profile of a collaboratively technical architectural education will be presented as the conclusion of the paper.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Objects, Properties and Relations." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 577-584. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The paper takes a fundamental look at the composition of digital design representations, in particular at the objects they comprise, the properties of these objects and relations between objects. It proposes that the clarity of domain principles underlying such representation should be matched by explicit, flexible implementations that not only fit design actions and transactions rather than institutional classifications and prescriptive views of architectural information but also challenge formulations of the domain principles. 
Sdegno, Alberto. "Palladio s Bridges: Graphic Analysis and Digital Interpretations." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 43-50. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The paper presents some results of a research on the digital reconstruction of some bridges designed by Andrea Palladio. The use of new technologies has enabled us to investigate the morphology of every single element and to be compared each other. Using the method of video animation, we have analyzed some of them in order to simulate the human perception and to understand their spatial configuration, but also to visualize the point of view of a man crossing a river or a canal. The last step was to prepare the models for producing some physical maquettes with the technique of rapid prototyping that have enabled us to verify the quality of the digital construction. Some different kinds of powder were used to identify the best one for the representation of architecture.
Brown, Andre, Martin Winchester, and Michael Knight. "Panoramic Architectural Art: Real-Digital Interaction as a Catalyst." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 751-756. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper describes an integrated cross-disciplinary project in which digital technologies have been used as a vehicle to bring together material, educators and students from a variety of backgrounds. A significant piece of new art, commissioned for the Capital of Culture year (2008) in Liverpool, has been the centre-piece and catalyst for the project.
Knight, Michael, Yu-Horng Chen, Martin Winchester, and Andre Brown. "Perception, Placement and Wayfinding Applied to Mobile Architectural Guides." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 215-220. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper describes continuing developments of mobile architectural guides. In using the term mobile we refer to a range of hand-held wireless enabled devices. These device present particular problems in terms of user interaction with a set of graphic and textual information that is intended to deliver information on routefinding and the important architectural features that the user will come across en route. This paper describes some of the issues that arise and user testing to determine improvements to the system being used.
Fricker, Pia, Christoph Wartmann, and Ludger Hovestadt. "Processing: Programming Instead of Drawing." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 525-530. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The following paper essentially focuses on the innovative use of an open-source programming language, called “Processing”, in the architecture curriculum and the development of a line of teaching beginning with Processing and ending with object-oriented programming in Java. This represents one creative possibility through which students are able to overcome the typically difficult step of learning a programming language and simultaneously learn how to apply it as a design tool. 
Wetzel, Jean-Paul, Salim Belblidia, and Jean-Claude Bignon. "Proposition of a Model Using Parametric Operations as an Aid to the Creation of Architectural Forms." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 51-58. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. In the early stage of creation, the architect tests his working hypotheses by making many adjustments while designing. During the sketching phase, the existing modelling tools are not compatible with the iterative nature of this process. So the challenge lies in the definition of a model which will allow the whole creative process with its various coming and going during the phase of conception. In this article, we are going to define a data structure model allowing the simultaneous exploration of several possible solutions, which seems more in line with a creation process.
Tonn, Christian, Frank Petzold, and Dirk Donath. "Put on Your Glasses and Press Right Mouse Button." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 201-208. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Activities in the building industry in Germany concentrate increasingly on a combination of renovation and new building. A prerequisite for computer-aided planning in the context of existing buildings is both the use of on-site computer aided techniques and the integration of all professional disciplines in an integrated information and communication system. How will computers be used on site in the future? Which equipment will be needed? An ongoing interdisciplinary research project undertaken jointly by the faculty of media and the faculty of architecture is investigating methods and techniques for the computer-aided support of the design process with and within existing buildings. The aim of this project is the development of a practice-oriented toolbox for the architectural design process based on SAR (spatial augmented reality). This paper focuses on Augmented-Reality based user interaction on site using laser pointer tracking. The project is funded by the German Research Foundation.
Christenson, Mike. "Questioning the Primacy of Visual Simulation in an Epistemology of Digital Models." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 889-896. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper questions the degree to which visual simulations are conventionally assumed to be a primary means of entering digital models into productive architectural discourse. The paper considers established means by which digital models are made known, specifically those which place epistemological value on multiple representational modes, particularly building information modelling software. The paper outlines a proposal to displace the use of visual simulation as a primary means of making digital models known.
Hoog, Jochen, and Manfred Wolff-Plottegg. "Real Virtualities - Architecture 2.0." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 817-822. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The Institute of Architecture and Design, TU Vienna has bought a virtual island in Second Life (SL) in order to use it in a design course (5 ECTS). The goal was to introduce students to new ways in which computers in a web based network like SL can be used to generate designs by using end user scripting within a virtual 3D environment. After a short introduction into the basics of SL and to the rules and conditions of multi-user virtual environments (MUVEis) the students worked within that kind of spatial software as a place and as hyper media. The main focus of this paper is to stress and to describe the differences of the studentis results compared to common architectural design courses. 
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Recognition of Building Elements in Free-Hand Sketches." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 419-426. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The paper presents a framework for the recognition of free-hand sketches based on spatial and temporal information that permits identification of strokes, grouping of strokes into graphic symbols and recognition of depictions of building elements in the graphic symbols. It proposes that the symbols involved in 2D projections are generally small and manageable despite the vagueness and multiple layering of sketches. 
Boeykens, Stefan, and Herman Neuckermans. "Representational Limitations and Improvements in Building Information Modeling." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 35-42. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper discusses advantages and limitations of different representation types, illustrated with examples from current commercial Building Information Modelling applications. There is still a potential benefit in more thoroughly adapting additional representations to access and manage project data.The paper presents arguments to adapt a hybrid approach, where multiple representations should form a series of interfaces to interact with a building model. Inspiration is derived from software applications not associated with Building Information Modelling.
Kaga, Atsuko, and Shihomi Sugawara. "Research on the Visualization for Analyzing City Changes." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 939-944. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. To perceive such changes of city space visually, a three-dimensional (3D) city space model is effective. The use of buildings in a city space is complex, reflecting the number of stories, and the number of stories in many cases. Furthermore, environmental parameters, such as opening a shop developed for conditions of the location, the existence of a building which is easy to divert to some other purpose, a managerial layer, and the whole country, is closely related to city change. A city change can be analyzed from various perspectives if such information can also be accumulated and displayed. If it is expressed in two dimensions, it will be restricted, but if expressed in 3D, the use situation of city space can be grasped quickly. Commercial 3D GIS software is useful for visualizing such a 3D city space model while referring to attribute information. However, such software is expensive and its use is restricted. For this study, highly extensible 3D modelling software is used to develop a technique for visualizing city spaces using its attribute information. Then the developed script is applied to an actual city model in Japan.
Spaeth, Benjamin. "Room Acoustics in the Architectural Design Process." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 367-374. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The basic principles, methods, and digital tools for the analysis of room acoustics are the topic of this paper. Students have been using these analysis and simulation tools during a seminar at Stuttgart University to systematically investigate acoustical situations. Additionally to lecturing on the underlying physics of room acoustics we were trying to convey the impact of geometry on room acoustics and therefore the impact of room acoustics on shapes in architecture. This paper describes the implementation of a real time simulation module for room acoustics within our Virtual Reality System.
Michalatos, Panagiotis, and Sawako Kaijima. "Simplexity." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 719-726. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. In this paper we discuss the design process that enables the integration of multiple concerns at an early stage of design by combining them into a single field that preconditions the space within which a specific design solution is developed. Our method is closely related to the development of interactive software tools that help the designer form a new intuition about the problem at hand. Two guiding concepts in this endeavour are simplexity [the desire to fine tune and build a system that yields a solution to a specific design problem by collapsing its inherent complexity] and defamiliarization [a side effect of having to represent things as numbers]. To demonstrate our strategy we will present the development of a computational design solution for small scale objects.
Uddin, Mohammed Saleh. "Simulation of Daylight in the Architecture of Louis I. Kahn: a Study of the Un-built Hurva Synagogue." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 727-734. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. One of the most powerful aspects of Louis I. Kahnis architectural space is his handling of natural light. Kahn believed that architecture began with the “making of a room” and that “a room is not a room without natural light.” Throughout his career, he explored bringing light into interiors in the most imaginative ways. Kahn used endless possibilities, from small devices to complex dome structures, to create a poetic and spiritual light inside buildings. The purpose of this paper is to present the theories and practices of natural light in architecture by Louis Kahn, who has deftly used it as a creative medium in his design of buildings. Starting from development of theories, this research focuses on how he implemented his theories into practice. As a case study, the Hurva Synagogue project is selected to analyze its unique lighting solutions. Many of Kahnis previous concepts can be traced to the Hurva, making it an ideal project for lighting study. Since Hurva Synagogue is an un-built project, recent techniques of computer graphics is used to understand how daylight illuminates the interior in different times of the day and year in both still images and in 3D animations. 
Riether, Gernot, and Tom Butler. "Simulation Space." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 133-142. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008.

It is the attempt here to test simulation tools in relation to a design process and speculate on strategies to not just integrate simulation tools in the design process but to use these tools to construct a new design environment for the architect.

LaBelle, Guillaum, Julien Nembrini, and Jeffrey Huang. "Simulation-Driven Design System." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 469-476. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper presents a design process efficiently involving parametric design, realistic physical simulation and rapid-prototyping fabrication for contextual shape adaptation. This case study focuses on lighting simulation for the specific problem of solar energy harvesting. Inspired by the phototropic mechanism, the ability of plants to grow according to the availability of light, an innovative design technique is defined, taking its root in the morphogenetic design school [Hensel, 2004]. 
Donath, Dirk, Jörg Braunes, Daniel Fehlhaber, and Helga Tauscher. "Sketch-Based Building Information Capture for Cost and Risk Assessment in the Early Stages of Planning in Existing Built Contexts." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 109-116. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The proportion of planning activity that concerns existing buildings is increasing steadily throughout Europe. In Germany it is estimated that already two thirds of architectural planning tasks are related to revitalisation, modernisation, conversion and reconstruction. For these types of projects in particular, clients are interested in obtaining an estimate of the building costs as early as possible. Because many details are unknown or can only be guessed, it is often difficult to make a reliable estimate. This article describes a software concept for the rapid, sketch-based capture of data on site with a view to obtaining a cost-assessment for a series of different revitalisation variants using a stochastic approach.
Cypriano, Débora, and Gabriela Celani. "Sloping Façade Buildings in Brazilian Modern Architecture." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 61-68. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Sloping façade buildings have been present throughout XXth century architecture, for different programs and in different countries. One of the first architects to use sloping façades was probably Frank Lloyd Wright, two early examples being Taliesin West (1937) and the Annie Pfeiffer Chapel at Florida Southern College (1938-41). In Brazilian Modern architecture sloping façades soon became a recurrent solution, the earlier examples being produced by architects Oscar Niemeyer, Joio V. Artigas and Affonso E. Reidy, possibly influenced by FLW, as suggested by Irigoyen (2002). The present research proposes that these buildings may have influenced other architects in Brazil and abroad. In order to confirm this hypothesis, a design process was modelled and a shape grammar was developed to describe a small corpus of buildings designed by these three architects in the 1940's and 1950's.
Coates, Paul, and Christian Derix. "Smart Solutions for Spatial Planning." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 231-238. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. SSSP is a Government funded knowledge transfer project under the overall umbrella of the UK “building sustainable communities” initiative. The paper describes the innovative techniques being developed by the partners to build urban modelling tools for multiple simulation or regeneration scenarios in the Thames Gateway region of London. This knowledge transfer scheme is between the main partners and the London boroughs of Newham and Tower Hamlets. The main aim is to demonstrate the use of digital data in the development of planning scenarios. The aim is to demonstrate a workflow, which should provide stakeholders with a way of testing regeneration options, which are grounded on “reali data and are capable of providing rapid feedback for policy makers and inhabitants alike. 
Ireland, Tim. "Space Diagrams." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 91-98. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Decomposing typical hierarchies of architectural space we look to the use of agents to generate architectonic form in a process of distributed representation. This paper forms a part of this on going research, a component focusing on the problem of circulation. The work presented looks to swarm intelligence and the well-trodden field of computational way finding techniques based on the route finding means of social insects. Ant foraging algorithms are used generally towards optimization and tend to rely on a priori knowledge of the environment. Outlined here is an investigation of emergent route formation and spatial connectivity based on simple agent and pheromone interaction. Optimization is not the key, but emergent connectivity through blind local communication.
Liapi, Katherine A.. "Spatial Information Visualization Methods for Large Scale Infrastructure Projects ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 617-624. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. For the communication of spatial information with regard to the design and construction of large scale urban infrastructure projects several visualization methods and technologies have been developed. The paper discusses two different trends in relevant technologies: a) those that use visualization to facilitate communication of construction planning information between architects, engineers, contractors, the public and other interested parties, and b) technologies that provide real time information on the conditions on the construction site. 
Ciblac, Thierry. "Structure Computation Tools in Architectural Design." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 275-282. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Structure computation can be carried out in the very early steps of architectural design thanks to the generalization of the use of computers. So, architects can be interested by specific computing tools dedicated to mechanical simulations in design process, especially using interactivity. Researches on these kinds of tools are developed by the ARIAM-LAREA team in the Ecole Nationale Supérieure diArchitecture de Paris La Villette, using graphic statics with a dynamic geometry software, finite element method and tensile structure software. The specificities of such tools are presented through historical examples and students projects.
Beirão, José, José Duarte, and Rudi Stouffs. "Structuring a Generative Model for Urban Design: Linking GIS to Shape Grammars." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 929-938. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Urban Design processes need to adopt flexible and adaptive procedures to respond to the evolving demands of the contemporary city. To support such dynamic processes, a specific design methodology and a supporting tool are needed. This design methodology considers the development of a design system rather than a single design solution. It is based on patterns and shape grammars. The idea is to link the descriptions of each pattern to specific shape rules inducing the generation of formal solutions that satisfy the pattern. The methodology explores, from the urban designer point of view, the capacity of a shape grammar to codify and generate urban form (Duarte et al, 2007). This paper defines the ontology of urban entities to build on a GIS platform the topology describing the various components of the city structure. By choosing different sets of patterns the designer defines his vision for a specific context. The patterns are explicated into shape rules that encode the designeris interpretation of the pattern, and operate on this ontology of urban entities generating solutions that satisfy the patternis concept. Some examples of the topological relations are shown. 
Bhatt, Anand, and Kishore Angani. "Studying Corpus Changes in CumInCAD." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008.

We discuss several experiments conducted with the Corpus of CAAD research, where we focus on the change in the CAAD Ontology. These experiments are representative of the investigations which could be conducted through an ontology driven, online application designed to allow the research community investigate the nature, structure and evolution of our discipline.

Chaabouni, Salma, Jean-Claude Bignon, and Gilles Halin. "Supporting Ambience Design with Visual References." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 27-34. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper presents a study to assist the design of luminous ambiences by visual references from early design stage. Our method proposes, from an analysis of the reference work and the cognitive activities associated, a formulation of intentions built from navigation inside a collection of visual references. Different modes of navigation are discussed in adequacy with the forms of reasoning solicited in the referential activity.
Biao, Li, and Li Rong. "Teaching of Generative Design and Its Profound Influence." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 77-84. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The paper presents the teaching process inducting students who knew little about computer programming and concept of generative design originally into theoretically comprehend and ability of computer programming researcher of generative design. Meanwhile, some tools based on principle of “Complex Adaptive Systems” are introduced in the paper.
Vecchia, Luisa, Adriane Borda Alme da Silva, and Alice Pereira. "Teaching/Learning Architectural Design Based on a Virtual Learning Environment." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 801-808. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This paper describes an experiment in which a virtual learning environment was used in the context of an architectural design course. The objective was to evaluate the capability of the learning environment used to support the interactions needed, between teacher-student and between students, for the establishment of a process of discussion and development of architectural design. Some limitations imposed either by the virtual learning environment or by the context of the experiment itself were identified and also positive points, such as the possibility to register the whole design process. All this data subside studies about the process of teaching/learning architectural design validating this experiment and allowing the promotion of new experiments in the different stages of this academic process.
Kawasumi, Norihiro, Mitsuo Morozumi, and Riken Homma. "The APEX/VPB and MAP: Graphical Design Interface and Archive for Distributed Collaboration." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 341-348. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The digital tools are most convenient technologies to realize distributed collaborative design environment on the web. A lot of practical design systems have been already developed with researches in the world. On these systems, the digital bulletin board and web-map technologies are generally used to support for group-discussing and exchanging design proposals via the web. But some of them are only possible to store design materials apart on the web and the peculiar interface is not well-optimized for architectural design activities. In this paper, we discuss to develop the collaborative design system simulated of our practical group-work methods. The APEX/VPB & MAP will realize the easy information management with interactive digital bulletin board and map-based interface. Finally, we will report the results of our experimental design studio using with APEX/VPB & MAP.
Burry, Jane, and Mark Burry. "The Bonds of Spatial Freedom." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 301-308. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. In education and research at this time there is arguably no longer a need to build a strong case for the power of CAAD to support designers - the evidence is there. The major challenges no longer centre on hardware, software and graphics potential or on skills acquisition and adoption. The research that we will report here reveals that computational complexity and geometrical complexity are emerging as the sharp issues that demand a major review of how we model the large hybrid spaces that we seek to construct in design. Computational relational modelling and scripting may have opened a trove of creative possibilities. But it may delude us into painting ourselves into a corner: infinite variety within a much reduced palette of opportunities. 
Huang, Yinghsiu, and Paoshu Wang. "The Comparisons of Interactive Demos and Cognitive Behaviors in the Virtual Environments for Representing 3D Artifacts." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 375-382. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Digitization of three-dimensional sculptures is a well-developed technology for preserving antiquities. After digitizing they could be represented in various computerized spaces, virtually, such as in cyberspace, in virtual reality space, and in augmented realityetc. However, contrary to physical demonstration of 3D sculptures in traditional museums or exhibitions, the virtual representation may lose some degrees of reality of sculptures or create various ways of interactions for viewing sculptures. In this research, there are three kinds of environments for re-presenting 3D sculptures: the physical reality (PA) in a space, virtual reality (VR) with a big screen, and augmented reality (AR) of Head-Mounted Display (HMD). By utilizing questionnaire to analyze usersi perceptions and requirements of viewing 3D sculptures, this research will compare several aspects, such as visualization, operational interactions, and psychological feelings in the experiment of three exhibition environments. Finally, based on the results from questionnaire, we attempt to propose a suitable environment for exhibiting the virtual 3D sculptures. 
Russell, Peter, and Dietrich Elger. "The Meaning of BIM." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 531-536. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The paper is a position paper, not a report about a research project. It concerns the paradigm-shift that is taking place in the CAAD software and its implications for the business of architecture and more importantly, for the education of future members of the profession. Twenty years ago the use of CAAD software as a replacement for hand drafting was starting. Since then the transformation is complete: hardly a final project in the universities is drawn by hand. Currently, we are witnessing a second paradigm shift and its name is BIM. The meaning of BIM is rooted in two significant differences to current CAAD software and this will have implications for teaching and practicing architecture. The first difference is the way the software structures information in the CAAD file. The standard way to save CAAD information was to organise simple geometric objects according to membership in groups and to sort them according to a layer-metaphor, which primarily controlled the visibility of the geometric elements. Three-dimensional modelling is/was nothing more than the same structure with a more complex geometry. BIM software changes this structure by storing classes of geometries and then to store the specific values of individual geometries according to factors that can be determined by external or internal logical factors. The implication for architects is that we have the chance to be the people in control of the building information model, so long as we invest the time and energy to fully understand what is happening to the building information during the planning process. If we ignore this, the real danger exists that the last control of the buildingis final configuration will be usurped. As educators we are currently teaching students that will be leaving the schools in 2012 and beyond. By then, the paradigm-shift will be in full motion and so it behoves us to consider which skill sets we want the next generation of architects to possess. This means not just teaching students about how to use particular BIM software or how to program a certain parametric/genetic algorithm in a form-finding process. We need to teach our students to take the leadership in building information management and that means understanding and controlling how the building information flows, how the methodologies that are used by the consulting engineers affect our building models, and knowing what kind of logical inconsistencies (internal or external) can threaten the design intention.
Larsen, Knut Einar, Christoph Schindler, Fabian Scheurer, and Simen Stori. "The Ringve Botanical Garden Viewing Platform." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 783-790. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008.

Since 2006 the Faculty of Architecture of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) has organized the “1-2-TRE” workshops on digital timber fabrication. The annual one-semester courses explore the possibilities and conditions of file-to-factory processes in cooperation with professional carpentries. The 2007 course focused on adding varied simple elements to a complex whole. Within a full semester course, a permanent viewing platform for the Botanical Garden of Trondheim was designed, produced and built by the participating students.

Kanellos, Anastasios, and Sean Hanna. "Topological Self-Organisation." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 459-466. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The problem of filling a given volume with a 3-dimensional structural network lattice comprising a certain number of nodes is considered. The proposed method of approach is contained within the framework of iterative physical dynamic simulation and implements a generative algorithm that features a particle-spring system. The algorithm is able to suitably arrange nodes in the space of a volumetric envelope and establish connections between them through local rules of self-organisation, thus producing efficient space frames without having prior knowledge of either geometry or topology of the network lattice.
Montenegro, Nuno, and José Duarte. "Towards a Computational Description of Urban Patterns." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 239-248. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. This study is concerned with the formulation of solutions for urban problems. It departs from Alexanderis pattern language theory and urban design guidelines, to create a system for generating specifications or the ingredients of a plan, given a scale, a site and a community. It takes into account strategies, regulations, guidelines, physical features of the site, and furthermore, the social, cultural and economic characteristics of the population. This system, sorted by a sequence of events, through stages, categories, methods and agents, describes taxonomic levels and their inner relations. Such an ontology provides a pattern encoding structure towards a computational model within the capabilities provided by the spatial data modelling of GIS (GIS-O). The urban formulation model is conceived to increase qualitative inputs, reducing ambiguities, through a flexible while automate process applied to urban planning. 
De Bodt, Kathleen. "Towards a Digital Design Episteme." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 871-876. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The paper addresses the issue of integrating digital techniques and methodologies in the conceptual stage of the architectural design process and describes the research and education of digital design procedures and proficiency. Accordingly, research into the correlation between theory and practice in the field of digital architectural design and education is presented. The influence of digital design theory and processes on the complexity and spatial variation of design solutions was studied in a series of consecutive short workshop based sessions in architecture and interior design master classes. The paper describes the aim, technical solution, scope and result of the experimental exercises. 
Gil, Jorge, and José Duarte. "Towards an Urban Design Evaluation Framework." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 257-264. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The “City Induction” research project aims to develop an urban design framework at the scale of site planning consisting of three modules: formulation, generation and evaluation. This paper presents the start of the on-going research on the evaluation module with the aim of identifying and discussing the assumptions behind its development. The evaluation module will be driven by sustainable urban development principles, which determine the design analysis criteria and benchmarks, and it will be structured around selected urban analysis and design methodologies. We discuss the challenges of bringing these two domains together, and propose to incorporate techniques of interaction and video game design towards a more meaningful and inspirational design experience.
Juvancic, Matevz, and Tadeja Strojan Zupancic. "Towards Effective Interfaces for General Architectural Learning." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 569-576. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The persistence of difficulties related to communication of the participants in the design process is mainly due to the diversity of interests and the abilities of visual communication. The research presented has been focused especially on the first issue - professional vs. general public relations. It builds on the idea that general public should be approached with both: adaptation to its abilities and with additional teaching to improve these abilities. The initial questions lead to the isolation of (i) elements and (ii) characteristics that could possibly define architectural educational interfaces for general public. The experiment puts the prototypical eco-spatial interface to the test in primary schools and observes the effect the level of interactivity has on learning outcomes. The results show possible ways of enhancing the efficiency of GUI-s and help developers and designers evaluate and fine-tune such tools for the process of general architectural learning.
Bernal, Marcelo, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "Variation from Repetition ." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 791-798. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. Making double curvature surfaces in architectural design is nontrivial and presents many challenges. Design and fabrication of these complex shapes requires systematic approaches. Most current design and fabrication processes distribute adaptable patterns over modulated variable surfaces. But to produce variation with this method means many machining hours and a budget that a conventional architectural project cannot afford. An alternative method to achieve such complex shapes would be to overlap identical elements on a grid. This paper presents an approach to fabricate such complex surfaces from the repetition of a series of identical elements. 
Barelkowski, Robert. "Web-based Support for Social Participation and Education in Planning Procedures." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 823-828. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. The paper is intended to present the methodological structure of web-based mechanisms related to planning procedures, with particular focus on social participation. The tools provide a link between planners and local community members, allow the acquisition of different sets of data, provide detailed information on the environment and planned transformations, serve as a source of detailed information on the procedure, and last but not least play an educational role, which contributes greatly to the understanding of sustainability, cultural sensitivity, environmental issues, planning concerns on a wider scale. Web-related technology provides many opportunities to reach for a wider social participation and simultaneously to receive more representative feedback from the local community. The article will discuss in detail some results of the implementation of the Citizen project - a web-based platform supporting the social participation.
Schindler, Christoph. "ZipShape." In Architecture 'in computro' - Integrating Methods and Techniques: 26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 775-782. eCAADe: Conferences. Antwerpen, Belgium: The Higher Institute of Architectural Sciences, Henry van de Velde, 2008. ZipShape is a universal method to fabricate single curved panels from any plain material without molds. The system uses two individually slotted panels that interlock when bent to the predefined curvature. As non-radial curves require individual teeth geometry, the method makes use of automated detailing with corresponding algorithms. ZipShape is a fusion of information processing and material processing based on comparatively simple software technology and standard workshop machinery. With help of case studies, this paper evaluates the methodis claim to be a variable and feasible solution for the realization of non-planar shape.