Keywords Abstract
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, and Thomas Kvan. "3D Crossover - from 3D Scanning to Digital Modelling, Rapid Prototyping and Physical Depiction." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 304-311. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Crossing over a variety of digital and physical media, creation and representation of an architectural design process can influence perception, comprehension and conception of spatial volumes within both physical and virtual environments. These tools then transform and translate the design process from virtual to tangible portrayal of architectural design and vice versa. Artists and designers pushed media to new interpretations of the media themselves and with that of their artwork. Using these potentials and translate them by employing current technologies we embarked to new understanding and communication of architectural gestalt, form finding and design process. Interchanging and merging design environments from reality to virtuality to an extent that the boundaries of each one are dismantled, both realms can be used together in an overall process that leads to alternative form findings and resulting designs.
Uddin, Mohammed Saleh, and Mustafa Tutar. "3D Digital Space and People: Extents and Limitations of Integrating Human Figures in Architectural Animation." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 44-49. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. It is people that make architecture alive. It is motion that captures our attention. Together they make our architectural environment believable. Besides portraying a friendly environment, digital people can portray the best reference for scale, time, location and character of an environment. Representing architecture along with human figures has always been an integral aspect of architectural representation in traditional media. As we moved from traditional representation to animated 3D digital modelling, representation of people lost its spirit. Perhaps the reason for this is that a great deal of time and energy needed to be dedicated to the development of human figures. In addition, defining movements and poses for each figure requires additional skills. The aim of this paper is to explore the options of simulating people in the context of environmental design as well as to provide simplified techniques for representations of people in 3D digital animation.  
Sdegno, Alberto. "3D Reconstruction of a Canaletto Painting." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 342-348. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The objective of this research was the analysis of a Canaletto painting that depicts Palladiois plan for the “Convento della Carit” in Venice, a plan that was only partially executed. Through the implementation of traditional techniques and digitally controlled instruments, the three dimensional model was reconstructed. It was compared with both Palladiois original plan, and with the constructed version. A notable difference between the three projects emerged which allowed for a better comprehension- using photogrammetric restitution procedures- of Canalettois pictorial work and the corrections that the painter brought to the piece to improve the rendition of the painting. The study ends with an analysis of the natural light painted by Canaletto, and a simulation of sunlight with digital techniques.
Stellingwerff, Martijn, and Annette Kuhk. "3D/4D Communication Tools for Facilitators in Public Participation." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 593-600. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The international research project, Planning Inclusion of Clients through e-Training, (PICT) aims at developing various computerised tools and training programmes to enhance public participation in local urban projects. This article presents a communication strategy and two tools, which were applied in a pilot study in Brussels Capital Region. The communication strategy involves the use of multiple channels to introduce, inform and involve people to the urban planning debates. The first tool, called “3D-projection”, combines an urban scale-model of the neighbourhood with an interactive projection. Thus, parts of the model are related to photographic and computer-graphic impressions of the existing or future streetscape. The end-user can develop a thorough understanding of the presented changes in the built environment. Getting involved and being informed are made easier. The second tool, called “4D-viewer”, combines planning and design software into evaluative 3D-renderings which visualise the change of a site over time. This tool is supposed to be helpful at meetings of planners, architects and local actors and residents. The paper introduces the PICT project and the specific planning-approach of Neighbourhood Contracts in Brussels Capital Region. Then, we will describe the communication strategy and present the general concept of the two systems as well as their application in the pilot study for the “Brabant Groeni Neighbourhood Contract. Finally, we will discuss our experiences with the system and plans for the future.
Shih, Naai-Jung, Chen-Yan Lin, and Chai-Yuan Liau. "A 3D Information System for the Digital Preservation of Historical Architecture." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 630-637. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The purpose of this study is to build 3D models for the digital preservation of Chinese architecture. A historical architecture, the main hall of the Pao-An Temple, was scanned with a long-range 3D laser scanner. This temple is 19.68 meters wide, 18.2 meters wide, and 15.7 meters high. In total, the exterior and interior were registered into 1958 scans in order to cover the main hall. Scanned point clouds were converted into 3D computer models, sections, and boundary projections. Digital models were used as references for chronological records and comparison. Scanned components included the roof ridge, wood structure, dragon column, and a hanging flower. This research, which was sponsored by the National Science Council, created a two-way construction process, integrated geometric and image data, and established a digital reservation work process. Web pages were made to display 3D color components by using a plug-in to enable browsing of large files.
Knight, Michael, and Andre Brown. "A Portable and Natural Interface to Architectural Virtual Environments." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 167-172. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. In previous papers the authors have described low cost, pragmatic interaction devices for architectural virtual environments, in particular the bike as a means of locomotion around a virtual urban environment. They have also been involved in work on portable systems for city navigation and representation, based around a personal digital assistant running pseudo 3d models of the city with an associated information database. This paper describes work that develops the two ideas of familiar real world interaction device and portability to produce a portable system for interaction with architectural urban models.
Datta, Sambit. "A Representational Construct for Sharing Knowledge in Design Exploration." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 286-291. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004.

The Nâgara tradition of temple building created a rich corpus of Latina (single-spired) temples spread across Northern India between the fi fth and thirteenth centuries. Computing methods offer a distinct methodology for reconstructing the genesis and evolution of geometry in this tradition over time. This paper reports a hybrid technique, comprising three distinct computations for recovering and explaining the geometry of temples. The application of the technique enables scholars to bring together fragments of evidence, construe “best-fi t” strategies and unearth implicit or hidden relationships. The advantage of this approach is that changes in assumptions and testing of geometric alternatives can be easily simulated from multiple sources of information, such as texts, sacred diagrams and individual temples.

Gilles, H., H. Damien, O. Benoît, and Jean-Claude Bignon. "A Scenario Approach to Validate and Demonstrate the Tool Usefulness in Cooperative Design." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 418-425. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The social and economic context of architectural co-operative projects does not support the experimentations with dedicated tools. Therefore, we chose to achieve functional validations and operations of communication about tools usefulness with the use of scenarios. The scenario techniques are usually used in computer science to capture useris needs and to validate software specifications. After having analyzed the different contexts of scenario usage in computer science, we characterize the specific context of the use of tools in cooperative activities. Then, we report some experiences of functional validation, of tool demonstration and of usefulness validation based on the use of scenarios. We explain in each experience the objectives and their implication in the scenario definition.
Terzidis, Kostas. "Algorithmic Design: a Paradigm Shift in Architecture?" In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 201-207. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper inquires into the nature of computation as a conceptual source of design. Algorithms are used, not to enhance architectural designs, but rather to conceive them. Such a possibility departs for the dominant assumption that design is entirely conceived within the designeris mind. If true, it may constitute a paradigm shift in architecture.  
Lonsing, Werner. "Augmented Reality as Tool in Architecture." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 495-499. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This project describes a way to combine real-world images with graphical representations of three-dimensional objects.In architecture the combination of physical and virtual spaces is a traditional approach to propose the design of a building. Presenting a virtual design as it appears in relity requires either an unsatisfying level of abstraction while being on-site, as with sketches, or the performing of several ardous tasks. While in this case the quality is appropiate, it is now unlikely to get immediate results.Combining an interactive modeler as the primary designing instrument with a augmented reality system as mixture of cameras, GPS-devices and fiduciary features the system can demonstrate how augmentation as tool in architecture might work.
He, Jie, and Jin-Yeu Tsou. "Balancing Visual and Ecological Resource Reservation in Large-scale Recreation Area Planning Support on a GIS Platform - a case study of the Wenzhou Ecological Park." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 523-528. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper proposes an experimental approach in visual landscape analysis on a GIS platform, which has the potential of integrating with ecological aspects and consequently making scientific decision making supports for urban and landscape planning practices. The research team scrutinizes the potential of the GIS platform in balancing multi-aspect planning strategies. The methodology of GIS-based visual landscape protection for recreation purpose is demonstrated through the case of the Wenzhou Ecological Park. The same platform can also be introduced the landscape ecology capacity analysis. This methodology can improve the comprehensiveness of the landscape resource management system, and enhance its validity and reliability in its application in the landscape ecologically considerable projects.
Jemtrud, Michael. "Between Mediation and Making CIMSp: a Technoà¨tic Modus Operandi." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 435-442. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The following paper describes an ongoing research project whose goal is to define a scalable, hybrid production and deployment protocol (CIMSp) for the creation of virtual environments (VE). Ultimately, the aim is to establish a creative workflow and infrastructure that embodies architectural and urban design activity as practiced by the research unit. The objective of the present paper is to schematically outline the current state of the research and its practical and theoretical context for further development. A theoretical position will be stated which assumes that the content, tool, epistemological, and speculative realms are consubstantial (technosis). The practical endeavour is to create the informational and embodied temporal--spatial condition of possibility for the imaginative production of cultural artifacts. It must accommodate varying individual and collaborative forms and styles of making and no presumption of a self-enclosed and referential system is made. A critical position is particularly compelling when this production is immersed in technological modalities of making where information and embodiment are inextricably intertwined. CIMSp is based on the workflow from acquisition and creation to output and storage. The work environment is comprised of a select set of software applications and visualization technologies. Secondly, an XML-based content and information management system is under construction to ensure project quality control, rigorous documentation practices, and bi-directional knowledge feedback procedures to enable an effective and resource-full workflow. Lastly, scalability of output modalities for use in the design process and for final presentation from WWW deployment to a high-resolution collaborative work environment (CWE) is being developed. The protocol is a multiuser mode of creation and production that aims to transform the technologies and their interrelation, thus dramatically impacting the creative process and intended content. It is a digital production workflow that embodies intensive visualization criteria demanded by the end users. The theoretical and practical intention of CIMSp is to provisionally structure the collaborative creative process and enable a choreographed movement between the realms of the technologically mediated and made in the pursuit of significant digital content creation.
Oxman, Rivka, Orit Palmon, and Patrice "Tamer" Weiss. "Beyond the Reality Syndrome - Designing Presence in Virtual Environments." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 35-42. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Recent explorations of the concepts of form and content in virtual worlds open a new understanding of the development of novel design paradigms that can promote the sense of presence in virtual worlds. This paper presents current research in the design of presence in virtual worlds and investigates the impact of design paradigms that integrate the components of form and content.
Martens, Bob. "CAAD-Repositories for Scientific Information Exchange - an Overview on SciX-Pilots Related to CAAD." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 262-268. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Academic publishing started in the hands and under the control of learned societies. Open access to digital publications has the potential of returning control to these associations again. In this paper CAAD-related digital library pilots, which were developed in the framework of the SciX-project (“Open, Self Organising Repository for Scientific Information Exchange”) will be elaborated. SciX focused its work on the infrastructure and business models for subject-specific repositories. Electronic publishing can re-establish the central role of scientific communities and associations in the scientific publishing process.
Rice, G.G., E. Akleman, Ozan Ö. Özener, and A. Naz. "Caricaturing Buildings for Effective Visualization." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 222-227. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. In this paper, we show that the concepts of abstraction, simplification and exaggeration, which are very common in traditional art and caricature, can directly be applied to the 3D architectural visualization and modelling for interactive media applications and effective visualization.
Breen, Jack. "Changing Roles for (Multi)Media Tools in Design - Assessing Developments and Applications of (Multi)Media Techniques in Design Education, Practice and Research." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 530-539. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This contribution explores the continued evolvement of the instruments of design in relation to practice and education (and potentially: research) and attempts to characterize the effects brought about by recent media “shifts”. For this purpose a framework has been established to identify and “map” relevant design media. The relationships between various “traditional” media and computer based applications are scrutinized and characterized and the opportunities which they offer are compared. The underlying conceptual framework was recently put before a group of professionals in the in the course of an experimental workshop concerning the potentials of a virtual design media “museum”. In the following step an attempt is made to identify changing media roles, whereby the opportunities of the educational environment - as a “laboratory” for emerging developments - is stressed. Some specific tendencies are identified, notably: the combined application of different sorts of design media, the surfacing of imaginative new working methods inspired by “classic” media techniques and various new ways of escaping the serious limitations of traditional computer interfaces. These developments, making use of various types of computer platforms, may be expected to contribute to more structured - and imaginative - approaches to professional design as well as to architectural education and research.
Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo p. "Changing the Culture of Design Studio Reviews: the Use of Large Format Interactive Plasma Screens in Design Studio Reviews." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 540-546. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper elaborates on the use of electronic pin-ups in real-time local reviews making use of larger format interactive plasma screens. The paper briefly explains the technical aspects of an actual implementation in the College of Architecture at Texas A&M University. The main focus of the paper is placed on the use of a 61 interactive plasma screen in a graduate design studio during the second semester of 2003 and the benefits that such an implementation has reported. The narrative explains how the use of an interactive plasma screen for informal as well as formal reviews is not only saving printing resources but it is also having a very positive impact on how we conduct design reviews.
Voigt, A., Bob Martens, and Helena Linzer. "City Simulator - a Multi-dimensional VR-Simulation Environment." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 586-592. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Whether in splendid rural isolation or in an urban area, settlement and building structures always are exposed to the public. Questions as to the future design of our vital space basically always concern the public and thus call for a great deal of discussion. Launching a well-balanced debate between all those involved in the planning and design process requires clear exemplification of urban-spatial visions by means of simulation. A simulation device - called “City Simulatori - suited to conveying the multitude of spatial relations within the urban configuration and for developing urban-spatial ideas would fulfil such expectations. The complexity of the information required in this context can be coped with effectively by means of computer-aided simulation techniques focusing on digital city models. Thus the implementation of a “City Simulator” may be regarded as a decisive tool for the purpose. As those involved in the process normally consider themselves absolute novices within the context of complex planning processes, the simulator will to some extent act as a “translation machine”. This paper is based on a project proposal which has been submitted by the authors aimed at the acquisition of a “City Simulator” at Vienna University of Technology in the near future.
Bille, Pia. "CityScape - Analysing Modern Urbanism." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 489-494. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Understanding scale is a major concern and a condition of working in the field of architecture and urban design. The project described in this case origins from Blauwe Koffer, a method developed in the 80is by the Dutch architects Dolf Dobbelaar and Paul de Vroom. The method is devoted to analysis of form and function of important architectural and urban design projects in the last century and is a flexible model for searching architectural solutions at an early stage of a project. In the paper I will describe how a group of faculty transformed the Blauwe Koffer into a digital method serving as an introduction to urban design in the second year curriculum. The project introduced topics of modern urbanism defined as cityscapes. Through a series of mapping analysis the students studied variations of scale, extension, volume, density, borders, overlaps, bricollage, diversity etc. The students were required to do analysis in the form of a matrix of 6 x 7 cells. Categories in the analysis were three scales of figure / ground studies, bricollage and studies of the urban raster. DataTown was a particular category inspired by MVRDV. The project data derived from digital maps, and project presentations in books and magazines. At second year the students are assigned to do digital projects as a part of the curriculum and the students are required to have their own computer. The project was the first digital assignment in studio and previous computer courses and skills were limited to a one-week course in desktop publishing. The CityScape project was a successful experience in integrating computation in studio, in group work and in analysis of modern urbanism. The paper will show some of the projects and discuss the assignment as a part of the implementation of an IT-strategy.
Shih, Naai-Jung, and Chin-Hui Su. "Combine 3D Software and Remote Control to Progress Operating Simulation of Automatic Guided Vehicles." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 128-134. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The purpose of this research is to build a simulating operation system of automatic guided vehicles (AGV) at a construction site, which including (1) construction path planning system (2) real-time vision information, and (3) simulation system of automatic guided vehicles at the construction site. This paper proposes an ef- ficient method that provides VR-based AGV path guidance with Caligari Truspace 3D software and Python Script. We designed an interactive vision information interface by using LEGO Mindstorms Vision Command combined with Visual Basic ActiveX, and also built an automatic guided vehicle with the functions of obstacle avoidance by LEGO Robotics Invention System. The majority of this research is to develop an effective construction site management model, and develop a construction path planning and a real-time system.  
Tseng, Lan-Ting, and Feng-Tyan Lin. "Comprehend the Term 'Info-City - a Comparison between Two Primary Cities in Taiwan." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 508-514. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The rising of Information Communication Technology influences cities globally. “Info-city” is the very topic to be reconsidered if each city acts as a combination of the physical and virtual. This research is an attempt to understand and formalize the comprehension of Taiwan people about “Info-city”. For the sake of reliability, there are 37 interviewees from Taiwan's enterprises providing experiences of daily urban lives as a field to explore. In order to organize oral corpus, the research method applies encoding in term of cognitive semantics. Every sentence in the database is regarded as a basic unit to analyze. Besides that, there's a framework consisted of two analytical dimensions to reveal a clear picture of the collective minds. The results are concluded that concepts of “Info-city” in Taiwan value the mechanism of synergy most instead of the effect of substitution as an arbitrary assumption among urban studies.
Petric, Jelena, and Thomas W. Maver. "Computer Aided Design Appraisal - a Modest Experiment." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 105-111. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The paper starts with a re-iteration of the concept of appraisal of digital prototypes during the early phases of the architectural design activity and with a summary of research and development from the early seventies to the current time, the use of appraisal by progressive practices is described in the context of the company Integrated Environmental Systems. The paper then focuses as an experiment which set out to determine how the information delivered by the computer based appraisal of virtual prototypes is ordered and used by professionals in the evaluation of design alternatives. The information provided to the professionals is detailed and their self-assessment of their management and utilsation of the data is reported, together with their critique of the experience. Conclusions are drawn and future research directions proposed.
Coill, Carl, and Mark Doughty. "Computer Game Technology as a Tool for Participatory Design." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 23-Dec. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper reviews existing research into real-time visualization in architecture, urban design and landscape architecture and describes a University of Lincoln project exploring the application of this technology to participatory design. Staff at the School of Architecture have used'Virtools Development', a computer game prototyping package, to help residents in Hull, UK, to visualize and interact with a design proposal for a'home zone'in their neighbourhood, arrived at as part of a wider participatory process. This paper evaluates computer game technology in relation to more conventional participatory tools. It is difficult to justify using the technology to create simple'walk-through'simulations of design proposals, it argues. In such cases, the benefits real-time visualization offers over non-interactive video are largely outweighed by the technical difficulties involved in the production and use of real-time environments.  
Asanowicz, Alexander. "Computer, Creativity and Unpredictability." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 350-357. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Computers in designing are usually considered as a tool for preparing technical documentation, storage and managing information, coordinating of flow of design process, modelling and all kind of visualisations (renderings, animation, VR models). At the early design stages, when an idea of the form is created, computer is not used very often. The reason for this is that traditional computer drawing is too completed to be used at this stage. In new methods of supporting creativity, computer should be used for creation of less precise, unpredictable but more inspiring images. This method are based on the thesis that emotional elements have a great affect on the decision making process in designing. Intuition, unpredictability and no logic are the essence of creativity in the selection of associations. Confirmation of this statement we may find in many theories of creativity (theory of incubation elaborated by Wallas, genploration (Finke, Ward and Smith), redundant generation (Lem), synectics (Gordon)). All these theories emphasize the role of unpredictable associations and metaphors in creativity. Process of metaphorisation is characteristic for our era and plays important role in creative process. Thatis why we need the new methods of graphic computer and non-computer transformation, which allows us a fuller exploration of design metaphors. The final conclusion is built on the thesis that too precise tools promote cause to decrease differences.
Dokonal, Wolfgang, Bob Martens, and R. Plösch. "Creating and Using Virtual Cities." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 580-585. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. City modelling is a topic which has been on the agenda for a long time and two main approaches from different angles in this field can be identified. GIS experts have attempted over the years (in collaboration with programmers) to build information systems for cities by means of combining graphical information with related metadata. Architects also started to get involved in this field. However, they were mainly interested in the spatial aspects of a city model and created their own “city models” for different purposes. Today crucial questions concerning the creation itself are resolved, the vision of implementation into daily work becomes more and more important. In other words: “what to do” with the accumulated data. This paper intends to identify the core role of the architect in the field of 3D-city modelling.
Chiu, Mao-Lin. "Curious Agents in Virtual Exhibitive Environments Simulative Human-Computer Interaction ." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 50-57. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The creation of virtual environments is becoming the alternative for spatial design, while what can be expanded from the real environment is often questioned. This paper proposes the agent interface based on curiosity to create human computer interaction in virtual exhibitive environments. From a social and behavioural point of view, this research explores the use of places as metaphors and simulative human-computer interactions in virtual environments by reactive agents and proactive curious agents based on situation detection. The process is demonstrated by a museum exhibition project. Both the physical and the virtual environment are built, and studied the human behaviours and experiences from their presence at both environments. Agent interfaces are adopted in the virtual environment to enhance people-to-people and people-to-place interactions. The development process, the observation, the interface agent, and discussion based on the findings are presented.
Mullins, Michael, and Tadeja Strojan Zupancic. "Depth Perception in CAVE and Panorama." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 136-141. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings. Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions - that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE and Panorama are quantifiably different, and that differences are attributable to prior contextual experience of the viewer. The role of prior or tacit knowledge in these environments is established from the empirical data. It is concluded that the CAVE offers a higher potential for spatial experience and learning than the Panorama. The results also suggests that knowledge gained in physical contexts is more readily transferred to its virtual simulation, while that gained in virtual experience is not reliably transferred to its equivalent physical context. The paper discusses implications for spatial ability, learning and training in virtual environments, in architectural education, and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual reality techniques.
Sass, Lawrence. "Design for Self Assembly of Building Components using Rapid Prototyping ." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 95-104. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Design of assemblies will become an area of study when using rapid prototyping devices in the architectural design process becomes standard practice. This paper is a presentation of a design process study focused on understanding a method of working with rapid prototyping devices in a creative design process. This paper has an emphasis is on the creation of physically large models. These models are built from many layers of detail and are too large to print on a conventional 3D building device (3D printer). In response to this is a proposal to design assemblies as a means to create models of parts manufactured with rapid prototyping devices. Design for Assembly (DFA) becomes an exclusive process within this method of model making. Designing assemblies as part of a creative design enterprise offers greater knowledge of the building's construct at an early stage of the process. As an example, there are three physical models built from 3D CAD descriptions for this study. These models are manufactured from various rapid prototyping devices and differing processes of assembly. They are evidence of DFA as a necessary process in architectural design when using rapid prototyping devices. 
McGill, Miranda, and Terry Knight. "Designing Design-Mediating Software - the Development of Shaper2D." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 119-127. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This work examines the means by which design software is created, from a designeris - rather than a programmeris - viewpoint, through the specific example of Shaper2D. Shaper2D employs an intuitive, visual interface that encourages a “learning by designing” approach to shape grammar education.
More, Gregory, Jeremy Yuille, and Mark Burry. "Designing Spatial Sounds for Spatial Information Environments ." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 210-217. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper reports on the design of spatial sounds for information environments. This research primarily relates to developing the sound component for a software prototype of a presentation environment that integrates realtime three-dimensional graphics with user interaction. For this project sound designers were engaged to examine the design of spatial sounds to examine the issues of dimensionality within presentation environments. The sound design work utilised a range of sound techniques: real world recording and modulation, static sound collections and DSP (Digital Signal Processing). The two main themes for the research were exploring sound as both thematic and navigational tools, utilising concepts that address the issues of multi-dimensionality within a time based presentation environment.
Gowans, Scott, and Richard Wright. "Developing Architectonic Language Through Digital Observation." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 269-277. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The question for architects is always how to begin. This proposal attempts to illustrate a design methodology that is characterised by its attention to non-traditional generators. The focus of the paper is the definition of an innovative design process characterised by the production of an architectonic language through the observation of the ephemeral and the transitory (the quanta of place), and which pays cognisance to the realization of a three-dimensional narrative, placing value upon the products of investigation as well as the resultant design. As the title suggests the process outlined concerns itself with the examination of the ephemeral, the transitory and the unobserved. The overriding concern is with the recording of fragments of a chosen environment (site) and, the collation and depiction of these findings in an alternative three-dimensional environment (virtual space). This process is only made possible by the advent of computer applications capable of generating the complexity of three-dimensional environments needed to explore the plethora of forms generated by the initial recordings. This process is concerned with the nascence of architectural expression and the formalising of architectural propositions composed from an individualis interpretation of the “space betweeni, the obvious and the immaterial, and the phenomena that exist there. The generators are the things beyond immediate perception. They are the quanta of place. It is this process of capturing fixed moments in time and space and, translating imperceptible nanomoments and nanoevents, that allows for the development of exploratory diagrams constructed over a backdrop of credible analysis. These make apparent the infinite possibilities for further transition whilst illustrating the conceptual lineage that links each instance to its antecedents. The resultant physical forms embody the essence of something transformed. They possess cultural and emotional syntax. They become mementos in the landscape.
Bourdakis, Vassilis. "Developing VR Tools for an Urban Planning Public Participation ICT Curriculum, the PICT Approach." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 601-607. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004.

This paper is a work in progress report on the Planning Inclusion of Clients through e-Training (PICT) Leonardo funded project. The aim of the paper is to present the issues related to the development of appropriate Information Communication Technologies (ICT) material enabling Virtual Reality (VR) technologies in this particular context. The tools developed are organised in three distinct parts: the common core part, the public oriented and the planner oriented. The curriculum structure is analysed, the methods employed in developing the VR tools are presented and the initial experiments are discussed.

Norman, Frederick. "Digital to Analog - Exploring Digital Processes of Making." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 112-118. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This focus this paper is the translation of a digital information model that defines an objectis surface properties and its connection to that which is real or physical. This research, while early in its investigation, seeks to explore architecture and digital design as a material process. The direct connection to output devices such as computer-numerically controlled routers provide a unique opportunity for controlled variation and serial differentiation and seeks to exploit mass customization rather than standardization. Through a series of studies the process from design to machine file to finish product is explored. This connection to digitally driven fabrication equipment creates within the design process an opportunity to realize ones designs both digitally and materially.
Wojtowicz, J., A. Shakarchi, and M. Takeyama. "dWall - Case of VDS Baghdad." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 553-557. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004.

Virtual Design Studio students and teachers of architecture in Canada, Japan and United Arab Emirates worked on the central area of University of Baghdad and examined its main square by proposing designs ideas and projects while sharing dynamic web portal. The narrative aspect of the digital media redefines the nature of design practice by making the creative process more democratic and transparent. Communicating design progress across temporal and geographic borders we can publish it instantly and make design accessible at different stages of its development for the benefit of distant collaborators, as well as general public. Baghdad remains site of traumatic conflict. Approaching aftermath of this war, creates unique opportunity to challenge the role of students of design. Among issues raised by this studio were: While apart - we will share and design for the betterment of the future condition of man people. We will consider not only possible futures, but also importance of the tradition while constructing our proposals in hope for both peace and democracy. However, the ongoing Globalization patterns are subject to the growing reassessment by many. What is the role of the central square in the campus of University of Baghdad in the XXI century? How can architecture and new media contribute to the peace making under such a circumstance as Iraq is facing at present? These were fundamental questions that the students needed to deal with. This paper presents the dynamic collaborative environment as well as diverse Digital Democracy Wall projects formulated in this distributed situation.

Lai, Ih-Cheng, and Teng-Wen Chang. "Dynamic Interactions Between Users and Information in a Co-existence Space ." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 58-65. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. By exploring interactions between users and information, this paper intends to propose a co-existence framework for companying physical space with virtual space. Based on this framework, we implement an information structure for users to interact with information space interactively, which includes information nodes, hyperlinks and interplays through i-Room system (Chang and Lai, 2003). Furthermore, the information structure of representation is also tested and reevaluated in representing ten historical significant civic buildings in Taiwan.  
Burry, Jane, P. Felicetti, J. Tang, Mark Burry, and M. Xie. "Dynamical Structural Modeling - a Collaborative Design Exploration." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 312-317. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper will report on a generative performative modelling approach that engages architects and structural engineers in close dialog. We focus on knowledge shared between architects and engineers to apply the Finite Element Analysis based structural design technique Evolutionary Structural Optimization [ESO] as a way to understand or corroborate the performance factors that are significant in determining architectural form. ESO is very close conceptually to the dynamical system of matter and forces of growth itself. It has parallels both mathematical and metaphorical with natural evolution and morphogenesis so it has been poignant to apply the approach to a formal architectural case study in which the generative influence of these processes is inherent.
Cinelis, Gintaris, and Kestutis Scevinskas. "Education of Professional Computing Competence in University." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 459-465. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Developments in the field of computer science and architecture are leading to the new relationships between these two areas, which influence architectural education, and practice. The contemporary architectural design process in its individuality and uncertainty is characterized by the integration of different media and design instruments. There is an urgent need for architecture schools to recognize the value and use of the computer as an essential tool in the teaching and practicing architectsi activities. This paper describes the results of experiment, which concerns new policy and objectives for teaching CAAD. The experiment also outlines relationship between the lecturing in CAAD and the use of CAAD in architectural projects. We discuss the problems and opportunities in teaching architecture students the CAAD and with the CAAD.
Hsu, Ying-Chun, and Robert Krawczyk. "Form Development with Spatial Character." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 278-285. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. In space planning programs, two-dimensional space diagrams have been developed as the result for showing space relationships. With these results, a designer can only see two-dimensional possibility of the building development, or combining space stacking plan for the concept of three-dimensional space relationship and imagine the further development. In addition, a designer may spend times on the form development from two-dimensional space diagrams. To breakthrough this limitation, several methods have been studied for transform two-dimensional space diagram to three-dimensions for a designeris further use.  
Kvan, Thomas, and Song Gao. "Frames, Knowledge and Media - an investigative Study of Frame Systems within Computer and Paper Supported Collaborative Design Process." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 410-417. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Can media foster better performance of problem framing? Problem framing contributes to successful design learning. Minsky classified this activity into four types of frames. In collaborative design, media as external representation assist designers to converse their ideas with others and themselves. This paper explores the effects of rich and lean media on the context of frame systems within computer supported and paper supported collaborative design environments. Through conducting laboratory experiment we find that different media indeed can influence the distribution of frames along the whole design sessions. To investigate this phenomenon some possible reasons related to theory are explored, shedding light on our future study on design education.
Duarte, José, Luisa Caldas, and João Rocha. "Free-form Ceramics - Design and Production of Complex Architectural Forms with Ceramic Elements." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 174-183. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper describes a studio experiment developed with the aim of exploring the design and fabrication of complex architectural forms using ceramic elements. History has examples of double-sided curved forms built in ceramics. Such examples would not fulfill contemporary functional and aesthetic principles, neither would they be feasible or cost-effective considering current construction standards. There are recent examples of such forms built in other materials. These examples are difficult to emulate when ceramics is concerned, as they imply the fabrication of unique parts and sophisticated assembly techniques. Creating a double-curved surface in ceramics thus seems a difficult task. There are, however, advantages to such a formulation of design problems. They prompt the questioning of traditional wisdom, the rejection of accepted types, and the raising of interesting questions. What are the design strategies that should be followed when creating ceramic free-forms? What is the design media required to design them? And what are the techniques needed to fabricate and construct them? These are the questions investigated in the design project pursued jointly by students at an American and a Portuguese school, in collaboration with a professional research center and a ceramics factory. The students tested various possibilities, and in the process learned about state-of-art design and production techniques. The final projects are very expressive of their investigations and include a twisted glass tunnel, large-scale ceramic “bubbles,i a rotated-tile wall, and a load-bearing wall system.
Roberts, Andrew. "From Pin-up to Slideshow: Effects of Changing Media on 'crit Assessment Cardiff University." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 471-478. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The assessment of architectural design project work, which forms the majority of the work produced by students in schools of architecture, is usually assessed through the process of critical review (otherwise known as a ‚crit‘ or jury). The traditional method of critical review usually involves the student describing work displayed on a wall directly in front of a panel of critics. Difficulties emerge when students wish to incorporate dynamic, computer generated content into their presentations. Architectural practice is increasingly turning to the ‘PowerPoint’ slide show as a means to communicate their work to clients, and this technology is often better able to incorporate dynamic content. This paper describes a comparative study, whereby students work is presented in both slideshow and pin-up formats to a panel of reviewers. The reviewers were able to evaluate the value of the two forms of presentation in terms of their ability to conduct critical reviews. Results suggest that whilst the slideshow method allows the reviewers to gain a reasonable understanding of the student’s project work, they found it more difficult to provide useful feedback to the student on their design project work.
Chang, Teng-Wen, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Geometry in highly structured design spaces." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 248-254. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The Australian branch of the SEED project created a new formalism for design spaces in which the fundamental structuring operator is information specificity, formally characterised as subsumption. Here design space navigation is composed as combinations of the primitive operators of resolution, unification, anti-unification, search, query and hysterical undo. The structures needed to support such a view are highly constrained in a mathematical sense and it is in these constraints that the problems for representation of geometry arise. The research challenge is to add the formal design space exploration constraints into an existing geometric representation scheme or alternatively to discover a new scheme in which the constraints are realized. Based on Typed Feature Structures (TFS), Geometric Typed Feature Structures (GTFS) are a representation scheme and method for performing the basic design space exploration operations on geometric objects. The crucial insight behind extending TFS to geometry is to discover useful algebraic structures of geometric objects affording the mathematics required of TFS. In this paper we describe Geometric Typed Feature Structures through one example of form: IOPSet. Our method of exposition is both mathematical and graphical: for each structure we will demonstrate both how it meets the necessary formal conditions as well as the sorts of form-sculpting operations it enables. An architectural example: insulated enclosure is used as a demonstration of subsumption operations over IOPSet. One alternative description of insulated enclosure using GTFS is also shown in the paper.
Carrara, Gianfranco, and Antonio Fioravanti. "How to Construct an Audience in Collaborative Design - the Relationship Among which Actors in the Design Process." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 426-434. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The features of complexity in architectural design have now been clarified. Complexity, intrinsic in architectural work, has increased in recent years as in all other fields of human endeavour - social, economic and cultural. In the specific case of architectural design, the most significant factors in this regard consist of the large number of actors, the numerous disciplines involved, technological innovation, regulations and rules governing the design process and the various different design aims. In order to address this complex of problems, long-term research based on the Collaborative Design paradigm, CD, is now being carried out. In it, thanks to the reciprocal exchange of information, the complementary nature of the knowledge possessed by the various actors, and the contemporary nature of the design action by the various actors on the same components, positive effects are exerted on the design as a whole. The latter thus gains in coherence and in improved integration among the design solutions proposed by the various actors. In CD all the actors are involved from the outset of the design work and are helped by distributed Knowledge Bases (KBs) and Intelligent Assistants (IAs). In this case it may happen that information and knowledge automatically exchanged among KBs (through the IAs) are excessive and/or not addressed to the right actors. How can information redundancy be avoided, and how can the flow of information sent over the network be controlled? The present paper introduces and defines the concept of “Audience”, that is, the group of actors to which it is permitted to send information concerning non respected requirements and the “reduced Audiencei to which to send the knowledge needed to overcome the difficulties encountered.
Donath, Dirk, and Christian Tonn. "How to Design Colour Schemes? Conceptual Tools for the Architectural Design." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 333-341. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The paper describes the concept and development of software to support the architectural design and planning of colour schemes for interiors and buildings. “Coloured Architecture” is a plausibility instrument for the formulation of colour scheme proposals for building interiors and elevations. In practice colours schemes are arrived at through the production of many different colour design studies before a final colour scheme is decided upon. With the help of intuitively usable light simulations, colour, material and spatial concepts can be assessed realistically. The development concept incorporates numerous aspects which must be considered in the selection of a colour scheme: colour schemes for built environments must be realisable. This initial development prototype already demonstrates the added value possible through the consequent use of CAAD: function, construction and not least design aspects have equal status and can be worked upon in direct relation with one another.
Hannibal, C., A. Brown, and Michael Knight. "How Useful is the Digital Sketch?" In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 374-379. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper presents an experimental approach that examines human response to three virtual representations (sketchy line, non-photorealistic and near-photorealistic) of three similar architectural schemes (in terms of concept, context and scale) within a non-immersive large-screen projected virtual environment. Participant response is recorded utilising the factors of detail, spatial understanding, character and presence. By comparing data it should be possible to draw conclusions about aspects particular to non-immersive Virtual Reality (VR) activity as a means of architectural representation.
Mark, Earl. "Inter-related Scaled Models of the Built and Natural Environment: Merging CAD with Satellite Image Viewing." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 480-488. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. By inter-relating CAD and satellite image earth-viewing tools at building specific, city-wide and larger global scales, a wider framework of observation yields insight into the connectedness between built environments and tracking influences between them. The technologies for visualization and analysis at distinct scales are moving towards greater integration. This project demonstrates integration through three case studies, each at a different scale of application, and considers performance issues and implications for more general use. More specifically, CAD, GIS and now Satellite Image Based Earth Viewing systems all have found separate application within Architecture, Urban Planning and Strategic Regional Analysis This paper reports on an effort to test the tighter coupling of these systems on three projects, each at a different scale: (1) urban and regional scale, (2) continental scale, and (3) hemispheric analysis scale.
Lang, Silke, and Ludger Hovestadt. "Interaction in Architectural Immersive Applications Using 3D Video." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 74-81. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. In this paper we describe the impact of 3D video technology on immersive telepresence applications in the context of architecture. This technology enables new ways of collaborating and communicating between distant locations. The photorealistic appearance of a 3D user representation and other objects allows for natural and close co-operation in immersive spaces. We conclude with experiences and results derived from inserting and interacting with 3D representations of users in specific Virtual Reality scenarios.
Woessner, Uwe, Joachim Kieferle, and Johannes Drosdol. "Interaction Methods for Architecture in Virtual Environments." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 66-73. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Virtual and Augmented Reality have become common tools in the architectural design process. This technology assists all participants in gaining planning certainty. To interact with the digital models, different input methods are used and adapted by the authors like keyboard, on screen menu, tangible interface, tablet PC and PDA. While every input method has certain advantages and disadvantages, currently tablet PC and PDA best cover the usersi general needs. A usability test shows that reviews with tablet PC are faster compared to other interfaces.
Lai, Ih-Cheng. "Interactive Patterns for Associating Ideas during Brainstorming." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 256-261. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Idea association is an important behaviour to generate diverse ideas during brainstorming. Through three linking principles (similarity, contrast and contiguity), idea association involves a dynamic linking process between ideas and design cases. Based on the knowledge representation issue-concept-form proposed by Oxman (1993), three interactive patterns between ideas and design cases are investigated. Finally, some computational mechanisms for supporting the linkage of idea association are discussed.
Özener, Ozan Ö., Ergun Akleman, and Vinod Srinivasan. "Interactive Rind Modeling for Architectural Design." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 228-237. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The paper presents a new modeling technique for architectural design. Rind modeling provides for the easy creation of surfaces resembling peeled and punctured rinds. We show how the method's two main steps of 1) creation of a shell or crust 2) opening holes in the crust by punching or peeling can be encapsulated into a real time semi-automatic interactive algorithm. We include a number of worked examples, some by students in a special modeling workshop that demonstrate the ease with which a large variety of intricate rind shapes can be created. Rind modeling method allows us developing a user-friendly tool for designers and architects. The new tool extends the abilities of polygonal modeling and allows designers to work on structured and consistent models for architectural design purposes. Rind modeling gives architects and designers a processing flexibility. It can be used in conceptual modeling during the early design phase. It can also be efficiently used for creating variety of shell structures for architectural design.
Schieck, Fatah A., A. Penn, C. Mottram, C. Strothmann, J. Ohlenburg, W. Broll, and F. Aish. "Interactive Space Generation through Play - Exploring Form Creation and the Role of Simulation on the Design Table ." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 148-158. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. In this paper we report on recent developments in ARTHUR: an approach to support complex design and planning decisions for architects together with the simulation of pedestrian movement and the integration of existing CAD tools on the design table. Following a brief introduction, past and current work that has taken a similar approach will be reviewed. Next we describe a scenario that integrates agent-based simulations of pedestrian movement with space creation, and then give an overview of the system before finally discussing findings related to recent user evaluation studies of the system. This paper suggests that the integration of simulated pedestrian movement on the design table, while going through a cycle of reflection-in-action, plays a vital role in exploring possible design solutions and encourages new and different ways of thinking about design problems.
Ham, Jeremy J., and Anthony Dawson. "Managing Digital Resources for Design Education." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 444-450. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper outlines the evolution of digital management systems used in the School of Architecture and building at Deakin University from 2001 to the present. These systems have been implemented to support a curriculum development programme in the design, construction and computing units. Two school-based information management systems are discussed in depth: low-tech network submission system and Bentley Systems Incis ProjectWise. Early experiences in using a universitybased system are also reported on. Lessons learnt from three years experience in managing digital resources for design education have informed the development of a growing digital culture in the architectural and construction management curricula. Whilst digital curriculum design and management systems supporting this curriculum have been developed effectively in this school, full optimization of IT to enhance design education is reliant on fundamental changes within traditional academic culture.
Ibrahim, Mohammad, Mohammed Saleh Uddin, and So-Yeon Yoon. "Mass and Wall: the Representation of Ongoing Change in Relationship." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 238-247. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Architecture in reality is perceived mainly through the display of space enclosures of different degrees, ranging from complete enclosure to openness. These degrees of enclosure are characterized either by subtle or often exuberant display of interplay between solids and voids. Mass and wall are the key features that play an important role in the formation of any specific relationship that develops between solids and voids. The level of relationship between wall and mass therefore is critical in shaping the overall appearance of the work. As we look back in time, walls were simply used as means of enclosing the space that was to hold specific functions. Here the obvious priority is assigned to the space and the walls are simply enslaved in order of hierarchy. But, as the history of the built environment progressed with time, this pattern of relationship was challenged and being experimented by various architects. The experiments ranged from subtle variations in the thickness of wall with regard to the associated mass, or by emphasizing its existence by the use of varying height, color, texture, etc., or even by separating it from the mass that was believed to be the mother form in earlier days. Instead of being secondary to the space it enclosed, walls started taking the primary role in terms of announcing its existence. This of course is not the only path taken by architects. As always, design concept and approaches vary from one person to the other and so does the ultimate result. This change in the pattern of relationship plays a major role in developing the formal language of contemporary architecture which needs to be acknowledged. The aim of this paper is to identify the distinct deviations in the pattern of relationship between mass and wall by depicting some of the significant works of 20th century. The role of 3D computer modelling and various animation techniques to illustrate these analytical ideas is a highlight of the presentation.
Fischer, Thomas. "Microcontroller - Enhanced Physical Models for Architectural and Product Design." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 396-403. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Electronic sensors, controllers, displays and actuators can significantly enhance the value of physical models as processes of use, interaction and transformation take center stage in various fields of design. These technologies allow the development of novel computer interfaces for new kinds of interaction with virtual models, and in the future they will allow new types of active building components and materials for automated construction and dynamic runtime adaptations of inhabitable environments. However, embedding programmed logic into physical objects seems to confront designers and model makers with a steep learning curve outside the domains of their traditional expertise. The variety of alternative technologies and development tools in this area has a particularly disorienting effect on novices. Some early experiences however suggest that mastery of this learning curve is easily within reach, given some basic introduction, guidance and support. It is the purpose of this paper to provide designers with a starting point for explorations into this area, to give orientation and to demonstrate some possible development approaches and results.
Ozel, Filiz. "Modulation and Mathematics in Generative Building Design." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 195-200. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The rise of design computation as a paradigm in design process has certainly brought increased attention to the mathematical basis of form giving in architectural design. Numerous types of generative systems ranging from shape grammars to parametric design have been developed in the past, where computers are used as a tool to generate building form automatically. This paper focuses on the role of number sequences and mathematical methods of controlling and introducing systematic change (modulation) to generative systems. In a graduate level class, VBA programming through a CAD system was used to develop software that can parametrically generate 2-d and 3-d forms. As a conclusion, the paper argues that forms generated as such are not monotonous, and that being particularly attentive to the mathematical basis of variation and change in parametric generators allows one to explore change in a more systematic fashion.
Ng, Edward. "Optimise Urban Daylight Design Using Computational Simulations." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 318-324. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Urban design is about providing an infrastructure for its inhabitants. An important consideration of design is to provide natural outdoor conditions that are pleasant and conductive to human activities. A well designed outdoor urban environment will also make the design of individual buildings within it easier. There are many design parameters, for example: Development Density, Plot ratio, Site Coverage, Skyline, Building to Space Ratio, Permeability, Building Shapes and so on. This paper reports a study based on “skylines” as a design parameter, and how it affects daylight and natural ventilation provisions and performance. Experiments are conducted with physical models in artificial sky, as well as using computational lighting simulations. The study establishes that by varying the skylines of the city, the overall daylight performances could be improved when compared to a city with a uniform skyline - given the same density. The message of the paper is that: through better understanding and design, high density cities could be planned and optimised without losing the development efficacy of the land.
Jensen, Niels. "Painting with Light." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 563-572. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper presents results from our basic computer education at the School of Architecture in Copenhagen, a snap shot of where we are now. Two years ago it was made obligatory for the students to attend a two week computer course in both their first, and second year. The aim of these courses is to teach the students to experiment with form, and to use the computer for presenting their ideas and projects. Light is central in both courses, and in our development of the courses. The last years we have been studying light trying to develop methods, that makes it possible for the students to create a credible lightning of their 3d models. These studies has raised more questions than answers, but we have succeeded in finding some techniques, that obtained the wanted results.
Tan, Beng-Kiang. "Pencil, Pixels and Pulp: a Collaborative Design Studio with Digital Modeling and Full-scale Construction." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 547-552. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper presents the observations of a design studio for undergraduates that adopted a hands-on, collaborative and experiential approach to combining both digital modelling and full-scale construction in their design process. The studio was designed as team-based to encourage peer learning, knowledge sharing and collaboration in design. The students were engaged in multiple media and tactile experiences. Through this process, students explored the issues of translating digital design into full-scale construction and achieved a better understanding of construction, scale and materiality.
Tsou, Jin-Yeu, S. Lam, H. Jie, and X. Yucai. "Performance Based Planning for High Density Urban Habitation." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 515-522. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. In Hong Kong, about 22% of the total territoryis area can be classified as built-up area and potential development area. Only 6% of this area is allocated to district and local open space for the 6.8 million populations, i.e. 2m2 per person. Sensible planning of the limited area to enhance the livability and environmental quality hence become a challenging issue for quality urban living of the mass population. However, considering the dynamic relationship of the different performance criteria in the hyper-dense urban environment, one needs to assess various environmental criteria to carry out a balanced planning. Meanwhile, effective tools to evaluate and manage the inter-relationship of these criteria, or indexes for integrated issues indication are not readily available that a reasonable planning is not always easy to achieve. In this paper, the “openness ratio” concept is introduced for open space planning to provide an integrated index for early stage of planning and design. The new index is expected to provide a comprehensive rating system in considering the environmental performance of open area. It helps to highlight the potential problems in planning or site layout and support the integrated thinking of the four key components: visual sensitivity, urban wind, urban noise and solar heat gain. The concept has shown to be feasible on simple massing study which is applicable in the preliminary planning stage.
Silva, Gerardo. "Productive 3D Building Modeling." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 218-221. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. There are some alternatives to do 3D digital building models. One of them is realized by using 3D blocks with additional information to the graphic content. This kind of 3D blocks is named “blocks with attributes”. These models allow an easy way of 2D plans generation and an easy calculation of material quantities involved in the project. Author claims to divulgate this practice introducing it at the first steps in architectural studies.
Lentz, Uffe, and Andreas Lykke-Olsen. "Quality Control in Visualization Processes." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 380-386. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Computer visualizations of planned built environment and infrastructures are increasingly used as a basis for democratic decisions when the impact of the projects is of wide-ranging interests and influence. It is of great importance for the democratic process that all aspects of the material in a project can be trusted as a basis for discussion and decisions among politicians and citizens. This paper describes the objective aspects of the quality of data in the information basis for 3D visualizations and it calculates the precision that can be achieved by the known methods of 3D-CAD visualization. Furthermore, the paper suggests a model that can secure sufficient quality in future visualization work processes by accumulating documentation for both the factual basic data and information that carry the aim and meaning of the message and make this information accessible through the visualization.
Kepczynska-Walczak, Anetta. "Sharing Experiences in the Digital Preservation in Schools of Architecture ." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 466-470. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The aim of this paper is to open a discussion on sharing knowledge and experience in the field of digital preservation between universities which are members of eCAADe organisation. First, paper identifies the importance of keeping digital information alive. Secondly, the key approaches are described, namely: refreshing, migration, emulation. The role of XML is also pointed out. Additionally preservation metadata formats as well as information management (comprised of a set of four inter-linked stages: creation, storage, dissemination and re-use) are discussed. Then, the above-mentioned issues are confronted with the schools of architecture realm. And finally the general, yet fundamental questions are posed: How do we manage the digital data and keep them alive for a long term? What methods do we apply? Do we implement standards? The paper concludes with a suggestion to undertake a survey (for example in the form of a questionnaire) which would serve the eCAADe members.
Serrato-Combe, Antonio. "Something s Gotta Give - Architectural Animations." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 358-365. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Architectural animations are like Harry Langer, a fifty-something entertainment mogul played by best actor nominee Jack Nicholson in the film Somethingis Gotta Give. Theyive been surrounded by plenty of pathetic spiritless gimmicks. And, like Harry in the film, they have suffered a heart attack. Harry did not die. Architectural animations are still around, barely. Somethingis wrong with them. When Harry begins to recover, heis surprised to find himself growing fond of a woman his own age (played by best actress nominee Dianne Keaton). This is precisely what should happen to architectural animations. They need to come to terms with more mature attitudes and approaches. This paper presents a new and different approach to architectural animations. In ninety nine percent of the cases, architectural animations have been produced at the end of the design process, just when architects or architecture students are ready to present their schemes to an audience or client group. All design decisions have been made. All aspects of the architectural solutions have been set. Tectonic qualities, lighting schemes, construction approaches, everything has been cast in stone. The animation is simply shown as a public relations gesture to broadcast to the audience that the design team is digitally savvy and uses the latest technologies. The proposition contained herein is that animations be used throughout the design process, that is, from beginning to end.
Cheng, Nancy. "Stroke Sequence in Digital Sketching." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 387-393. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper explains how to use animated drawings created with a commercial portable pen to understand and teach design process. By recording and replaying pen strokes, the Logitech Io digital pen allows us to examine the drawing process. We have been using the pen to collect expert drawings, analyse the techniques and then teach drawing strategies. The softwareis animation timeline engages viewers by giving narrative sequence to a drawing, revealing sub-steps of the design or drawing process for interactive examination and discussion. The timeline allows viewers to pull apart layers of information, revealing initial strokes of complicated drawings, separating overlaid corrections and facilitating stroke counting for protocol analysis. In the classroom, students can see a variety of expert drawing techniques, use the pen in class and then immediately compare animated versions of their own efforts and expert examples. The ease of collecting new examples makes it possible to widen the range of examples to unconventional techniques.
Rona, Cagri, and Mohammed Saleh Uddin. "Surround Digital Audio in Architectural Animation and VR Environment." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 82-88. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. To stimulate all five senses through a realistic representation, audio plays a significant role. Architectural representation in digital media primarily falls in the area of visualization. Recent developments in simulation of 3d animation, lighting effect, material options and texture quality demonstrate that technology has come to a satisfactory level for representing realistic environments. But, at the same time, designers may not have paid due attention in regards to simulation of quality audio in architectural representation, particularly in 3D animation. “Surround Soundi or technically, the Dolby Digital and DTS technology has been used for entertainment purposes in film and movie production for a long time. As realistic materials and lighting increases the value of reality, sounds and sound effects too can add value to represented virtual reality architectural environments. Surround Sound technology simply delivers different signals from a 360-degree range. The reason beneath this is to break the sense of looking towards a single direction. Ideally, the audio should come from the direction of the visuals on the scene. Synchronization of both visual and Dolby Digital audio can enhance the experiential quality of an audio-visual representation. At the same time, it can break the notion of audio coming from a single direction. This paper suggests and demonstrates the technique of combining surround sound in digital 3D architectural animation for the purpose of enhancing its visual and sensory quality.   
Seichter, Hartmut, and Thomas Kvan. "Tangible Interfaces in Design Computing." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 159-166. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Sensorial richness is essential in the design process, yet digital design tools do not respond to this need. Tangible interfaces offer an opportunity for interaction with design computing systems to explore means of supporting a wider range of experiences. In this paper we look at implementations of tangible interfaces through a framework based on the concept of affordance. We conclude with a brief introduction to experimental tangible interfaces that have been developed in order to carry out collaborative user evaluations in a design studio setting and evaluate these in the same framework.  
Pellitteri, P., B Colajanni, and S Concialdi. "The Architectural Envelope: an Assistant for Components Design Choices." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 404-409. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The global envelope to day focuses on it a lot of attention from architects, progressively replacing the classical concepts of wall and roof. It is a complex component, entrusted with the delicate goal of mediating between exterior and interior space, between a space boundary and a bearing structure. Its main parts are the glass wall, a substructure resisting the loads and transmitting them to the bearing structure, and the connection of the two. The latter, in turn, comprises a fitting and a bracket. The set of relationships between these components and sub-components needs the control of many conditions of consistency. The tool presented is an Assistant performing just this task helping the designer to select in each project situation the best couple of two main envelope components: fitting and bracket. The Assistant structure lends itself to implement an intelligent commercial product catalog. It seems also fit to manage component selections strongly conditioned by consistency constrains between collaborating elements.
Achten, Henri, J. Jessurun, and B. De Vries. "The Desk-Cave - a Low-Cost Versatile Virtual Reality Design and Research Setup Between Desktop and CAVE." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 142-147. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Virtual Reality has become an almost ubiquitous technology in many applications, but it has seen limited success in design support. Reasons for this seem to lie in lack of easily available tools, high threshold for non-programmers, and high cost of equipment. In this paper we describe a Virtual Reality environment that is developed at Design Systems called the Desk-Cave. The Desk-Cave is a low-cost VR setup that combines principles of a CAVE system with a work desk. Architecture students with no specific training in VR technology use the Desk-Cave in design projects both in the early stage and the final presentation stage. The system allows quick transfer to the Desk-Cave and architectural evaluation of design proposals.
Gatermann, Harald. "The Didactic Triangle - Using CAD, Photography and Descriptive Geometry as Educating Tools with Mutual Influence." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 558-562. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Teaching of architectural photography is still not very popular at universities. We developed a didactic concept of teaching architectural photography in response to caad and to descriptive geometry. The first edge of the triangle (descriptive geometry): By having knowledge in descriptive geometry, students will be more aware of geometrical context in caad and in photography. On the other hand the teaching and understanding of descriptive geometry is much easier, when students have already a basic knowledge of photography. The second edge of the triangle (caad, animation): This kind of teaching architectural photography is not only necessary to open the eyes for “youngi student to learn photography - it also helps to understand the basics of constructing perspectives in descriptive geometry or computer aided design up to different kinds of visualisation. The third edge of the triangle (photography): In the age of non-slr-cameras students are no longer used to take sophisticated photographs. They are mostly only able to take snapsshots (even in the time of digital cameras). One of our main methods is to make them acquainted to slrcameras (analog and digital), to tripods and spirit levels as essential tools and to teach the basic geometrical context. The didactic concept is continued by teaching knowledge about colours, light, different points of view etc. Our didactical concept (“Didactic Trianglei) is based on teaching all three elements (photography, caad, descr. geometry) by the same teacher in the same semester to the same students. This guarantees the mutual understanding of the three disciplines. Interactive, digital teaching elements (virtual “mock-up-studioi) support the acceptance.  
Holmgren, S., B. Rüdiger, K. Storgaard, and B. Tournay. "The Electronic Neighbourhood - a New Urban Space." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 24-34. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. During the event Cultural Market Days on 23 and 24 August 2003 at Noerrebro Park in Copenhagen, visitors could also enter the marketplace from their home via the Internet, as a digital 3D model had been constructed that showed the marketplace with all its information booths and activities. This virtual marketplace functioned as an extension of the urban space, allowing you to take part in the flow of information, activities and experiences that were offered in the marketplace. And this just by a click on the Internet address: http://www.e-kvarter.dk. Furthermore at certain times of the day you could chat with people from some of the many working groups of the urban regeneration project in Noerrebro. The digital 3D model is similar to the marketplace, but it creates its own universe in the green surroundings of Noerrebro Park. And now, when the Cultural Market Days are finished and the booths and people have gone, the Electronic Marketplace still remains on the Internet, with a potential for developing a new public space for information, dialogue and cooperation between the actors of the urban regeneration project. This paper presents the results of a 3-year research project, The Electronic Neighbourhood (2000-2004). Researchers have developed and tested a digital model of the urban area and other digital tools for supporting the dialogue and cooperation between professionals and citizens in an urban regeneration project in Copenhagen. The Danish Agency for Enterprise and Housing, the Ministry for Refugees, Immigration and Integration and Copenhagen Municipality have financed the research, which is planned to be published 2004. The results can also be followed on the Internet www.e-kvarter.dk.  
Alvarado, Rodrigo García, and Javier Isorna. "The Fragmented Eye - Cinematographic Techniques for Architectural Animations." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 366-373. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. In order to contribute to the elaboration of more expressive architectural animations, some famous films, documentaries of buildings and award-winning animations were analyzed. This was carried out examining the cinematographic techniques used at three levels of filming language, image setting, shot movements and montage, according to concepts described in theoretical texts. The analysis revealed an extensive use of techniques, in particular in movies, that give graphic diversity and perceptual stability. Based on that, it proposes some ideas for the planning of an architectural animation and a computer implementation of some filmic concepts, in particular related to movements of the point-of-view. This study suggest a fragmented view of building designs, to get an appealing moving presentation, with visual interest and continuity, as such should be also in architecture.
Schink, Claus-Jürgen. "The GISMO Project - Complete Integration of Renovation and Refurbishment of Occupied Buildings." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 624-629. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper discusses the current proceedings in a joint research project, focused on a complete integration of all tasks involved in a refurbishment under use. All relevant matters have to be modeled in a common internet system, developed by a company for internet based project management. A special focus is lead on - the integration of the needs of lodgers. - the quantification of ecological impacts. - the optimization of the refurbishment process with an integrated scheduling method. - the development of database elements, consisting of information for invitation of tenders, ecological benchmarking, time, cost, exposures for the renovation tasks. It is a work in progress article.
Schink, Claus-Jürgen. "The Notebook University Karlsruhe (TH) - How to Promote and Support the Education of Architects and Engineers via Mobile Networks?" In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 451-458. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The article describes the didactical integration of wireless access networks for the campus of the University of Karlsruhe in the education of architects and engineers. It focuses on the development of an interdisciplinary communication network to encourage, support and promote the communication and collaboration between students. The discussed modules were developed during the Notebook University Karlsruhe (TH). An applied project, aimed on several targets. The invention of a notebook university for all students. The distribution of software via a “software fuel station”, the integration of UMTS in campus networks, the support of online lessons, and the encouragement of students to work over the internet. The author joined the consortium with the subproject called: “Interdisciplinary Cooperation Modules in Mobile Networks” (INKOP). This project lead to a couple of tools, listed in this contribution. Based on the design and project oriented cooperation platform netzentwurf.de the authors developed the tools “Job admin” to administrate multidisciplinary workgroups, “Swarm Knowledge Catalogue” to collect and store knowledge and “LivingCampus”, an instrument providing basic services for dynamic communication. The author assumes that the fundamental learning impulses take place among the students themselves and that the training of architects and engineers should enable them to organise themselves and their workgroups. Therefore, the collective acquisition of knowledge and cooperation has to be trained during the studies closely.
Barelkowski, Robert. "The Optimization of Assumptions of the Reconstruction of Monumental Objects of Romanesque and Gothic Architecture - Computer Aided Archeological and Architectural Research." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 617-623. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The paper discusses the methodological principles, the structure and the application aspects of individually created software application helping in architectural / archaeological research. The program is designed as 3layer software, providing the user with database, application with all functional modules and interface. The key content is the modular application allowing dynamic structural analyses, comparative analyses and other various possibilities, necessary in collecting and revising data from different sources. In authoris opinion the Manticora software is able to vastly support the interdisciplinary research and can help in optimizing its results.  
Ibrahim, M., Robert Krawczyk, and George Schipporeit. "Two Approaches to BIM: a Comparative Study." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 610-616. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The ultimate goal of the BIM concept is to create a complete digital model of the building to insure the generation of an accurate bill of material and cost estimate along with coordinated drawings and details. This goal might need the contribution of various disciplines to provide the needed level of information. The development of capable specialized systems to model specific building elements will definitely challenge the all-purpose architectural CAD. The specificity of these systems will enable fulfilling the needs than a general purpose architectural BIM system. This will lead the industry into creating either a powerful fully integrated BIM system that can handle all required information, or a referential BIM system that depends on passing the information to other programs (and other people) that are capable of handling specific tasks more efficiently.
Sarawgi, Tina. "Using Computers as a Spatial Visualization and Design Exploration Medium ." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 325-332. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The constant advances in the use of computers to simulate light over the past few decades, has led computer-aided rendering to become increasingly photorealistic. However, the rendering is still processor-intensive and time-consuming, difficult to generate in real time. Design students need to be well versed in the depiction of the effects of light in an environment, crucial to spatial visualization. With increasing computing power, advanced algorithms and increased realism, the central pedagogical issue in their use is not what computers can do for us today, but what and how we can make them do what we do better. We have to be careful in not getting seduced by the advancing technology but use it innovatively to build students into better designers. This paper discusses a project demonstrating the apparent potential of computers for spatial visualization and design exploration of light and space, in their present stage. The project shows a departure from the traditional methods of using computers or of teaching lighting in a design school. Computers are used by students to especially create flashy imagery. On the other hand, lighting is explained in clinical terms without exploration of its experiential qualities. This exercise helped the students to develop a better understanding of the physics of light from the method most familiar and expected of students - visual. The project deems it more important to have a quick means to produce an overview of the implication of the design choices than to provide precise information regarding a hypothetical final solution. Hence, after creating the lighting in the space based on the desired experiential qualities, the illumination can be conveyed to a lighting expert for detailed quantitative computations. The project results are shown and outcomes discussed.
Schieck, Ava. "Using Multiple Input Devices." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 184-194. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. The field of computer graphics has developed significantly over the last decade. However, most current CAD systems support only the two most common input devices: a mouse and a keyboard. In addition to that few, if any, systems make it easy for the user or the programmer to add and use new input devices. People tend to use both hands to manipulate 3D real world objects, one hand is used to orient the object while the other hand is used to perform some operation on it. The same thing could be applied to computer modelling in the conceptual phase of the design process. Accordingly, the 3D object can be easily and intuitively changed through interactive manipulation of both hands. This paper investigates the manipulation and creation of free form geometries through the use of interactive interfaces with multiple input devices. It demonstrates that using multiple input devices can offer many opportunities for form generation resulting in visually rich forms. However, the experimental results demonstrated that regulations are needed to avoid developing inefficient two-handed interfaces.
Shih, Naai-Jung, and Pin-Hung Wang. "Using Point Cloud to Inspect the Construction Quality of Wall Finish." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 573-578. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This research used a 3D scanner to scan mortar finish of a wall during building construction, via recorded 3D point cloud information to inspect the wallis smoothness. The scanner was considered as an objective science instrument to inspect the quality of the finish job in order to assure better construction quality.
Modeen, Thomas. "Using Solid Freeform Fabrication for the Conceptualization and Corporeal Actualization of Architecture." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 292-301. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. This paper forms an update to the paper presented ar eCAADe 2003, in Graz. It is a summary of a project which aim is to suggest an alternate methodology for utilizing additive Solid Freeform Fabrication (more commonly known as Rapid Prototyping), for the conceptualization and fabrication of design and architecture. It plans to do so by establishing a methodology that is innate and a direct reflection of the additive SFF production process. The project also aims to address the seemingly divisive discrepancy between the process of digitally conceiving a design and the intrinsically somatic way we perceive it. Whereas the paper in Graz introduced the conceptual foundations and the taxonomy of the project, the aim in this years paper is to present some of the realized designs and discuss, in brief, how what has been learnt could be furthered as the project proceeds. The three designs described in more detail in the paper, all catalyzed by a specific sensory notion, would have been very difficult, if not impossible, to fabricate by any other means than additive Solid Freeform Fabrication.
Abdelhameed, Wael. "Visual Design Thinking in the Design Process as Impacted by Digital Media." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 90-94. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Exploring design ideas, through two dimensional and three dimensional forms, is the basis of design exploration and visual design thinking during the design process. Imagining how drawings and models (be it manual or digital) will be presented in reality is the essence of visual design thinking. By the beginning of the 20th Century, architecture has become more three dimensional in design exploration and in representation. This transition to three dimensions makes the processes of visual design thinking more related to digital media. The nature of media, utilized by architects, affects design-exploration processes. The research investigates both the processes of visual design thinking and the interrelation between visual design thinking and digital media, in order to shed more light on how digital media should be introduced to students of architecture.
Hanzl, Małgorzata, and Stefan Wrona. "Visual Simulation as a Tool for Planning Education - Computer Aided Participation Support." In Architecture in the Network Society: 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 500-507. eCAADe: Conferences. Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 2004. Contemporary computer techniques offer many new opportunities to engage citizens into the planning process. There are new possibilities of interaction, introducing an observer into the “game”. The research project presented in the paper assumes the use of a visual 3D language which consists of a series of schematic types of buildings. They form a language which is easy to understand both by professionals and by laymen. Understanding is the very first step towards getting convinced by the ideas presented. The next step is interaction - the useris action induces the response of the system. The solution proposed by the user meets an evaluation from the part of the system which evokes the useris interest - in the case presented here the evaluation introduces the simulation of future state of the site. The problem posed is to find out the best way to convince people that some places are less or more suitable for settlement, depending on the media present there, distance from the urban areas and the environment protection. The attempt to create a tool which could be helpful in an educational process is described in the paper. The idea is to prepare a form of a master plan record which uses the visual 3D language and may be accessed via World Wide Web pages. The paper formulates the assessments for the software described above and examines the possibility to create an application. The trial to prepare a web based service using the flash and shockwave technology is presented.