Keywords Abstract
Kós, J.R.. "3D models as a base for historical narrative experiments." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 387-396. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Historians have relied mostly in descriptive narratives to represent their research. In the first half of the XX century, with the influence of other disciplines, that instrument started to be questioned. This paper aims to overview that debate and the search for new forms of historical representation that would overcome most of the historiansi alleged shortcomings. A web-based system that relates 3D city models to a database of historical documents of a great variety of sources is presented as a digital alternative for the representation of Rio de Janeirois history.
Grunau, Jens-Peter. "A different approach to planning and design - Combining a planning theory in architectual design with elearning." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 161-164. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. We have developed a rather uncommon way of understanding and teaching architectual design and the use of computers in this process: Our idea consists in defining the design process not only as finding a nice shape for an object like a building or a new car. We see designing and planning as the “art” of solving complex problems. This implies, that the design process is not the mere use of methods or tools to solve a given problem, but the process of understanding the roots of the problem and finding a suitable and often alternative and unusual solution. The way we teach this process is enhanced by the use of computers and webbased applications. In this paper we will describe the key elements of the planning and design theory used as well as the methods for teaching these ideas to graduate students. Lastly, we point out the experience that came from the practical implementation.
Cheng, Hung-Ming. "A digital modeling with reasoning system in early phase of design." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 659-664. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This study describes statue in the early phase of design, the approach taken by its conceptual development and manipulation. And on the developing digital tools provide a computational support for the process of indexing and retrieving. The digital modelling also addresses specifically architectural programming, adjacent relationship between the building element and articulation in designing. The overall in building mass development starting with reasoning of the conceptual model in early phase try to find evocative cases to help designer thinking. And finally discuss some issues and challenges of artificial intelligent. The research for representing designeris creativity and searching solution provide another way to generate an articulating conceptual model. The integration approach of research starts with the pure case-based and rule-based reasoning system to help designer generate more understandable and creative product in the architectural design application.
Duarte, José. "A Discursive Grammar for Customizing Mass Housing - the case of Siza's houses at Malagueira." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 665-674. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The ultimate goal of the described research is a process for mass customizing housing based on computer-aided design and production systems. The current goal is the development of an interactive system for generating solutions on the Web based on a modelling approach called discursive grammar. A discursive grammar consists of a programming grammar and a designing grammar. The programming grammar generates design briefs based on user data, the designing grammar provides the rules for generating designs in a particular style, and a set of heuristics guides the generation of designs towards a solution that matches the design brief. This paper describes the designing grammar using Sizais houses at Malagueira as a case study.
Wong, Wilson, and Thomas Kvan. "Agent support for monitoring collaborative design knowledge." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 75-82. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Design teams are typically distributed across many locations and communicate with multiple media. Computer tools have been developed to support and improve such communication. Agent support of design has been discussed in terms of the support of graphical and object based systems. Another aspect of design that is often discounted is the textual dimension. Discussions of media in architectural design typically revolve around graphical forms, be they digital or analogue. This emphasis on graphics overshadows the role of text in design, the interactions of designers requires broader support. In this paper, we consider role of text-agents in support of collaborative architectural design. Text is a common medium to record information in computer technology and has a role to play in an architectural design process. In collaborative environment, a shared understanding and preserved history are important for communication. Design knowledge is accumulated through textual databases, be they email or longer documents. In this way, just as graphics can be seen as a design aid, so too can text. This proof of concept implementation of an agent system demonstrates how collaborative design can benefit from agent support.
Maher, Mary Lou, P - S. Liew, N. Gu, and Lan Ding. "An Agent Approach to Supporting Collaborative Design in 3D Virtual Worlds." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 47-52. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. 3D Virtual worlds facilitate a level of communication and collaboration not readily available in conventional CAD systems. The integration of virtual worlds and CAD systems using a common data model can make a significant impact on synchronous collaboration and real time multi-user multi-disciplinary modification of building data. By using agents, the integration of 3D virtual worlds and CAD systems can go beyond that of passive data transfer. With sensors and effectors, each agent can interact with its environment by responding to changes in the CAD system or 3D virtual world, which can take the form of an update to the geometry, or as a recommendation to change non geometric information or to propagate changes to other parts of the design. The reasoning process for each agent can vary from a reflexive behaviour in which the agent responds directly to the sensor data to a reflective behaviour in which the agents reasons about its goals and alternatives before making a change to the environment. We demonstrate this approach using ArchiCAD and Active Worlds as the CAD system and the virtual world platform. An EDM database is used as the central repository for storing the representation of the relevant data model. A multi-agent system is developed to connect the virtual world to this database to allow active data sharing. This agent approach can be extended to the integration of other applications and data models.
Ireland, Tim, and Christian Derix. "An analysis of the Poly-dimensionality of living - an experiment in the application of 3-dimensional self-organising maps to evolve form." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 449-456. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The architect and sculptor Fredrick Kiesler opposed the linear mechanics of modernity. As so efficiently defined in Margarette Shutte Lihotskyis Frankfurt kitchen, his work expressed the “act of body motioni, in the view that people inhabit buildings in a dynamic and vicissitudinous way. Representative of a world essentially understood to be deterministic and ordered, the Frankfurt Kitchen encapsulated the dweller in a standardised, industrial environment. Opposed to the scientific ordering of task management, Kiesler argued that the linearly devised two-dimensional methodology of architectural design is out of context with the dynamic of living and developed his ideas in the endless house, a form in which its inhabitants could live in a poly-dimensional way. This work focuses on the development of a design process, which may reflect the character and sinuous properties of an individualis pattern of living. The study will develop a process, investigating the application of self-organising maps as a tool for the definition of space, towards a result which is emergent. The parameters that define an individualis pattern of living, will be instigated in an array of three-dimensional self-organising activity maps, towards the development of form.ii
Lang, Silke, and Ludger Hovestadt. "An architectural framework within a spatially immersive real-time environment for advanced communication and collaboration." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 37-43. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. In this paper we present a framework for use in the blue-c, a collaborative telepresence environment. We implemented the framework on top of the blue-c API to enable new ways of designing digital 3D spaces in an immersive way. The framework will be used to support designers in creating spatial scenarios within CAVETM - like environments. It concentrates on the integration aspect of different media and data types. Architectural knowledge and information technology is combined to introduce a new approach for designing virtual environments.
Franz, G., M. Von der Heyde, and H.H. Bülthoff. "An empirical approach to the experience of architectural space in VR - Exploring relations between features and affective appraisals of rectangular interiors." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 17-24. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. While it is well known that the built environment influences our emotional state, it is often difficult to attribute these experiences to particular properties. In fact, a systematic investigation of the relation between physical structure and emotional experience of architecture has not yet been done. Now virtual reality simulations facilitate a completely controlled variation of spatial properties and thus allow to empirically evaluate architectural hypothesises. The aim of the presented study was to investigate which factors from a component-based description of rooms significantly correlate with cardinal dimensions of experience. In a perceptual experiment experiental qualities of 16 virtual vacant rectangular interiors were rated in eight principal categories by 16 participants using the semantic differential scaling technique. The scenes were generated by a custom made graphics tool that also automatically generated the component-based scene descriptions. The data analysis revealed several interesting correlations between scene features and rated experience: For example, a preference for ratios near to the golden section could be observed for spatial proportions, which are not directly perceivable. Altogether, a set of five independent factors (openness, two room proportions, room area and balustradeheight) appeared to be effective for widely describing the observed variance of the averaged attributed experiental qualities. Our combination of realistic virtual reality simulations and psychophysical data raising methods proved to be effective for basic architectural research. It allowed us to demonstrate quantitative relations between physical properties from a component-based description of architectural space and its emotional experience.
Akgun, Yenal. "An Interactive Database (HizmO) for Reconstructing Lost Modernist Izmir:." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 369-372. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The research project in progress in the School of Architecture at the Izmir Institute of Technology includes documentation and reconstruction (by 3D modelling in electronic media) of damaged and lost early modern buildings in the Izmir region. The research aims to analyze the differences between Izmir modern buildings and Universal Modern Style, and preserve information on architectural heritage for future generations. The project is at the phase of developing an interactive web-based historical database (HizmO) that includes data (information, images, technical drawings, VRML models) and visualization of the findings. This database aims to be a pioneer in Mediterranean Region for exhibition of relations between traditional architecture (especially Mediterranean locality) and modernism, and organization of a network and off-campus learning activity for Mediterranean architecture that serve as a guide for students, researchers and architects. This paper aims at introducing this research and discussing the application of the database “HizmO,” its aims and potential effects on education in architectural history.
Asanowicz, Alexander. "Architectural Composition in Digital Space." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 587-590. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. In this paper the possibilities of using the computers at course of architectural compositions are considered. As the start point of the new teaching method of architectural composition we used the course of tradition architectural composition, elaborated at our Faculty. The course of Digital Architectural Composition was finished in 2002. The main goal of using the new digital media for modelling architectural forms was checking the new possibilities of form creation. Traditionally, searching of forms at the conceptual design stage is performed by using sketches, drawings and physical models. Our new method showed that is possible to do the same thing using the computerbased 3D modelling, experiencing no physical limitations of the'real'substance. At the same time, at the early design stages, when formal value is sought, computer modelling can be done almost intuitively. In ours work we try to find a creative way of using computer - transforming the tool into medium. The attention was paid on exploring the possibilities characteristic for computers and not available with traditional methods of modelling. Architectis tradition tools are effectively replaced by a computer, which create a new way of doing things.
Mueller, Volker, and Kyle Talbott. "Architectural Design Methods with Commercial Computer Aided Design Systems." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 279-286. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion about the changed expectations towards computers as design tools by presenting three case studies describing how a computer aided design (CAD) system is used in a design setting. The first case describes how the commercial CAD system is presented to students of architecture at a university. The second and third case studies show how designers in an architectural firm have evolved distinctly different ways of augmenting their creative thinking using the CAD system. The three cases demonstrate how designers adopt standard tools and adapt their individual design processes to utilize digital media creatively.
Reffat, Rabee. "Architectural Exploration and Creativity using Intelligent Design Agents." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 181-186. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Architects and designers are normally interested in situations where differences make a difference. This paper presents the results of the developed system of intelligent design agents that supports design exploration and creativity within the domain of architectural shapes. Creativity in architectural design compositions can be viewed as an emergence of new forms and shapes or relationships between forms and shapes from which new concepts can be discovered.
Szalapaj, Peter. "Architectural GIS: Interoperable and Integrated Information Environments." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 319-325. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper investigates ways of bringing together the existing GIS techniques of spatial analysis with emerging object-based computer modelling and presentation methods. The end product is Architectural GIS: computer systems that can be applied to the analysis and evaluation of both rural and urban environments. The paper will focus on the various ways in which information is represented, and the spatial analysis techniques that form the basis of mainstream GIS.
Delic, Alenka, and Branko Kincl. "Architecture of the virtual in housing." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 195-198. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have brought about a revolution in architecture and urban planning, they are transforming learning and practice and presenting new challenges in our understanding of space, place and society. An entirely new world of architectural expression and experiment is opening up to us. At Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb a new optional course, Virtuality in Housing Architecture, has been proposed and is being taught for the first time. Subjects cover a wide area of use of ICT in housing architecture: research into the role of the computer in architecture as a creative discipline, encouragement of new challenges to the concept of the role of digital media in housing architecture through research of digital concepts such as computerization, information, electronic media, virtuality and cyberspace, themes related to development of intelligent environment and spaces, interactive buildings, virtual reality and cyberspace as directions of development. In our work we try to implement the method of e-learning, teamwork, communication and design through the Internet. Through experimental projects and research of new housing concepts, students create a basis for discussions on theoretical and practical solutions for the housing of the future, create new ways of presentation and open new fields of research. We shall here present the experience from our work.
Wojtowicz, Jerzy, and Kazimierz Butelski. "Aspects of Digital Mimesis in Design." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 275-278. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The imitation process and the 3D digitizer deployed in conceptual design.
Silva, Neander, and Ecilamar Lima. "Assessing the Effectiveness of CAAD Education: a value-added approach." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 509-512. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. We have developed and implemented in our school a post-graduate CAAD course, over the last five years, which has been structured according to some problembased learning features, with the emphasis falling on the needs of the design process involved rather than on software categories. The development and implementation of such curriculum has been described in our early work. We describe in this paper part of the process of assessing the effectiveness of such approach, particularly through the use of value-added methods.
Nardini, Marco. "Avant-garde techniques in contemporary design - New tools or new languages for the project?" In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 261-264. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. In this paper it is argued that new digital techniques join together several skills, from CAD (Computer Aided Design), to CAE (Computer Aided Engineering), till CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing). That assemblage of methods involves a change in the way to achieve a project. The idea comes out as result of connected actions within software-hardware tools. According to this analysis the implementation of gradients (e.g. movement, time, direction) have a significant role in shaping a multi-disciplinary approach to design, supported by simulation as way to verify and control solutions. Such innovations can settle a new way to design, in terms of vocabulary, grammar and syntax? How can we develop useful tools to express the “new visible” of avant-garde techniques?
Oxman, Rivka. "Being There: Architectural Metaphors in the Design of Virtual Place." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 165-168. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The paper reports on a research program to define the issues and strategies involved in the design of virtual architecture. Issues and categories of virtual architecture are identified and classified. An approach to the design of virtual place is derived from a large body of emerging literature as well as from the analysis of case-studies. We demonstrate and discuss how paradigms of physical design may be applied to support the needs of design for cyber-place. We attempt to define intrinsically digital possibilities for interface design that are not based upon a direct analogy to physical space. The findings in the form of alternative development possibilities and design guidelines may provide a guide to the field of virtual architecture, to its definition, design issues, and potential strategies.
Maher, A., P. Woods, and Mark Burry. "Building Blobs: Embedding Research in Practice." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 333-336. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Through a model of engaging research in practice, we present the development of a technique for digitally resolving three-dimensional curves for documentation and fabrication. We suggest it is possible to distinguish the power of the computer as a design tool in the design development process, where the description of complex forms are not well served by the established methods of orthogonal representation.
Sterk, Tristan de Estree. "Building Upon Negroponte: a Hybridized Model of Control Suitable for Responsive Architecture." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 407-414. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Responsive architecture is commonly defined as a type of architecture that has the ability to alter its form in response to changing conditions. While this description is successful in capturing the gist of the topic, it does not provide us with the more detailed understandings required to build it. The knowledge required to build a truly responsive form of architecture is substantial, an understanding of architecture, robotics, artificial intelligence and structural engineering are all beneficial. The links that are required between each knowledge base to actuate and control the responses of this type of architecture further complicate matters - suggesting potential reasons for the ambivalence of architects towards deeply exploring to the topic or extending it beyond the aesthetic application of an event-based architecture. This paper will build a model of responsive architecture that explains one possible approach to the topic, emphasizing ways to build it and control it in the process.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "CAAD influences in Web-based teaching." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 145-152. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. A recent restructuring of the CAAD department at the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, was based on the principle of coupling technological and methodical development to application areas. This resulted into decentralization of CAAD and the positioning of computerization groups in other departments. The task of these groups is to stimulate broad integration of ICT and initiate the development of computational applications relating to specific tasks and areas. The paper is a description of a channel for such integration and applications: a Web site intended as a support to the research and educational activities of a whole department. In addition to its conventional role in presenting the department, the site accommodates the majority of learning aids for the students (lecture notes and presentations, readers, syllabi, audiovisual material) and a comprehensive database of completed and ongoing research output (online publications for internal use). The design of the site was based on earlier experiences with Web-based teaching and collaborative design environments, which were projected on the processes and products of the new context.
Ibrahim, M., Robert Krawczyk, and George Schipporeit. "CAD Smart Objects: Potentials and Limitations." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 547-552. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. For many years, CAD software depended on entity objects that were manipulated and interpreted by the user as meaningful symbols. These entities only represented the geometrical aspect of the design, but never had knowledge of what they are, or how to behave. With the new CAD systems, this concept has changed into the smart CAD objects. The smart objects will automatically provide all the data related to it: geometry, materials, specifications, price, as well as manufacturers and theoretically any related data. Creating new objects is not an easy straightforward job, and requires more programming skills than previously needed. Taking into consideration the relative difficulties in learning to modify and create new CAD objects, this might lead to a new branch of learning, as the architecture students might not only need to learn how to use the CAD packages but also how to program it in a way that makes them capable of doing what they want rather than doing what the package allow them to do.
Modeen, Thomas. "CADCAMing: the Use of Rapid Prototyping for the Conceptualization and Fabrication of Architecture." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 351-361. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The objective of the study is to suggest a methodology for fabricating designs, through the use of Rapid Prototyping, that are innate to this mode of production. It endeavors to do so by involving a more inclusive sensory spectrum as an essential ingredient in the conceptualization and realization of a design
Gruber, A., Urs Hirschberg, and R. Dank. "Calculated Bananas: Defining a new introductory course in visual design for first year architecture students." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 519-522. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. A novel introductory course in visual design is presented that combines the teaching of various subjects and skills around the development of digital fruit. - A mandatory subject for first year architecture students at Graz University of Technology, the course is jointly offered by two institutes and combines the teaching of hand sketching, descriptive geometry, computer aided design, generative algorithms, image processing, desktop and online publishing and networked collaboration. The ambitious pedagogy uses information technology to provide links and synergies between the different subjects. The digital fruit are developed in a collaborative environment that fosters the evolution of new kinds of forms and structures through exchanging and crossbreeding of CAAD data. The paper reports on the experiences gained during the first installment the course in which 130 students were enrolled.
Lonsing, Werner. "Collaboration in the independent architectural office." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 53-65. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Collaborative work in architecture is commonly concentrated on the design process. Design teams and their members are working together on multiple virtual model from different, mostly remote locations. Internet-based collaboration software offers a project management platform for comprehensive networking. Complex projects can bebetter coordinated and documented,and executed even faster. So in the building process at least two different kinds of collaboration can be noticed, collaboration in the design process where the architects are maintaining their modelling informations, and the construction process where the data is maintained be external software companies. Here another model is suggested. Hosting project data in their own building and so maintaining the physical representations of all project informations is the only way retaining control.
Kieferle, Joachim, and Uwe Wössner. "Combining Realities - Designing with Augmented and Virtual Reality." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 29-32. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Augmented Reality (AR), the layering of reality and virtuality, can be used as a tool in architecture in model scale as well as in 1:1 scale on site. By combining real architecture models with virtual representations like e.g. wind simulation an intensive understanding for impacts can be observed. Coupling AR with further virtual environments (AR and Virtual Reality) in one scenario makes AR a tangible interface for VR and on the other hand supports the group discussion of distributed teams.
Ng, Edward, and T.Y. Chan. "Computational simulation based daylight design for urban sites - validation, methodology and legality." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 91-98. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The creditability of using CAAD depends on the rigour of its methodology, the logic of its deduction and most importantly the feasibility of its results for practical use. This paper examines two lighting simulation software as the basis for providing a wider critic on the research of CAAD in the practice of architecture. The paper argues that the “contextual” and appropriate use of a simple tool or method should be the thesis of CAAD research. Using an example, the paper then logically work out an example of how that could be done, and the basis of its contextual logic. The example illustrated here concludes the validity of the software and its implication for legal use. Furthermore, the paper provides a critic of CAAD for regulatory and legal acceptance. The experience in Hong Kong is illustrated.
Paterson, Inga, and Louis Natanson. "Computer Art - the future is bright but what is the future?" In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 203-208. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. It is a curious characteristic of mankind to both revere and revile the use of technology within art but history proves that when scientific logic marries with artistic reasoning, innovative and original ideas are born. Computer Art can justify a 30-year history but despite its relative maturity, digital art continues to suffer from the age-old perception that art made by machine is not a legitimate art form. This paper looks at the digital-imagery prevalent in the public domain today and compares its stage of development to the historical precedents of perspective, photography and film.
Slyk, Jan, and Stefan Wrona. "Computer Design - is there any other way? Real and virtual input to history of architecture." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 623-626. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Paper discusses use of digital techniques to present, create and finally materialize the architectural idea. The authors present short description and perspectives for virtual reality experiments.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Computing the Performative in Architecture." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 457-464. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The paper addresses performative architecture as an emerging design paradigm in which building performance, broadly understood, becomes a guiding design principle. It discusses the inadequacy of existing software for building performance simulation as usable tools in conceptual design, and proposes the development of software that can provide dynamic processes of formation based on specific performance objectives.
Russell, Peter, T. Stachelhaus, and D. Elger. "CSNCW: Computer Supported Non-Cooperative Work Barriers to Successful Virtual Design Studios." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 59-66. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The paper describes a design studio jointly undertaken by four Universities. With respect given to the groundbreaking work carried out by [Wojtowicz and Butelski (1998)] and [Donath et al 1999] and some of the problems described therein, the majority of the Studio partners had all had positive, if not exemplary experiences with co-operative studio projects carried out over the internet. The positive experience and development of concepts have been well documented in numerous publications over the last 5 years. A platform developed by one of the partners for this type of collaboration is in its third generation and has had well over 1000 students from 12 different universities in over 40 Projects. With this amount of experience, the four partners entered into the joint studio project with high expectations and little fear of failure. This experimental aspect of the studio, combined with the “well troddeni path of previous virtual design studios, lent an air of exploration to an otherwise well-worn format. Everything looked good, or so we thought. This is not to say that previous experiments were without tribulations, but the problems encountered earlier were usually spread over the studio partners and thus, the levels and distribution of frustration were more or less balanced. This raised a (theoretically) well-founded expectation of success. In execution, it was quite the opposite. In this case, the difficulties tended to be concentrated towards one or two of the partners. The partners spoke the same language, but came from different sets of goals, and hence, interpreted the agreements to suit their goals. This was not done maliciously, however the results were devastating to the project and most importantly, the student groups. The differing pedagogical methods of the various institutes played a strong role in steering the design critique at each school. Alongside these difficulties, the flexibility (or lack thereof) of each universityis calendar as well as national and university level holidays led to additional problems in coordination. And of course, (as if this was all not enough), the technical infrastructure, local capabilities and willingness to tackle technological problems were heterogeneous (to put it lightly).
Pahle, R., M. Juyal, and F. Ozel. "Data modeling of buildings with BMXML." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 533-540. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. XML (extensible markup language) is emerging as a significant tool not only to model data but also to facilitate the seamless sharing of data between multiple domains. Therefore it can be quite powerful in modelling building data that must often be shared between large numbers of professionals. The focus of this study is how to use this paradigm in structuring spatial and component based building data with the intention to use it in the analysis and simulation of the performance of buildings. The framework developed by the authors consists of three components. An XML structure (bmXML) for storing building data, a VBA-AutoCAD-Application for generating the XML files (bmGenerator) and a JAVA-Application which reads the bmXML data and prepares the information for simulation purposes. This paper primarily focuses on theVBA-AutoCADApplication.
Monedero, Javier, and Francisco Muñoz. "Data Organization in City Modeling." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 229-236. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Working with big models requires a good balance between the technical requirements of the model and the technical requirements of the user. Although every virtual model, whether it is 2d, 3d or 4d, may be regarded as a particular form of a general data base, it is clear that is not, at the present time, a very flexible data base. It does not behave like a relational data base that can be inspected in a flexible way. On the contrary, it has a rigid structure, a hierarchical structure that is well suited for performance but is badly suited for navigating through the data and gathering derived information. These are well known disadvantages and advantages, related to the evolution of the data base software that has moved, in the last 30 years, from a hierarchical to a relational structure. These considerations are relevant for any kind of architectural or engineering model. But are particularly pertinent in the case of the model of a city where everything must have its place, and should relate properly with other parts of the model, be susceptible of further modifications and be able to receive new information. These and other related issues have been encountered and developed during the construction of several models at our Laboratory at the ETS Architecture of Barcelona. Our paper explains the main decisions we had to take during the course of these works with special emphasis on those aspects related with the organization of different kind of data in a unified whole that had to be sent to other professionals and had to be, for that reason, organized in a clear and comprehensible way for its further development.
Reichard, Georg, and Konstantinos Papamichael. "Decision-making through performance simulation and code compliance from the early, schematic phases of building design." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 103-110. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper is about the merging of two software applications that allows building decision makers to consider code compliance and to use performance simulation tools from the early, schematic phases of building design. By making the capabilities of a code compliance tool available at the early schematic phases of building design, the hope and expectation is that users will use this software to address the mandatory code compliance issues and thus have an opportunity to address other performance issues as well.
Wittkopf, Stephen, and Harold Hee. "Design by grading? Electronic buildability design appraisal score (eBDAS) as a major design consideration in architectural design in Singapore." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 111-116. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Singapore is possibly the first country in Asia to implement a nation-wide electronic system for the evaluation and approval of building plans called ELECTRONIC BUILDABILITY DESIGN APPRAISAL SCORE (eBDAS). The system is a systematic and comprehensive method of computing a building designis buildability efficiency through a scoring methodology. Using this methodology, the building authorities make the decision as to whether a building is approved for construction. Poh and Chen (1996) have found that a design with a higher buildable score results in more efficient labour usage in construction and therefore higher site labour productivity. However, the relationship between construction costs and buildable score was found less distinct. This paper discusses the existing implications of eBDAS on the architectural profession and potential implications on educational institutes.
Gero, John S.. "Design Tools as Situated Agents that Adapt to their Use." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 177-180. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Design tools have been built based on a paradigm that is founded on the notion that the tool is unchanged by its use. Humans build up experience in using tools and adapt their use of a tool based on that experience. The claim is that the tool should also adapt based on its experience of its use. This paper founds the notions of tool adaptation on concepts drawn situated cognition.
Sperling, David. "Diagrams, Modeling and Rapid Prototyping: Interface Between Design of Form Process and Topology." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 329-332. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper investigates the concept of topological processual diagrams, geometric way of surfaces construction in topology, and the paradigm of homoeomorphism shaping, procedure that keeps topological properties. It explores possibilities of using it as a process of architectural shape generation, combined to computer-aided modelling tools and rapid prototyping. It intends to go through two complementary ways of translation between object shape and topology: the making of architectonical objects in topological surfaces and, on the other way, the exploration of topological surfaces as architectonical objects.
Donath, Dirk, and Ulrich Weferling. "Digital building surveying and planning Integrative approaches with commercial object-oriented CAAD systems." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 527-532. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. As a result of growing activity in the field of renovation and building within existing built contexts, modern digital tools and methods are increasingly in demand. Support of the planning process means: the step-by-step capture of building-relevant information, a rule and parameter-based development of solutions and the combination of traditional and automated methods and technologies used for model creation (building surveying) and model transformation (planning). This article discusses general requirements and the results from our own research and development as well as illustrating how building surveying can already contribute to the planning process more effectively using currently available tools.
Fischer, Michal. "Digital Czech Cubism." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 381-386. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Cubism is one of the great phenomena of Czech architecture and the use of digital technology opens up a new aspect of its significance. Digital models of both realised and unrealised buildings are becoming an important aid for research into the history of architecture and the teaching of this subject. The very process of the creation of the models enables deeper understanding of the principles of Cubist architecture.
Papavasiliou, Mattheos. "Digital space and ephemeral visuals as determinants of contemporary design: a Survey of Projects of Architectural Students in CAAD." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 607-611. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Outside of views produced deliberately for the design of architecture, there exists a large body of images, visuals of no materialized spaces, constructed only on paper or in pixels in popular cultural media - editorial illustration, comic strips and books, cinema, television, advertising and web imagery. All the aforementioned visuals, fragments of architecture are within our everyday life and more important influence strong spatial paradigms for students of architecture. The proposed presentation is about the work within a university Computer Aided Architectural Design studio where students asked to investigate the ephemeral environments that surround their everyday life and translate them into architectural intentions. This paper argues that the digitally mediated design of young students of architecture incorporates the ubiquity of contemporary life-style, reflects through student design proposals the new orientations of contemporary architecture and finally revises the integration of the CAAD studio with the “traditional” studios of design within the school of Architecture.
Wittkopf, Stephen, and E-Jin Foo. "Discussing Image-Based Modeling Technology for 3D Digital Archival of Physical Architecture Models." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 373-380. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Besides drawings, physical models are important forms of representation commonly used for architectural design. They can serve as a useful resource for teaching and research, provided there is a proper archiving system that allows easy retrieval. Architectural models in 3D digital format seem to be able to overcome the limitation of physical constraints - they can be easily accessed anytime and anywhere over the Internet. The most common way of 3D model documentation is through geometric-based 3D CAD software. Image-based modelling (IM) allows the 3D digital model to be created from photographic images. Debevec (1998) investigated the hybrid geometry- and image-based approach whilst Tsou (2002) and Hawkins (2001) focused on the application of IM for GIS and digitizing cultural artifacts respectively. This paper aims to compare physical models and their IM counterparts in terms of communication of vital architectural information. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the extent the IM model resembled the physical predecessor in terms of its geometry and visual appearance qualities/faithfulness. A survey was subsequently carried out to compare their performance in terms of the communication of vital architectural information about building designs to the observers. The tabulated results were then examined to help understand the opportunities and weakness of IM for 3D archival of physical architecture models
Cumming, Michael. "Distributed and Constructed Knowledge in Design Education." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 501-504. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. One aspect of design education to impart design information and theory, which from the studentsi viewpoint may appear to be a static body of knowledge. This knowledge is imparted to them by parties with expertise in particular topics. This type of information could be called “received knowledge”: teachers teach it and students receive it. There is also a “constructive” aspect to design education, in which students are expected to build their own personal knowledge bases, and to present a progression of design proposals that build from this personal knowledge. This kind of knowledge is much more difficult to share with others because it relies on require personal interpretation. If teachers and their students are considered to form a “knowledge hierarchy”, in which those at the top know more about a particular topic than those further down the hierarchy, then centralized information and knowledge systems appear appropriate. However, in design education, students can sometimes know more specialized knowledge about certain design situations than their teachers, and can also learn and construct things of value from their fellow students. In such situations, decentralized or peer-to-peer technologies become more attractive. This paper discussed some philosophical and technical aspects to the centralizing and sharing of design knowledge, with respect to emerging peer-topeer (P2P) communication technologies.
Chiu, Mao-Lin, Chun-Jui Liao, Rui-Lung Wu, Jui-Chang Peng, and Chih-Chun Huang. "Educating Digital Designers: a Process-Oriented Approach." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 583-586. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The new digital technologies clearly influence what we do in practice and teach in design studios. The study adopts a process-oriented approach to initiate digital design in the graduate design studio. It is found that the skills to develop the design process for integrating digital tools and information are critical for designers. The educational pedagogy, operation studies and discussion are presented.
Marques, S., J.P. Goulette, and D. Bonnal. "Exploring design in cyberspace: a teaching experience." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 141-144. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The use and evolution of information and communication technologies (TIC) are changing humanis cultural, social, and material content. It regards not only the complexity of technology, but also the re-discussion of concepts concerning to several domains of knowledge, among them, architecture (theory, practice and teaching). The particular focus of this paper is to present an undergraduate teaching experience in a French School of Architecture (école d'Architecture de Toulouse). The course called FINC (“Forme, Information, Novation, Conception”), deals with new designers'attitudes exploring cyberspace. By concentrating on a critical approach of the “reciprocal contamination” between physical and virtual architecture, the aim of this course is to bring architectural students to face a new design experience: to explore the new cognitive and communicative environments of cyberspace, designing in a different conceptual and experimental environment.
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, and Mohd. Jabar. "FCM: an Automated Flood Crisis Management System." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 301-304. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This research presents our progress of the second phase of City Administration System (CAS) (Rafi and Fazidin, 2001). It covers the terrain generation of Kuala Lumpuris Central Business District about 30km x 30km at 1 meter resolution using the latest stereoscopic satellite data and survey data from Mapping Department of Malaysiais Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. CAS will be designed to have three main functions, namely: Flood Crisis Management (FCM), Architectural and Town Planning Management, and City Services and Administration. At a 1meter resolution, CAS will be able to predict, manage and visualise flash and major floods within the city with a very high degree of accuracy. It has been identified for CAS that there is a need to share information through collaborative environment in a more centralised manner that allows collective decisions, facilitates continuous updates, communicates effectively and permits the sharing of experiences and ideas.
Dobson, Adrian, and Peter Lancaric. "From Virtuality to Reality - Collaborative Digital Design in the Urban Environment." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 83-87. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper describes work in progress on a collaborative project being undertaken by the Department of Art and Design at the University of Luton with the architecture and planning departments at Luton Borough Council and community participation. Focussing on the Plaiters Lea urban zone in Luton, the project uses a three-dimensional digital urban model of the townscape, as a collaborative design and communication tool for urban regeneration. The proposals being developed include elements of architectural and urban design, landscape design and public art. The philosophical motivation for the project is that of the community architecture and arts movements, in which a wide constituency of stakeholders is involved in the evolution of design proposals. The digital model is the key feature of a world-wide-web site that facilitates the exchange of design data between the participants. Digital modelling work has been used for undergraduate CAD skills development, and students are contributing design proposals as part of their studio work. Hence the project also has a pedagogic component.
Flanagan, Robert. "Generative Logic in Digital Design." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 473-484. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This exploration of early-stage, architectural design pedagogy is in essence, a record of an ongoing transformation underway in architecture, from its practice in the art of geometry of space to its practice in the art of geometry of space-time. A selected series of student experiments, from 1992 to the present, illustrate a progression in architectural theory, from Pythagorean concepts of mathematics and geometry, to the symbolic representation of space and non-linear time in film. The dimensional expansion of space, from xyz to xyz+t (time), represents a tactical and strategic opportunity to incorporate multisensory design variables in architectural practice, as well as in its pedagogy.
He, Jie, and Jin-Yeu Tsou. "GIS Support in a Visual Resource Management System for Visual Sustainability of Urban Natural Landscape in China." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 315-318. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The proposed VLM system intends to facilitate the visual sustainability of urban natural landscape in China. In this system, GIS not only provides technologies for the inventory of landscape characteristics and the visual landscape evaluation, but also contributes to public or professional communication supporting through modelling and visualization. Therefore, GIS holistically acts as a fundamental support in this prototype system. Combining with psychophysical landscape evaluation (LE), photogrammetry and other digital 3D visualization, GIS provides quantitative data, scientific visualization and visual simulation for planning decision making.
Serrato-Combe, Antonio. "Going Upstream - Finding New Ways to Enhance the Use of Computers as Design Tools." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 173-176. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The power of the computer as a design tool and as a design stimulator has still to be fully exploited () The previous statement from the conference theme, couldnit be more correct. However, the question then becomes why? Why computers arenit used more often as design tools? In trying to find answers and solutions to these questions, the author has applied an approach similar to that taken by river explorers. These individuals, when exploring the course of a river, begin the journey at the mouth of the river, not at the source. They go up river, against the current, searching into the larger tributaries first and then proceeding to look at the smaller rivulets. In other words, rather than proposing some theoretical construct that one could put to the digital design test and find out why weire having problems with computers in terms of design creativity, here the course was reversed and began with a product that was analyzed in order to find its sources. The paper (a) presents the rationales behind the procedural approach to digital modelling, (b) the process that was used to investigate the approach, (c) its outcome.
Delic, Davor, and Ziga Turk. "HYCE - Hyperlearning in Civil Engineering Curricula a Pilot Course in Implementation of Information Technology Course - a Case Study at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 595-600. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Outline of development of a revised base ITC course at the Faculty is shown here. The course, called Introduction To Information Technology Implementation is aimed for 2nd year students (3rd semester) of the study. For the first time it was held in the winter semester of 2002/03 as a pilot course replacing the old way of course delivery. This implementation was carried out through a “pathfinder” project WORMES from February 2002 till March 2003 and would be used as a template for future Hyperlearning implementation on other courses through other Faculty education programes. The objective was to establish continuous students teamwork around a problem - a project completely accomplished in IT surround. A slightly adapted methodology known as Hyperlearning - a version of Problem Based Learning, was chosen as a based learning methodology for a new way of course delivery. The gained results were really impressive. Not only efficiency of delivery was increased in many ways (less hours spent on exercises, better knowledge detaining...) but also huge enthusiasm among students was constantly maintained and their creativity was emphasized surprisingly. A lot of data were collected, analyzed and some of the results are published here.
Malé-Alemany, Marta, and José Sousa. "Hyper [D-M] Process - Emerging Conditions for Digital Design and Manufacturing in Architecture." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 343-346. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper participates in the current digital architecture debate taking into account the introduction of CAD-CAM technologies in architecture and focusing on the way this could further change the process of architectural production. It proposes a mode of integration based on associative parametric environments and explains that new conditions for developing architectural projects indeed emerge from this digital framework. Finally, the research developed at DAw is presented as an academic laboratory where the arguments of this paper have been tested and stimulated.
Brady, Darlene. "Ideation: metaphorical explorations and digital media." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 187-190. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Metaphor in architecture involves two distinct paradigms of ideation and visualization: architecture as a virtual metaphor of an idea and virtual models of architecture as metaphors of an architectural intention or vision. Digital media is a powerful vehicle for the generation and expression of both paradigms. The dominant applications of digital media in architecture are drafting and computer simulations as virtual constructs of an architectural intention. This paper will focus on the us e of digital media and ideation, a design process which uses metaphor to link idea and form early in the design process.
Velasco, Guillermo Vasquez. "In the Development of VRML Environments for the Testing of Architectural Aptitude." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 209-212. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Schools of architecture offer admission based on a score system that combines school grade point average (GPA) and standardized testing. Unfortunately, GPA values can give an indication on the academic aptitude of the student but they tend to fall short on describing the potential of the student as a designer. The same may be said of standardized tests that address general verbal, mathematical and analytical skills but lack an adequate framework for measuring all the skills that aid us in performing design processes. This paper will elaborate on the feasibility of developing an on-line testing environment that may address the assessment of fundamental 3-dimentional skills as an additional indicator of potential success in the field of architecture.
Chiu, Mao-Lin, and Ju-Hung Lan. "Information and IN-formation -Information mining for supporting collaborative design." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 67-74. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Collaborative design has become a research paradigm in design studies. To make effective collaborative design, an information service mechanism for helping collaborators to access related information of specific design situation is getting important. This paper presents an approach of applying data mining techniques to reveal information patterns for managing collaborative design information. A visual interface of linking design information based on revealed patterns are presented and issues are discussed.
Reichard, G., A. Al-Mumin, and Konstantinos Papamichael. "INSTRUCTOR - Let the Experts Guide the Use of Simulation Software." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 99-102. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. A new guidance concept is presented, which encourages third parties, like educators, to provide additional, comprehensive information to users of highly complex (e.g. simulation-) software, helping them to flatten the steep learning curve by understanding the impact of decisions made during the input/design process.
Hamid, Bauni. "Integrating Public Participation Program into CAAD Curriculum." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 513-518. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper discusses an early phase of ongoing research on the implementation of public participation program in urban setting by academia through digital visualization projects performed by students in CAAD course works context. The implication of this program on both sides, the academia and the city, is examined. The result has indicated prospects in enhancing digital course contents, which is not merely digital visualizing built environment anymore but also making digital project cases more local oriented. From public side, the resulted mechanism may facilitate dissemination of urban development program as well as opening wider opportunity to accommodate community aspiration.
Tabak, Vincent, and B. De Vries. "Interactive Urban Design using integrated planning requirements control." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 295-300. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Urban planning and urban design are separated disciplines. As consequence, there is hardly any feedback from the urban design process to the urban planning process. To improve interaction between these two an Interactive Urban Design tool has been developed. The tool is implemented in a Desk-Cave allowing for direct manipulation of masses and with immediate feedback on the urban planning programme performance.
Lin, Cheng-Yuan. "Introducing Virtual Reality CAVE into Non-geometrically Curved Space Design." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 33-36. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Digital models can make visible non-geometrically curved space, and in this wayso doing realize the artistic/abstract conceptions of the designer. However, the question as to whether or not geometrically curved space can actually serve as the original design concept remains an unanswered question. This research aims to explore the relationship between virtual reality CAVE and the design of non-geometrically curved interior space. In this paper we make use of the PC-based virtual reality CAVE system  ?  which is aimed at the design of large-scale interior space. It is possible that VR CAVE provides solutions to the problems inherent in non-geometrically curved space design.
Lim, Chor-Kheng. "Is a pen-based system just another pen or more than a pen?" In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 615-622. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Freehand sketch is the most critical stage in the design process. The importance of the freehand sketch is in its ability to freely represent various projections of ambiguous drawing using a convenience tool, pen-and-paper. Recently, pen-based system which developed attempted to use pen as an input device, allowing sketches to be freely drawn on computers. However, as far as the various drawing projections, such as diagram, symbol, plan, elevation, section, perspective, etc., how are they interrelated to a designeris cognitive behaviour? Different media have different abilities to represent projections. Whatis the difference of design cognitive behaviour between conventional pen-and paper and pen-based system in view of both using a pen as a design medium? This research proceeds a think-aloud protocol analysis to present an analysis and discussion. Research results show that there is a relationship of gradual embodiment, mutually complementary, going from a whole to being dissected into sections between the different projections. Moreover, pen-based system is more than a pen, it allows designer to inspect a 3-D view during the sketching stage. This gives the designer more opportunities during the sketching stage to conduct the design thinking process based on the ambiguous 2-D projections and the more concrete 3-D images, as well as more opportunities for visual feedback
Knight, Michael, Andre Brown, C. Hannibal, C. Noyelle, and O. Steer. "Measurement of Presence in Large Scale Virtual Environments." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 153-160. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. It is now widely accepted that a sense of presence in a virtual environment is a crucial part of the success of the “experience”. This paper extends the authors previous work in naturalistic interfaces and perception of image to test experimentally the degree to which the type of interface and visual nature of the virtual environment determine the experience of presence or “being there” in a large scale architectural virtual environment. The importance of presence to the success of architectural virtual environments is an important discussion. Should architectural VEs strive to be hyper-real (with all the attendant hardware issues of manipulating large amounts of data in real-time) or does a degree of abstraction in representation still afford an acceptable degree of presence?
Gatermann, Harald, and Juergen Czerner. "Modular E-Learning-Environment for Architecture." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 199-202. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. IMLAB (Interdisciplinary Modular Learning System for Architecture and Building Science) is a project, startet by three schools of architecture in Germany: a modular, digital and online-based system, which has the aim to collect and improve teaching elements from architectural schools around the world. The development of digital teaching materials at every single university is very expensive - so the idea is to motivate schools all over the world to contribute their teaching materials and teaching moduls. It could work like an architectural ““napsterii. The initial development of this kind of teaching community was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Research as a research project. The momentary state of work is documentated on the following website: www.imlab.de. Unfortunately all the information is in German up to now - we will develop the english version as soon as possible. We do have interactive workshops and design-projects beetween different universities up to now (in Germany) and several contacts to international partners. We would like to use eCAADe 2003 as a platform for multiplying this idea and finding more partners from all over the World.
Voigt, A., E. Achleitner, Helena Linzer, E Schmidinger, and H.P. Walchhofer. "Multi-dimensional Digital City Models." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 253-256. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Based on many years of experience with the digital city model of the Upper- Austrian capital city “Linz” (http://www.linz.at/) possible “dimensions” of a digital model are discussed in the present contribution putting to use: space & time (changes in space over a period of time call for a dynamic space concept), variants & versions (real only exists in a current state, planning mostly allows for several variants) and “Level-of- Object-Presentation” (accounting for the distance observer / object - depending on proximity of presentation the objects are divided into various sub-objects, i.e. the socalled “scene” is scale-dependent). Further key terms illustrated are the concepts “datapipeline” and “urban-space-related content-management”.
Lee, Y.Z., C.K. Lim, and Y.T. Liu. "Multiple digital media in realizing various urban spaces: Project 2050 Taiwan." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 237-246. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. In Taiwan, it is a common phenomenon that landscape, urban spaces, and buildings are not considered as a whole by governments at all levels and private clients. More terribly, the government has never proposed any urban statement for the future. The Minister strongly therefore proposes this statement: 2050 vision Taiwan, aim to design the public spaces for the life of Taiwan in the year 2050. The Council for Culture Affairs plans to spend two years to cover 100 locations and invite 20 design teams to provide new vision of the places. Our design team, AleppoZONE first conducts the initial stage of this project that includes three areas of Taiwan: Taipei as the capital of Taiwan is expected to become a better place reflecting new and old space combination. Hsinchu is planned to explore the prototype for a digital city where digital technology is wellinstalled in the city plaza and public buildings. In the island of Pen-Hu, the ecology and high-tech transportation are equally considered to shape Pen-Hu as an island with nature. In the process, design team successfully synthesizes digital models and dynamic films into virtual and physical coexisting environmental animations by using multiple digital media in realizing the 2050 vision cities. The aim of this research is to give a throughout introduction of this project.
Zwölfer, Michael, and Volker Koch. "New Clothes for Robot Albert." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 415-418. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The projects “I, Robot”, “New Clothes for Robot Albert” and “Robots House” are three examples of design projects at the institute for industrial building production (ifib) that illustrate the same didactical approach for the training of students. The common principle is characterised by the confrontation of students of architecture with a kind of task, that almost is not related to architecture and that seems rather strange at the first glance. The background of the task allways has a strong technical regard and is defined by other departments. So already the understanding requires an exchange with some experts of these departments and the solution even a close cooperation with them. In most cases the partners are from the field of mechanical engineering or computer science. The common theme in these three projects is robotics, a forward-looking discipline especially interesting because of its wide complexity as well beyond a purely technical comprehension. In the Project “I, Robot” multidisciplinary teams of students used the Not Quite C developer kit and the Lego Mindstorm Robotics system to develop robots for an indoor rally. This project is repeated annualy at ifib and at RWTH Aachen. In the Project “New Clothes for Robot Albert” students of architecture designed and produced a spacial structure and cover for an existing and running humanoid service robot. This robot was developed by the Institute for Industrial Applications of Informatics and Microsystems (IAIM) of Prof. Dr. Dillmann for experimental purposes regarding learning strategies for service robots. In the Project “Robots House” finaly students of the university cooperate with students of the university of applied science to find a concernment of architecture by today's and future robots. The background is the demand for service robots in homes of handicapped or elder people triggered by the demographic changes, the approach is to consider today's service robots as well as handicapped in a certain manner. The project is accompanied by the expert for handicapped accessible planning, Prof. Dr. Loeschcke and by scientists of the IAIM around Dr. Markus Ehrenmann.
Fröhlich, C., Urs Hirschberg, M. Frühwirth, and W. Wondra. "no_LAb__in_feld - is common- ground a word or just a sound? (Lou Reed, 1989)." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 433-436. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper describes the concept and the current state of development of a new laboratory for digital experimentation in architectural education and research. The novel forms of collaboration and learning for which it is intended and the quick pace of innovation in digital technology on which it depends both require an appropriately flexible spatial and technological framework. And it requires a particular mindset. The no_LAb__in_feld is not just another laboratory. It is a place, a community, a high-tech construction site, a permanent work in progress. It is the prototype of a next generation design studio.
Fiamma, Paolo. "Object oriented Thinking for Technical Architecture Modelling." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 541-546. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Today it is increasingly important to focus the efforts of research on thinking about the great innovation introduced by digital 3D modelling in the housing sector, not only in the merits but also in the methods of the designing conception. Thinking of an object-orientated constructive 3D model does not only mean to represent it, but to conceive it, by generating it within an existing although virtual space. This encourages one to focus not only on the formal and compositive side, but also on the technical and technological side of the future building, whose constructive components are brought in, arranged and above all connected within the virtual building, as will happen in the practice of building, according to the building rules.
Klinke-Schroth, Janine. "Pictures in Motion - Using moving images to approach urban tasks." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 505-508. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Pictures in Motion is an elective course offered at the University of Karlsruhe (TH), department of Urbanism and Design. The aim is to give students a chance to get involved with digital processing of data and various programs like picture editing and movie production in order to work in a very early stage of the design process with digital media as a way of a design approach.
Xu, Xiaoming. "Planning, establishment and applications of 3D city database in Graz." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 225-228. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The development of 3D building database and its applications for the whole city of Graz is presented. From analyze of existed geo-information to automatically setting up database for 3D object management, the main steps are described. The major applications, like that in the areas of architecture, planning, internet etc. are introduced.
Rauhala, Kari. "Playing Games: the Role of Computers in Sketching." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 631-635. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Why computers are not yet used in the early phases of architectural design? This question requires a closer examination of the sketching process itself. Looking it from the hermeneutical point of view, it becomes quite obvious that sketching really is and probably should remain the last fortress resisting the computerization of design. Sketching is an intimate dialogue between drawings and language. It is a dynamic and circular process of understanding. Also its intrinsic methods to search solutions cause wicked problems for computer programming. Nevertheless, computers could be used more for assisting sketching. Their proper role would be in validating tentative solutions.
Mark, Earl. "Programming Architectural Geometry and CNC: Advancing a Design Paradigm with Mathematical Abstraction." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 337-342. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Direct computer programming of architectural geometry and of CNC tool pathways can control the fabrication of form and the related treatment of material. When the entire form creation and tool path process is taken on as a design problem, there is potentially a closer link between formal design intentions and their physical realization. This paper describes several case studies that engage computer programming as a first stage in an iterative design process coupled with more explicit control over CNC tool paths. It indirectly critiques the design exploration of geometry where there is only user command control over a CAD system and where the specification of CNC pathways is also less explicit. Examples of different strategies are compared in the same educational context.
Martens, Yuri, and Alexander Koutamanis. "Realestate online information systems." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 561-567. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Several commercial real-estate sites provide listings of available commercial property on the Internet. These listings are generated on the basis of selection criteria as floor area, price and location. Despite the obvious utility of the listings and their promise for the transaction process and market transparency, one third of commercial realestate listing sites went bankrupt in 2001 and 2002. To provide an explanation for the failure, 63 commercial real-estate sites were analysed and classified into three basic business models: the Research / Information model, the Marketing model and the Transaction model. A common success factor for all models is the functionality of the site, especially interaction between the user and the available information. The paper proposes that the transfer of existing architectural representations, information-processing instruments and decision-taking tools is an essential component of future development towards integrated services that accompany a building throughout its lifecycle. This transfer amounts to (1) the addition of building and contextual information from standard documentation and online information services, (2) the derivation and coherent description of programmatic requirements database, and (3) advanced user interaction with building information.
Chen, G.-Y., C.H. Shih, and Yu-Tung Liu. "Realizing various urban spaces in Year 2050 Taiwan: Camera-matching in helicopter movement animations." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 311-314. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper combines the 3D dynamic camera-matching technology adapted from the movie industry with the computer animation of digitally designed model and the multimedia video on high altitude of helicopter will enable realer and more effective representation of the diversities in an urban space.
Rebelo, Pedro, and Richard Coyne. "Resisting the smooth - Time-based interactive media in the production of distressed space." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 287-291. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Time is central to architectural design, but to date has not been fully investigated through computational media. The works of Heidegger, Bergson, Virilio and Deleuze suggest that the study of the elusive concept of time has more to contribute to an understanding of the human condition than space. One can argue that contemporary society is being governed increasingly by temporal structures, as the space of the town square is replaced by time-based broadcasting and digital communications. This shift from space to time is commonly associated with the ideal of smoothing boundaries and developing seamless environments. Contrary to this supposition, we propose that the putative “collapse” of time and space exposes disjunction and disruption. We develop the notion of “distressed spacei as part of a design strategy in the context of time-based media. We draw on examples from real-time 3D animation using the MAX/MSP/Jitter programming environment and discuss some of its implications for design.
Chase, Scott C.. "Revisiting the use of generative design tools in the early stages of design education." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 465-472. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Computer based generative design tools can help elucidate the nature of design, but are often restricted in their scope due to implementation issues. These “toy” applications are often developed as proof of concept software, but have the potential to serve as teaching aids in early design education. A number of such tools will be described and the case made for their continued use in design education.
Sass, Lawrence. "Rule Based Rapid Prototyping of Palladio s Villa Detail." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 649-652. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper explores a method for the use of rapid prototyping devices to physically construct details of Palladio's unbuilt villas designs. The goal of the paper is to create clear identities of the rules used to physically build any villa. Results will provide rule instructions for the assembly of components for the physical construction of the 23 villa designs found in The Four Books of Architecture.
Tsou, Jin-Yeu, S. Lam, and Y. Xue. "Scientific Modeling for Bridging the Environmental Design and Social Behavior in Hyper Dense Urban Open Space Planning." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 125-129. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. In Hong Kong, about 46% of the population lives in public housing estates. The density of the estates could be as high as 2,500 persons per hectare and there is an increased pressure for increasing the density. Therefore, open space in the estates contributes significantly for relieving the sense of over-congestion. Preliminary study shows that the usage of these open spaces is as low as 1.36%, and the low usage rate is largely due to inappropriate planning and design, particularly with respect to climate requirements, rather than insufficient area. Researchers thus attempt to overlay the user-behaviour with the environment-behaviour data to investigate the impact of irresponsive environmental design on the user-behaviour. It is also this exercise that provides new thoughts to research of social behaviour and activity study for high density urban habitation.
Reffat, Rabee. "Semantic-Based Virtual Design Environments for Architecture." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 133-140. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. 3D Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to reach beyond the limitations of CAD systems and can be utilised as design tools for architecture. This paper introduces a framework of semantic-based Virtual Design Environment(VDE) that aims to provides designers of VEs with virtual observers of designersi actions (intelligent design agents and collaborative assistant agent) to investigate the current design and respond to these actions when the need arises. The paper presents the development of a representation structure of building-objects and their relationships to be used in constructing building designs in the 3D VDE and outlines sets of design semantics to be incorporated within the VDE.
Liew, Haldane. "SGML - a Shape Grammar Meta-Language." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 639-648. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The shape grammar meta-language creates layers of abstraction in the shape grammar formalism for the purpose of developing descriptions that can organize and sequence rule applications in a grammar, filter information in a drawing, and provide additional matching constraints based on the subshapes found. These concepts are incorporated into the formalism by expanding the rule application process into six phases, control, context, transformations, parameters, descriptors, and application. Seven meta-language descriptive conventions are developed from the six phases, rule-sets, directive, label-filters, focus, maxline, zones, and apply-mode. Examples of how the meta-language descriptions can be used to generate designs are provided.
Chen, Jia-Yih. "Space prototypes for achieving "Ubiquitous Computing": Reconfiguring the existing space with physical interactions." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 423-426. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. In this project, “Ubiquitous Computing” space prototypes with new embedment of context information are studied. Through the related theories, research models and experiments, the prototypes for future information space and user styles are proposed, including space modules, user behaviours with physical HCI interactions, and required information technology. Space prototypes for exhibition and lab areas with supported infrastructure and interface are tested in the experiments.
Gibson, Kathleen. "Spatial Mapping: Connections between Virtual and Physical Navigation." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 427-432. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Using Lynchis (1960) treatise The Image of the City as a model, user navigation of e-retailing web sites was analyzed using defined categories: paths, districts, edges, nodes, and landmarks. Results from this study suggest that elements in the urban landscape and their use by individuals for way finding and legibility may be similar to those necessary for navigating the World Wide Web.
Bund, Sébastien, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "SPOT! Fetch Light - Interactive navigable 3D visualization of direct sunlight." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 117-124. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. SPOT is a 3D environment for direct sunlight visualization. Implemented in Java 3D, SPOT features two distinct and complementary components: Time Projection and Navigable Animation for virtual interaction. SPOT supports multi-dimensional data visualization including sun angle variations with diurnal and annual cycles in threedimensional space. In SPOT users can sketch on any surface in the 3D environment to indicate the area for simulation. SPOT then generates a spatial distribution representation of the illuminance level on a selected surface over time, rendered with colors of varied gradients. SPOT also enables designers to visualize the temporal information of light distribution over time for a given point. For each point clicked on the 3D model, SPOT generates a calendar diagram where the X and Y axis represent the months of the year and the time of the day. The color of each cell of the calendar is the result of the calculation of the light amount reaching the selected point.
Sowa, Agnieszka. "Student of Architecture - a Computer Slave? Attitude to CAAD among Architecture Students." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 591-594. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper contains the results of some observations on how students use computers during their design work. The other reflections relate to problems with teaching how to use CAAD as not one and only right way of project presentations, but one of the available, freely connected with other, more traditional ones. Observations and conclusions drawn from conversations with students are extended and verified by a survey carried out at Bialystok University of Technology and Warsaw University of Technology. Generally, it turned out that students used computers more and more willingly in their design work and in the preparation of presentations, which was predictable. Moreover, it seems increasingly more difficult to encourage them to use traditional media during design process.
Penttila, Hannu. "Survey of Architectural-ICT in the Educational Curriculumns of Europe." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 601-606. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003.

The paper documents the findings of the post-graduate study carried out among the 180 European schools of architecture in more than 30 countries during 2002-2003. The objective has been to describe the role of “modern digital information technology” and to give an understandable and measurable overview the current architectural education and its relation with ICT and CAAD. The study material has been collected with a web-survey, with questionnaires to eCAADe-conference participants in Helsinki 2001 and Warsaw 2002, and with direct email-contacts to schoolsi key-persons. Computer-aided design has developed into architectural information and communication technology (ICT), to become the main tool of the majority. The general image of new media use in the architectural schools seems to be slightly too positive. The invisible or “normal” ICT-use - writing, surfing, emailing - has a lot more volume than documented. The major hardware platform in european architecture schools is PC/Windows (90-95 %), Linux and Unix are used also commonly (25-35 %). Macintoshes are also used much more widely within architecture (50-55 %) than within the common computing platforms. MS/Office (90-95 %) and PhotoShop (85-90 %) are obviously also used widely in the architecture schools. Graphic tools PageMaker, QuarkXpress, Illustrator, Freehand are common tools for architecture students (30-50 %). AutoCAD is “the marketing leader” in architectural platforms (80-90 %) followed by ArchiCAD (60-65 %). MicroStation/Bentley has also a remarkable volume in the schools (35-40 %). 3DStudio is the most common 3D-modelling tool (80-85 %), followed by formZ (35-40 %). Slightly less volume but still remarkable (15-25 %) have Rhino, Maya, Alias, Lightscape and Radiance.

De souza, Newton, and Newton Talbott. "The (Non) Relation between Efficiency and Choice of Computer tools in Design Modeling: an Automated Protocol Analysis." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 567-574. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. There exists a fundamental belief among mainstream CAAD software developers that a designeris thought process is mainly driven towards achieving optimum efficiency. This paper argues that designers are not as much concerned with efficiency as much as protecting their personal preference for a certain method of object construction. Identifying and providing support to these methods - referred to here as “methods-ofmaking,” is hence considered vital to how design efficiency is defined and how future CAAD tools are created. This hypothesis is empirically supported through a study conducted among 30 design students at the School of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
Shih, Naai-Jung. "The Application of Color-image-mapped Rapid Prototyping in Architectural 3D Modeling." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 347-350. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The purpose of this study is to present an application of an RP machine in the substantiation of architectural design concepts, using color image mapping to enhance visual details. Related visualization leads to the exploration and comprehension of shapes. Exemplification can be seen in the verification for proofing or documentation of as-built models, such as paper architecture, process modelling, furniture, partitions, and construction details. The influences on architecture reveal issues related to pedagogical exploration, interdisciplinary exploration, reality management, and visual detail and structural detail.
Ham, Jeremy J.. "The Computer as a Tectonic Design Tool: Comparisons between Virtual and Actual Construction." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 265-268. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The potential of the computer as a tectonic design tool is explored in comparison to scaled physical models, drawings and real-scale modelling (actual construction). Analysis of media use is undertaken in a case study of a range of design projects of differing emphases in relation to student perceptions and assessment. Relationships are drawn between representational media actual construction to inform a discussion of effective and authentic means of teaching tectonics within the design studio.
Achten, Henri, and G. Joosen. "The Digital Design Process - Reflections on a Single Design Case." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 269-274. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. CAD tools are increasing their expressive and geometric power to enable a design process in which the computer model can be used throughout the whole design process for realizing the design. Such a process, in which other media such as physical scale models or drawings are no longer required by necessity to facilitate the design process, can be considered a digital design process. Rather than proposing that such a process is ideal - drawings and scale models should not be discarded - we feel that when taken as a starting point, the digital design process raises a number of new challenges to architectural design that deserve attention. These challenges concern the basic activities in design: exploration of the problem space, creating preliminary solutions, understanding consequences of design decisions, and so forth. In this paper we take the concrete design case of a graduation project that was developed from the start solely in CAD. We identify a number of key issues in that process such as continuous modelling, the model as design, continuous pliability, localized focus, and postponed decision. These issues not only have a technical, CAD-related aspect, but also are connected to architectural design. Most of these aspects are subject of contemporary debate in architectural design. On this basis, we can indicate where CAD is making a potential difference in architectural design.
Bialas, Z., A. Glinkowska, Anetta Kepczynska-Walczak, R. Szrajber, and M. Urbaniak. "The ICT as a Driving Force in the Field of Archaeological Research." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 397-402. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. The paper is a contribution to the domain of computer tools for archaeological excavations and research. The present project described in this paper has been undertaken in close co-operation of specialists from two universities including archaeologists and architects from the CAAD unit. The project objective is to assess the suitability of new media offering an alternative to the traditional methods in archaeological practice.
Kepczynska-Walczak, Anetta, and Bartosz Walczak. "The Integration of IT within the Early Stage of Architectural Conservation Design a pedagogical experience." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 493-500. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper attempts to analyse the results of the multidisciplinary project focused on the holistic approach to education in the field of architectural history and conservation with an extensive use of computer technology. The skills trained usually separately within autonomous courses were brought together to form a “task force” project addressed to the students from two universities in different countries. The increased role of architectural design within a historical context and the need for the corresponding changes in the undergraduate course curricula is also stressed. What is more, the experiment revealed to be an interesting method of exploitation of the power of the computer as a design tool and, what is more, as a design stimulator in the early stage of the architectural design process. In this way the paper contributes also to the discussion on integration of IT within design studio.
Drosdol, J., J. Kieferle, and U. Wössner. "The Integration of Virtual Reality (VR) into the Architectural Workflow - Experiences with an interprofessional project at DaimlerChrysler." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 25-28. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. DaimlerChrysler as a worldwide operating company is continuously maintaining and developing their brand architecture for the points of sale. It is one of the strategic decisions to have a'Brand Architecture Center'at the company headquarters in Stuttgart to develop the brand architecture and engage local architects to adopt it to the local context. As a major step, a new generation of autohauses is currently developed. Many aspects have to be taken care of in this process, therefore a great number of specialists have to be involved. They are supported by Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR). To integrate VR/AR into the architectural process, necessary architectural interactions have been integrated into the software
Bailey, Rohan. "The Student, the Master and the Computer." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 627-630. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Architectural education has often been criticised for producing students that seem to lack the practical knowledge needed to create architecture that is fit for purpose, safe and a delight to users. Unfortunately, owing to the complexities of society, technology, practice and academia, design teachers are struggling to balance the teaching of basic practical concerns for making architecture with teaching students how to think critically and abstractly. This paper suggests a resolution that places the computer at the center of the relationship between student and tutor. It suggests a digital teaching tool that detects and interprets the marks students make when sketching. The digital design coach then presents the student with related issues allowing a comprehensive reading of the digital sketch. The student, more aware of the issues involved, engages in more intelligent and wellinformed dialogue with tutor.
Senyapili, Burcu. "The Visual Matrix: the case of Mimar Sinan Project Site." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 365-368. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper introduces a web-based “visual reference system” model for architectural education and research. The system utilizes visualization to aid in spatial comprehension and comparative analysis of abstract architectural concepts. The system establishes a resource for architectural heritage and differs from such other sources by its matrix-based visualization format.
Zupancic, Tadeja Strojan, and Michael Mullins. "Theoretical Perspectives for the Development of 3D City Models in Architectural Education." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 247-252. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. This paper continues the discourse of the round table session of eCAADe 2002 on the problems of existing digital city models. It reviews recent papers on the subject, suggests criteria for the improvement of digital city models, and points out some applications for a broader base of users, and particularly in the field of architectural education. it is suggested here that the design professions of architecture and urban design should be more comprehensively included by broadening the approach to 3dcms. Changes in contemporary architectural, urban planning and design theory, collaborative design practice and constructivist education, lead us to suggest a change of emphasis from 2D urban planning principles to those of 3D urban design and morphology.
Tsai, K.-P., S.-F. Chien, and H.-M. Cheng. "Toward a machine for living: a literature survey of smart homes." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 419-422. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Are we finally archiving Le Corbusieris vision of the house as a machine for living? This paper examines houses of future with ubiquitous computing. We review recent research on smart homes and experimental prototype studies of the domestic environment. We survey several new concepts of architectural and device design, and study technologies for creating smart homes. We envisage a new generation of CAAD designers, who may integrate information technologies together with traditional building materials achieve a new machine for living as Le Corbusier once did.
Shea, K., R. Aish, and M. Gourtovaia. "Towards Integrated Performance-Based Generative Design Tools." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 553-560. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Generative design methods are capable of generating concepts and stimulating solutions based on robust and rigorous models of design conditions, design languages and design performance. The computer now becomes a design generator in addition to its more conventional role as draftsperson, visualizor, data checker and performance analyst. Motivated by the challenge to enable designers to easily develop meaningful input models of design intent to make best use of a structural generative method, this paper describes an initial combination of a generative design tool, eifForm, and an associative modelling system, Custom Objects, through the use of XML models. The current combined use is illustrated through an example involving generation of a set of 20 interrelated roof trusses with seven unique spans initiated by a parametric model of a saddle shaped stadium roof in Custom Objects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the synergies between associative modelling and generative systems and identifies future extensions aimed to exploit these synergies towards integrated performance-based generative design tools.
Fischer, Thomas, Mark Burry, and J. Frazer. "Triangulation of Generative Form for Parametric Design and Rapid Prototyping." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 441-448. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. In this paper we discuss recent developments in the ongoing implementation of a toolkit for developmental generative design and form finding. We examine tissues of face-centered cubically close-packed voxel cells and topologically related structures for the possibility of 3D data conversion and of rapid prototyping applications. We also demonstrate how generative and parametric design can be integrated in order to enhance design flexibility and control.
Koutamanis, Alexander, and Yolanda Steijns. "Types and precedents in design guidance." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 653-658. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. In recent years Dutch secondary education has been undergoing a fundamental change due to the introduction of new didactic approaches which relate strongly to ongoing social and technological developments. This affects existing school buildings, the majority of which is quite conventional in spatial terms and is characterized by limited flexibility and transformability. Consequently, most schools require extensive modifications in their spatial and building structure. The requirements underlying these modifications are not stable. Many schools have become interested in experimental ideas that may require inevitably further changes in the buildings. The paper considers the continuous transformation of Dutch school buildings with respect to their typology: by correlating new design briefs to building types rather than their instances we arrive at general guidelines that can be easily adapted to specific cases. To achieve this, the types are analysed with respect to geometry, topology and zoning. The results of the analysis describe the affordances of each type in terms of general flexibility, transformability and adaptability, as well as in relation to generic briefs. They also provide an explanation of the historical evolution of the types and the means for relating primary characteristics to local configurations, thereby allowing the accurate description of hybrid instances. The descriptions and analysis of buildings are organized into a polyhierarchical multilevel database that supports typological abstraction and offers several starting points (at various abstraction levels) for matching a new brief to an existing building. This enriches the development of the brief or a design solution with explicit, specific information derived from concrete precedents with known form, structure, behaviour and performance.
Stellingwerff, Martijn. "View Preferences and their Effects in a Contextual Virtual Environment with Adaptable Representations." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 305-310. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Design problems are initially ill defined. A process of exploration, conceptualisation, development of alternative solutions and tests of the initial ideas is needed to find interesting and useful solutions. The urban context of a building site can provide hints, inspiration and constrains for various architectural design options. The design process can get the form of a constructive conversation between the designer and the applied design media if those media actively provide specifically needed tools and appropriate representations of the design and its urban context. This paper will report on a recently finished PhD research for design support systems that visualise the urban environment as a context for new architectural design. The main experiment focussed on the constructive conversation while the architect and the researcher'wandered'through the digitally represented urban environment. In relation to the eCAADe theme of city-modelling, this short paper will especially focus on some of the findings and conclusions of the research and several recommendations regarding to city-modelling are provided.
Petric, Jelena, and Thomas W. Maver. "Virtual Reality, Rapid Prototyping and Shape Grabbing - a New Generation of Tools in the Architectural Design Studio." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 13-16. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Virtual Reality (VR) and to some extent Rapid Prototyping (RP) are established in the design studios of the more progressive Schools of Architecture, Shape Grabbing (SG) - i.e. the capture of digital information from a physical 3D model - much less so. This paper recounts an experiment conducted by a third/fourth year student which explores one Shape Grabbing technology as a means of closing the VR/RP/SG cycle.
Peng, Chengzhi. "Visualising City in Change with the MEDIUM Platform." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 217-224. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Work on a methodology that attempts to deliver a dynamic urban information system for visualising city in change is presented. We have developed a Multi-tier Extensible platform for Dynamic and Interactive Urban Modelling (MEDIUM) in connection with a large-scale historical urban study programme that investigates the history of the City of Sheffield. The MEDIUM platform shows some new properties that could address the limitations observed in conventional static urban modelling. We consider that 3D virtual city models can be created along a chronological axis and the time dimension of each model segment can be registered in such a way that the 3D models of different times can be brought together under a unifying visualisation platform. This will allow a visual understanding of how a city may have evolved to develop. To date, we have applied the MEDIUM platform to real city datasets and produced examples that allow us to examine what effects of urban visualisation could be achieved through the dynamic user-centred approach.
Pak, B., Ozan Ö. Özener, and A. Erdem. "Xp-GEN: a randomized design tool for non-deterministic digital design methods in architecture and visual design." In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 485-488. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Experimental generator (XpGEN) is a plug-in that allows user to interact with computer for experimental, intuitive and inspirational assistance during the beginning of the architectural and basic design phase by randomly generating multiple design alternatives according to the limitations of the user. The tool is also an experiment to question the physical limits of architectural design.
Heylighen, A., M. Ryckewaert, and Herman Neuckermans. "Yet another paper about integration?" In Digital Design: 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 579-582. eCAADe: Conferences. Graz, Austria, 2003. Confronted with the changing educational landscape, our architecture program faces the need for integration: integration of CAAD-related subjects into the curriculum, but above all integration of the curriculum as such. This inspired the idea to view ICT as an ally in tuning various courses to each other by what unites them all: the concrete architectural project. Within the scope of a two-year pilot project, we examined whether and how the use of ICT could improve the integration between a exemplary course, seminar and design studio. Despite evident links between the three, students and teachers used to consider these as separate entities. Without ignoring the individual character of each, the pilot project aimed at initiating a process of synergetic and cumulative knowledge development, whereby ICT played various roles. Across the board, the objective to stimulate a synergy among different components in the curriculum has been partially realized. Questions arise, however, as to who will take care of the extra tasks brought about by the use and maintenance of ICT after the project has ended.