Keywords Abstract
Huang, Chuen-huei, and Robert Krawczyk. "A Choice Model of Consumer Participatory Design for Modular Houses." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 679-686. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The paper describes the relationship of clientis requirements and available design options of the proposed system by examples of its current prototype. By integrating the nature of modularity in prefabricated housing design, a proposed web-based design system will provide information filtering questionnaires to assist customers in selecting appropriate design components. A methodology has been developed that can generate design options based on the clientis needs and available modular components from selected product suppliers making it possible to simulate the final design before processing orders for assembling and manufacturing. 
Paul, Norbert. "A Complex-Based Building Information System." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 591-598. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Volume modelling, finite element computation and spatial information systems have a common basis in topology, especially in the theory of complexes which are higher dimensional generalization of graphs. A complex is a topological space having a certain algebraic structure called “chain complex” and due to its similarity to real world buildings a special kind of complexes are even called “buildings” in mathematics. So it would be consequent to base a building information system upon this theory or at least try to do so. Some manipulations and queries of such spaces can then be expressed by mappings which are similar to complex-morphisms and generalize the well known Euler operators. Other practical useful operations like assigning a detail to a spatial element (“refinement”), hiding details at lower scale views (“coarsening”) or spatial versioning, however, need a somewhat different kind of mappings. This paper shows a simple relational database representation of a finite complex as a basis for a database backed building information system. The implementation of operations on such a relational complex in Java will also be shown.
Semple, Sally, and Scott C. Chase. "A Computational Tool for the Use of Colour Harmony Rules in Facade Design." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 837-842. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The quality and availability of exterior paints has led to a new vernacular use of colour in Ireland and Scotland. Communal colour designs highlight the conflict between individual colour preference and the community desire for harmony. This is often expressed as a fixed colour design by an individual designer. The provision of the widest possible range of colour designs, all of which express communal harmony, can help to accommodate individual preferences. This project uses computation to apply colour harmony rules within a chosen environment and to generate all the possible colour combinations which conform to these rules. The Colour Combinations program uses two steps to establish a colour design: palette selection and colour combination. The harmony rules can be adjusted for each step depending on the context for the design or the type of colour combination required. Once an appropriate palette has been selected all possible colour combinations for a terrace of six houses are generated. Each combination is then tested for harmony and the number of combinations which conform to the specified rules is displayed. Each harmonious combination can then be displayed in turn for manual selection. The program allows the effects of adjusted harmony rules to be tested and examined quickly. This could allow individual colour preferences to be accommodated within a communal colour design.
Boeykens, Stefan, and Herman Neuckermans. "A Generic Data Structure for an Architectural Design Application." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 303-310. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The research described in this paper focuses on the exploration of concepts for design development, to increase support for the early phases of design. This paper investigates and describes how a custom data structure for an architectural design application was set up generically, allowing additional extensions in a straightforward manner. The key concepts and main functionality are presented here, to give insight into the reasoning behind a flexible property system and how additional functionality benefits from this system.
Angulo, Antonieta. "A Technology-Enhanced Metacognitive Strategy." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 465-471. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper describes the implementation of a technology-enhanced metacognitive strategy that seeks to improve the learning outcomes in beginners design studios. The implementation was based on the use of time-based rich-media tools that allowed the students to document and present the different stages of their design process. The results of the design assignment in the experimental group were compared with the results of the same assignment implemented without such a metacognitive strategy and this comparison has provided evidence about the potential benefits of the tested methods.
Brown, Andre, Michael Knight, and Martin Winchester. "An Architectural Learning Environment." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 671-675. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper contributes to the discussion on Virtual Learning Environments, particularly those aimed at the study of Architecture and allied or parallel disciplines. The campus at the University of Liverpool has been modeled and from this an interactive environment has been created that replicates the actual built form and landscape of the actual campus. We reflect on the appropriateness of such environments, compared to more conventional web based techniques for the delivery of educational information.
Liapi, Katherine A.. "An Integrative Design and Spatial Visualization System for Cable Strut Self-tensioned Structures." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 27-34. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Novel conceptions of structures consisting of spatial formations of struts and cables present a uniquely defined morphology and structural performance, and offer opportunities for innovative applications in building design. A common feature of these structures is that their spatial geometry is not “a priori” given. This paper is focused on a specific type of cable-strut structure that occurs from the assembly of self tensioned cable-strut modules The spatial configuration of these structures is very complex and necessitated the development of elaborate geometric algorithms that permit the generation of their formal geometry in a virtual 3D environment. To facilitate both the design and the construction of such structures, a spatial visualization system, which integrates a) algorithms for initial form generation, b) geometric parameters that simulate construction stiffening processes, and c) appropriate structural analysis methods, has been developed. The structural organization and parts of this system are presented in this paper. The system renders feasible the exploration of alternate geometries with various levels of pre-stress and displays initial and final configuration of the structure. It also allows for structural analysis data visualization. Examples of projects designed with the assistance of this system are included and discussed.
Dillenburger, Benjamin, Frank Thesseling, Toni Kotnik, Monika Annen, Claudia Fuhr, Yael Girot-Ifrah, Martin Tann, Dong Shin, Sladjana Markovic, Meindert Versteeg et al. "Architectural Use of Computer Controlled Deformation Techniques on the Example of CNC-Bent Tube Structures." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 21-26. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Steel tubes as construction material have an enormous capacity. CNC bending machines have the ability to deform material into all three dimensions in contrast to other popular CNC techniques for architectural design that use subtractive methods like laser-cutting and milling. The research examines the potential of a digital deforming process of CNC-Bending. During three months the authors developed several design concepts, programmed the necessary software for generating the structure and produced three architectural prototypes shown at an exhibition. Altogether they were constructed out of more than 500 pieces of steel tubes and over 5000 bends.
Benoudjit, Moamed, and Paul Coates. "Artificial Networks for Spatial Analysis." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 911-918. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The present paper aims to present a summary of my ongoing PhD research, which is concerned with the study of the possibilities of developing an analytical and design tool based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and other Artificial Intelligence (AI) and connectionist algorithms.
Agger, Kristian, Michael Lassen, Nikolaj Knudsen, Ruben Borup, Jens Rimestad, Peter Norholdt, and Nikolaj Bramsen. "B-processor." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 43-50. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The B-processor is a redesign of the digital building information modelling/managing concept: Addressing the whole building industry participants and all phases in the building process. Offering a new “standard” for digital building information structure with generic modelling and evaluation tools in the B-model kernel. Plug-in structure for free extension of the B-processor system by the Building Industry. Kernel prototyped in Java to be downloaded for free - open source.
Yan, Wei, and Geqing Liu. "BIMGame: Integrating Building Information Modeling and Games to Enhance Sustainable Design and Education." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 211-218. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007.

The ongoing research project develops a new process and related tools to enhance architectural design and education for sustainability. The new process consists of design, play, and update phases. First, in the design phase, designers (professionals or students) use Building Information Modelling (BIM) for representing architectural geometric information and non-geometric information. Second, in the play phase, designers will play games with their designed BIM model. The BIM model is made accessible to educational games through Application Programming Interface (API) of BIM. Both geometric and non-geometric information of BIM are brought into games as content. Game components such as characters (acting as virtual building users), graphics, sound, physics, artificial intelligence, game logic etc., can be added into the games. The games act as a simulation environment for both human activities and physical dynamics in buildings. Designers will be informed about the evaluation of their design in terms of sustainability and about the general design strategies and specific solutions in an interactive and fun way. Finally, in the update phase, the games will allow designers to modify the design and/or the building usersi behaviours/life styles until satisfactory performance is achieved. The design modification will be transferred back into the architectural design through the same API of BIM.

Sampaio, Alcinia, and Pedro Henriques. "Building Activities visualized in Virtual Environments." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 85-90. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Normally, academic applications of computer-aided design in building project provide a visual presentation of the final state of the house and they are not able to produce changes in the geometry following the construction process. It was developed a didactic prototype that allows the visualization of the physical changes of the construction of a common external wall. In order to obtain models, which would be able to visually simulate the geometric evolution of the construction activity, techniques of geometric modelling and virtual reality were used. The visualization of the distinct physical steps of a construction is shown as 3D models following a specific planned schedule. The model makes it possible to view the physical evolution of the work, to follow the planned construction sequence and to visualize details of the form of every component of the works. It can be manipulated interactively allowing the student/teacher to monitor the physical evolution of the work and the construction activities inherent in its progression. The developed model brings new perspectives in the teaching activity as a support to expose new curricular programs or complex sequence construction.
Penttila, Hannu, Marko Rajala, and Simo Freese. "Building Information Modelling of Modern Historic Buildings." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 607-613. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007.

This paper reports a research study which evaluated the possibilities of building information modelling (BIM) within renovation of buildings of significant architectural, historic or cultural values. Renovation or restoration projects of historic buildings can be more demanding, challenging and complex than traditional renovation of for instance within housing. Objective of this research has been to transfer ICT (information and communication technology) and BIM research findings to historic design practice and true renovation project environments. The concept of building information modelling BIM is a proposed integrative framework for all design and construction project information in digital form. BIM can currently be seen to be in a phase of pragmatic pilot projects in several countries. Nevertheless, BIM has not been tested that much in renovation projects yet, although the importance of renovation and restoration is remarkable within the total volume of western construction sectors. One essential conclusion of this study is, that renovation design work should be started earlier in model-based design projects than in traditional renovation projects. More resources have also to be assigned to earlier design phases, if BIM is intended to be used extensively throughout the project. Another finding is the new concept of an inventory model, which is proposed to be the container for all building inventory, survey and measurement data. Even more so, when significant historic, hence more demanding building renovation is concerned, because there are more needs for various kinds of surveys, accurate data gathering and analyzing queries concerning the project.

Mat_jovská, Dana, and Henri Achten. "CAAD Restarted." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 409-414. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In our faculty a new CAAD group has been started recently after a period of virtual non-existence of CAAD education. The responsibility of the group is twofold: to provide students with a basic competence in CAAD, and to develop a high standard of experimental studio work combined with research. In our philosophy, we aim to reach the first goal by giving a wide offer of basic skills teaching in many different CAAD softwares. Building on that, we offer more specialised classes for advanced modelling and integrate skills with design work in the design studio. Due to limited means, and a small staff, we develop this program step by step. Our preliminary scope therefore, is very modest, and mostly limited to the first years of CAAD education in the Bachelor studies. In this paper we summarise our goals and preliminary results. We monitor the progression of our educational program with an enquiry that was distributed among 200 students. In that way we can assess student response to our efforts. We report on the findings from the enquiry and formulate improvements and possible directions for our teaching.
Petzold, Frank, Oliver Bimber, and Christian Tonn. "CAVE without CAVE." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 161-168. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Activities in the building industry in Germany concentrate increasingly on a combination of renovation and new-build. A look at current computer aided applications reveals a serious lack of IT support for the whole architectural design process in and within existing buildings (e.g. building surveying, designing on site and the preparation of information for further use in later planning stages). An ongoing interdisciplinary research project undertaken jointly by the faculty of media and the faculty of architecture is investigating methods and techniques for the computer-aided support of the design process in and within existing buildings. The goal is to develop a hardware and software concept for a “design-toolbox” based on SAR (spatial augmented reality) and to implement aspects of this as prototypes. This paper describes the goals of the “Spatial Augmented Reality for Architecture” project and discusses possible fields of application for SAR for supporting the design process in existing buildings from a useris perspective. This paper presents the initial results of the project, the development of a cave-like hardware and software concept called “low-cost projection in room corners” and the description of the core concept based on a client-server architecture. The project is funded by the “German Research Foundation (DFG)”.
Schoch, Odilo. "Challenges of Media Integrated Architecture." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 575-580. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper presents an approach towards a categorization of existing multidimensional graphical output devices within the built environment as framework for future studies. As the near future will witness that every single part of a building be get digitally connected, the buildings themselves can be novel media for communication. The novel kind of spatial typology is seen as the main quality of this architectural element. This is because the architectural element is going beyond pure graphical content. Buildings and cities are about to become gigantic “displays” without frames. Architects should be able to deal with this novel “material”. The discipline of CAAD can fill gaps as CAAD is merging technical and conceptual knowledge from traditional architecture and contemporary media technology.
Turkienicz, Benamy, Bábara Bellaver, and Pablo Grazziotin. "CityZoom." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 375-382. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In the last twenty years, computer tools have progressively enabled the modelling of buildings and cities in lesser time and cost, along with an increase in the results quality. A city modeled according to planning regulations usually present a correlation between plots and buildings dimensions. The representation of such correlation for a large number of plots requires repetitive work, thus suggesting the use of a computational tool to perform the task. Existing CAD, GIS, and VR software can generate accurate representations of the reality, but have no capabilities to simulate the impact of alternative urban regulations for large number of plots in a short period of time. CityZoom is a Decision Support System for urban planning, with a specific built-in city model, where data is represented in an object-oriented model representing the urban structure. CityZoom not only provide CAD tools, but a shell where different performance models can operate iteratively. It can simulate given urban regulations applied to a set of urban plots, as well as address environmental comfort issues such as shadow casting between buildings. Results can be displayed as tables, graphs, and in a 3D preview of the whole city or part of it. Itis also possible to export them to commercial GIS tools, to perform different data analysis. The graphical outputs make for an easy understanding of the results by laymen, an important feature for participatory planning, while the display of the correspondent numerical data enable correlations with indicators and parameters of urban quality.
Kocaturk, Tuba. "Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Digital Free-Form Design." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 735-742. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper focuses on the emerging domain of digital free-form design, and attempts to explicate its knowledge content and characteristics through a systematic inquiry of the digital free-form design practice. The massive amount of information associated with the design and construction demands of the complexly shaped buildings demand explicit knowledge about the way various information pieces relate to one another. This paper reports on the process of developing a knowledge framework which serves as a reference model to describe and explain the free-form design and production processes in terms of the interaction of contextual conditions and according to the different ways design problems are perceived and formulated by the members of the design teams. The framework provides guidelines for the development of a web-based design decision support system to support collaborative knowledge construction, sharing and reuse in the domain. 
Lonsing, Werner. "Combining GPS and CAD." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 655-661. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Combining CAD and GPS in architecture is a challenging task. Both technologies have not much in common. While GPS is used for mapping, CAD is used for modelling and virtual constructing. The request to design an application, the AmbiViewer, which can be used as design tool in an outdoor environment, brought the technologies together. This paper gives an overview about the GPS-technology and the integration into the modelling software.
Gün, Onur. "Composing the Bits of Surfaces in Architectural Practice." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 859-868. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Emergent design tools, with enhanced modelling and parametric manipulation capabilities are encouraging the exploration of new geometric typologies in the field of architecture. Designers are not only finding more opportunities to work with geometries of higher complexities but also becoming able to update their designs with simple formulations. After a decade of proximity with free form modelling tools, architects now have to become more aware of the critical relationship of design and construction. When the design is performed without taking the constraints of the construction the inefficient method of geometric post-rationalization unavoidably has to take place. So, the knowledge of the rationale should be applied from the very beginning of the design processes, and the digital models should be informed and controlled while being developed. This paper will present analytical strategies and methods developed for working with non-standard geometries in a geometrically and parametrically controlled environment. Each method is supported with custom scripts which run in both parametric and non-parametric computer aided design (CAD) platforms. Each script and method is manipulated for the next project over time and the computational tools created build up a library of surface generation, manipulation and subdivision tools.
Gane, Victor, and John Haymaker. "Conceptual Design of High-rises with Parametric Methods." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 293-301. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper describes the use of parametric methods in generating conceptual designs of high-rise buildings. We first assess current conceptual design practice at a leading AE firm and illustrate the challenge of satisfying a complex set of requirements with the tools currently used by the AEC industry. Few design options are generally developed and analyzed, better design solutions are most likely being overlooked. Parametric tools can potentially help address this problem by allowing designers to formalize and generate solution spaces that can be explored. But few case studies exist to document the construction and impact of these models. We present such a case study. We describe the variables, constraints, components, and rules in the model. We discuss the costs and benefits, and conclude with recommendations for expanding the use of parametric methods.
Donath, Dirk, and Luis Felipe Gon Bohme. "Constraint-Based Design in Participatory Housing Planning." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 687-694. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The research presented in this paper deals with the yet unexplored development of a constraint-based design strategy to support participatory housing planning processes in Latin America. The article discusses the implementation criteria of a constraint satisfaction approach to solving the building bulk design problem. This elementary problem to the architecture practice, is concerned with the synthesis of the boundary geometry from the volume, shape and allocation of the building and any part thereof located inside a given zoning lot. A legal solution to a building bulk design problem is a building cubature that complies with all the applicable bulk regulations. The case study applies to the common class of single-family house units produced in Chile and the regulatory framework implemented there. Two different computer implementation criteria are being tested in an ongoing series of trials. The first, and most extensively developed, makes use of Maxonis XPresso - visual scripting environment to set up a semi-automated controllable design environment that allows to create parametric feature-based 3D models of building bulk solutions. The second approach is currently being tested by using Ilogis OPL Studio - constraint programming environment to achieve fully automated search and 2D graphic visualization of the complete set of solutions to separate subdomains of the bulk problem.
Kaga, Atsuko, Atsushi Miyagawa, and Tomohiro Fukuda. "Construction of a Participatory Community Space Design System." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 99-106. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Residents active participation is necessary for a feasible community design from the planning stage to maintenance and management. it is necessary to show information related to a plan efficiently to facilitate understanding, and to consider a plan in a limited time. The purpose of this study is to develop a Community Space Design system (CSDS) that can use GIS data and Real-time simulation, in order to support comprehension of 3D area information during continuous development. Using CSDS, participants were able to treat various GIS data fixed, and a subject called the division and the disaster prevention of a community, which the object ground is holding can be understood visually on the same 3D space as real space. Because their solution was found, the design was accepted quickly.
Madrazo, Leandro. "Crossing Interactions between Architecture and Media." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 827-835. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The course Systems of Representation has been conceived as an open structure made up of relationships between different areas of knowledge. Art and new media, architectural theory and visual communication, graphic design and interface design, digital tools and manual techniques, are put into relation in the theory lessons and in the realization of exercises. The crossing interactions between the different media gives rise to an interdisciplinary and participatory education, with the support of information and communication technologies. The paper focuses in the content and results of two of the six themes that make the course: Text and Image.
Sowa, Agnieszka, and Ludger Hovestadt. "Decision Support in Architectural Strategic Planning." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 203-210. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The goal of this paper is to present the conceptual scheme of a research project focused on digital support of strategic planning in the architectural context. Firstly, the paper describes briefly the architectural design process in its strategic planning phase, focusing on problems that investors and planners need to handle. Next, commercial applications and current relevant academic projects are presented, showing different approaches to the use of digital technologies in strategic planning decision support. Subsequently, a thesis is introduced that if access to reliable data is ensured and modern digital technologies like case-based reasoning and evolutionary algorithms are used, it will be possible to generate, optimize and evaluate development solutions in early phases of architectural design process, providing a reliable decision support tool for architects and investors.
Colakoglu, Birgul. "Design by Grammar:." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 919-925. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The use of shape grammars in the context of architectural design project has not been widely explored. This paper describes hybrid analysis/original design applications of grammars in conjunction with student design projects and the issues in creating hybrid grammars that respond to a specific context. 
Dohmen, Philipp, and Kai Rüdenauer. "Digital Chains in Modern Architecture." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 801-804. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The “digital chain” is a continuous digital organization process, from the draft right into the manufacturing. Now one of these chains is applied on a mountain shelter. The individual steps are programmed and connected by universal interfaces. The computer is used not as passive digital drawing board, but as self-dependent tool that exerts influence on. Rules, dependence and aims, are formulated by the architect the computer can optimize due to its computing power. The role of the architect shifts thereby from the form designer to the role of a process designer. The aesthetics of the results is exciting and unusually, organically and self-evident - it is however always the result of given parameters. One topic is the complexity. The constructional modelling of the computers is a substantial support and easement. With programming techniques and parameterized construction, a high degree of individualizing becomes possible. A further point is efficiency. Construction with individual units, which former on was just realizable with high time and cost, become economically in this manner today. Furthermore computer-controlled machines work with precision and a detailing, which would be by workmanship neither temporally nor technically obtainable.
Dokonal, Wolfgang, and Michael Knight. "Digital Design Tools vs. Sketching in Design." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 843-848. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper reports on and updates a research project which seeks to address two fundamental questions. Does the current breed of user friendly 3D CAAD software really enhance our design abilities when compared to more traditional techniques like sketching and how might the use of such software inform how we teach the new generation of architectural students. It furthermore summarizes the results of a web questionnaire that tries to find out the current main tools in the early design phases amongst architectural practitioners in two European countries.
Bonwetsch, Tobias, Ralph Bärtschi, Daniel Kobel, Fabio Gramazio, and Matthias Kohler. "Digitally Fabricating Tilted Holes." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 793-799. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Digital fabrication of building components by means of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines is of high interest for architects and the building industry. Common design software does not allow for utilizing the potential that lies within these new technologies. To fully exploit the power of digital fabrication, new design paradigms have to be explored. In our design studios we implement direct scripting, the use of images to control parameters, as well as dynamical and rule based systems, which enables the designer to exploit the possibilities of digital fabrication. This paper provides an overview of the tools we developed. We will present some of the results from these classes and discuss its implications for future tool sets. It is essential to apply the knowledge of production methods at the starting point of the design process, in order to fully benefit from these new technologies. We believe that novel design strategies emerge out of this shift in production. Our goal is to integrate the principles of digital fabrication into the design process, resulting in a more valuable and sustainable architecture.
Kirschner, Ursula, and Armin Ohler. "Digitized Planning Processes in the Revitalization of Buildings by an Interdisciplinary Project Study." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 717-723. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In the curricula for students of civil engineering and architecture software training courses have been integrated for long, but didactical training concepts with an application in practice including both the constructional and planning aspects are missing. This conference contribution shows the result of a research work carried out to empirically develop a manual for a constructional, digitally supported project work. It comprised the interdisciplinary teaching with a special focus on two examples of buildings in situ. Different types of presentation, picture software and CAD were used from the very beginning of the planning process in order to create a new form of didactics in teaching and learning. The basic local parameters and approaches are documented and analyzed. As a result of the empirical research work presented herein a manual was developed which is useful as a guideline for the digital interdisciplinary project development in the revitalization of buildings. It reflects the experiences gained in this empirical research work and formulates the steps to take to carry out the project. The paper is presented with a 3-D-video projection on the basis of stereoscope pictures.
Kaijima, Sawako, and Panagiotis Michalatos. "Discretization of Continuous Surfaces as a Design Concern." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 901-908. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The increasing trend in architecture to create unconventional forms opened up a new area of investigations in the employment of computational methods in design and construction.  Our investigation is undertaken within a structural engineering firm, Adams Kara Taylor and focuses on finding ways to design structural solutions that respect criteria of efficiency, architectural intentions as well as intrinsic properties of the geometry. In this paper, we present various approaches on discretization where a project is presented as a continuous form, envelope or skin that must be subsequently subdivided in order to yield a framing or cladding solution compatible with different manufacturing, design and engineering considerations. The first part of this paper illustrates such a project where we applied and developed one of our discretization approaches. The second part of the paper focuses on generalization where we present a series of methodologies and corresponding software tools developed for the purpose.
Pektas, Sule. "Effects of Cognitive Styles on Performance in CAAD Tasks." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 177-183. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Outcomes of individual differences of learners are rarely discussed in CAAD education. This paper investigates interactions between architectural studentsi cognitive styles, as measured by Ridingis Cognitive Styles Analysis, and their performance in computer aided drafting and design processes. An empirical research revealed that Imager students outperformed Verbalisers in both drafting and creativity scores. Technical quality scores were found to be independent from cognitive styles. Contrary to the assumptions of design theory, Wholist students did not perform better than Analytics in design. The study suggests that examining the cognitive styles of students in CAAD education deserves attention and may facilitate for learning.
Flanagan, Robert. "Enhancing the Precision of Design Processes with Localized Time-based Media." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 327-332. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Time-based media in design, especially adaptations of film and television techniques, continue to hold much promise in emerging architectural design processes, one potential use is to overcome the conforming regularity of Building Information Modelling, or BIM technology, by guiding the ongoing implementation of design in the Building Information process. This research and its associated pedagogy explores the potential benefits of using video diagrams, or memory diagrams, in micro design environments, rather than as overall design compositions, to provide location specific design instructions within a larger conceptual framework to inform the BIM process. It also evaluates the related potential of architecture embedded with smart technology as an extension of memory diagrams in an expanded BIM function.
Asanowicz, Alexander. "Evolution of CAAD Teaching Methods." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 393-399. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In this paper evolution of CAAD teaching at architectural faculties will be presented. The CAAD will be considered as one of the components of skills and knowledge needed to support Design Studio. The paper is focused on the question “How architectural design may be combined with CAD teaching?i Formulation of this question results from opinion that position of CAAD in teaching of architectural design curriculum is different than other disciplines being taught at architectural schools. Introduction of CAAD to teaching schedules unquestionably and explicitly uncovered the need for changes within the whole schedule of study. Although great number of computer equipment is used, the students are still being taught as in the XIX century. In terms of achieved results it proves ineffective. Analyses have shown that evolution of teaching methods may be divided into four stages: software teaching, “personal involvementi,  “replacementi and integration.
Barrios, Carlos, and Christina Lemley. "Expanding Design Boundaries." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 483-489. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper presents a research in progress on the use of simple block units for exploratory design of complex patterns. The research explains how to use symmetry rules to expand the design language of Frank Lloyd Wrightis textile block houses. The paper shows a case study of how a single unit can be used to generate complex patterns and intricate arrangements.
Boytscheff, Constantin, and Marilu Sfeir. "Experimental Results in Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR): Searching Critical Design Factors within IVR to Increase Architectural Space Qualities." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 91-98. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The actual study in IVR (Immersive Virtual Reality) proposes a path which may provide meaningful information about the useris behaviours and difficulties to articulate in immersive worlds. Beyond it, we are searching for parameters to improve design qualities in such an architectural space. Our interest is to use IVR as a medium to research the quality of spaces in particular the atmosphere of such spaces, on the basis of peopleis interest and eagerness. Therefore it is important to comprehend the special conditions of the perception and the behaviour of the user in virtual spaces. The purpose is to understand the influence of an IVR environment upon the human being and to develop motivation for a personal use of virtual space as a learning environment. The aim of the analysis was to explore behaviour patterns in a simulated IVR environment. Moving from the dynamic of space, there arises a personal “space-time-systemi.
Correia, José, and Luís Romão. "Extended Perspective System." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 185-192. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper presents a new system of graphical representation, which has been given a provisional name: Extended Perspective System - EPS. It results from a systemic approach to the issue of perspective, sustained by several years of academic research and pedagogical experience with architecture students. The EPS aims to be a global and unified perspective system, gathering the current autonomous perspective systems and turning them into particular states of a broader conceptual framework. Through the use of in-built specific operations, which become particularly effective in a computational environment, the EPS creates and contains an unlimited set of in-between new states, which can also be considered legitimate and particular perspective systems. Considerations of its potential role in architectural descriptive drawing are discussed.
Oxman, Neri. "FAB Finding." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 785-792. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The distinction between material behaviour (mechanics) and material response (electronics) in the framework of responsive building skins has promoted unique design protocols for integrating sensor technologies into material components. Such a distinction results in the implementation of remote sensing devices post the process of material fabrication. Sensors are commonly perceived as electronic add-on patches which initiate mechanical output with response to electrical input. This work seeks to establish a novel approach to the integration of electronics in building skins which prioritizes material selection, behaviour and fabrication given a required task, over post-production sensor application. The term “FAB Finding” is proposed to describe an instrumental methodology facilitating the coupling of CNC fabrication processes with material organization and behaviour. It offers a design mentality which emphasizes the nature and the effects brought about by the use of specific fabrication processes which are by definition inherent in the design product and its behaviour. A light-sensing inflatable skin system is developed as a working prototype demonstrating such an approach.
Barczik, Günter, and Winfried Kurth. "From Designing Objects to Designing Processes: Algorithms as Creativity Enhancers." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 887-894. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. We discuss the creative potential of algorithmic design processes in architecture which use computer-based tools through presenting student work employing these techniques. We propose ways of further amplifying these creative possibilities by employing evolutionary design strategies.
Dieckmann, Andreas, Sarah Netten, and Peter Russell. "From Oh-Oh to OO." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 663-669. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The architectis profession has always been that of an organizer, a coordinator. In an increasingly specialized society such as ours there is an even greater demand for professionals with a wide range of management abilities. Todayis architect will have to organize and coordinate the flow, the means and the systematic storage of information in a project. For an institution that “produces” architects, it is, in the opinion of the authors, vital to not only teach modern / contemporary methods of organizing information but also to practice them. If architecture students are to comprehend the necessity of organizing skills & tools, they will have to encounter these from day one of their student life. It is perhaps surprising (or not) that niversities are not necessarily the best example of svelte, efficient organisations. On the contrary, they are often run on age-old principles that never change, despite acknowledged faults. A faculty of architecture has been developing a system to enable all members of the faculty, (teachers and students alike), with a central service for the management of information. This service is a set of web-based tools for organizing and managing the curriculum and all matters connected to that. The objective of the platform is to increase efficiency and transparency in the administration of the faculty. The effect of the system has been to develop a community. Two main aspects buttress this community. Firstly, the users are made aware of the presence of other users through a “Who's On Campus” module. This module allows users to see which other users are logged in and using IP Addresses and WLAN Access Point Information, where they roughly are. Secondly, through a range of communication processes, informal communication is easily undertaken with other users online. The effect has been to improve the daily activities of the faculty. Achieving this has come about not by decree, but by convincing and observable benefits from the system.
Yalinay, Ebnem. "Gelassenheit: Dilemma of Computational Thinking in Architecture." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 275-282. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Computational design technologies and tools though operate on a very high level of decisiveness and precision, have a common goal to provide further possibilities of setting free. The terms of rule-based systems, algorithmic thinking processes, parametric design data-bases though drag us to a distant place deep-in digital environment, are all there for a better dwelling on earth and a better understanding of world. How architects relate themselves to their environment of design and realization is a problem of how they relate themselves to the world in the larger frame. Representational thinking initiated by modern science and technology which bases itself on the object quality of being by “enframing” things through their measurable aspects, causes modern age to be an age of “pictures”, where the touch with being is “in oblivion”. Martin Heideggeris concept of gelassenheit (letting-be, releasement and calmness) reminds the essential nature of thinking as not moving towards and forward with a will-to-power but by stepping back to offer the required offenheit (openness) to the coming-into-being of anything that is with a will-not-to-will. It is about being-in-the-world and dwelling on earth as a part of it. According to this paper, for a further understanding of architectural thinking, space, and production, and the changing paradigms of architecture in the computational era, Heideggeris concept of gelassenheit both provides a basis and surprisingly encounters us as a recent and future architectural condition.
Theodore, Dounas. "Generative Systems Based on Animation Tools: Shaping Alternatives to Structure and Form in Architectural Design." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 245-251. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Our system is based on computer animation tools, employed in the context of architectural synthesis. The pipeline of the tool consists of “timei and space design constraints of boundaries / objects affecting a given architectural design, with an output of alternative designs. The alternative designs vary from the original according to their temporal and/or spatial distance from the original object on the animation time-line. Specific tools [shape driven curves, speed and time-line functions,parent child relationships, boolean operations, arrays, lattices etc.] empower the designer with the ability to transform his original idea in almost every way the designer likes in a completely visual, interactive and straightforward manner. The solutions sets change according to time, speed, location, configuration of the objects and/or the constraints and rules the designer/user configures. Previous work on our tool stemmed from the rule based structure of shape grammars, but has evolved to a tool where the designer does not have to define a rule set beforehand but does so as his idea evolves during design. The animation tools used are form independent (that is the designer can use any two- or- three-dimensional form) and can represent structural decisions in a given design. The independence from form makes the tool suitable for almost every kind of architectural design, be it experimental, real or conventional while the ability to represent structural decisions and relations of parts in a design implicitly help the designer/user acquire a clear picture of each design and solution set. Finally the possibility of a structured graph representing each solution is discussed, where the designer can evaluate the merit of an individual solution in terms of conforming to the initial core idea or where alternative spatial configurations evolve in a different structure from the original design.
Hofer, Michael, and Andreas Asperl. "Geometry in the CAAD Curriculum." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 385-392. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Modern architecture takes advantage of the greatly increasing design possibilities. Yet, architects are not just a new group of CAD users. Scale and construction technologies pose new challenges to engineering and design. We are convinced that those can be met more effectively with a solid understanding of geometry. Thus, an academic CAAD curriculum has to meet these requirements. We introduce our approach taken at TU Vienna and focus on the first-term mandatory course on geometry for architecture.
Rüdenauer, Kai, and Philipp Dohmen. "Heuristic Methods in Architectural Design Optimization." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 507-514. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper focuses on optimization methods and their role in the “digital chain” in architectural design and production. These methods were developed in the research phase of the project “New Monte Rosa Shelter” to improve cost efficiency and to adapt the design for the specific environmental and constructive constraints of the site. The New Monte Rosa Shelter is a project designed by students for a mountain shelter at high altitude. For transportation and construction reasons, optimization was required to minimize costs, material, and weight of the structure. For this project a series of programs using genetic algorithms were written to optimize the geometry of the wooden framework. These programs were combined to create a digital toolset, giving the architects direct output of surface information from the framing data, and allowing for output as a three-dimensional model. This optimization toolset gives creative control back to the architects themselves, who can now transform and manipulate the architecture. This paper describes the overall process, and outlines one specific optimization tool, a program that enables architects to “fill” the wooden framework automatically with different material and construction systems and understand the cost and efficiency implications based upon the structural analysis software and the programmed heuristic methods.
Díaz, Joaquin. "Holistic Cost-Information Management in Building and Construction." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 533-539. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In the building and construction industry the need for a more holistic enterprise-overlapping information exchange is obvious. Especially the management of cost-information from the very beginning design-phase to the point of controlling and billing is a very important task. Co-operation between architects, construction companies, engineering consultants, and authorities using digital information exchange becomes a strategic success factor. Solutions which cover all stages of the value creation chain such as e-tendering, cost-estimation, cost-determination, and production must be anytime accessible and platform independent. While the basic conditions of IT-infrastructure (digital networks) are today fully sufficient, the compatibility between the systems and the information to be exchanged represent the largest problem. The main problem is in the range of different systems and various information domains. Transformations and adjustments of the exchanged information still cost nearly 40 % of design and engineering time. Efficient information exchanges require a universal exchange format, which makes the existing systems compatible. This paper describes the German approach for a holistic information exchange in the building and construction industry. Furthermore the new approach to integrate the German GAEB Standard and the Industrial Foundation Classes (IFC) and the possibilities that can be obtained out of this integration will be explained.
Balakrishnan, Bimal, Loukas Kalisperis, and Katsuhiko Muramoto. "Implications of Representation-Presentation Distinction in Developing a Presentation Environment for CAAD." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 133-139. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Computer mediated environments are increasingly used for design communication to bridge the gap between geographically and temporally separated stakeholders. We look at the design process, its communication through computer mediated environments, and stress the need to recognize the subtle distinction between representation and presentation in this process. Building on representation-presentation distinction, the case for a multi-modal design presentation environment is made and the challenges involved in developing such an environment are discussed. We conclude by demonstrating a prototype of such a presentation environment.
Koutamanis, Alexander, Gilles Halin, and Thomas Kvan. "Indexing and Retrieval of Visual Design Representations." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 319-326. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Indexing and retrieval of architectural visual databases refer to multiple levels of abstraction and various points of view which may co-exist in a single image. This complexity is increased by the necessity to structure architectural images into well-defined, meaningful representations. We propose that the correlation of domain analysis and general methods and techniques provides the background to the solution of most problems and a deeper understanding of the structure of indexing and retrieval in architecture.
Duarte, José. "Inserting New Technologies in Undergraduate Architectural Curricula." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 423-430. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper describes a set of curricular tools devised to insert new technologies in an undergraduate architectural curriculum. These tools encompass three courses and laboratories with advanced geometric modelling, rapid prototyping, virtual reality, and remote collaboration facilities. The immediate goal was to set up the virtual design studio and enable creative design thinking. The ultimate goal was to fulfill the criteria of intellectual satisfaction, acquisition of specialized professional skills, and contribution for the economic development of society that should underlie university education.
Heidrich, Felix, Peter Russell, and Thomas Stachelhaus. "Intervision3D: Online 3D Visualisation and Conferencing." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 757-764. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The use of Internet communication technologies in distributed teams has been carried out for well over 10 years. In this time, various methods to communicate and transfer information have been developed. A large amount of effort has been placed on enabling normal conversation to take place and it could be said, that with technologies like Skype, this is established. This enables planning partners to discuss, but we still need to convey what they are discussing. In short, the contents are still lacking. Technologies exist to allow users to share files or images, however this does not nearly reach the intensity or quality of discussions when partners are sitting together in front of a drawing or model. At best, screen sharing allows participants to see the same image but with low resolution and bad system response. The goal of the project is to allow distributed team members to discuss design issues with a common 3D model where participants can manipulate the model together in real time.. The speed of the system is also buttressed by the simplicity of the application: as a Java applet, it is possible to start the Intervision3D system in any browser or as a separate applet on any system. Files can be imported and then rendered using the JOGL Engine (Java Bindings for Open GL). JOGL allows the full Open GL suite to be used in rendering the model including lighting and textures: even normal PCs can do this quite well. The first implementation of the system is within an existing internet-based Design Studio and the paper elucidates how the first uses of the system have (partially) helped to increase the exchange of design ideas over the Internet. 
Post, Jelle, and Alexander Koutamanis. "Linking Measurement, Simulation and Prediction." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 515-522. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In the last decade Computational Building Performance Simulation (CBPS) has acquired the reputation of a solid analytical method. However, this reputation relies mostly on the admittedly advanced and robust theoretical and algorithmic basis of performance simulation techniques. On the practical side, building simulation has yet to live up to expectation. The main reason is that simulation use is not as widespread as it should. Applications are mostly academic, mainly validation studies. This has led us to the assumption that the applicability and usability of performance simulations require additional components that link them more closely to design processes and facilitate their integration in everyday design activities. In this paper we present the results of research into a working method for location-specific daylight simulation. Our method is based on the satisfication of a number of requirements common to many types of CBPS: validated simulation algorithms, flexible, fast calibration by means of real-world measurement, multiyear, location-specific environmental data, and support of both measured and mathematical environmental data models.
Lömker, Thorsten. "Location-Based Optimization to Foster Economic Decision-Making in Revitalization." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 311-317. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The existent and idle stock of buildings is extensive. However, significant information about these buildings is hardly available. The real estate owners are usually not known by prospective customers and they can be elicited only with substantial effort. But even if data about a building is available, it is difficult to valuate it precisely, because there are no standard classification techniques available, which would also consider the subjective subsequent requirements of the interested parties. The question whether a building is suitable for a certain subsequent use is therefore hard to answer. It involves an extensive expenditure of time and manpower. No reliable statement about a prospective reuse of a building can be made on site by prospective clients, i.e. buyers or renters. Therefore, we examined the technology needed by the customer to accomplish in-situ ad-hoc analyses of existing buildings. These technologies are namely remote sensing devices using georeferenced data, Location-Based Services and web-based optimization techniques. The aim is to give prospective clients the possibility to visit a building and run an in-situ usability simulation. To accomplish this, building information will be transferred between the building and the client through the use of common communication devices. These devices automatically connect to server-based applications, which compare the requirements of the prospective customer with the existing building and run remote simulations on concrete further utilization. By the use of georeferenced data alternative locations of unused buildings can be integrated into the simulation as well.
Richter, Katharina, Ann Heylighen, and Dirk Donath. "Looking Back to the Future." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 285-292. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In the early and mid 1990s the idea to apply CBR to the task of designing — in short Case-Based Design (CBD) — led to a considerable number of research initiatives across the world. Several promising CBD tools and prototypes were developed and enthusiastically celebrated within the research community, seemingly announcing a promising future for CAAD. However, because the predicted breakthrough failed to appear, an in-depth evaluation of six CBD tools was conducted in 2001 in search of reasons for this limited success. At first sight the situation has not changed much since then, yet a closer look reveals CBD research still to be quite active, be it sometimes disguised. This observation, combined with our belief in CBD’s potential for aiding professional and student architects, motivated an expanded issue of the 2001 study. This issue determines the position of current CBD research within the CAAD domain and uncovers focal points set by CBD researchers and the tools they created. Additionally it analyses the role of emerging technologies in overcoming earlier identified drawbacks of CBD tools in architecture.
Buattour, Mohamed, Gilles Halin, and Jean-Claude Bignon. "Management system for a Virtual Cooperative Project." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 125-131. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The paper presents on-going research aimed at the support of the management of building projects and the aid cooperative design. Today, The use of systems adapted to the cooperative design assistance for the building domain is complex. This results from the complexity of the cooperative work (difficulties in tracking actoris work, lack of most of the required information, coordination problems, implicit nature of most of the construction activities etc.) The paper will briefly review two data exchanging modes that we had defined. After, on the basis of this concept of cooperative design we describe a new model of a virtual environment aimed to takes into account the relational organization of the project and the semantic meaning of works. This research represents a new approach because it not based on management of documents but on all data relative to works. Finally, we use this new model for defining a design-aided tool, to deduce advantages and limits of the “Virtual Cooperative Projecti. This system lets geographically dispersed project actors model the project context of a building. More specifically, it allows interpreting, using and exchanging project works in a centralized virtual environment during the building life cycle. This system uses IFC objects which associate in the same model the semantic and the 3D representation of building works.
Homma, Riken, Mitsuo Morozumi, Yasunobu Onishi, and Yuji Murakami. "Map-Based Repository of Image System for Sharing the Photographs in Design Studio." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 151-157. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In the preparation of urban designs, it is important for the designer to understand the space feature of the project district and to obtain the design resource from the site. In our design studio, students take pictures of a point of interest (POI) in the project district and discuss the design concept of the district based on the photographs. To share the photographs obtained by the students during the field survey along with the attribute information and shooting positions, the present authors have developed a Web-based image archive system as an effective resource for a design studio. This system registers the photographs taken in the surveying district on GoogleMap and simultaneously displays the images on a three-dimensional city model. In this paper, we discuss the development of a Map-based Repository of Image (MRI) system to share the photographs of a city. Moreover, we attempt to evaluate its pedagogical effect in the design studio.
Hamid, Bauni. "Mapping Design Process into Process Design: Implementing Collaborative Design from Social Psychological Approaches." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 711-716. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In this paper we view the process of collaboration as a social setting, rather than a problem of communication. It involves and is impacted by social, non-technical aspects, such as lack of shared understanding, conflict, availability and motivation of the participants, and other factors that can facilitate or impede the goals of the collaborative enterprise. We propose to use a social and psychological approach. The ideal model should be a collaborative design system that can facilitate the socially constructed interactions among participants, as well as the communication of information. The proposed system should enable participants to assess the typical problems of collaboration. We build up our effort towards this goal by developing a representation system of collaborative design process. In this research we attempt to map collaborative design process into process design by using our proposed representation system. Our intention is to enable the existing system visually representing the integration of design stage to the whole construction process: since project planning until building operation.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Matching Representation to Perception." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 551-558. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Visual representations play an important role in mobile architectural guides, especially with respect to the identification of buildings, i.e. matching internal representations to external ones (the documentation in the guide) and the perceived scene. By restructuring this documentation into networks of significant architectural entities and features a guide is enriched with flexible, economical means for supporting building identification under the typically variable conditions architectural travelers have to endure.
Sass, Lawrence, Dennis Michaud, and Daniel Cardoso. "Materializing a Design with Plywood." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 629-636. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper is presentation of resulting physical models that were used to explore the relationship between design modelling in CAD and digital fabrication with plywood sheets. We explored a process in making tabletop models with digital fabrication machines and thin plywood sheets. Each was built from combination of predetermined wood joining techniques and structures. These models are believed work as simulation of full scale constructs that inform CAD modelling. Results illustrate the limited potential of parametric modelling and inform fabrication and assembly of design variations.
Koszewski, Krzysztof, and Stefan Wrona. "me, Architect." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 415-422. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The paper is focused on selected issues of preliminary education of computer techniques as part of first semester curriculum at a school of architecture. Teaching methods based on previously known research are tested and explored in a situation of clearly defined constraints: lack of architecture-specific knowledge of the novices and varying levels of their computer skills. The paper is based on three-year experience. Although we are all in the mood of saying: we do not teach software any more, we still have to think how to encourage students to develop their skills in computer techniques to the level that can liberate them from tool-dependence. The aim is to direct them towards task rather than tool oriented actions. Learning while designing causes the design process to be less important than representation. On the other hand, classic software courses are a thing of the far past and are not suited for design-oriented curriculum. There is a need to find alternative ways more suitable for a preliminary architecture IT course.
Benton, Sarah. "Mediating between Architectural Design Ideation and Development through Digital Technology." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 253-260. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Negroponte (Negroponte 1969) described how the creative thinking of a designer can become affected by the “machine” urging the designer to draw a distinction between “heuristics of form” and “heuristics of method”. This ensured that by taking advantage of digital technology a symbiotic relationship was maintained between both of these. To date architects have investigated digital tools for generating form and imagery with increasing success, but have arguably fallen short of using those tools for advancing their design methods. The research presented here explores questions not solely focusing on the use of the tools, but on heuristic methods of the profession, to examine the interconnectiveness of the design method and the tool in a symbiotic fashion, to examine the nature of creativity. This paper is taking a critical standpoint about the place of digital tools in an architectis method in the pursuit of poetic architecture and, in particular, its representation, to enable speculation, as opposed to prediction, of ideas in the design process from the early phases. The issue is discussed through the findings of my doctoral research case studies that have proved germane to my particular enquiry, that is, digital mediationbetween design ideation and design development.
Cheng, Nancy. "Mining a Collection of Animated Sketches." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 447-456. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. How can we make a set of digital assets useful for teaching and research? As we amass data, it is crucial to select and interpret what is presented. This paper describes how a collection of animated drawings has been made accessible through an iterative development process. It describes a Web matrix interface, interpreted lesson formats and an assessment method. The assessment method of tallying achievement on design criteria before a lesson reveals inherent challenges of the problem, tallying afterwards reveals the effectiveness of the lesson in addressing those challenges. Using space-planning layout problems, we found that students readily picked up simple graphic devices such as measurement grids, adjacency diagrams and thumbnail sketches. Students showed less immediate improvement on skills that require juggling of multiple criteria, such as meeting all programmed area size requirements.
Mannan, Ashik, and Mohammed Saleh Uddin. "Natural Behavior and Computational Logic for Optimization of Architectural Design." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 493-498. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In recent years much avant-garde architectural work has been dominated by a process based theoretical paradigm, inspired largely by various thinkers, critics, and philosophers. This particular “process practice” attempts to address the paradox at the heart of contemporary production, by looking dialectically at the relationship between structure and ornament in nature with brainstorming and use of computer simulation. The goal of this paper is to develop a computer optimized system that can generate solutions for defining spaces involving a number of contextual relationships of activities. In particular, this research undertakes a pilot study (working team: Ashik Vaskor Mannan, Masrur Mamun Mithun, Lau Hon Yee Damien) on pattern and behaviour in nature and implements the findings in to an architectural problem. The Initial Research focuses on Theory of emergence, Analysis of swarm behaviour, and Analysis of ant system. Specific urban sites with different behaviour patterns are chosen in Barcelona where this process is implemented to examine how they response to this course of action. This Bottom up method provides an optimum solution instead of a top down solution for an architectural problem
Henriques, Goncalo. "New Digital Procedures through Animation:." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 269-274. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Several digital techniques are currently being used in architecture, and animation is certainly one of the most popular in the professional and academic realms. However, its use is frequently limited to representational purposes as an end stage in the creative process. This article will focus on the alternative use of animation techniques as generative tools. It will show how such new generative tools can affect the creative process of form generation by contextualizing these phenomena within advances in complex system theory and in computation. Despite the use of such animation techniques be recent in architecture, the article will pinpoint some examples of how they were used to shape architectural form by taking into account the forces present in specific design contexts.
Pratschke, Anja, and Marcelo Tramontano. "No Man is an Island (Even in the Virtual World): the Online_Communities Project." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 703-709. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This article is based on the results of various research projects on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to reduce the digital divide in poor neighborhoods at Nomads.usp Research Center (Center for Studies on Interactive Living, www.eesc.usp.br/nomads). Among them is the Online_Communities project, which has been financed by the Sio Paulo State Research Funding Agency - FAPESP since 2004 involving four research groups from both the Architecture and Computer Science departments at the University of Sio Paulo and various public and non-governmental organizations. The Online_Communities project proposes a diversified approach in order to cover the different aspects of the conception and implementation of a specific geographical complex communication system in a mixed reality scenario. It includes its network, the requalification of a local telecenter, meta-recycling activities, setting-up a graphic interface and presenting some workshops.
Nicholas, Paul, John Bahoric, Garry Ormston, Peter Bowtell, and Mark Burry. "No Place for Drones." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 117-123. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Building design is a process often divorced from considerations about construction. Digital design methods are increasingly challenging the historic relationship between architecture and its means of production, but this extended reach is not necessarily accompanied by extended understanding or leverage of the production process. We present an urban sculptural project, The Travellers, in which digital techniques resolved critical issues of design, documentation and fabrication, but more importantly facilitated highly beneficial processes of negotiation. We suggest that this case based research has implications for future interactions between designers, makers and managers, shedding additional light onto issues of negotiation, responsibility, risk and trust that are often critical to the pragmatic undertaking of making.
Lang, Silke. "Novel Approaches to City Modeling: Generation and Visualization of Dynamic Complex Urban Systems." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 343-350. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This year, for the first time in history more people are living in cities than in the country. This fact induced us to look at the topic of city modelling from different sides. In this paper we introduce novel approaches that contribute to the generation and visualization of dynamic complex urban systems. We distinguish reality-based and generic city models. On the one hand we look a three dimensional models of urban environments. On the other hand we are looking at the key challenges and trends that will shape future cities. We are drawing parallels to functional models of brain circuitry. City modelling as a case in point provides the basis for our research to arrive at a transdiciplinary theory of design and modelling.
Fricker, Pia, Ludger Hovestadt, Markus Braach, Benjamin Dillenburger, Philipp Dohmen, Kai Rüdenauer, Steffen Lemmerzahl, and Alexander Lehnerer. "Organised Complexity." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 695-701. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The objective of the paper is to demonstrate the application of architectural research and design methods from the fields of strategic design, digital production and design chains to facilitate the completion of demanding large-scale building projects. Since we have concentrated the efforts of the past few years on various aspects of building practice while applying and testing the “Digital Chain” method to several concrete projects, we are now engaged with linking the individual phases in order to make the final step towards the reality of building practice. With this knowledge, we attempt to propose a new way of thinking in the design and building sector based on digitized planning processes.
Spaeth, Benjamin, Klaus Schwägerl, and Isolde Stamm. "Parameters in the Design Process." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 869-877. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Ce niest point le navire qui nait de la forge des clous et du sciage des planches. Ciest la forge des clous et du sciage des planches qui naissent de la pente vers la mer et croissance du navire'(Saint-Exupéry, 1948). The paper describes and analyses a course held at Stuttgart University, Germany dealing with the application of parameters in an architectural design process and the transformation of this process into a relational digital model. The course is introduced with special emphasis on its tasks, aims and the implicit didactic concept. It is also investigated if and how a design approach resulting from the identification and determination of parameters can lead to a creation of a unique shape. Finally the impact of the practical exercises for the final design is evaluated. The courseis structure is enhanced by the “Vorklassei from Bauhaus and the conviction that using software is taught most effectively by working on an own specific project. At the very beginning the students get the chance to gain experiences with parameters through preliminary practical exercises, like folding and modelling and analysing. Then the use of the software is taught in several compact sessions in parallel to the design process. The impact of the early practical exercises on the subsequent design process is remarkable. Special attention is therefore given to this aspect. The aim of the lessons is to produce a proposal for the design task. The proposal is then to be presented as a parametric model representing either the global shape or a constructive detail.
Matcha, Heike. "Parametric Possibilities: Designing with Parametric Modelling." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 849-856. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. We describe several projects in our ongoing research and teaching activities in the field of parametric design. The work is based on the premise that using parametric modelling and customized mass production for designing, planning and realisation, the creation of a spatially rich and varied architecture which is specific for individual programs, users and contexts is being made possible. We demonstrate this design approach by explaining three different design methodologies of various projects. The specifics and the experience of the use of various CAD software tools will be described: scriptable CAD programs like VectorWorks and CAD software with integrated parametric modelling like Unigraphics.
Coates, Paul, and Christian Derix. "Parsimonious Models of Urban Space." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 335-342. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper sets out an approach to urban modelling derived from early work with cellular automata and agglomeration models. In these cases the models are an example of distributed representation, where the rules built in to the model are replicated in all the discrete components of the model be they cells or agents. This is the classic AI. / AL paradigm of emergent systems. The paper describes the main structure of the models, and presents examples of the use of this modelling process in design education, pointing out the way dynamic models allow mapping on to interesting speculations about the dynamic of the city, and its social systems. The paper ends with a report on the use of such models as a design decision support system and how they will be used in planned work in master planning in the London Thames gateway area under the UK govt. sustainable communities initiative.
Ozel, Filiz. "Pattern Language and Embedded Knowledge in Building Information Modeling." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 457-464. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. When Christopher Alexander (1977), trained both as a mathematician and an architect, published his seminal work “The Pattern Language” in the 1970's and introduced the concept of “pattern language”, computers were still in their infancy, CAD did not exist as we know it today, and computer information modelling was not even in the radar screen of researchers. Design communication simply meant manual drafting. With the concept of “pattern language” (http://www.patternlanguage.com/), Alexander proposed a systematic method for dealing with complexity, which proved itself to be more relevant than ever in the digital age. The concept is often cited by computer scientists as a precursor to object oriented modelling. This study explores the potential of “pattern languagei for structuring building information and design knowledge within the framework of the recent developments in building information modelling (BIM). In this article, comparisons to the approach taken by the software engineering industry who embraced the idea of “patternsi as a systematic way to software development are also made. While Alexanderis pattern language proposes a method with which the designer can incorporate his/her experiences and design vision systematically into the process of designing, software industryis approach to patterns describes a method for providing problem and solution patterns (i.e. prototypes) that can be used repeatedly during software development. There is obviously a significant difference between the original intent of the “pattern language” and the way it was later used in other fields including software engineering and business solutions. At the cross section of architectural design and software engineering, Building Information Modelling (BIM) software can benefit from carefully incorporating a combination of these two approaches into its structure as patterns.
Oxman, Rivka, Roey Hammer, and Shoham Ben Ari. "Performative Design in Architecture." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 227-234. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In view of current developments in the theory and technology of digital design, certain potential for novel direction in virtual prototyping is beginning to emerge. In this paper an approach for the employment of virtual prototyping as a generative environment for performance-based design is proposed. The term combines both the concepts of performance and digital generation. In creating digital design environments for design the generative capabilities are incorporated within performance-based simulations. The potential of performance-based simulation as a digital design methodology in architectural design is explored. Experiments in digital architectural design illustrate this approach. Works in a framework of an “experimental digital design” are presented and illustrated.
Serbest, Asli, and Mona Mahall. "Playing with Game Theory: Deviant Strategies for Digital Design." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 261-268. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Since variety is mostly important to novelty and creativity within design, we looked at Mathematical Game Theory, as an approach establishing a cyclic, because continuously restartable, type of simulation, exploring alternative progressions and variations of systems. It is this systematic production of variants we played with for digital design. We came up to methods of random and chance, of error and noise, of interaction and cooperation, all of them deviant strategies that have existed within arts and music before.
Paraizo, Rodrigo. "Precise Uncertainty: Notes on Historical Modeling." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 367-374. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The objective of this work is to examine the current practice in historic buildings and sites modelling, in order to suggest some possible guidelines for future implementations in the field. These implementations are meant to improve the use of digital modelling as a scientific tool for historical research and heritage presentation, focusing first on information management and then discussing representation techniques for rendering levels of accuracy, departing from the experience in LAURD/PROURB to some future research possibilities.
Lang, Silke. "Predicting or Inventing the Future?" In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 499-506. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In this paper we discuss the parallels between architectural design and strategic marketing in industry to advance the theme of predicting the future in architecture. Just like companies face the challenge to organize their R&D activities, architects develop different strategies for their designs. Looking at the architectural design process as well as at strategic planning done in companies we recognize that they have much in common. To advance the theme of predicting the future in architecture we draw parallels to strategic marketing in industry. Both activities require a clear vision regarding customer requirements, available technologies, and areas of operation and emerging markets. We report on a successfully implemented method Pictures of the Future at Siemens and relate it to architecture and show possibilities to expand the role of architectural design in the future. We opine that it is now time to expand the architectural curriculum towards Knowledge Architecture.
Martens, Bob, Alexander Koutamanis, and Andre Brown. "Predicting the Future from Past Experience." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 523-531. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Tomorrow's architectural practitioners seemingly need to gain an overview of, if not master, a wide range of computer aided architectural design applications, from image making to Building Information Modelling (BIM) to digital fabrication. However, we are sceptical whether there is wide recognition that there is value in a broader appreciation of the underlying principles that organize these applications. CAAD software, once an exploration of architectural ideas, has become a commodity. But as digital tools have become more ubiquitous the relationship between practice and research has, broadly speaking, become more ambivalent. What has been lost, and what gained, in this change?
Terzidis, Kostas, and Jan Jungclaus. "Predicting the Future: Open Source CAAD?" In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 815-819. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper will present a prototype open source CAD system developed recently by a join effort among Harvard, CMU, and MIT. The system is composed of an expandable user interface, a data structure that supports 2D and 3D objects, image processing capabilities, animation, network communication (TCP/IP), serial interface, and file processing modules that can be expanded. The idea was to develop seed modules that can interact with one another in order to be modified, expanded, or new ones added. The language used is Processing and the setup is made to be implemented in an open source format (i.e. GNU and Google Code). The system is an open source universal architectural CAD system that will hopefully serve as the software standard for education and practice.
Ulmer, Andreas, Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze, Pascal Müller, and Luc Van Gool. "Procedural Design of Urban Open Spaces." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 351-358. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper presents a novel approach for the automatic creation of vegetation scenarios in real or virtual 3D cities in order to simplify the complex design process and time consuming modelling tasks in urban landscape planning. We introduce shape grammars as a practical tool for the rule-based generation of urban open spaces. The automatically generated designs can be used for pre-visualization, master planning, guided design variation and digital content creation in general (e.g. for the entertainment industry). In a first step, we extend the CGA shape grammar by Müller et al. (2006) with urban planning operations. In a second step, we employ the possibilities of shape grammars to encode design patterns (Alexander et al., 1977). Therefore, we propose several examples of design patterns allowing for an intuitive high-level placement of objects common in urban open spaces (e.g. plants). Furthermore, arbitrary interactions between distinct instances of the vegetation and the urban environment can be encoded. With the resulting system, the designer can efficiently vegetate landscape and city parks, alleys, gardens, patios and even single buildings by applying the corresponding shape grammar rules. Our results demonstrate the procedural design process on two practical example scenarios, each one covering a different scale and different contexts of planning. The first example illustrates a derivation of the Garden of Versailles and the second example describes the usage of high-level rule sets to generate a suburbia model.
Yazar, Tugrul, and Birgul Colakoglu. "QSHAPER." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 941-946. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper presents an ongoing research about a new computer-aided design tool named QShaper (QS). It is developed within a visualization software as a scripted utility. It aims to assist designers and students in creating and exploring rule-based designs.
Zupancic, Tadeja Strojan, and Michael Mullins. "Reconfiguring Course Design in Virtual Learning Environments." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 647-654. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Although many administrators and educators are familiar with e-learning programs, learning management systems and portals, fewer may have experience with virtual distributed learning environments and their academic relevance. The blended learning experience of the VIPA e-learning project for architectural students offers some innovative insights into experientially oriented educational interfaces. A comparative analysis of VIPA courses and project results are presented in the paper. Special attention in the discussion is devoted to the improvements of e-learning solutions in architecture. The criterion of the relation between the actual applicability of selected e-learning solutions and elements of collaborative educational interfaces with VR are taken into account. A system of e-learning applicability levels in program and course development and implementation of architectural tectonics in courseware is developed from the evaluation process and which contributes to the discussion of future trends in architectural education.
Knight, Michael, Ghousia Saeed, Yu-Horng Chen, and Andre Brown. "Remote Location in an Urban Digital Model." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 581-587. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The work reported in this paper builds on previous work and deals with two particular aspects that contribute to effective interactive city modelling delivered to small mobile devices “on the fly”. Firstly, one strand involved in this study is probing into the perception and understanding of users while using different 3D city model representations on small screen devices. The second strand reported on is concerned with establishing the location of the remote users in an Urban environment.
Cenani, Sehnaz, and Gülen Çağdaş. "Representation of User Movements with Multi Agent Systems: Shopping Malls." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 559-565. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This study aims to analyze relationships of users and spatial configurations using agent-based simulation systems under certain circumstances in a virtual environment with agents that represent users of a shopping mall. Multi-agent simulation methods are used to study emergent behaviour patterns. A computer model is generated to simulate user movements in a shopping mall. Today, it is feasible to simulate the movement patterns of human societies at catastrophes like fire and earthquake within the buildings. In this study, exposing the dynamics of user-space relationship will help both students in architectural design education and professionals in practice, to observe and solve design problems before the construction of malls.
Sdegno, Alberto. "RQS - Reverse Quadratura for Surveying." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 615-620. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This research is based on the development of a new method for surveying single and double curved surfaces using an application of an ancient perspective method for representing a picture on a complex surface. The procedure enables the user to have some detailed cross-points of a grid in order to simplify the survey operation. Another phase of the work is to take some double-pictures of the element, according of the method I shall describe in the paper. The photographs of the single element, with the projection of the regular grid, can be processed with every Image-Based Modelling Software in order to obtain - with the usual calibration methods - the digital “mapped with reticulumi model of the curved surface we are analyzing. The final step enables the user to improve the quality of the textured model, switching from the grid-textured photographs to the simple-textured one. This research is part of a more general theoretical and experimental Academic research that has the aim of studying the ancient drawing methods of in order to find some analogies with the digital technology applied to the study of architectural buildings.
Serrato-Combe, Antonio. "SAFDE - Sadness, Anger, Fear, Disgust, Enjoyment." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 237-243. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper presents the results of “SAFDE”,  an experimental animation studio where sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and enjoyment were key determinants of the architectural design process. Students were encouraged to experiment with animated depictions of the fantastic - flying superheroes, ferocious velociraptors, battling starships, smoke, wind, fire, and awesome soundtracks, all within the most imaginative architectural setting. The task was to keep audiences suspended in architectural disbelief. They simply had to simulate astonishing animations. From an architectural education perspective the goal was to experiment with wind, movement, fire etc., and visualize how these elements can affect SAFDE and the ultimate emotional quality of architectural production. The presentation includes a DVD highlighting the results of the experimental studio.
Bridges, Alan. "Scenario-based Design." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 441-446. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The concepts underlying “scenario-based” design are introduced and put forward as a computationally-supportable alternative to sketching in early-stage design. From the analysis of a number of structured interviews with practicing designers, key design scenarios are identified. These scenarios are then generalised and outline guidelines developed for structuring early stage design, making use of TRIZ methodologies.
Sopeoglou, Eva. "Seamless Architecture." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 805-811. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper considers the influence of digital fabrication (CAM) technologies with regards to the creative and creating processes and within the specific parameters of materials. Under the title seamless architecture this paper is seeking to study relationships (on a literal and conceptual level) with the existence or not in architecture of “seams”. This study draws inspiration from past and present architecture and also design fields such as textile and sailmaking, by examining types of “seamless envelopesi which were only possible when advances in digital fabrication were met. Metal is currently widely used as cladding material. In antithesis to previous notions of steel being the “bones” of architecture, expressing “strength” and “sturdiness” textile quality of metal surfaces. Digital fabrication of sheet metals has contributed towards this shift. However, architectural metal skins presently lack this seamless quality of a “differentiated-single” object. Itis capabilities as cladding material have not been fully utilized, in light of drastic developments in digital manufacturing. Design integration of aesthetic, structural and environmental considerations into the design of metal cladding systems is bound to develop in the future. Considering metals as textiles (in terms of architectural concept and manufacturing) can provide new insights to their utilization in architecture.
Ramirez, Joaquin, and Peter Russell. "Second City." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 359-365. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In the era of communication, the participation in internet-communities has grown to become a motor for innovation in software and community platforms. The paper describes the hypothesis that, by creating a virtual city (or a second city) a new type of social, economic and scientific network is established, which is supported through visual communication technologies. The various users bring, per se, their own intrinsic motivation and requirements to the system. Nonetheless, a personal identification with a city/neighbourhood/house/apartment can be used to awake awareness and to foster participation. This is especially important when dealing with the city inhabitants. City modelling itself has been carried out for over a decade. Projects such as the city model of Graz have shown how city models can be established so as to be scalable for new information (Dokonal et al 2000). Furthermore, these city models have been used in the education of future architects and urban planners. The project described here moves in the opposite direction: the model moves out of the classroom to an interdisciplinary city-model-platform. The work described here is the conceptual model for a multi-dimensional data set that models the city. This has spawned a host of other projects using the model as a foundation for further interactivity development and the extension of the model itself. The paper describes the structure of the conceptual model and the first experience of incorporating diverse projects such those mentioned above. The model also is structured so as to be compatible with the XML standards being developed for city information (CityGML). The goal of the project is to create a data set describing the city that not only describes the geometry, but also the history (including planned histories) and nature of the city. In contrast to virtual realities, which attempt to create a separate world (e.g. Second Life), the Second City is intended as an interdisciplinary repository for the geometrical, historical and cultural information of the city.
Heylighen, Ann, Herman Neuckermans, Martin Wolpers, Mathias Casaer, and Erik Duval. "Sharing and Enriching Metadata in Architectural Repositories." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 401-408. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. All over the world, students and teachers in architecture have been developing learning materials in various digital formats. Unfortunately, the material is not shared across school boundaries, and thus not exploited to its full extent. Mostly, technical and organisational limitations hamper the sharing and exchange of learning material, although this would benefit the global community of students and teachers in architecture. This paper presents a recently launched EU-initiative called MACE ? Metadata for Architectural Contents in Europe ? which aims at creating a European-wide space for the electronic descriptions of architectural information to be used in architectural education. The idea is to exchange and enhance the metadata of as many as possible digital repositories in order to allow searches by distant partners. Real access conditions to the data still remain those specific for each repository. By describing and discussing this initiative in its early stage, the paper aims to benefit from the exchange of ideas and experiences with similar initiatives, and to trigger the interest of new repository owners to join MACE.
Economou, Athanassios, and Thomas Grasl. "Sieve_n." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 947-953. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. A computational approach for the generation of all partial lattices of two-dimensional shapes with an n-fold symmetry axis is presented and an application in formal analysis in architectural design is presented in the end.
Mark, Earl. "Simulating Dynamic Forces in Design with Special Effects Tools." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 219-226. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Special effects technology can facilitate dynamic sketching in the early stage of a design project without needing time-consuming effort. This form of sketching was tested in a design studio taught by the author. The study of dynamic materials and oceanfront site conditions set the stage at the beginning of a design process for a more comprehensive analysis later on. On the one hand, the risk of using special effects tools is that the visual look can seem convincing, but the apparent result is based upon an overly simplified set of assumptions. On the other hand, the use of such technology can be very stimulating to the design imagination without requiring complex analysis that may bog down the free flow of ideas. Once a greater commitment is made to a particular design proposal, more complete physical analysis and modelling can be undertaken to help avoid the risk of false first impressions. In the studio, cloth simulation was used to develop the design of tension membrane structures (tents) that retracted and unfurled in a series of complex movements.  Fluid dynamics effects were used in the design and development of related boat dock facilities. A wind-tunnel simulation tool was used to explore the performance of the tension-membrane fabrics under varied wind loads. The visualization techniques were complemented by • ¼ to • ½ scale assembled components created by rapid prototyping. The use of an actual wind-tunnel further tested the prototypes in some cases. On the whole, quickly implemented special effects were the starting point for reacting to and developing some initial design concepts and served as the basis for more complete physical modelling of prototypes later on. Using animation as a design method is well established in other work (Hirschberg 06).  Animation is also a helpful way to work out the step by step assembly of complex architectural form (Mark 95).  The special effects tools permit a larger range of initial design alternatives to be initially considered that are subsequently narrowed down by physically based prototypes that are more predictive of real world performance.
Tonn, Christian, Dirk Donath, and Frank Petzold. "Simulating the Atmosphere of Spaces." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 169-176. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. At present more than half of all building activity in the German building sector is undertaken within existing built contexts. Work in existing building fabric is an essential aspect of most architectsi activities. The development of a conceptual and technological basis for the digital support of design directly on site, in and with the available architecture is the main focus of the research project “Spatial Augmented Reality for Architecture”. This article describes one part of the research project: the sampling of colours and materials at a scale of 1:1 using Augmented Reality technologies. This makes it possible to project the colour and material qualities of a design directly onto any surface within an existing building, geometrically corrected. A first software prototype SAR-CA has been developed and then assessed using a user study to obtain a first evaluation of the prototype to determine the direction of future research. Future research areas are discussed at the end of the paper.
Cardoso, Daniel, Dennis Michaud, and Lawrence Sass. "Soft Façade: Steps into the Definition of a Responsive ETFE Façade for High-rise Buildings." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 567-573. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Façade systems are to a great extent responsible for both the energy-performance and overall aesthetic qualities of a building. The study presented in this paper explores the tectonic integration of a distributed computer network and the façade of a high-rise tower through the use of ETFE cushions, exploiting the soft nature of this material to embed a sensor network to provide touch-responsive changes of opacity in the façade, potentially improving the energy-efficiency of a building, and promoting a novel kind of dialogue between a space and its inhabitants. We propose that the inclusion of computer networks and displays in the built environment necessarily leads to new design philosophies that solve tectonically the dialogue between traditional materials and technological devices, and we put forward the first results of a research into a novel implementation of electrochromic “smarti cushions that allows for changing opacities of the façade elements of a building in response to human touch.
Haeusler, Matthias. "Spatial Dynamic Media Systems." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 69-75. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The core project of this paper is the development of a system that allows me to test the representation of information and ideas as “formi within space that is constantly generated and regenerated as a result of fresh input. The hypothesis being that this real time configuration of space using light offers a variety of new perceptions ranging from information sharing to public art never experienced previously. In this paper I consider the technical and media implications of extending conventional 2D screens, which are limited currently to architectural cladding, into a 3D matrix thereby inducing an alteration in spatial perception via the content animating the 3D matrix. The content is the result of an information injection derived from sensors of what from ever, where data have been captured and translated into a digital signal.
Wetzel, Jean-Paul, Salim Belblidia, and Jean-Claude Bignon. "Specification of an Operator for the Design of Architectural Forms: “Pleating”." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 821-826. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. During the creative phase, the architect introduces hypotheses and validates them by trying out various adjustments during the process of conception. The use of existing CAD tools during the conception phase is not compatible with the iterative aspect of this process. So the challenge is to define a model that takes into account the entire creative process in a trial and error framework during the conceptual phase. In this article we will define the “pleating” operator.
Tessmann, Oliver. "Structural Analysis as Driver in Surface-based Design Approaches." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 109-115. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This ongoing research argues for novel strategies to integrate structural analysis data in an architectural design approach. Instead of a linear procedure of synthesis, analysis and post-rationalisation a synthesis/analysis loop is installed that uses structural analysis data as design driver from early on. The approach is not aiming for a pure force-driven form-finding or optimization process but regards structural performance as one design criteria among others. Equilibrium between multiple parameters is aspired instead of a single-parameter-optimum. The research is conducted by a custom-made digital interface between a 3d modelling software and an application for structural analysis of space frames structures. Surfaces are translated into meshes with supports at user-defined nodes and then exposed to its dead load in the structural analysis software. The resulting nodal deviation is feed into an algorithm that steers the appropriate reaction towards the local stresses and deviations, taking into account the mesh topology, its supports and their position in the mesh. The initial mesh is optimized in shape transformed back into a double-layer surface model in the 3d software which evolves into an interconnected two-layer space frame. An instant feedback from synthesis to analysis and vice versa is installed. Analysing techniques migrate into the realm of synthesis.
Seifried, Philipp, Jochen Hoog, and Christoph Falkner. "Teaching 3D Generative Virtual Architecture with VIPA CONSTRICTOR." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 751-756. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. CONSTRICTOR is a novel teaching and learning tool to introduce students of architecture to the fundamentals of computational design. It was developed within an EC funded e-learning project, VIPA (Virtual campus for virtual space design Provided for European Architects). In this paper, we describe the general structure and technology of CONSTRICTOR and its application within the course “Synthetic Constructions II”) that aims at familiarizing students with concepts like cellular automata, swarms, shape grammars, path finding etc. CONSTRICTOR allows students to observe simulations, navigate through them and change the parameters that define and control them, thereby developing an understanding for the rules that govern their virtual environments. They can also change the geometry used in the simulations and work with and export their results. Students can modify the simulations at code level, combine them or write entirely new simulations. Finally some of the student work performed during and after the course is described, and an outlook for future work and further developments around the VIPA courses and the constrictor software will be given.
Bechthold, Martin. "Teaching Technology: CAD/CAM, Parametric Design and Interactivity." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 767-775. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The paper discusses a project-based approach to technology teaching, and examines the case of the mobile information unit (MIU) for Harvard University and its art museums. A student competition was held to explore design alternatives for this unit. The winning entry proposed an interactive, pixilated fiber-optics display as well as touch screens. Parametric digital modelling was used in the design and design development of the scheme. Research included the study of structural alternatives, fabrication methods and the modes of interaction between users and the MIU.
Tellios, Anastasios. "The Climax from a Conceptually Transparent Architecture towards a Digitally Transparent Image." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 935-940. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The image which is usually digitally produced using CAD products does evoke a series of distinctions compared with a traditional version of imagery which initiates to photography or even handcraftsmanship. The major shift observed, when expanding this issue in a period of digital dominance in architecture, is this imageis transparency. This transparency either appears as a tangible, almost tactile quality, or as a vague sense, accessible only to a watchful observer. In both cases, transparency animates the digital image of architecture using a certain morphological vocabulary, closely defined by its transparency itself. The procedure, with which transparency retracts a set of physical laws, automatically places its architectural product among the broad array of the so called “virtual environments”. The examining of digital transparency as merely an additional quality of the architectural matter, which allows the human sight to cross the material, while blocking the physical transition, is definitely a safe suggestion. It leaves, though, a whole field of qualities and identities unexplored. These qualities are connected to the perception of space as simultaneously uniform and fragmented.  One can argue, with a relative safety, that the physical usage of digital transparency as a choice of construction materials, as well as its potential as a representative tool, seem to renegotiate the terms and the conditions of architectureis very procedure. The very nature of the architectural image each time is a transparent, lightweight and ambivalent one.
Vermisso, Emmanouil. "The Dancing Curve." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 473-481. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In his work “Cybernetics”, mathematician Norbert Wiener (1941) pointed to the interdisciplinary areas between the sciences as a promising field for research, embracing this notion of “synthesis” fifty years later, the research discussed here uses the cornice, a typical element of Classical Architecture as the role-model for a series of experiments with light and shadow in nurbs software. This process encourages the development of digital design methodologies that go beyond current stylistic boundaries and hopes to set a possible threshold towards future design-based exploration.
Breen, Jack, and Martijn Stellingwerff. "The DigiTile Project." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 59-66. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The influx of computer-based design and presentation platforms, particularly in conjunction with computer aided physical modelling and manufacturing techniques, has stimulated a renewed focus on imaginative, innovative architectural product design. Essentially, the ambition of the DigiTile exercise was to stimulate the development of individual proposals for new kinds of surface articulations on the basis of a tile-like unit, or set of units. Inspirations varied widely: from precedents ranging from history to nature, as well as from contemporary design practice and graphic imagery. The prevailing freshness and technical inquisitiveness amongst the participants contributed to the generation and concretisation of distinctive tiling concepts, many of which have arguably not been seen before. The findings and conclusions are based upon the array of outcomes from the programme so far, as well from a very recent session. Furthermore, the paper highlights the kinds of opportunities for hands-on education-based compositional studies that we foresee in the near future.
Artopoulos, Giorgos, and Lampros Kourtis. "The House of Affects Project." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 777-784. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The House of Affects is an experimental installation to be part of the PerFormaSpace project pursued at the University of Cambridge, UK (DIGIS) and Goldsmiths College London, U.C.L. (Digital Studios), currently partially funded by Arts&Business East 2006, in collaboration with Econavate, UK who will provide their technical expertise in fabrication using recycled materials. This paper presents project-specific information and theoretical discussion on the design process and the computational methods used to develop advanced adaptive structural components in relationship to behavioural goals, criteria and constraints.
Houtkamp, Joske, Erik van der Spek, and Alexander Toet. "The influence of Lighting on the Affective Qualities of a Virtual Theater." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 77-84. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. In the development of 3D models of buildings, much time and effort is spent on enhancing lighting effects, to improve the perceived realism and quality of the models, and to create ambience. In an experimental setup, two versions of a 3D model of the Royal Carré Theater with different lighting conditions were presented to viewers, to assess the influence of lighting effects on their affective appraisals. A small group visited the real theater. The differences between the affective qualities of the models are smaller than expected, and participants seem to infer affective qualities and dimensions of an environment without paying attention to the specific lighting information. The affective qualities of the real theater show a correspondence to both versions.
Campbell, Cameron. "The Kino-eye in Digital Pedagogy." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 543-550. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. I am the kino-eye'states Dziga Vertov in his classic movie The Man with the Movie Camera (1929). The relationship of the cameraman, the subject, and audience is a dynamic that he investigates through cinema. It is also a dynamic that inspires an innovative way for advanced digital media to be explored in architecture pedagogy. This paper is focused on three ways to translate the cinematic relationship developed in Dzigais work to digital media in architecture: the way designers capture and manipulate digital media to make architecture, how the discourse of film and architecture can be informed by an understanding of the manipulation of digital media, and the role of digital media production as a form of research for architecture. The film is noteworthy because it is not a typical narrative screenplay, rather it is a visual experiment. In standard films the perceptions of space are manipulated through the camera and through other means, but the audience is rarely aware of it. However, Vertov is acutely aware of this dynamic and engages the audience by self-consciously using what would otherwise be considered a mistake - the viewer is aware that the camera looks at his/her own relationship with film not just the relationship of camera and scene. The translation of this into the classroom is that the same tools allow designers to be critical of their relationship with the medium and the way media is used to make architecture. This concept can be applied to any medium, but in this class it is applied to how students relate with produced motion images and editing that into a video production. The three elements described in this text are key aspects of not simply producing short films, but an opportunity to actually be introspective of architecture through an alternative media. Student projects include video montages that develop a cultural perspective on design and projects that are self-conscious of technology and how it impacts the production. The film-work necessary to achieve these productions is simultaneously conscious of the way in which the author relates to the scene and conscious of how that scene is edited in the context of the production.
Schlueter, Arno, and Tobias Bonwetsch. "The M.ANY Project - Exploring a Matrix Model for a Fully Digital Workflow in Architectural Design." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 895-900. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Current information technologies facilitate the design of highly customized architectures using complex geometries. In order to be able to realize such architectures a generative design approach including the seamless use of digital design data is essential. The m.any project displays a fully digital workflow from parametric design to production on CNC-machines. An irregular spatial structure generated by algorithms is controlled and manipulated through an especially developed software. In addition to the calculation of the complex geometry, the software also generates necessary construction elements for the realization. These elements are processed on computer controlled fabrication facilities. Based on the many project we illustrate how the common workflow in architectural design changes when fully incorporating digital tools. Instead of a linear sequence of design decisions we introduce the concept of a process matrix which meets the multiple dependencies of a digital workflow. The realization of a physical prototype is presented as the result of the implementation of the matrix concept on an architectural design task.
Troche, Christian, and Gregor Zimmermann. "The Radiolaria Project." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 621-628. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The Radiolaria Project aims to rethink architectural design and manufacturing techniques - it explores the filigree and beautiful skeletons of radiolarians, tiny marine organisms, with their striking hexagonal patterns, and transfers this concept to architectural scale and materializes it in a large scale structure.
Narahara, Taro. "The Space Re-Actor." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 195-202. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper proposes a computational method for visualizing animated human reactions to physical conditions that are described in a synthetic architectural model. Its goal is to add a sense of place to the geometry, and augment the representation of its spatial quality for designers and audience. Spatial qualities in architectural design cannot be fully evaluated solely by observing geometrical constructs without reference to inhabitants placed inside. However, imagining what happens to those inhabitants and appreciating their movement is difficult even for trained architects. The proposed method introduces a walking scale figure in a geometric model. Through agent-based computation, it moves inside the model and displays various behaviours in reaction to spatial characteristics such as transparent surface, opaque surface, perforation and furniture. This method lays a foundation for developing a new kind of software that overcomes the shortcomings of current design tools.
Vamvakidis, Simos. "The Sponge Epidermis: a Study on Minimal Surfaces and Porosity." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 927-934. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Materializing the mathematical is, advertently or inadvertently, a fundamental procedure in the production of architecture. Pedagogical models such as H.A. Schwarzis copper plate engravings from 1890 documenting minimal surface solutions as well as an extensive collection of plaster models assembled by Schwarz and Felix Klein in Gottingen in the early 1900's are seminal examples. In architecture, works such as Corbusiersi and Xenakisi Philips Pavilion or the details of Gaudiis Sagrada Familia display the overt presence of materialized mathematical models. Our work focused on a basic design problem: how to produce an enclosure system that maximizes cavities and niches as opportunities for moving across a threshold, Conventionally mitigated by the goal of producing enclosure, porosity was used as a means to dematerialize and make more a intelligent (bi-directional/permeable) enclosure system. Repetition, modularity and the presence of cavities - all conventional aspects of masonry systems of construction - were incorporated into the design of prototypes for a small-scale building enclosure.
Larsen, Knut Einar, Fabian Scheurer, Christoph Schindler, and Simen Stori. "The Trondheim Camera Obscura." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 51-58. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. This paper discusses a project where we, together with a group of 15 graduate students, designed, produced, and built small timber structure (a Camera Obscura) in Trondheim, Norway. The project was part of a full semester course at the Faculty of Architecture of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). The main purpose of the course was to explore the possibilities of prefabrication in timber construction based on file-to-factory processes (digital fabrication). Moreover, we wished to give the students the experience of building a permanent structure in 1:1.
Olmos, Francisco. "Training Programs for Art and Design Learning in the Virtual Studio." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 639-646. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Computers are very common drawing tools at university design studios but their potential as training tools in arts and design has not been explored in depth. In arts and design the learning process is based on “knowing in action”  (Schin 1983). Therefore, training is the keystone of the learning process in arts and design. This action takes the form of a reflective practice based on the manipulation of a media where each media has its own possibilities, its own limits in communicating design ideas or artistic concepts. With the introduction of digital media in the design studio, it is expected that reflective practices in design learning will experience a qualitative change. However, currently there is little understanding of how to use the digital and virtual media in a design studio as a learning tool (Szalapaj 2001), nor of the use of design training programs. In this paper the use of training programs in an experimental design course at a university level, is discussed. This experience was carried out as a PhD research experiment at the Faculty of Architecture and Arts of the Universidad de Los Andes in Merida, Venezuela. The training programs discussed here were designed for an eight week introductory design course in a virtual design studio. The programs were written in VRML and conceived as a virtual design training environment. Each program was designed for a specific design exercise, based on a learning strategy and an interactivity model proposed for object manipulation in design training. A comparative analysis of the data gathered from the course was made of training exercises done with a Cad program and with the training programs and crossing information with other sources. The experiment shows that the training programs, their learning strategy and the interactivity model proposed were successful in guiding the scope of the design exercises during the training process.
Tamke, Martin, and Olaf Kobiella. "Transformative Design." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 599-606. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The paper presents an architectural design method, which was tested in a master class for four times. It combines the education of complex digital tools with their simultaneous use in the whole design process of an architectural (experimental) building design. The design method contains four steps: thematic association, idea to form, form to function, site implementation. The four steps are open to subjective conceptions as well as to individual use of different digital tools but all related to the overall building brief. Tools mostly used and educated were 3d animation softwares. Scripting, rapid prototyping and VR have also been included. The presentation format is film or other interactive, time based media.
Ahmad, Sumbul, and Scott C. Chase. "Transforming Grammars for Goal Driven Style Innovation." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 879-886. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Shape grammar transformations have been used for developing new design styles by the systematic modification of grammars that encode existing styles. We make use of a style description scheme to aid grammar transformations for goal driven style change. A rule base was authored for the design of Greek temple facades, and was augmented with a style description scheme. These were tested at a student workshop wherein students were asked to develop grammars based on given style briefs. Results gained from the workshop confirmed that most students were able to assemble and transform grammars successfully. The method was found to be useful for teaching style and grammars to students and novice designers.
Pupo, Regiane, and Gabriela Celani. "Trends in Graduate Research on IT and Architecture: a Qualitative Comparison of Tendencies in Brazil and abroad." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 431-437. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Applications of information technology (IT) in the architectural profession have greatly increased in the past decades, ranging nowadays from concept design to automated construction. There are countless applications in the architecture practice that go well beyond representation, such as BIM software, generative design systems, and rapid prototyping and fabrication. For this reason, IT has been a frequent graduate research topic. In the present research academic graduate theses that dealt with IT in architecture since 1999 were surveyed and categorized, with the purpose of comparing the topics, applications and methods that are studied in Brazil and abroad. We hope that the differences found will help Brazilian architecture schools to update their IT curriculum, overcoming old prejudices against the use of computers in the creative phases of design.
Schindler, Christoph, Maud Châtelet, Barbara Wiskemann, and Oskar Zieta. "Umbrella Schoolyard Roofs in Zurich." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 35-42. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007.

The paper discusses a 1:1 student workshop on digital sheet metal fabrication organized in collaboration between ETH Zurich and the City of Zurich in 2005 and 2006. During the workshop a structure of fifteen sheet metal schoolyard roofs was designed, produced, and constructed by the participating students. The workshop was set up to explore how current academic topics such as CAD/CAM, digital fabrication with minimal tolerance, and design optimization with genetic algorithms could be incorporated in a permanent structure with legal building standards and a professional construction sequence.

Wojtowicz, Jerzy, and Tsukasa Takenaka. "Virtual Studio." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 743-750. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. Distributed design over networks is rapidly emerging as the new mode of architectural practice. Recent digital working environment of virtual studio is illustrated with three case studies. Projects highlight the social importance and advocate remote delivery of studio education and design practice in the sheared digital space.
Francis, Sabu. "Web Based Collaborative Architectural Practice Using a Fractal System." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 727-734. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. I have been working on an architecture representation system in India since 1991, that markedly deviates from the need of traditional drawings as we know. Over three million square feet of work has been done that took advantage of this system as it was being developed. The system has now matured sufficiently to be put into practice as a comprehensive architectural system of practice. It takes advantage of creation of just-in-time dynamic multi-organizations that can get formed (and dismantled) over the Internet on a project to project basis. The raison diEtre of the representation system is that it would expose the “source-code” (metaphorically) of any work of architecture to stakeholders, much the same way as an open-source software project exposes the internal representation to fellow developers. I believe the design of architecture must go through an “open source” process in order to produce socially responsible designs. Such a stance is explained in this paper. The paper also explains the system in detail, its mathematical basis and justifies the need for such an approach. It also explores how a collaborative practice can be put into place using the system in the context of Internet technologies.
Carrara, Gianfranco, and Antonio Fioravanti. "X-House - a Game to Improve Collaboration in Architectural Design." In Predicting the Future: 25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings , 141-149. eCAADe: Conferences. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Faculty of Architecture and Civil engineering, FH Wiesbaden, 2007. The current research we are conducting refers to a general model of architectural design. The complexity of the present-day design process is such that new ICT tools are required to consciously and appropriately govern the design choices. In particular, the tools that involve the early phases of the design process, when the choices crucial to the entire building process are made. In this perspective we are developing, together with a general model of architectural design based on Collaborative Design (CD), a simplified version of it - the -House game - that can be used to help university students appreciate the complexity of doing architecture and building. This “simplified version” of the general model is therefore a useful “design training tool” in the case of complex problems that can be solved by means of iterations, trade-offs, creativity, and group work, and at the same time makes it possible to highlight, define and link relatively little known aspects of design, such as scheduling, relations among operators, decision-making mechanisms, and process and design priorities.