Keywords Abstract
Oh, Sooyeon, Katsumi Tanaka, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "3D Digital Archive Experience for Historical Architectures." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 573-580. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005.

Digital archives that use 3D CG models, for example, relating to historical architecture and archaeological sites, are now commonly created for a wide range of purposes. Unlike actually visiting historical architecture, access to digital archives and browsing of their content are computer-related. Thus, users cannot easily gain a deep understanding of the content and are less likely to truly enjoy it. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to support collaborative experiencing of 3D digital archives related to historical architecture. To achieve this goal, we developed a prototype system for a 3D digital archive of historical architecture using VR technology. The system offers an interactive interface.

Koutamanis, Alexander. "A Biased History of CAAD." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 629-637. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The democratization and popularization of the computer has brought on fundamental changes to many areas related to computer science, including CAAD. Such areas have been facing the necessity to reposition and reorient themselves in rapidly evolving academic and professional frameworks. A factor that complicates the processes of repositioning and reorientation is that most areas have a short but varied and frequently incoherent history that may be poorly understood. The paper is an attempt to trace the history of CAAD by means of publications. This refers to both key publications and the thematic structure of the overall CAAD production. The underlying hypothesis is that CAAD derives from two distinct ambitions, the technology-driven, bottom-up development of architectural computer graphics and the more domain theory-minded, top-down automation of designing. A third, less popular ambition is the computerization of analysis and evaluation, which can be treated as a subcategory of the previous two. The results of the bibliographic analysis are summarized in a timeline that indicates a convergence of ambitions and approaches in the 1980s, the period when CAAD became a recognizable area. In the 1990s the democratization and popularization of the computer caused diversification of CAAD activities over a wide spectrum, ranging from support to end-use of computer systems to computational theory and including the development of advanced, specific applications in cooperation with other architecture, building or design specializations.
Kotsopoulos, Sotirios. "A Computational Framework of Composition." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 515-522. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. A computational framework of composition appropriate for the architectural studio is outlined. Rule schemata and rules are put into use for the generation of compositions from scratch.
Anay, Hakan. "A Critical Approach to the Use of Computers in Architectural Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 811-817. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. There are two dominant approaches to architectural and urbanistic problem solving: program based approaches and paradigm based approaches. Beyond these two, this paper proposes the critical/formalist approach as a paradigm for architectural design while summarizing the epistemological foundations of it, and investigates the possible contribution of the computers to this approach. The primary aim is to set a starting point for a more comprehensive future research.
Chitchian, Davood, and Henco Bekkering. "A Decision Support Tool for Decision Makers." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 715-721. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Many decisions in a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary process, as an intelligent activity, are too complex for decision makers to make choices based solely on instinct. The complexity stems from this fact that such activities cannot be defined precisely. Also satisfying goals depend on achievement of several interrelated tasks which cannot be solved simultaneously. Our decision support tool uses a mathematical application so called Analytical Hierarchy Process as a decision making aid. The developed tool provides a powerful and flexible mean for tackling the complex decision process into a simple concept of hierarchy, which incorporates factors influencing the decision alternatives in a systematic way.
Kabata, Michal, and Krzysztof Koszewski. "A Model of Dispersed Historic Architectural Knowledge Base." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 565-572. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper is based on the experience with creation of a small knowledge base about the between-war architecture of one of the Warsaw districts. Design, as a process of creation, combines processing of procedural and declarative knowledge. There is a vast amount of declarative knowledge of different kinds to be collected even before the design process starts. Advances in ICT (Information and Communications Technologies), particularly in such field as databases, data warehousing and knowledge engineering, make it a lot easier to design complex systems, which will allow to combine procedural and declarative knowledge. We used historic-architectural knowledge as an example of the second kind mentioned here. The sources of this kind of information are dispersed, the data is gathered in various formats, using different standards and for various purposes. Past experiences with creating detailed architectural heritage inventories in Poland led us to a conclusion that such a subject specific knowledge base may be a part of larger hierarchical structure, which still needs to be built. These are the reasons for adopting a data-warehouse-like structure, which responds with itis tools to such needs. The assumptions for such system are presented and the context-based structure is discussed. During our work we also came for some more general conclusions. These concern a need for disseminating an OpenSource Society ideas through all the keepers of information related to architectural heritage.
Wender, Katrin, Heiko Willenbacher, Reinhard Hübler, and Dirk Donath. "A Modular Navigation Layer for Information Retrieval in the Building Life Cycle." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 581-588. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. One cause for the mostly inconsistent and incomplete transfer of data within the building life-cycle is the insular nature of currently available software solutions for building planning / facility management. An IT-supported integrative platform could ensure the integration not only of all planning participants and their respective tasks but also all phases of the building life-cycle. A platform of this kind must provide flexibility on several levels: modelling / administration, model integration and of course data navigation and information retrieval. Because of the uniqueness and long lifetime of buildings it is impossible to develop a comprehensive and generically applicable building model as well as information requirements occurring during the life-cycle cannot be precisely defined in advance. A basic feature of the proposed approach is the ability to modify the building model (i.e. data structure) at run-time of the system. As a fundamental requirement the navigation layer of the integrative platform must support a variety of search strategies and be open for the integration of new modules. We describe an approach for an integrated platform for information retrieval across the entire life cycle of a building using a digital building model as a basis. The system architecture developed for the data and integration layers is described and problems associated with information provision for supporting decisions are examined. Based on the demands identified, an approach for a navigation and online search layer is formulated.
Hsieh, Chih-Wen. "A Networked Sketching Environment for Supporting Collective Creativity." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 197-204. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. In the early conceptual design, individual designers often make extensive use of sketches to explore design problems. Moreover, within the collaborative design sessions, designers communicate and discuss with each other by sharing their temporary sketches. These private design artifacts are used to externalize ideas and share them with other designers in order to facilitate the performance of design sessions. During such social interaction performance, some abstraction behaviours behind social activities like collective creativity are synchronized. However, the existent tele-communication tools proposed for separated design groups, slightly hold back the activities of collective creativity. It makes designers dedicated just in the table discussion, and negatively influenced on collective creativity sharing. Thus, some private design artifacts became isolated in tele-communicative environments. In order to respect this, we propose an approach that uses the notion of Digital Backchannel to realize the sub-channel communications. In this paper, we also present the implementation of a working prototype of groupware application. Finally, we discussed some points from our studies.
Steinø, Nicolai, and Niels Veirum. "A Parametric Approach to Urban Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 679-686. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. It is the thesis of this paper, that the application of a parametric design approach to urban design has great potentials for improving the systematic testing and subsequent argumentation for urban design proposals. Parametric design has so far mainly been applied to engineering. However, the “componentsi constituting an urban design also share similarities that may be defined parametrically. Aspects such as density, use, mix, form, space, and typology may all be defined parametrically. By doing so, it is possible to not only perform a systematic de-sign process, but also to evaluate the pros and cons of scenarios with different parametric settings. On the basis of a theoretical discussion, followed by a case study in the form of a student workshop, the paper will discuss the nature and scope of parametric urban design, draw some preliminary conclusions, and outline some possible perspectives for the development of parametric urban design.
Colakoglu, Birgul, and Saro Dionyan. "A Parametric Form Generator - ConGen." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 623-628. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper introduces a generative design tool for the early design phases. The tool is a prototype plug-in for 3D studio max, based on 3dmax script language. This plug-in generates form alternatives with symbolic representations. Designer sets max and min size values and positional relation rules for different sub-parts of the whole form. After the generation process designers can apply transformation modifiers and materials built in 3D Studio Max to the picked alternative. And get possible 3D form solutions that meet with the constraints of the design problem.
Mullins, Michael, Poul Kirkegaard, Rasmus Jessen, and Klitgaard Jens. "A Topology Optimization Approach to Learning in Architectural Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 155-162. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Topology optimization methods offer an interesting tool for architects and engineers as a rational basis for the choice of a structureis initial form, particularly as developments in computer software are compatible with this approach. This can be argued from ecology, resource savings, static load design, financial and a number of other pragmatic reasons. But in an artistic/architectural perspective these are not decisive. Analogical design qualities include a tectonic appreciation of the properties of materials, metaphoric interpretation of intention and considerations of context. The paper describes an attempt to unify analytic and analogical approaches in an architectural education setting, using topology optimization software. It uses as examples recent student projects where the architectural design process based on a topology optimization approach has been investigated. The paper describes and presents results obtained by the students during the project. Further, a discussion is delivered concerning the improved understanding of tectonic design obtained by the student during the projects.
Reffat, Rabee, and John S. Gero. "A Virtual Mining Environment for Providing Dynamic Decision Support for Building Maintenance." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 589-596. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. A virtual mining environment aims to provide dynamic decision support to improve building life-cycle modelling and management. This paper presents the system architecture of a virtual mining environment, its interfaces and a user scenario. This virtual mining environment integrates data mining with agent-based technology, database management systems, object-based CAD systems, and 3D virtual environments. A system prototype has been developed and implemented to support the automated feed back for building life cycle modelling, planning and decision-making.
Pita, Javier. "Analogous Models and Architecture." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 357-364. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Among the many possible ways of classifying the concept of “modelling”,  Maldonado refers to “homologies” when structure but not shape and function are similar, “analogies” when structure and function are similar, but not shape, and “isomorphismsi when structure and shape are similar, but function may or may not be similar. Traditional artistic representation would basically fall into the category of isomorphisms, whilst analogous models are to be found mainly in activities such as magic, play or industry. Other ways of representing reality, such as architectural models or drawings, are also traditionally regarded as isomorphisms. In the course of the last century, this panorama has been altered somewhat by the post-industrial or second industrial revolution in computing and communications. Using mathematical algorithms, the computing tool has an enormous capacity to describe things of extremely diverse nature: from the shape of everyday objects to relatively complex human behaviours, these can all be described using the common language of bits. Alongside developments in computing, the world of communications has been providing us with increasingly advanced means of transmitting information, including sophisticated systems capable of emulating our own perceptions. This paper is intended as a contribution to the theoretical debate conducted over recent years on the considerable shift that has occurred in architectural representation techniques. The analysis that follows highlights a two-fold change in traditional representation techniques: on the one hand, a change in the nature of the model (as is discussed in this paper), and on the other, a modification of the interfaces or communication and perception mechanisms of the model. The conjunction of these two factors has led to the emergence of representation modes that can no longer be regarded simply as isomorphisms of reality. Insofar as virtual spaces have the capacity for us to move, to interact, in short to inhabit them, they should be regarded as “analogous modelsi of architectural space. In other words, there has been a shift away from representation modes based on illusion in favour of those based on simulation.
Uddin, Mohammed Saleh. "Animation Techniques to Represent Graphic Analysis of Architecture: a Case Study of Richard Meier s Atheneum." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 341-348. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. It is debatable whether design can be taught. Frank Lloyd Wright himself mentioned that architecture should be taught by its principles, discerning the principles underlying in works by various architects. In the absence of thoroughly satisfactory methods of combining various means of digital representation for analysis, this paper investigates the features of 3D computer models, in particular, its animation environment to aid graphic analysis of built forms. Computer 3D animations, which are generated from 3D models, have an unparalleled capability to demonstrate spatial experience. Animations can also manipulate the constitute components of the spatial structure, thus illustrating analytically the composition of a building or object. The most significant aspect of 3D animation is in its flexibility of manipulation of various physical and rendering attributes of a 3D model. For the purpose of case study analysis, Richard Meieris Atheneum in New Harmony, Indiana is chosen for its clarity in design elements and demonstration of applicable principles. Through various animation clips, the basic techniques are illustrated as an effective method of communicating concepts of graphic analysis.
Schoch, Odilo. "Applying a Digital Chain in Teaching CAAD and CAAM." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 125-129. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper describes a successful approach in teaching caad and the use of state-of-the art caad-technologies in postgraduate architectural education. Since itis first set up in the year 2002, variations of this curriculum were applied on an annual basis. Its main characteristic is the efficient transfer of knowledge and practical use of more than 10 central techniques in CAAD/CAAM (computer aided architectural manufacturing) within the tight period of 6 months. Recipients were international postgraduate students from the field of architecture and related disciplines. Their studies were a full-time course lasting 12 months with six months modular introduction and 6 months individual and group thesis works.
Kvan, Thomas, and Siu-Pan Li. "Architectural Presentation with Laser Pointers on a Projection Screen." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 449-456. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. In a conventional group meeting environment with digital content presented on screen, the discussion may be dominated by a presenter who has the control of the computer. Being widely used in meetings, laser pointer is a potential tool that can tackle this problem. This paper describes a novel use of laser pointers in architectural presentations. A laser pointing system designed for a projector- and-screen environment was developed. The performance and usability of the system were tested. A controlled user experiment was carried out to compare the laser pointer with other interacting devices, including a mouse, a stylus, a trackpoint and a TabletPC. The usability was tested by using the system in a real application. Details of the laser pointing system, the experiments and the results are reported in this paper.
Couceiro, Mauro. "Architecture and Biological Analogies." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 599-606. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The study described in this paper evolves within the larger context of a research aimed at inquiring into analogies between architecture and nature, and more specifically between architecture and biology. Biology is a recursive source of architectural inspiration due to the tight relationship between form and function, the natural balance of forces and the corresponding geometric solutions found in living beings. Roughly, one can classify historical analogies between architecture and biology into two main categories. The first tries to mimic biological forms and the second biological processes. The specific goal of the described study is to find how new technologies can redefine and support the process of constructing such analogies. It uses as a case study a tower project designed by the architect Manuel Gausa (ACTAR, Barcelona) called Tornado Tower because of its complex shape inspired in the frozen form of a tornado. Due to the geometric irregularities of the tower, Gausais team had difficulties in designing it, especially because solving the structural problems required constant redrawing. This paper describes the first part of the study which primary goal was to conceive a parametric program that encoded the overall shape of the Tornado Tower. The idea was to use the program to simplify the drawing process. This required a mathematical study of spirals and helices which are at the conceptual basis of the external structure and shape of the tower. However, the program encodes not only the shape of Gausais tower, but also the shapes of other buildings with conceptual similarities. Such class of shapes is very recurrent in nature with different scales and with different utilities. Therefore, one can argue that the program makes a mathematical connection between a given natural class of shapes and architecture. The second part of the study will be devoted to extending the program with a genetic algorithm with the goal of guiding the generation of solutions taking into account their structural fitness. This way, the analogy with genetic procedures will be emphasized by the study of the evolution of forms and its limits of feasibility. In summary, the bionic shape analogy is made by the generation of mimetic natural forms and a genetic process analogy starts with the parametric treatment of shape based on code manipulations. At the end the program will establish an analogy between architecture and biology both terms of form and process.
Agostinho, Francisco. "Architecture as Drawing, Perception and Cognition." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 83-90. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005.

This work is about realizing that human perception is inherent to architecture. It is an asset and a trait subject to training and development in an empirical way, involving physical and manual action. It cannot be taught literally through convention and logic reasoning. It is a human achievement of great significance built on intellectual and scientific knowledge. It is something, being physical and empirical, that is supported on instrumental procedure. The computer, as a machine and an instrument, does not shorten the empirical experience of manipulation, on the contrary, it enhances J.J. Gibsonis findings about the perception of space in relation to eye and body movement. Being a cybernetic machine the computer may, and shall, evolve, and become perceptive. In order for that to happen, it is important to keep in mind the mechanism of human perception. Through producing a computerized model of a major architectural work, we develop natural knowledge about its physical features and the thought that lies underneath. To be able to use the computer as an instrument provides a user with explicit knowledge about its ways and mechanism that has to be made available. It involves training, which is to a great extent self-explanatory, and also explicit knowledge about the conventions that are being used, such as programming, reasoning and trigonometry.

Beilharz, Kirsty. "Architecture as the Computer Interface: 4D Gestural Interaction with Socio-Spatial Sonification." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 763-770. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Architecture today extends far beyond designing building shells and material, peripheral boundaries. Arguably, it has always been, and shifts increasingly in contemporary environments towards, designing space and interaction with space. Hence, the role of the designer includes integration of computing in architecture through ambient display and non-tactile interaction. This paper explores a framework in which the architecture is the computer interface to information sonification. (Sonification is automatically generated representation of information using sound). The examples in this paper are Emergent Energies, demonstrating a socio-spatially responsive generative design in a sensate environment enabled by pressure mats, Sensor-Cow using wireless gesture controllers to sonify motion, and Sonic Kung Fu which is an interactive sound sculpture facilitated by video colour-tracking. The method in this paper connects current information sonification methodologies with gesture controller capabilities to complete a cycle in which gestural, non-tactile control permutes and interacts with automatically-generated information sonification. Gestural pervasive computing negotiates space and computer interaction without conventional interfaces (keyboard/mouse) thus freeing the user to monitor or display information with full mobility, without fixed or expensive devices. Integral computing, a blurring of human-machine boundaries and embedding communication infrastructure, ambient display and interaction in the fabric of architecture are the objectives of this re-thinking.
Hadjri, Karim. "Assessing the Use of Contact and Non-Contact 3-Dimensional Digitization in Architectural Design Studios." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 319-327. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper presents a recent experience related to the use of 3D digitization and digital modelling. This was done with the aim to bridge the gap between physical and digital models produced by students as part of their design development exercise. The paper examines the use of 3D digitization in architectural design education, by using both contact and non-contact scanning technology. The main aim was to translate physical models using 3-Dimensional digitization in order to create accurate digital copies. Finally, the paper discusses the results of the use of 3D digitisation and the digital modelling process, and assesses the benefit of this technology within an educational setting.
Guéna, François. "Assisting 3D Modeling from Documents." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 467-476. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper presents research in computer modelling that ARIAM team of the school of architecture of Paris La Villette has been developing for several years. One of the aims of this research group is to develop computer systems that assist architects in modelling existing buildings or monuments from heterogeneous documents or data as drawings plans, sections, photos, measures taken on site etc. In spite of advances in computer recognition itis a long way to have a system that could automatically recognize, from any bitmap document or photo, relevant architectural objects and automatically build the model these documents represent. However, if we could define a knowledge base about a particular domain, it would be possible to develop a system that could interpret specific documents that represent some kind of building or monuments. But, even in such limited domain, it is difficult to build an exhaustive knowledge base and user-interactions are generally required. We argue that a user could mark relevant information on the documents and thus facilitate the process of interpreting. The system we propose has three components: a graphical user interaction tool, an analyzer of documents and user interactions, and a generative tool that produces the required model. As an illustration, the paper presents a system we have developed which assists an architect in modelling a 3D mesh of gothic vaults for a finite elements analysis.
Ducla-Soares, Gonçalo. "Audiovisual Interfaces for Designing and Thinking about Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 295-302. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. We propose to use computing technology in order to explore the ideas put forward by the Bauhaus regarding the incorporation of musical thinking in visual design and design education. Five audiovisual interfaces were developed in order to study how basic design knowledge can be naturally conveyed to students using music as an intermediary.
Romão, Luís. "Can a Computer Implementation Based on Set Grammars Allow Emergent Shapes?" In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 507-514. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. In a previous paper, (Romio 2005) it was shown that a designer could create his own rules and combine them for application in a deterministic way using a computational device based on Set Grammars called SGtools. Using this device, the designer can assess the results in a visual manner and then change the rules without any knowledge of a programming language. This work examines whether SGtools can deal with emergence by coupling the representational abilities of Set Grammars with the search power of hybrid algorithm inspired on Genetic and Taboo search algorithms. The use of this search algorithm enhances the ability of the designer to explore solutions in practical time thereby enabling him/her to find unexpected, emergent solutions.
Chen, Hong-Sheng, Lan-Ting Tseng, and Chi-Hua Li. "CaseBox: a Tool for Case-based Learning." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 77-82. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This study reports on the development and experiment of CaseBox for case-based learning. Due to many advantages of the case-based reasoning, the authors create a learning environment for both teachers and students. In the digital era, multimedia and web-based education methodologies emerge auspiciously in schools. Teachers and students no longer satisfy paper-based documents, they research with case-based reasoning on the internet. CaseBox is proposed as a learning environment, which supports: 1) Teachers introduce cases. 2) Students study and reuse cases. 3) Members discuss design on the web. CaseBox is still under development and this study reports on the efforts and discoveries at the recent stage, and shares the debates of ideas and problems of case-based e-Learning.
Ebert, Oliver, Patrick Schoenemann, and Michael Lenhart. "Cityscape Computing System." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 383-389. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The central feature of the project is the development of a computer and its interfaces to simulate urban space and, in the context of an intermedia city tour, to allow citizens to creatively influence their urban space by manipulating media structures at chosen points throughout the city. A master plan is set up to re-cultivate public spaces and points of architectural focus. The city reacts interactively to the commands. A dialog is created between user and public space. The tour route is an open structure which can be expanded at any time. Via interfaces the user activates a reaction in the real city by making changes to the virtual model. This results in a dynamic space, a communication based on the results of this transformation. The user interface allows an information transfer between real people and virtual space. Virtual reality then reacts to the input by transferring that information back to reality. The direct influence on the architecture is effected by a media-transformer. It projects an additional perception level on to reality while monitoring the data via various analysis interfaces.
Mayer, Rosirene, and Benamy Turkienicz. "Cognitive Process, Styles and Grammars." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 529-536. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper argues that individual architectural styles are ways to express different theories of architecture. These theories, in turn, are related to the architectis design purposes or goals. In order to understand the cognitive process involved in the creation of a particular language or style goals have to be decomposed in subgoals, which will be related, step-by-step, to the vocabulary and syntactic rules adopted by these architects. The study should contribute to the development of models allowing the incorporation of cognitive processes in the generation of synthetic grammars. It is assumed that this will be made possible through the correlation between semantic rules and syntactic rules in shape grammars. As a case, this paper analyses semantic extensions of the architectural language of the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer defined by the constructive approach.
van Leeuwen, Jos, Frans van Gassel, and Ad Otter. "Collaborative Design in Education." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 173-180. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Collaboration in design can take place in a physical, social space, in a distributed or virtual environment, or in a combination of both. Design teams use a range of ICT means to support both synchronous and asynchronous communication. While these tools are designed to facilitate collaboration, the collaboration process still requires planning and organisation in a social context, which are activities that students and professionals need to learn. In current practice there is a need for designers and design managers who have the competences to collaborate in design and to organise distributed collaboration processes. At the department of Architecture, Building, and Planning at Eindhoven University of Technology, we have developed a course on Collaborative Design in the Master of Science curriculum. This course addresses both the organisational, social, and technical issues of collaboration in design. The paper introduces the objectives and educational methods used in this course. It describes the experiences of both teachers and students that were gained now that the course was taught in three subsequent years.
Voigt, A., Helena Linzer, Rainier Mayerhofer, and Hans Walchhofer. "Competitive Support by Visual Simulation." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 365-370. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. In this article the range of visual simulations for the competitive support is discussed and critically analysed by means of numerous definite competitions carried out within the working field of the authors - the range of experience concerning this matter covers a period of fifteen years (easily), all analysed examples were supported with the aid of CAAD/CAP-technologies. Recommendations are formulated and put forward for discussion. Furthermore the aspect of different acceptance of different presentational qualities (Levels of Detail) with the persons involved in the decision-making process are addressed (differences between socalled experts and laymen are particularly scrutinised).
Asanowicz, Alexander. "Computer Renderings - Reality is Overrated”." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 729-735. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. In this paper, two problems concerning truthfulness of computer-generated visualization are considered. The first one concerns relationships between reality and its representation by computer renderings. The second problem concerns the kind of representations people need. These problems are analyzed for static perception of architectural forms based on computer visualization, and for dynamic walk-through perception of urban space. The thesis of the paper is that many photorealistic renderings are excessively realistic and thus not true. In this context, a new question arises: do we need the true representation of an object? The author claims that we need “adequate” pictures. Adequate means a picture that is satisfactory in particular situation. The problem of equivalence of media (renderings and animations) and reality is not that important here. Much research is concerned with the truthfulness and falsity of information. However, they do not take into consideration that frequently what seems to be real exerts bigger influence on people than what is in fact real. Understanding this problem may help us in producing images that better correspond to peopleis expectations.
Sowa, Agnieszka. "Computer-Aided Architectural Design vs. Architect-Aided Computing Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 229-236. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper presents a recent design project - a group work of postgraduate students of CAAD Chair at Architecture Faculty at Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (henceforth ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland. In this project a broad variety of possibilities provided by CAD and CAM in architectural design was used, in terms of both the design and production. The paper will present the entire process step by step from its conception to production. Nowadays CAAD technologies seem to dominate not only in visualization and drafting. They have also started to play a more important role in the generation and optimization of the design, which have always traditionally been perceived as the domain of architects. Therefore, the focus in the paper will be placed not only on extensive usage of digital tools, but also on analysis of advantages and difficulties in architect/computer cooperation.
Oxman, Rivka, and Ruth Rotenstreich. "Conceptual Content of Digital Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 115-121. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Concepts related to digital architecture have begun to occupy a central role in current architectural discourse. Design concepts that have been the conceptual content of this discourse are now becoming integrated into the general architectural discourse. The research reports on this process of the emergence, migration, and crystallization of a new conceptual structure over the past decade under the influence of digital design and its emerging conceptual structure. The research presented in this paper examines the emergence of new ideas in architectural thinking that are related to digital architecture since 1990 until today. In order to demonstrate this shift, we have selected a representative architectural building type that is strongly and directly influenced by the conceptual content of the cultural discourse in architecture. A museum type was selected to represent features of the expression that reflects the changes and evolution of conceptual structures that underlie digital design. The research methodology is based on a method known as “content analysis”. Content analysis in our research was de- fined as including textual material in books, book chapters, essays, articles, and historical documents. A new approach for Design Content Analysis was accomplished employing the ICF analytical framework. In order to conduct a content analysis the text was coded and was broken down into categories on a variety of theoretical design themes. Our findings demonstrate that certain expressions related to digital technology have moved up from a low level descriptive function to a significant conceptual role in formulating the design content of architectural design. In our paper we describe the research, methodology findings and contribution to the definition of the conceptual content of contemporary architectural discourse on digital architecture.
Elger, Dietrich, and Peter Russell. "Crisis? What Crisis?" In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 547-556. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The paper describes the current situation concerning career opportunities in the field of architecture in developed western countries. Several aspects that are almost universal mark this situation. Firstly, there are too many architects chasing traditional work in competition with structural (civil) engineers. This is not surprising in consideration of the fact, that the architectural education industry produces far too many new architects for the economy to absorb. In Germany, the number is almost three times too many. Secondly, the needs of the building industry have changed over the past twenty years so that the skills that architects want to offer are not necessarily those that are sought. Lastly, the constant specialisation of work has continued unabated. Architects, as generalists, have idly watched their areas of expertise be usurped from neighbouring fields like civil and structural engineering The reasons for this crisis are manifold. In the schools of architecture, the discussions often deal with form or formal arguments, which, in fact, have little or no relevance to the building industry. This position was tenable so long as the clients were willing to accept formal arguments in order to receive buildings of high quality or current social relevance (i.e. current architectural fashion). With the dual aspects of globalisation and a shift to maintaining building stocks rather than producing new buildings, the tolerance for “architectural” discussions has been reduced even further. Indeed, the monetary pressures overwhelm almost all other aspects, including so-called green issues. What is more, most of the monetary issues are time based. Time represents, perhaps, the largest pressure in any current planning project. The clients expect expedient, accurate and inexpensive solutions. If architects are not able to produce these, the clients will (and do) go elsewhere. The authors argue that there remain serious problems to be solved for architects and the metier in general. Ever cheaper, ever faster and ever encompassing information technologies offer the architectural community a chance to turn recent trends on their head. By using information technologies to their full potential, architects can reassert themselves as the coordinators of building information and processes. Simply put, this means less photorealistic rendering  and more databases, which may be unappealing for those architects who have positioned themselves as “designersi and are able to talk long on form, but short on cost or logistics. Nonetheless, the situation is not lost, so long as architects are able to recognise what is desired from the point of view of the client and what is desired from the point of view of the architect. It is not a question of one or the other. Architects must be able to offer innovative design solutions that not only address the fiscal, legal and programmatic constraints, but also push the boundaries at to the position of architecture in the community at large. For educators, it must be made clear that the real potential architects possess is their encompassing knowledge of the building process including their expertise concerning questions of architectural form, function, history and art. Precisely while they are generalists are architects invaluable in a sea of specialists. The biggest hurdle to asserting this in the past has been the control of the vast amounts of information. This is no longer a problem and also no longer an excuse. In the education of architects, it must be made clear that their role dictates sovereignty over architectural information. Architectural Information Management is a necessary skill alongside the more traditional architectural skills. A brief outlook as to how this might come about is detailed in the paper. The authors propose didactic steps to achieve this. Primarily, the education of computer supported planning should not simply end with a series of lectures or seminars, but culminate in integrated Design Studios (which including Design-Build scenarios).
Hou, June-Hao. "Dancing Stairs." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 459-465. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper reviews empirical studies in product modelling and issues of CAAD, and then proposes a new way of thinking in object modelling for abstract design concepts - by using stairs as the subject of study because of its systematic nature and wide variety of forms. This object model works in the higher level over existing product models and deals with abstract concept only. It provides a mean for capturing design concepts and knowledge. Most stair generator in CAAD are only capable of making regular stairs, let alone those fascinating free-form stairs. The purpose of this research is to find a higher conceptual structure of stairs by the object modelling method, so virtually all types of stairs can be described and modeled. Therefore conceptual design in CAAD would be possible and useful for designers. A prototype on AutoCAD will be implemented to demonstrate how the conceptual structure works.
Brito, Tiago, Manuel Fonseca, and Joaquim Jorge. "DecoSketch - Towards Calligraphic Approaches to Interior Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 665-670. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Computer-Aided Design tools have long played an important role in architecture design. However, we need to go beyond direct manipulation to devise new tools that will expedite the interior design and decoration. Indeed, conventional CAD systems, while providing ever increasing functionality, do not provide equal support to the drafting and drawing tasks. This makes even the simplest drawings a complicated endeavor. Draftspeople struggle with different concepts that those learnt from their earlier days in school and have to think long and hard to translate familiar sequences of operations to commands which require navigating a dense jungle of menus. The term calligraphic interfaces was coined by us to designate a large family of applications organized around the drawing paradigm, using a digital stylus and a tablet-and-screen combination as seen most recently in Tablet PCs -. Using these, users can enter drawings in a natural manner, largely evocative of drafting techniques that were perfected for pencil-and-paper media. This paper presents a simple calligraphic interface to explore interior design literally from the ground up. The Decosketch application is a modelling and visualization tool structured around 2 _D architectural plants. Its purpose is to help architects or customers easily creating and navigating through house designs starting from the floorplan and moving to their three-dimensional representation. Moreover, both 2D and 3D representations can be independently edited, providing a natural interface that tries to adhere to well-known representations and idioms used by architects when drafting using pencil and paper.
Kouzeleas, Stelios Th.. "Definition of a Method of Limits of the Simplification of a Hall Model in a CAD System to Diminish Falsification of Acoustic Simulation Results." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 695-704. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005.

During the modelling, because of the sometimes complex architectural shape of halls, we were forced to introduce simplifications in order to carry out calculations and simulation operations on these halls, as the calculation software requires plane surfaces. This paper presents a developed tool adapted on a CAD modelling system (AutoCAD), which defines an “average limits” of the model simplification operation in order to control and diminish the falsification of calculation and simulation results on this model, such as the architectural acoustic simulation.

The process of the elaboration and the adjustment of the simplified models of the Grand Theatre of Bordeaux (GTB) based on acoustical measurements and their calculation results are described in detail in a previous article (Kouzeleas and Semidor, 2001). The analysis process of the consequences of the hall model simplification on the acoustical simulation results and the applied simplification methods are described in a PhD thesis (Kouzeleas, 2002).

This article is based on this analysis process in order to apply it on several simplified models of the Amphitheatre of the Architecture School of Bordeaux (Amphi-EAPB). The comparison in a CAD system (AutoCAD) of the acoustical calculation results and the areas after simplification of the simplified models of these two halls made with AutoCAD, via the developed tool adapted on the AutoCAD, permit to define a “limits average of a hall model simplification before the falsification of these calculation results.

Kouzeleas, Stelios. "Definition of a Method of Limits of the Simplification of a Hall Model in a CAD System to Diminish Falsification of Acoustic Simulation Results." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 695-704. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. During the modelling, because of the sometimes complex architectural shape of halls, we were forced to introduce simplifications in order to carry out calculations and simulation operations on these halls, as the calculation software requires plane surfaces. This paper presents a developed tool adapted on a CAD modelling system (AutoCAD), which defines an “average limits” of the model simplification operation in order to control and diminish the falsification of calculation and simulation results on this model, such as the architectural acoustic simulation. The process of the elaboration and the adjustment of the simplified models of the Grand Theatre of Bordeaux (GTB) based on acoustical measurements and their calculation results are described in detail in a previous article (Kouzeleas and Semidor, 2001). The analysis process of the consequences of the hall model simplification on the acoustical simulation results and the applied simplification methods are described in a PhD thesis (Kouzeleas, 2002). This article is based on this analysis process in order to apply it on several simplified models of the Amphitheatre of the Architecture School of Bordeaux (Amphi- EAPB). The comparison in a CAD system (AutoCAD) of the acoustical calculation results and the areas after simplification of the simplified models of these two halls made with AutoCAD, via the developed tool adapted on the AutoCAD, permit to define a “limits average of a hall model simplification” before the falsification of these calculation results.
Tseng, Lan-Ting, Feng-Tyan Lin, and Yi-Liang Chen. "Denotation of Concepts." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 205-210. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. In the process of co-design, there is no urban planner able to keep away from interdisciplinary collaboration. In order to negotiate with variant professionals, planners or designers usually spend so much energy to integrate information for their needs. Therefore, formalizing conceptual network among domain experts may be helpful to mine tacit knowledge. Based on cognitive semantics and ontological engineering, the research tries to identify concepts. An analytical mechanism is proposed to make terms comprehensible. The term “communityi is taken as the target artefact to illustrate possible contexts. Its senses and relationships would be explored in relevant knowledge domains.
Lyon, Eduardo. "Design for Manufacturing in Architecture." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 245-252. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper explores new ways to integrate manufacturing processes information in to design phases. Through the analysis of related fields and looking at the relations between its design methods and production processes, we analyze design processes and design representations that already have embedded in them specific ways to materialize through production the artifacts they define. Subsequently, we explore curved surface fabrication using cutting and bending technologies. As a summary, we conceptualize from this top-down development approach to design a framework that integrates design and construction in architecture, based on three possible applications fields: - Design processes improvement - Building production process improvement - CAD-CAM Tools development.
Kilian, Axel. "Design Innovation through Constraint Modeling." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 671-678. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper describes how constraint modelling can support design innovation. Furthermore, it lays out how constraints are employed in the construction and exploration of a modelis design space. The paper places this approach within the larger context of design exploration using computational and conceptual representations of design. Four general constraint types are identified and examples from several workshops and design studios are presented for each of the constraint types. The examples range from product design to structural design to fabrication issues in architecture. Based on a review of the literature the most common constraints are of geometric, topologic, functional, and quantitative type. Based on the case studies the paper describes how the different types of constraints can be used as design drivers and help in the exploration of solution space. In conclusion the paper identifies the addition of bi-directional properties to constraint modelling as the next challenge in improving the application of constraint modelling in design exploration. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates the necessity to develop better constraint models for cross domain design.
Sass, Lawrence, Kristina Shea, and Kristina Shea. "Design Production: Constructing Freeform Designs with Rapid Prototyping." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 261-268. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Creative fields such as architectural design require the production of many candidate ideas for visual evaluation and redesign. This paper presents a method to design and manufacture a free form model at a specific architectural scale in less than a day. This paper presents describes methods to produce, measure and reuse data for new model manufacture with rapid prototyping, generative CAD and shape grammar notation.
Lang, Silke. "Designing Tele Reality Using Media and Communication Technologies." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 433-440. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. In this paper we describe the use of media and communication technologies with a special notification on video systems for the design of a technological enhanced environment. We make suggestions how architects can design environments that are more flexible and dynamic. These environments are adapted to our changing social and cultural trends. Developments in media and communication technologies allow extending the real world to a so called Tele Reality. These environments will have a certain degree of intelligence provided via computer performance. Humans will be able to receive information form anywhere and at anytime. The focus is on expanding the availability of human resources.
Norman, Richard. "Digital Color as a Paradigm for 3D Modeling." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 723-728. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Johannes Itten wrote in the 1920is that seven distinct possibilities exist for the contrast of color: “Each (is) unique in character and artistic value, in visual, expressive and symbolic effect...together these constitute the fundamental resource of color design” Itten (1973). In either the digital world or in the world of painting, there has never been a more profound statement about color arrangement. Of Ittenis seven contrasts, the contrast of hue, value, and saturation, taken together have become a standard description of digital color today. As most projects reach the final stage of presentation, color selection becomes a possible paradigm for their development. It is customary to leave the selection of color to the end of a project  ?  if time permits, then the colors are changed to make the project “appear better”,  otherwise the selection of color is put in a pile of “good intentions”  ?  overlooked. Proposed here is an alternative, a method of selecting color “up front”. Student projects are used to illustrate just how a building, or even a group of buildings may be better illustrated if one bases a presentation on a successful and understood work of art. The use of a painting as a source of color is proposed as a specific way of working. Most libraries contain an abundance of examples. The web, too, has many paintings, painters generally have more experience at putting colors together than architects and usually do not mind if their color ideas are borrowed, Done right, the result can be a happy merger of idea, emotion, and color, providing another paradigm for studying digital modelling.
Sousa, José, and José Duarte. "Digital Desires, Material Realities." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 221-228. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Digital design and manufacturing technologies are progressively employed in building construction and architects interest in this field has grown widely, as many recent works, publications and scientific meetings demonstrate. By identifying some of the main reasons and expectations that were at the basis of the integration of CAD/CAM processes in the discipline, this paper examines the real success of these technological developments in contemporary architecture. By analyzing current work and literature the authors argue that there is often a discrepancy between the discourse on emerging new conditions for the practice, and the practical reality itself. To investigate this technological gap, the paper discusses in depth one of the most advocated promises of these new technologies: the feasible mass production of differentiation. Considering design intent, available CNC fabrication processes and material properties, it describes and critically analyses different strategies for building architectural surfaces, presenting specific examples from contemporary architecture. Realizing that there are technological limitations in the fulfillment of conceptual aspirations, this paper identifies possible innovative directions in building construction, based on the idea of structural performative surfaces. Finally, the authors reflect on the specific nature of architecture, distinguishing it from other areas that also employ digital technologies, to frame, from within the discipline, the technological expectations and its potential further developments.
Schmidt, Anne. "Digital Tectonic Tools." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 657-664. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Tectonics has been an inherent part of the architectural field since the Greek temples while the digital media is new to the field. This paper is built on the assumption that in the intermediate zone between the two there is a lot to be learned about architecture in general and the digital media in particular. A model of the aspects in the term tectonics - representation, ontology and culture - will be presented and used to discuss the current digital toolsi ability in tectonics. Furthermore it will be discussed what a digital tectonic tool is and could be and how a connection between the digital and tectonic could become a part of the architectural education.
Bailey, Rohan. "Digital Tools for Design Learning." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 131-138. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. There is growing consensus among architectural critics and educators that there exists an increasing divide between the worlds of architectural education and practice. New social and cultural norms, new materials, and current global concerns, like sustainability, have largely influenced the need for an improved balance/integration between design theory and practice. This places schools of architecture around the world under pressure to provide their graduates with the requisite skills that support responsible design characterized by good design thinking strategies. The Caribbean School of Architecture, in addition to being affected by this predicament, has other pressures on its educational offerings. The regionis lack of resources and particular social issues mandates that graduates of the school adopt a responsible attitude towards design in the region. A positive attitude to such issues as sustainability, energy conservation and community will only come about through an effective transmission of particular architectural knowledge that is relevant to the region. The challenge (globally and in the Caribbean), therefore, is the provision of an innovative and effective way of supporting the student master dialogue in studio, facilitating the transfer of “practical, appropriate knowledgei needed by students to create safe, purposeful and responsible architecture. This paper exists within the research paradigm of providing digital teaching tools to beginning students of architecture. This digital research paradigm seeks to move digital technology (the computer) beyond functioning as an instrumental tool (in visualization, representation and fabrication) to becoming a “Socratic machinei that provides an appropriate environment for design learning. Research funds have been allocated to the author to research and develop the information component of the tool with special reference to the Caribbean. The paper will report on the results of prior investigations, describe the reaction and appreciation of the students and conclude with lessons learnt for the further development of the teaching tool.
Pellitteri, Giuseppe, Colajanni Benedetto, and Salvatore Concialdi. "Distance Collaboration. a Comparative Analysis of Tools and Procedures." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 67-73. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Besides design theory and practice, curricula of architectural students should include some experiences referring to professional situations. Among these experiences, Collaborative Design is nowadays somewhat frequent. It is normally practised by large professional studios, using expansive software which is beyond what they can afford on average. Much academic research on the topic has also been carried out often resulting in the proposition of new and too complex description models of the building object. We think that students should instead get acquainted with such a design process: an experience has been planned and carried out in our Department for the purpose of practising the possible paradigm in a more ordinary context. Its purpose was threefold. First, making the students grasp the methodis potentialities and learn the right approach. Second, testing the practical suitability of the most widely used software. Third, comparing their relative efficiency. The software we used was: Architectural Desktop, AutoCad Revit, ArchiCad for Teamwork. We focused special attention on how representing and managing restraints, since they are the main source of conflicts. This was the hardest topic to manage. The results were partly positive inasmuch as the experience showed that it could be possible to adopt the Collaborative Design paradigm which is also used in the AEC field. The drawbacks emerged from the analysis of non-dedicated software are: a relative slow process for the lack of certain specific tools, a subsequent necessity of integrating them with different communication software, the difficulty of managing hard and soft restraints. However, in the final analysis, the experience can be considered as positive.
Gavrilou, Evelyn, Vassilis Bourdakis, and Dimitris Charitos. "Documenting the Spatial Design of an Interactive Multisensory Urban Installation." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 771-778. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The paper documents the design and implementation of an interactive multi-sensory environment (DETOUR) created by the interdisciplinary group VE_Design for an international open-air exhibition in Athens, Greece during the summer of 2004. The paper describes the creative process followed throughout the project and registers how computers, sensors and effectors have been utilised to either facilitate the creation of electronically mediated experiences or support the design. The architectural concept of the multi-sensory installation is analyzed in relation to its potential for creating communicative experiences as well as addressing physical form simulations. Notions such as ephemeral structures, parasites, social space, game as art and communication are discussed. The body - space interaction is investigated, enabling the team to elaborate on a modular construction. Finally, the impact of the work is discussed on the basis of recorded observations by visitors.
Kirschner, Ursula, and Nauka Kirschner. "E-learning in Creative Planning Processes." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 91-97. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This conference paper examines experimental design exercises on a simulated model in relation to designing on a physical model. In the initial design phases, the process of designing on both a haptic and digital model is analysed with regard to the didactic objectives. In this context, only form-related aesthetic aspects are discussed. The starting point is the didactic necessity of imparting to students the process of designing on spatial models. Reduced to form determination, the question examined is for which aspects of design theory the potentials of real and virtual models, as well as of the interaction of both types, can be exploited.
Biloria, Nimish. "Emergent Technologies and Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 441-447. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The recurrent issue of materializing a responsive architectural spatiality, emergent, in its conception and the need for collaborative substantiation of the design process, utilizing a multidisciplinary approach towards developing intelligent architectonics are exemplified upon in this research paper through a design research experiments conducted by the author: Developing concept prototypes for electronic media augmented spatial skins. The augmented skin project exemplifies a synergetic merger of scientific investigations into the fields of bio-mimetics, control system, material technology and embedded computation techniques.
Balakrishnan, Bimal, Loukas Kalisperis, and Katsuhiko Muramoto. "Evaluating Workflow and Modeling Strategies of Pen Computing in the Beginning Architectural Design Studio." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 163-170. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper investigates the impact of Tablet PCs on the workflow in an undergraduate design studio. We examined how well the students adapted the Tablet PC into their day-to-day design work and evaluated the appropriateness of the Tablet PC as a common digital tool used in an architectural design studio. This research involved observation of student behaviour during the semester and the conducting of a survey measuring various aspects of the studentsi use of the computers. A more specific goal was to compare the effectiveness of the pen versus the mouse as input devices for a three-dimensional modelling task in terms of both task time and strategies. Our assumption was that a change in input mode would affect the strategies and the performance. The results of a within-subjects, repeated-measures experiment carried out to elicit differences in input devices are discussed.
Zupancic, Tadeja Strojan, and Michael Mullins. "Excellence Criteria of Science in Architecture." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 639-646. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The relation of the architectural community to the generally established scientific rules always seems to be problematic. The same refers to the general trend of increasing quantity by neglecting quality at the same time. Nevertheless, the present situation of the rising quantification in comparison to the wider context calls for special attention. The extent of socio-spatial consequences requires the identification of the wider system references, useful to introduce the lacking cultural criteria into the general evaluation system. Combined with the identification of the “scientific” level in architecture, this could change the perception that architectural design lacks its scientific tradition. Both may stimulate architects to take their own scientific traditions more seriously, enhancing the tradition itself. The paper contributes to the discussion about the excellence criteria of science in architecture with the explanation of the “formal” proofs of relevance and vitality of architectural research to replace the favoritised “impact factor” differentiation, where it is still (or even more intensively) taken as the key criterion of research excellence.
Caldas, Luisa, and José Duarte. "Fabricating Ceramic Covers." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 269-276. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper describes a studio experiment developed with the aim of exploring the design and fabrication of innovative roof systems based on ceramic tiles using digital technologies. History is rich in examples of the use of ceramic roof tiles since the ancient world. Todayis systems derive from such ancient systems and fall into several basic categories depending on the form of the tiles and how they interlock. These systems present acceptable functional performances due to centuries of refinement, but as they have suffered little formal evolution in recent centuries, to respond to modern needs they require complex layering and assemblies. Recent technological evolution has emphasized the optimization of the tile production process in terms of time saving and cost reduction, and the improvement of product quality in terms of material homogeneity and durability. Little attention has been paid to the tile form and the roof system as a whole, including the assembly process. As a result, despite the variety and performance of existing designs, they are often perceived as outdated by architects who refuse to use them following a stylistic trend in architectural design towards primary forms and flat roofs. The challenge of the experiment was to take advantage of digital design and fabrication technology to conceive systems with improved performance and contemporary designs. The hope was that this could lead architects to consider integrating roof tiles systems in their architectural proposals. Results yielded five different roof systems. These systems are innovative from a formal viewpoint both at the tile and roof level. In addition, they are easy to assemble and possess better thermal and water-proofing performance. Digital technologies were determinant to enable students to design the complex shape of the tiles, to manipulate them into assemblies, and to assess the shape of the roofs, as well as their thermal and structural performance in some cases.
Johansson, Mikael, and Mattias Roupé. "From CAD to VR - Implementations for Urban Planning and Building Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 399-405. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. At present time, three-dimensional objects are often represented with 2D-data in urban planning and building design. In order to get all the involved parties to fully understand a certain project, this may not be enough. More and more projects therefore take use of the Virtual Reality (VR) technique as a complement to traditional 2D drawings and sketches. All the involved parties can then share a common frame of reference for all discussions regarding a certain project. Unfortunately, the technique is not yet adapted to fit the current building design process. In this paper, we present a solution for semi-automatic generation of a VR-model based on 3D CAD information and aerial photos obtained from the City Planning Authorities in Sweden. The data is imported to support real-time editing of terrain, roads and buildings. We also present a framework for importing 3D-models created in Autodesk Revit which enables a seamless integration of modern 3D CAD and VR-models. The features are implemented in a software developed at Chalmers Visualization studio (Gothenburg, Sweden) and technical details about terrain handling and speed-up techniques will be given.
Aish, Robert. "From Intuition to Precision." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 14-Oct. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005.

Design has been described as making inspire decisions with incomplete information. True, we may use prior knowledge, we may even think we understand the causalites involved, but what really matters is exploration: of new forms, of new materials, and speculation about the response to the resulting effects. Essentially, this exploration has its own dynamics, involving intuition and spontaneity, and without which there is no design. But of course we all know that this is not the whole story. Design is different to'craft', to directly'making'or'doing'. It necessarily has to be predictive in order to anticipate what the consequence of the'making'or'doing'will be. Therefore we inevitably have to counter balance our intuition with a well developed sense of premeditation. We have to be able to reason about future events, about the consequence of something that has not yet being made. There is always going to be an advantage if this reasoning can be achieved with a degree of precision. So how can we progress from intuition to precision? What abstractions can we use to represent, externalize and test the concepts involved? How can we augment the cognitive processes? How can we record the progression of ideas? And, how do we know when we have arrived? Design has a symbiotic relationship with geometry. There are many design issues that are independent of any specific configurations. We might call these “pre-geometric” issues. And having arrived at a particular configuration, there may be many material interpretations of the same geometry. We might call these “post-geometric” issues. But geometry is central to design, and without appropriate geometric understanding, the resulting design will be limited. Geometry has two distinct components, one is a formal descriptive system and the other is a process of subjective evaluation. 

Moloney, Jules. "Game Engines and Virtual Design Studios." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 55-62. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. A discussion of the outcomes from the use of a game engine based collaborative virtual environment for virtual design studios. By way of introduction the use of a game engine is positioned between the high end visualization capabilities of immersive VR, and the high dimensional accuracy of 3D CAD. Software development, which address problems related to content creation and communication lag, are reported. This is supplemented with a more general discussion of the motivations for design collaboration between architectural schools. We confer with other researchers that lack of engagement is more related to pedagogy, then as a result of technical issues. In conclusion we discuss the potential of game play to enhance virtual design studios in terms of engagement and deliberation
Celani, Pupo, Gelly Regiane, and Érica Pinheiro. "Generative Design Systems for Housing." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 501-506. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The present paper describes an undergoing research that aims at developing a generative design computer implementation with an outside-in approach, OIDS. The system will allow developing and visualizing context-based housing development designs. This approach will include both natural characteristics of the site and the existing neighboring buildings. It is argued that certain common urban design practices are the result of a simplification due to difficulties in dealing with the irregularities of the natural environment, which often requires the use of time-consuming methods. The computer-based application will provide tools for dealing with such difficulties, allowing designers to describe their own design rules. In an initial phase of the project, a tool that can subdivide irregular land parcels into equally sized areas has been developed. In further stages, other environmental variables will be addressed, such as solar aspect and prevalent wind directions. Eventually, even the designs of interior layouts should result from exterior forces. The resulting generative system is expected to facilitate and encourage the use of a more organic approach to building siting and design, bringing about the important discussion about which should be the main forces in the generation of the built environment.
Fricker, Pia, Mathias Ochsendorf, and Kai Strehlke. "Generative interfaces and scenarios - Interaction in intelligent architecture." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 107-113. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. New media and modern building automation have a strong impact on contemporary architecture. So far one could regard built architecture as static. These new technologies introduce a dynamic impulse to architecture. The objective of our research and teaching work is to demonstrate the impact of innovative systems on architecture in daily usage while providing building automation, multimedia integration and facility management services in intelligent networked buildings. These technologies, as described in this paper are integrated in our second year course for students of Architecture. By designing an interactive graphical interface for the lab they were asked to create a spatial scenario as a self running Flash animation. Thus real space is merged with virtual reality.
Petschek, Peter. "GPS rt 3d p - GPS and Real-time 3D Planning." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 737-741. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. GPS is the abbreviation for NAVSTAR GPS, which stands for Navigation System with Time And Ranging Global Positioning System. RT means Real Time. The research project is looking at the application of GPS and RT in Landscape Architecture.
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, Mohd Izani, and Tinauli Musstanser. "High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) Rendering." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 349-356. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper suggests a method known as High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) to pre-visualise architectural elements in three-dimensional (3D) environment used by Computer Graphic Imaging (CGI) film-makers to integrate 3D models and characters into live action background (special effect). This Intensification Research Priority Area (IRPA) grant project was developed to suggest ways to achieve effective rendering solution and composition of the final output. It will focus on experimental modelling of local cultural elements that provides solutions for radiosity-type effects and dirt shadings. A set of data from an established site (i.e. environment) was captured and represented in High Dynamic Range (HDR) file. This data is integrated with architectural elements (e.g. 3D objects) and then pre-rendered to get the 3D visualisation of the actual environment. Several different exposures were also captured and tested to establish the correct rendering and lighting condition. This earlier result shows that HDRI method provides accurate visualisation and drastically reduces the rendering time without compromising the data (images) with accurate lighting. This paper will demonstrate the process of HDRI, compare the visual impact with “radiosityi technique and other related rendering solutions and present the results, which are useful for architectural animation, simulation and other modelling developments.
Madrazo, Leandro, and Joan Massey. "HOUSING@21.EU." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 181-188. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. HOUSING@21.EU is a pedagogic research group, formed by five Architecture Schools in Belgium, Germany, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom, working under the auspices of the Erasmus Intensive Programme. The purpose of the research is to study the emergent forms of housing and living in 21st century Europe. The pedagogic goals are twofold: one has to do with architectural content - proposing adequate forms of dwelling for contemporary European societies, the other with pedagogy - integrating teaching methods and information technologies.
Dorta, Tomás. "Hybrid modeling: manual and digital media in the first steps of the design process." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 819-827. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper proposes a new paradigm in computer-aided design: hybrid modelling. Considering, on one hand the traditional sketches and mock-ups, and digital techniques on the other, this paradigm fuses the two and proposes a new technique that uses the performance of the digital with the capacities of the analog without replacing or imitating one or the other. In the development of design computer solutions, it is important to know the user well. However, most researchers propose systems that do not consider how designers actually work. Furthermore, two principal elements must be considered in the design process: shape and space. These aspects need to be approached with convenient tools that are adapted to the designers. This new paradigm is presented through two new innovative techniques: the hybrid mock-up (for shape) and drafted virtual reality (for space). A review of the implications of this paradigm on the design process is presented. Not only are the techniques fast and easy to learn and execute, but the results demonstrate that the designers can express both their individuality and the idiosyncrasies of their personal representations, important elements that are difficult to achieve with conventional 3D modelling techniques, especially during the primary stages of the design process.
Iordanova, Ivanka, and Giovanni De Paoli. "Hypotheses Verification on the Role of the Medium." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 99-106. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. During the last few decades, the new technology has transformed the profession of architects and designers, and now significantly affects knowledge and abilities required by students and by professionals in order to realize their projects. This article presents methodologies used, experimental observations held, and results obtained in a research project aiming at verifying several hypotheses concerning the influence of computer use on the creative design process development in the architectural studio. Using the informative potential of observations on existing teaching methods and configurations, the research project aspires to reinforce the innovations and to propose recommendations for the teaching of architectural design using computer technology and communication networks. Micro experiments were performed with third year students in architecture. The scheme of the observations includes two design sessions at the beginning of the term: one with paper-and-pencil and the other one on a computer, and one design session at the end of the term - only on a computer. Thanks to this scheme, qualitative comparisons could be made between free-hand and computer-aided design on one hand, and between design on computer at the beginning and at the end of the term, on the other
Hofmeyer, Herm, Harry Rutten, and Henk Fijneman. "Improving Design using Autonomous Spatial and Structural Generators." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 743-750. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. During a building design process, a structural designer transforms a spatial design into a structural design and this structural system can be improved by optimisation methods or expert views of other structural designers. The improved structural system allows the architect a new spatial design, which can be transformed or altered again by the architect. This design cycle can be repeated several times and is defined as interaction of spatial and structural design. Case studies are used to demonstrate that this interaction occurs in practice and is needed to improve building quality. This paper presents a program with more or less autonomous spatial and structural generators. Each generator will facilitate one direction in the interaction process. Then using both consecutively leads to a design method that provides interaction between spatial and structural design. For the spatial generator, named “room positioning with structural constraints” a space allocation technique is used including constraints that handle structural boundary conditions. A zone generator based on pattern recognition and shape grammars handle the structural design. A Prolog-2 program was developed to demonstrate the application of the two proposed generators. “Zone generation” is performed per building storey and thus represents a horizontal two-dimensional procedure. Similarly “room positioning with structural constraints” is a planar vertical operation. In future these procedures can be made three-dimensional.
Lai, Ih-Cheng. "Infilling Time into Space - a Pedagogical Approach for Evolving Space Using Digital Media." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 147-154. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper presents a pedagogical approach to explore the relationships between time and space by using digital media. Based on a pedagogical model called e-Space proposed by Lai (2004), we apply motion as a spatial issue to approach this study. Through integrating with the characteristics of digital media, students are encouraged to evolve architectural space and form by decomposing, re-organizing, interpreting and realizing the spatial composition. Simultaneously, diverse digital media applications integrated with design thinking in a design process enables students to bridge two design spaces - physical and virtual. This process introduces the students to a new approach of design-creation and form finding. Finally, we use an advanced digital media course as an example to understand the impacts of the pedagogical approach. The studentsi outcomes are also reported in this paper
Kieferle, Joachim, Jens Grunau, and Nancy Cheng. "Intercontinental Seating." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 47-54. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. In spring 2005, four universities and one manufacturer on three continents designed seating units in the virtual design studio “Intercontinental Seating”. With each location describing local characters and sites for the remote designers, we were able to keep focus on comparative cultural contexts in design. A central content management system (Typo3) proved to be an effective platform for project representation and communication, both for students and external critics. Further communication and presentation technologies have been tested. As a result of this workshop, the manufacturer will develop two designs with the students and intends to offer these seating units in his product portfolio.
Clark, Steve, and Mary Lou Maher. "Learning and Designing in a Virtual Place." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 303-309. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper reports on a study of the role of place in a virtual learning environment for digital media design. Using an immersive 3D Virtual World based on Active Worlds, we have created a virtual learning place for students in a Website Design course. The virtual learning place has two distinct parts: a classroom-like place surrounded by student galleries. Students can navigate and communicate (synchronous chat) within the environment in the form of an avatar (virtual person). We recorded the conversations and activities of the students in discussions held in the virtual learning place and applied a communication coding scheme to analyze their discussions. In this paper we present our approach to developing an understanding of the role of place and evidence of its effect on the conversations of design students in a virtual learning environment. We show how we identified the characteristics of place and specifically how it provides a context for identity and presence for supporting collaborative and constructivist student centred learning.
zkar, Mine Ö.. "Lesson 1 in Design Computing Does not Have to be with Computers." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 311-318. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper proposes basic design instruction as a possible setting for introducing the concept of design computing to architecture students in the first year of their education. The argument is based on two viewpoints. The first extends the positivistic understanding of computation to visual reasoning in general. The second recognizes visual design activity as a reasoning process. The author suggests that, in order for computation to be embedded in the ways of design thinking, an understanding of it needs to be built-in, both as concept and as practice, into learning about the design process. The study draws attention particularly to basic design instruction as a setting for design and computation to be learnt concurrently. Examples from the first year curriculum at Middle East Technical University are given to illustrate the discussion.
Serrato-Combe, Antonio. "Lindenmayer Systems - Experimenting with Software String Rewriting as an Assist to the Study and Generation of Architectural Form." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 615-621. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. In 1968 Aristid Lindenmayer proposed a series of mathematical constructs as a foundation for an axiomatic theory of form development. Since that time, Lindenmayer Systems or L-systems have evolved and found many practical applications in the computer visualization area. Generation of fractal imagery, realistic modelling and high quality visualization of organic forms and even music generation are now possible with the assistance of L-systems. But, is it possible to use L-systems in architectural design? Why would anyone use L-systems in architectural design? How would one use them? What could one expect from their use? In addition to providing answers to the above questions this paper presents: 1. Concepts behind L-systems 2. The need to transform L-Systems so they can have creative architectural application possibilities 3. Examples on the architectural use of L-Systems 4. Conclusions
Akin, Ömer, and Ipek Ö. zkaya. "Mixing Domains: Architecture plus Software Engineering." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 27-35. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Software engineering is a multidisciplinary area of knowledge combining competence in computation with at least one other area of expertise, typically in the domain of the applications being created. A course offering for students of engineering, architecture and software engineering at Carnegie Mellon illustrates the challenges and opportunities of cross-domain instruction. These include ontology, problem taxonomies, and instruction strategies.
Jakovich, Joanne, and Kirsty Beilharz. "Multimodal Spatial Emergence in the Design of Sensate Spaces." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 427-432. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Design of reactive, intelligent and sensate spaces is a form of spatial design that demands creating thinking in terms of non-permanent, non-tactile and sometimes non-visual media. This implies spatial conceptualization using sensory modalities that are ordinarily of secondary importance to vision in design, such as proprioception and hearing. This paper explores these alternative modalities for both spatial perception and spatial expression with a view to developing innovative interfaces for spatial design. Computer games and installation art environments are analyzed for use of alternative spatial immersion techniques. This informs a physical spatial interaction environment. Motion-capture input and digital auditory output provide real-time, intuitive feedback to the user. Useful interaction strategies are acquired that can be used in a non-intrusive manner in sensate spaces for communal, commercial, or public contexts.
Ham, Jeremy J.. "Music and Architecture: from Digital Composition to Physical Artifact." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 139-146. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper addresses how relationships between music and architecture can be explored within the design studio through a series of digital games and projects and culminating in the actual construction of small-scale architecture. Through the examination of music and architecture, students are provided with valuable opportunities for authentic learning opportunities relating to digital mastery, teamwork, tectonics, the role of digital technologies in the design and construction process and the translation of an architectural concept relating to composition to a physical artifact.
Tramontano, Marcelo, and Denise Santos. "Online_communities." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 415-423. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Research on contemporary habitation spaces is directly related to the study of the relationship between new media and everyday life. This paper presents ongoing in-depth research which intends to discuss these relationships in different ways on a conceptual basis. A collaborative multi-users interface is being specially designed, supported by different kinds of electronic equipment. Furthermore, the projectis objective is to analyze how these information and communication technologies are to be used, as well as their impact on poor communities. As a hypothesis, our intention is to verify if the access to information will be able to broaden social interactions and improve new services which have been set up, in order to guarantee a better quality of life. Beyond being a conceptual approach, the study intends to present and examine facts obtained from intervening in a poor district in Sio Paulo city, Brazil. Using an existing public telecenter as an access provider to the internet, individual TV-connected set-top boxes in 220 apartments in a local social housing complex are being installed, enabling users to communicate through a collaborative multiusers digital interface. Adding a virtual instance to a geographically-based community, the aim of the project is to provide new possibilities to improve dialogue and debates, to encourage more income and cultural activities. It also intends to evaluate the effects of the technological mediation of social relationships, both inside and outside the community, as well as within the physical urban space such as in the dwellings. The results of this study will be useful in defining public policies to be implemented by the Sao Paulo Local Government. The work is being sponsored by FAPESP, which is the Sao Paulo State Funding Agencie, but also by public institutions, private partners and universities. Researchers involved belong to complementary fields such as architecture, urbanism, computer sciences, social sciences, psychology and electronic engineering.
Silva, Neander, and Ecilamar Lima. "Real Time Collaboration Systems and Design Studio Education: an Evaluation of Equivalence between On-site and Distance Learning." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 63-65. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Many papers have been published about real-time collaboration systems in architecture. These, however, do not tackle the issue of how these systems may affect the learning process. This paper seeks to show that these systems improve participation in design discussions.
Yolanda, Steijns, and Alexander Koutamanis. "Representation and Typological Refinement in a Case-base." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 837-844. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The subject of the paper is the possibilities and limitations of domain knowledge in design computing, as experienced in the development of a case-base of school buildings. In case-based design domain knowledge is used not only in the documentation and analysis of the cases but also in the structure of the casebase. The cases were documented and analysed using a geometric and topological representation. With respect to typological classification the highest abstraction level was occupied by three established types, the corridor, hall and pavilion type, which represent practically all school buildings in our case-base. Progressive abstraction of the geometric and topological representation returned the components of each type at various levels of specificity that correspond to different levels of design thinking and decision taking. The resulting typological / case-base structure provides a transparent description of both parts and global arrangements and has led to the identification of subtypes, variations and hybrids.
Boeykens, Stefan, and Herman Neuckermans. "Scale Level and Design Phase Transitions in a Digital Building Model." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 829-836. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Research and development on Computer Aided Architectural Design often focuses on simulating a building as a digital model. Our research on the early design stages explores concepts we feel are lacking in current design tools and research projects. Building models are usually static models, serving as a snapshot of the design. We aim to support design phase and scale level transitions, to better support the workflow of the designer. This paper formulates our approach at supporting transitions in an integrated design environment for architecture.
Walz, Steffen, Odilo Schoch, Mathias Ochsendorf, and Torsten Spindler. "Serious Fun: Pervasive game design as a CAAD teaching and research method." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 279-286. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Today and in the future, architectural students must be prepared for designing both physical and adaptive, computer-integrated spaces. The question is: How do we easily and effectively convey architecturally relevant theories and practices of pervasive computing in teaching? In this paper, we present a didactic model that has proved to be a possible answer. During a semester long design class, we supervised an interdisciplinary group of architecture and computer science students who teamworked on an early so called serious pervasive game prototype, entitled “ETHGamei. The class culminated in a two week compact phase and a presentation before ETH representatives involved in e-learning projects. The resulting interactive prototype takes advantage of our campusis extensive wireless local area network infrastructure, allowing for user positioning and location based learning, servicing, and peer-to-peer communication. The game mutates the whole of the ETH Zurich campus into a knowledge space, issuing position dependent and position relevant questions to players. The ETHGame forces participants to engage with a given space in the form of a quiz and rewards them for collaborating both face-to-face and facelessly. The game helps them build a collective academic and space aware identity whilst being immersed in a sentient environment. Thus, in this paper we are introducing serious pervasive game design as a novel design research and teaching paradigm for CAAD, as well as a e-learning design strategy.
Ucelli, Giuliana, Giuseppe Conti, and Raffaele De Amicis. "Shape Knowledge Embedded in a Collaborative Virtual Design Environment for Architectural Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 373-381. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. VR-based design environment have been traditionally not connected to companies design repositories and knowledge management systems. Till now these tools are mainly used for the initial exploration of innovative and original three-dimensional spaces and curves. Our approach encourages the use of VRbased design environments as design tools from where to reuse design solutions and to access design information, which are stored in internal repositories. This vision goes towards the development of a VR-based integrated design platform. Further, todayis knowledge management systems show evident limitations when dealing with multimedia files and 3D models. In order to overcome this limitation a framework for embedding in our VR-based design environment a Knowledge Management system for multimedia content has been developed and it is here described. Our solution implies the use of annotation languages such as the recent MPEG7 ISO/IEC (Multimedia Content Description Interface) standard for metadata, which is based on the XML language. Data types handled in our system are multimedia formats including text, audio, video, images, and 3D models. The main contribution of our research activity is in providing an innovative and original approach for supporting the design process, which takes advantage both of the visualization and design capabilities of virtual reality technology and of the reuse of design solutions directly in VE, through the retrieval of 3D models and multimedia data from various sources.
Post, Jelle, and Alexander Koutamanis. "Simulation for Daylighting in the Real World." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 407-414. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Technology has been an obvious solution to the increasing complexity of the built environment. As the number and specificity of use requirements increases, designers, clients and managers tend to segment the overall problem to manageable aspects only tentatively linked to each other. As a result, aspects such as ventilation and lighting tend to rely more on mechanical means than on the affordances of the overall design. Ironically this increases the complexity and opacity of the built environment probably to a greater extent than rules, regulations and requirements. The paper presents a review of available computational methods and techniques that aim at a more coherent approach by supporting integration of (day)lighting into architectural designing. It proposes that the two main courses of further action are the improvement and updating building regulations, and the combination of quantitative knowledge of good, existing daylight designs with advanced simulation-based analyses of early design proposals. Improvements in daylighting design and the integration of daylighting in design solutions depend primarily on design guidance based on the coordinated development and thorough understanding of usable measures such as the Daylight Factor, the Daylight Performance Index and function factors. A major prerequisite to both simulation and design guidance are robust and detailed geometrical 3D models that accommodate both the input and the output of design actions and transactions.
Nir, Eyal, and Capeluto Guedi. "Smart Cloud-of-Points Model: Point-based Digital Media and Tools for Architectural Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 687-694. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Abandoning the scale-model concept in favor of an abstract representation led us to the development of a digital design model based on point-clouds as design media. In this paper we examine the potential usage of point-clouds as design media. Extending the point-cloud model with a forth dimension represented as a numeric pointer to generative algorithms provides a parametric interface for the regeneration and alteration of the extended point-cloud model referred to as “Smart Cloud of Points”.
Achten, Henri, and I. Reymen. "Structured Reflection as a Means to Deepen Understanding of CAAD." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 287-294. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005.

In this paper we outline a strategy of structured reflection to improve reflection by students in a course on the implication of CAAD, design theory, and design methodology. Earlier editions of the course showed that students often did not evolve their learning beyond a checklist level. Reflection is an important mechanism to improve learning from design situations. After a consideration of the main approaches to design reflection, we take up Schi¶nis notion of reflection and provide support for structured reflection in CAAD education, based on earlier experiences with structured question lists in a civil engineering course. Findings after the first year is run show a deeper level of reflection on a more elaborate level.

Barrios, Carlos. "Symmetry, Rules and Recursion." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 537-543. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper presents a parametric shape grammar that explains the generation of the structural forms of the Spanish designer Santiago Calatrava. The shape grammar is divided into two separate grammars a lower level grammar and a higher level grammar. The lower level or first grammar is composed of rules to generate a “fundamental unit” design, which has the characteristic to be a single component with non-repetitive parts that becomes the primitive object of the design. The higher level or second grammar is composed of rules that generate the overall design by recursive application of Euclidean transformations to the fundamental unit. We concentrate our discussion on the higher level or second grammar to demonstrate the process of generating complex designs by application of simple rules.
Petzold, Frank, and Dirk Donath. "Tailor-made: Adapting and Extending CA(A)Dsystems." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 797-803. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. CA(A)D systems are nowadays a part of everyday architectural practice and have completely replaced drawing with pen and T-square. The standard functions of such systems are (usually) sufficient for the everyday needs of practical work. The question is: can CA(A)D systems be adapted to improve work efficiency for specific users or applications such as those of the architect? Most current CA(A)D systems already provide some level of support for individual adaptation however these are rarely exploited by the end users. This paper discusses the teaching of skills for adapting and extending existing CA(A)D systems in current architectural education. In addition to the teaching of programming and operational skills, the course also examines the critical examination of CA(A)D systems and the formulation of user requirements (analysis), the search for existing solutions, functions or extensions (research) and the technical adaptation or extension of the system (software development). Using examples from current coursework, the paper illustrates both process and results of teaching practice.
Szalapaj, Peter. "The Digital Design Process in Contemporary Architectural Practice." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 751-759. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. There is an increasing trend in contemporary architectural projects towards dependence upon digital processes for their organisation and technical evaluation of a range of design criteria. Digital representations are central not only to form generation and structural analysis, but also to the integration of fabrication and construction directly with the earlier design stages. It is important to bear in mind, however, that digital technology is only a means to an end which is the design process itself. Each technique of digital representation and analysis brings advantages and disadvantages to this process, and should therefore be described in these terms. It is becoming increasingly feasible to develop a rapid succession of distinct digital models, both geometric and dynamic, in early design stages. These can be tested and evaluated with respect to a range of analytical criteria, and the results of these analyses can affect further model development thus forming a cyclical process of 3-D digital model generation.
Suneson, Kaj, Claes Wernemyr, Börje Westerdahl, and Carl Allwood. "The Effect of Stereovision on the Experience of VR Models of the External Surroundings and the Interior of a Building." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 391-398. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Virtual reality offers considerable promise with regard to facilitating the building process. A good example is the facilitation of communication between architects and building companies, sellers and buyers or between community planners and the general public. It is often thought that in order to utilise the potential of VR in, for example, the above-mentioned contexts, it is necessary to use fully fledged versions of VR, including stereovision and the possibility of controlling the VR show. However, if a model can also be presented on less advanced equipment and still interpreted in a way that is useful to the viewer it will be possible to distribute the model simply and effectively. This would make it easier to create a more democratic urban planning process compared with if specialised equipment needed to be used and special shows needed to be arranged. In this study we compared the experience of two VR models (a large indoor exhibition hall and an outdoor street in Gothenburg, Sweden) when presented with and without stereovision. When the experience was measured using the Semantic Environmental Scale (the SMB scale, developed by Küller, 1975, 1991), questions on the experience of presence and six other questions on the experience of the models, the results only revealed one indication that stereovision made a difference. This indication was the result for the SMB factor Enclosedness. Suggestions are presented for future research in this area.
Datta, Sambit. "The Generation of Superstructure Geometry in Latina Temples: a Hybrid Approach." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 483-488. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005.

The Nâgara tradition of temple building created a rich corpus of Latina (single-spired) temples spread across Northern India between the fifth and thirteenth centuries. Computing methods offer a distinct methodology for reconstructing the genesis and evolution of geometry in this tradition over time. This paper reports a hybrid technique, comprising three distinct computations for recovering and explaining the geometry of temples. The application of the technique enables scholars to bring together fragments of evidence, construe “best-fit” strategies and unearth implicit or hidden relationships. The advantage of this approach is that changes in assumptions and testing of geometric alternatives can be easily simulated from multiple sources of information, such as texts, sacred diagrams and individual temples.

Al-Douri, Firas, Mark Clayton, and Robin Abrams. "The Impact of 3D Digital Modeling on the 3D Design Aspects in Urban Design Plans." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 331-340. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Some experts suggest that urban design plans in US cities may lack adequate coverage of the three-dimensional design aspects of the built environment. 3D digital models may help designers visualize and interact with design alternatives, large urban data sets, and 3D information more effectively, thus correcting this problem. Case studies of recent urban design plans that have used 3D digital models may indicate whether these technologies can increase the quality of the plan. This research discusses the role 3D urban models can play in supporting designers in addressing the 3D design aspects. A literature review focused on reviewing secondary sources to construct or adopt theoretical propositions against which the empirical data can be compared and contrasted. A case study involved investigating the methods with which 3D models have been used in developing a selected urban design plan. The content analysis of the case study refuted the premise that the plan would inadequately address 3D aspects and utilize 3D information, and indicated an effective usage of 3D modelling to analyze and represent most of the 3D and 2D information elements and issues. The results are consistent with a hypothesis that the effective usage of 3D modelling would result in the effective coverage of 3D information and issues. The effective usage of the modelis functionalities has improved the quality of the decision-making process through improving designersi cognitive capabilities and providing a platform for communicating design ideas among and across design teams.
Dritsas, Stylianos. "The MiranScript." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 705-712. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper documents the implementation of a computational solution for a design project and presents a series of thoughts around the topic of architectural design as an act of intuitive calculation.
Veikos, Cathrine. "The Post-Medium Condition." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 787-794. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Theorists in art, architecture and visual media have described the digital world as a world of mediumlessness and proclaimed that the medium of a work, once the ontological determinant for the classification of the arts, is rendered meaningless by recent technological and cultural developments (Krauss, 2000, Negroponte, 1995, Manovich, 2001). Although indebted to specific media-based techniques and their attendant ideologies, software removes the material reality of techniques to an immaterial condition where the effects of material operations are reproduced abstractly. This paper asserts that a productive approach for digital design can be found in the acknowledgement that the importance of the digital format is not that it de-materializes media, but that it allows for the maximum intermingling of media. A re-conceptualization of media follows from this, defined now as, a set of conventions derived from the material conditions of a given technical support, conventions out of which to develop a form of expressiveness that can be both projective and mnemonic (Krauss, 2000). The paper will focus on the identification of these conventions towards the development of new forms of expressiveness in architecture. Further demonstration of the intermingling of materially-based conventions is carried out in the paper through a comparative analysis of contemporary works of art and architecture, taking installation art as a particular example. A new design approach based on the maximum intermingling of media takes account of integrative strategies towards the digital and the material and sees them as inextricably linked. In the digital “mediumi different sets of conventions derived from different material conditions transfer their informational assets producing fully formed, material-digital ingenuity.
Carrara, Gianfranco, and Antonio Fioravanti. "The Quest for the Holy Grail - Holistic Collaborative Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 211-218. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Architectural design, due to phenomena such as globalisation of the construction process, delocalisation of professional and industrial activities, spread of new construction materials and components, and the challenges of environmental sustainability, has become so comlex that traditional ways of managing the process are no longer sufficient. What is more, architectural works are required to be ever more performing and integrated - holistic. The paradigm of collaborative design is gaining ground as a way of dealing with these problems. Various process/ product models have been proposed over the years, making more or less use of advanced tools. In this field this study proposes a model in which operators from various cultural contexts are each supported by Intelligent Assistants (agents). The model simulates the design of works of architecture to the best professional practice. Exchange of information and knowledge between the operators is essential to enhance the design process. From this follows the need to interface not just data, but also meanings. This article shows how to improve communications between different applications, used by different operators, so as to integrate information and knowledge, whether formalised or not, in a project managed collaboratively by means of XML.
Coppola, C., A. Calabrese, A. Iazzetta, F. Mele, and O. Talamo. "The Transformation s Control and Development." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 607-614. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The study of DNA of artifact and the development leading to its use in the field of industrial production of a single piece is now a common feature in the syllabus of the degree in Industrial Design at Faculty of Architecture “Luigi Vanvitelli” of SUN. The Generative Design Laboratory is where this process is carried out and includes the PROGEOR project for Generative Jewels Design. The experience acquired in the Generative Design Laboratory has developed along the lines of THE SINGLE PIECE, a product which combines the uniqueness of a handcrafted artefact with mass production methods. The development of project control technologies and also production technologies enables real-life experimentation of these hypotheses to be conducted.
Schink, Claus-Jürgen, Holger König, and Manfred Krines. "The “BASYS”-house - from a Research Project to Practice - a house in a day." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 237-243. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. From 2000 to 2002 a building system was developed within an applied research project for creating individual planned, but widely prefabricated building- elements consisting of “Brettstapelholz”. These are massive wood elements, fabricated by a CNC-machine. Two years later the results were transferred to the building industry. Most of the developed innovations had been adapted, the virtual enterprise worked together spatially separated via a common internet platform. The building elements developed by the architect were used. Although working properly, the complete integration of the CAD/CAM chain hadnit been completely adapted. The house was shown at the “Bau”-exhibition in Munich. The following day it was mounted 350 km far from Munich and finished at the same day. Overall, it took only one day to mount the house, from the bottom to the roof. The article will show the building system and discuss the experiences gained by transferring research to industry.
Li, Andrew I. - Kang. "Thoughts on a Designer-friendly Shape Grammar Interpreter." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 523-528. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Discussions of shape grammar interpreters overlook a fundamental issue: the model of the designeris work. Such a model would provide guidance for developing an interpreter with an appropriate interface. In this paper, I first propose a model in which the designeris work is to create and test generative specifications of languages of designs. I call this model designercentered generative design. Then, I examine the characteristics of shape grammar and how they support or impede this model of work. Finally, I discuss the implications for the design of an appropriate shape grammar interpreter. These provide guidelines for implementing such an interpreter for testing.
Caldas, Luisa. "Three-Dimensional Shape Generation of Low-Energy Architectural Solutions using Pareto Genetic Algorithms." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 647-654. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This paper extends on a previous work on the application of a Generative Design System [GDS] to the evolution, in a computational environment, of three-dimensional architectural solutions that are energy-efficient and adapted to the climatic environment where they are located. The GDS combines a well-known building energy simulation software [DOE2.1E] with search procedures based on Genetic Algorithms and on Pareto optimization techniques, successfully allowing to tackle complex multi-objective problems. In the experiments described, architectural solutions based on a simplified layout were generated in response to two often-conflicting requirements: improving the use of daylighting in the space, while controlling the amount of energy loss through the building fabric. The choice of a cold climate like Chicago provided an adequate framework for studying the role of these opposing forces in architectural form generation. Analysis of results shows that building characteristics that originate successful solutions extend further than the building envelope. Issues of massing, aspect ratio, surface-to-volume ratio, orientation, and others, emerge from the analysis of solutions generated by the GDS, playing a significant role in dictating whether a given architectural form will prove adapted to its climatic and energy requirements. Results suggest that the questions raised by the exploration of form generation driven by environmental concerns are complex, deserving the pursuit of further experiments, in order to better understand the interaction of variables that the evolutionary process congregates.
Breen, Jack, and Martijn Stellingwerff. "Towards Ornamatics." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 253-260. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Computer aided modelling and drafting protocols - in combination with new production technologies - have contributed to wholly new ways of shaping building elements. Some examples of new techniques, which have recently become very successful in building production and in architectural design education, are: 3D Rapid Prototyping, 2,5D and 3D Milling and computer aided Shape Cutting (notably using laser and water jet modes). Such new approaches not only create new opportunities for traditional production processes (including physical modelling), they also offer new perspectives for design and manufacturing on the level of architectural components and connections. We foresee innovative approaches to building product design, with a renewed interest in expressive Ornamentation. A phenomenological development we would like to address using the concept of “Ornamatics”. This contribution explores the potentials of product design with a renewed focus on ornamentation, involving the active utilization of computer aided modelling and manufacturing techniques. The paper furthermore documents results and findings of a series of explorative studies carried out within an educational laboratory environment.
Beirão, José, and José Duarte. "Urban Grammars: Towards Flexible Urban Design." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 491-500. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Traditional urban plans have definitive design systems, without the flexibility required to deal with the complexity and change that characterise  contemporary urban societies. To provide urban plans with increased flexibility, it is proposed a design methodology capable of producing various design solutions instead of a specific definitive design. The methodology uses shape grammars as a process for generating urban design. In this approach, design becomes a system of solutions rather than a specific one.  Through the analyses of a group of urban plans, a design methodology was sketched in which rules are used to enable more flexibility. These plans where chosen for their perceived qualities in terms of language, planning efficiency, and latent flexibility. As a result, a four-phased methodology was identified and thus, proposed for designing urban plans. This methodology was then combined with shape grammars and tested in a design studio setting. Students were asked to use the methodology and shape grammars as auxiliary instruments in the design of a flexible plan for a new town. In the following year, to simulate real-world conditions and oblige students to consider urban ordering and scale, work was structured differently. First, students were asked to develop a rule-based urban plan as in the previous year. Second, they were asked to conceive a detail plan for a sector of an urban plan defined by another group of students following its rules. The plans were then analysed with the goal of refining the methodology.  Results show that shape grammars produce urban plans with non-definitive formal solutions, while keeping a consistent spatial language. They also provide plans with explicit and implicit flexibility, thereby giving future designers a wider degree of freedom. Finally, they provide students with a concrete methodology for approaching urban design and foster the development of additional designing skills.
El-Khoury, Nada, Giovanni De Paoli, and Temy Tidafi. "Using Digital Devices to Find New Ways of Representing Audience Visibility in Theatrical Spaces." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 805-810. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The following paper is in keeping with other pieces of research which tend to broaden the role of todayis computer tools so that they be seen as more than just representative. In fact, more and more studies focus on computer tools used as smart guides in the development stages of the preliminary concept. We therefore present a cognitive and interactive device with characteristics that address a theatre designeris requirements. It provides information on the visual quality of seats and optimizes their location in order to improve audience visibility. The working method we introduce will serve as a basis for future implementations when designing theatrical facilities and providing for audience visibility.
Hsiang, Shin-Hsien. "Using Hand Movement System to Operate 3D Objects in Virtual Environment." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 779-786. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. This study integrates infrared distance measuring sensors and applies wrist rotations and hand movements to replace the space operations of conventional mouse and Data Glove. Through an array of infrared distance measuring devices, the position and direction of the hand in the space can be precisely detected, allowing designers to control 3D design objects intuitively in virtual spaces. The infrared distance measuring device adopted in this study has the effective test distance about 40 cm, with the precision range between 4 ~ 30cm, which is compatible with general hand movements. This device is expected to provide designers a more economical way to achieve intuitive operations in virtual spaces, as well as an intuitive way to explore virtual environments.
Lonsing, Werner. "Viewing Ambispace." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 477-482. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. AmbiSpace is introduced to describe the dual nature of composite image as perceived reception rather than claiming it as reality. AmbiViewer is the tool to create architectural composite images and is technically described as prototype.
Cóté, Pierre, Michel Léglise, and Daniel Estévez. "Virtual Architecture as Representation for Creative Design Process - Through a Collaborative eDesign Studio." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 37-45. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. Using Virtual Architecture (VA) as a general scheme for representations to sustain the reflection activities involved in the design process can help students to initiate creative design ideas. Because of its implicit abstract nature, VA can be used, to represent original ideas or processes, or well-known architectural theories to articulate design ideas. Furthermore, VA as a mean of expression, turn out to be a source of inspiration for students who perceive it as medium with very few limits with which to develop, explore and express their design intuitions. A recent collaborative edesign studio experience is reported to illustrate the benefit observed. Using three examples out of ten student projects, we show how designs and design process have been characterized by those virtual representations. In fall semester 2004, the edesign studio took place between the Schools of Architecture of Toulouse and Université Laval in Québec. VA was both an academic and a studio topic at Laval while the other school students had a traditional design task to tackle, namely the rehabilitation of Chapou University Residences for students in Toulouse. Students from both schools composed each edesign team. In addition, three common architectural themes were web-documented and introduced to both classes: room, as defined by Louis Kahn: “a space which knows what it wants to be is a room”, color, as an architectural medium in dialectic with structure, and body-space relationships, as articulated by Gilles Deleuze and its projection to cyberspace. From the edesign studio results, we are arguing that virtual architecture should be looked at not only as new domain to be investigated by architects and taught in academic studios but also as a new medium of design to develop and explore design intuitions through virtual representations.
Rüdenauer, Kai. "Web Based Configuration and CNC Production." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 17-25. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The ESG_Pav project demonstrates the advantages of computer aided design, collaboration, and production technologies. The parti-concept for this project was the design and programming of a parametrically driven architecture that could be designed by “users” of a web based configurator. The underlying technology relies on a logical and parametric geometry structure which was developed, programmed and implemented by the postgraduate students of the CAADNDS study program. The pavilion has since been the instigation of a number of projects that use this concept of the “digital production chain”. This methodology is conceived for every stage of the work, from the design to the production of architecture, and still allows for the creation of highly individualized solutions within the mind-set of mass-production methods.
Morozumi, Mitsuo, Yuji Murakami, Riken Homma, Yasunobu Onishi, Ryuya Kotani, and Shinya Oda. "Web-based Communication System for Studio-Centered Design Education." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 189-196. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. There have been many successful examples of Virtual Design Studio projects that have used a variety of network communication technologies, showing that interaction among participants enhances performance of the design team. However, the application of VDS techniques to a design studio program conventionally conducted in a studio space still seems to be limited, even though there is a clear need to improve interactions among students and teaching staff. The authors developed web-based groupware, GW-Notebook, and application techniques for a design studio program to enhance interaction in class hours in a studio space and also in off-studio hours, in which members work in separate locations. This paper discusses a model of communication and interaction in a collaborative design studio program conducted in a studio space. It also considers the major features of the developed system, the environment, and method of system usage in different teaching styles, and finally reviews performances of the latest system tested at junior collaborative design studio.
Barelkowski, Robert. "Web-based Social Participation in the Process of Town Planning." In Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms: 23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 557-564. eCAADe: Conferences. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, 2005. The paper discusses the principles of using internet nested “Citizen” system that composes the platform to exchange information between different participants of planning procedure. As a part of P.R.S. method instrumentation, “Citizen” allows multidirectional interaction of planners, authorities and users of space. The paper shows various aspects of system structure, pointing out the most significant application abilities, the role different contents of the system play and services they provide to participants. The article summarizes the results of application, discusses the impact, web-based social participation has on efficiency of planning procedure, elimination of conflicts and understanding of planning problematics.