Keywords Abstract
Chase, Scott C.. "(Re)design of construction assemblies with function/behaviour/structure grammars." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 356-359. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. A formal framework for redesign based upon Function/Behaviour/Structure models and design grammars is described. A proposed application domain is for the design and redesign of construction assemblies. GDL object technology is proposed as a candidate tool for implementation.
Lee, H.-L., Yu-Tung Liu, S.-C. Chen, S.-K. Tang, C.-P. Huang, C.-H. Huang, Y.-L. Chang, K.-W. Chang, and K.-Y. Chen. "A Comparative study of protocol analysis for - Spatiality of a Text-based Cyberspace." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 262-266. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Graduate Institute of Architecture, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 30050, TAIWAN The adaptation of the word cyberspace (Gibson, 1984) following the emergence of the World Wide Web Internet not only succinctly revolutionized the correlation of time and space but also poised to challenge how we view the existing spatial concept. This research tries to use protocol analysis to examine text-based cyberspace, such as bulletin board, chart rooms and so forth, and the objective of this research is to realize the spatiality of cyberspace through the cognitive point of view, and to compare the differences of the definitions and perception ways of spatiality between people with general domain and in design fields. Finally, we validate the existence of cyberspace, where the process not only allows further categorization of spatial elements concluded from the earlier study, but discover that varied backgrounds can affect how a user defines and perceives cyberspace (Strate, 1999).
Sheng-Chih, C., Yu-Tung Liu, H.L. Lee, and K.-W. Chang. "A Comparative Study of Protocol Analysis in Traditional Media, Computer Media and Network Environment." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 186-193. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The report discusses the nature of the virtual space by examining the creative verbal language and visual elements that involve the sense of space. Moreover, the report also discusses the feasibility of the usage of verbal analysis in the computer and network environment. All the verbal and visual elements of space that have been found through our experiments and interviews are presented here. In addition, the issues concerning the methodology of the verbal analysis have been pointed out with quantitative and qualitative analysis, and an amendment formula has been suggested. Finally, the researchers also explore the comparison of the spaces that are created verbally and visually, as well as the comparison of the actual and virtual spaces.
Tang, Shen-Kai, and Yu-Tung Liu. "A Digital Reconstruction Procedure for a Disappeared City Space and Its Activities." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 603-608. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Graduate Institute of Architecture, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 30050, TAIWAN Computer simulation technology was used well in virtual archaeology during the past five years but will be insufficient gradually in the future, just because the simulations have extended from static issues, such as implements, architectures and a whole city, to motional issues, such as cultural activities in a city. This paper developed a digital reconstruction procedure that integrated three main technologies including 3D scanner, motion capture and virtual reality cave (VR Cave), and implemented it to virtually reconstruct Chang-an City that existed 1400 years ago but disappeared now. The results of the simulations are not only realistic enough to being inside but also highly approved by archeologists, art historian and architects.
Ceccato, C., Thomas Fischer, Li Chun-Man, and J. Frazer. "A Large-Scale Computing Infrastructure for Design Education." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 282-289. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Most departmental computing infrastructure reflects the state of networking technology and available funds at the time of construction, which converge in a preconceived notion of homogeneity of network architecture and usage patterns. The DMAN (Digital Media Access Network) project, a large-scale server and network foundation for The Hong Kong Polytechnic Universityis School of Design, was created as a platform that would support a highly complex academic environment while giving maximum freedom to students, faculty and researchers through simplicity and ease of use. As a centralized multi-user computation backbone, DMAN faces an extremely heterogeneous user and application profile, exceeding implementation and maintenance challenges of typical enterprise, and even most academic server set-ups. This paper summarizes the specification, implementation and application of the system while describing its significance for design education in a computational context.
Wang, Pin-Hung, and Naai-Jung Shih. "A preliminary application of a PDA-based OODB system for construction information management." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 306-309. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This research applies Object Oriented Database (OODB) to relate and link building drawings and texts for the purpose of creating a PDA-based systemetic integration of construction-related design data. This system tries to solve the problems of data segmentation, inexpedient interrogation, and consistency in working drawing information management. Recently development of PDA has accelerated and functionally diversified. Under the speed of development, supervisions of construction projects can be conducted by PDA as a kind of tool as a primary information supplier or manager.
Lee, H.-L.. "A Preliminary Study of Computerized Design Process and Methods." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 290-295. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Graduate Institute of Architecture, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan The evolution of design media has kept a close relationship with the development of design methods in the history. Nowadays, different computer media have been used in different stages of the design process. It is to believe that computer media have great impact on the design process and methods. The objective of this paper is to realize the design process and methods when designers use computer modelling to tackle an architectural design problem. The methodologies are non- participant observation and retrospection. The findings of this research prove that media does contribute to the changes in design process and methods. Not only does its conclusion help to better understand properties of different media, but also benefit the development of computer media.
Rynska, Dagny. "A Project Management Perspective - utilization of artificial intelligence techniques." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 334-337. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. For a number of years a lot of research has been dedicated towards efficient operation of project management and tools enabling execution of undertaken tasks. Management programs require more than just a performance process, but it goes one step further - it requires a “learning process”. This expectation has been found as possible to be achieved only lately through the utilization of artificial intelligence techniques. It has to be explained however, that this is only a threshold of what this tool might finally achieve.
Li, Andrew I. - Kang. "A prototype interactive simulated shape grammar." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 314-317. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Existing shape grammar interpreters have implemented some of the distinguishing features of the formalism, notably emergence or rule application under multiple transformations. By contrast, I implement a grammar in which these capabilities either are not required or can be simulated. This frees a user from mechanical issues, allowing him to pay more attention to the process embodied in the grammar.
Nikiforiadis, Faidon, and Adrian Pitts. "A Study of the Accuracy of Daylighting Simulation of Heavily Obstructed Buildings in the Urban Canyons of Athens." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 456-463. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper deals with the use and evaluation of daylighting simulation tools in relation to a complex urban environment. The environment concerned is one commonly found in city centre areas where the proximity of buildings leads to the creation of “urban canyons”, the result of this is that assessment and simulation of daylight requires a more sophisticated approach than for other situations. In urban areas building layout is the most important factor effecting daylight, sunlight and solar heat gain reaching a building. It also affects sunlight in open spaces, ventilation, shelter and the dispersal of pollutants. In order to produce a more realistic understanding of the dynamic effects of daylight, there is a need not only for the research and development of advanced CAD and lighting simulation tools, but also of the study of possible alternative methods in their application. In the work reported in this paper, an attempt has been made to move the focus of lighting and daylighting simulation from the scale of a room to that of a whole building, the building itself being surrounded by its specific urban environment (including its microclimate). The study evaluates if there is sufficient evidence that it is possible with such complexity to reach reliable computation results after executing the simulation. The case study presented uses a 4D model of an urban canyon to investigate the sensitivity of such a complex simulation system. It can also be used to find ways to analyse and predict how daylight is reflected, refracted, scattered, diffused, polarised, diffracted and absorbed as it traverses an urban environment.
Berridge, Philip, and Andre Brown. "A Touring Machine." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 488-493. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Contemporary developments in wireless communication and increases in the power and connectivity of hand-held devices present us with increasing opportunities to provide access to computing resources irrespective of geographical location. This increase in portability opens up a range of opportunities to allow access to important data on site. The work described here aims to increase the accessibility of data relating particularly to cities by integrating a palmtop device into a complementary suite of web-based tools. Central to the project are a database of underlying city data and a 3D model of the city.
Achten, Henri, and J. Jessurun. "An Agent Framework for Recognition of Graphic Units in Drawings." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 246-253. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Architects use graphic conventions in their drawings that have meaningful content to the design task. In previous work, such well-defined sets of graphic entities have been identified and defined. These sets are called graphic units. In this paper, we discuss how graphic unit recognition in drawings can take place using a multi-agent systems approach. This approach seems promising as singular agents may specialize in graphic unit-recognition, and multi-agent systems can address problems of ambiguity through negotiation mechanisms. We present an agent framework for this purpose, how it connects to the theory of graphic units, and how agents for recognizing graphic units are defined. The paper ends with a discussion of current findings and future work.
De Paoli, Giovanni, and Michel Léglise. "Architectural Design Education and Digital Technologies: Toward a Multinational Research Observatory." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 56-63. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. New visions that do not confine the computer to strictly technical and representation functions have appeared in schools of architecture over the past few years. The use of new information and communication technologies (NICT), in the field of design education in particular, have allowed the creation of innovative teaching tools and teaching configurations that are operational in certain European and North American schools. Unfortunately, the comparison of experiences is rare, and it would be beneficial to facilitate educational exchanges on a scientific basis. It is clear, now, that the general use of NICT will have to promote educational programs that are evaluated scientifically, that are “efficient” and that are occasionally multinational, even if the cultural differences make the task difficult. These considerations have lead us to the proposal of recommendations for the creation of a multinational observatory for the teaching of design that could benefit from the presence of researchers from European countries and from North America already implicated in activities in our laboratories. This observatory is conceived as a depository of pedagogical works serving as observation material destined for scientific research. As such, it would act as an observation site for research in didactics of design. It would allow for a new understanding of the opportunities and limitations derived from the emerging globalisation of distributed design education and offer new challenges for architectural schools. This article describes the beginnings of this observation system and underscores its potential to produce results in the future.
Szewczyk, Jaroslaw. "Architectural Meaning in the Existing Architectural Notations - the Technologies for Interoperable Architectural Data Management." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 230-237. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The paper presents results of investigations upon possible representations of architectural objects containing “architectural meaningi. Five groups of such existing representations are analyzed briefly: (1) structural EXPRESS-based definitions, (2) object EXPRESS- and IFC- based notations, (3) XML-based notations, (4) experimental ones, and (5) binary notations. The working taxonomy of the notations is presented and their shortcomings are mentioned. The potential of XML notations for CAD data has been recognized by software vendors and standard organizations all over the world. Many corporations and standardization bodies are developing XML-based notations of CAD data, focusing on interoperability problems. Some of these notations are becoming standards (aecXML, i-drop), influencing the development of all CAAD industry. There are some main groups of problems with the existing commercial standards: Lack of "open" data in its "open" context, lack of architectural meaning in commercial notations, problems with simpler intuitive standards for notation of conceptual design data in early design stages, too complex data semantics, too atomized data, and richness of the data structures. The problems are taken under consideration in order to discuss the present state of architectural standards. Nowadays architects are forced to work with semi-architectural notations, lacking their essence, i.e. lacking methods to describe elements of cultural heritage connected to geometry forms. Instead of language of architecture they deal with virtual cyber-slang.
Donath, Dirk, St. Hansen, and Katharina Richter. "Architectural Window - Computer networks as planning and integration tools." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 302-305. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. As building projects become increasingly more complex, the number of project participants increases as does their spatial distribution. An effective decentralised work process and co-operation is of increasing importance. The global computer network, the internet, has great potential and recent times have seen the development of a variety of techniques in this field. The project proposal described here is based upon this approach and also takes it a step further. A specific analysis of the subject and the subsequent identification of potential approaches formed the basis for an architectural application that brings the architect in contact with other project participants using the internet as a powerful yet simple and easy to use medium. The project is currently (2002) undergoing practice tests and academic investigation and is installed on a freely-accessible server.
Penttila, Hannu, and Hannu Penttillä. "Architectural-IT and Educational Curriculumns - a European Overview." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 106-109. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The main objective of this on-going post-graduate study, is to describe the role of “modern digital information technology” within the educational curriculumns of European schools of architecture. Information technology understood in its widest meaning. Essential questions of the study are: [1] How widely the digital media, tools and methods have been adopted in the education? [the volume] [2] In what ways information technology is utilized in architectural education of our age [the methods]. [3] What kind of changes the digital media in fact has caused to the architectural working and educational environments. The results will be published and “weblished” in the form of searchable public web-databases. The results should contain helpful elementary information for those developing and targeting the future architectural education of “the digital agei The research study was started in April/2002, and will [hopefully] reach the conclusion during the year 2002.
Sauda, Eric. "Architecture User Interface." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 164-167. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Architectural User Interface is the name of a design studio at the College of Architecture at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte whose goal is to extend the computer interface into architectural space and engage in the design and construction of digitally enhanced architectural settings. These projects attempt to move the computer from representation to the media of architecture itself. The most promising avenues for further exploration are centered on using new conceptualization of time and space as means of architectural composition.
Takeyama, M., J. Wojtowicz, K. Butelski, and E. Watanabe. "Aspects of Space in Contemporary Design." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 322-327. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Computer dependent design space is illustrated with the recent international competition project for Kowloon Arts Center. The spatial condition of design resulted from the deployment of Euclidian geometry and use of the non-rational, complex surfaces. Another aspect of computer dependent space was rooted in the contemporary work situation where architects located on the three different continents collaborated in distributed mode over the internet. The resulting project confirms the creative potential of the above aspects of the digital space in contemporary design.
Brown, Andre. "CAAD Complements: Art and Science, Real and Virtual." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 214-218. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This is a personal reflection on the nature of CAAD, current trends and thoughts on where we appear to be heading with this (literally) most intangible of disciplines.
Cinelis, G, E Januskevicius, and G Kazakeviciute. "CAAD Program Development: Expectations and Results." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 118-121. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This research and the paper is our attempt to study in what extent is it reasonable to fill the curriculum provided for architecture students educated as a contemporary architect with knowledge of algorithms, programming, integration of CAAD tools, etc. The experience of several years of the course “CAAD program developmenti was generalized and will be discussed taking into account the results of the analysis of the feedback from the students. The results of the work could be important for the definition of the guidelines for the future.
Gorczyca, Adam. "Changes in Group Communication in the Context of “virtual/real Ratio”." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 378-381. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. It is generally perceived that within the everyday work, there is a growing level of both the abstract and the virtual, especially for the teamwork participants dispersed within the global network. Purpose of this paper is to “translatei this feeling into a systematic scientific apparatus. The paper examines following factors: the time and place of mediation between participants, as well as personal and modal dimension. These factors are specified for communication tools used by architects.
Dzieglewska, Maja. "Cityscan - a digital urban experience." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 201-203. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. CITYSCAN is a series of interactive city documentations produced with contemporary multimedia techniques. It is offered as an elective course offered at the Department of Architecture by Prof. Dr. Ludger Hovestadt at ETH Zurich. Digital processing of information, multimedia programs, interactive presentations, teamwork and visualisation, are objects of investigation. A dense global CITYSCAN map elaborated together with students is our long-term goal.
Tunçer, Bige, Rudi Stouffs, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Cooperating on Architectural Analyses." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 20-27. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. As part of a fourth semester architectural design studio, students perform an analysis of selected precedents according to various criteria. For this purpose, they are provided with a web-based environment for the storage and management of their analyses. In this way,, and By integrating the analysis results into a common, extensible, library, the students are able to benefit from a collaboration with peers, and draw upon each othersi results for comparisons and relationships between different design aspects or buildings. In order to support this integration and strengthen the collaboration, we are developing organization and presentation tools that are integrated within the webbased environment. In this paper, we describe the context as provided by the design studio course, reflect on the advantages of a web-based repository for managing design and analysis information, describe the techniques we are developing to improve this process, and present the implementation of the resulting tools within the web-based environment.
Blaszczyszyn, Maciej. "Day-to-day Reality of Web-based Collaboration - Tools among European Architect Professionals." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 110-113. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. On behalf of phenomenal advantages of project extranet technology You can believe in improving communication among professionals in design and construction industry. But until now, the reality appears not as good. It is technological irony, as evidenced in below presented survey, that advanced solutions for a better collaboration may set up unbreakable barriers. Therefore knowledge of everyday reality in the field of webbased collaboration tools use is critical to all participants of this process, commercial as well academic ones. It is especially important to all European professionals, who are aware of consequences of extending in nearest future borders of European Union, the second biggest market in the world.
Morozumi, Mitsuo, Riken Homma, T. Hanmyo, and T. Takamoto. "Design Communication Experimented on an ATM V-LAN network Study of Communication Tools for Creative Collaborative Design." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 374-377. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Tools and techniques for synchronous design communication are still underdeveloped, because insufficient bandwidth of the present Internet has inhibited practical experiments. Reviewing the results of a design communication test carried out by the authors using a TCP/IP based V-LAN on ATM network, this paper discusses the proposal that synchronous communication using application sharing tools and video conferencing tools will become common in the broadband network age, in addition to the use of bulky data on remote PCs or web databases.
Lee, Alpha W. K., and Alpha Lee. "Design Computing Education Software Development Integration of Scaffolding Strategies and Multiple Representations." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 140-143. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Design Computing is an interdisciplinary field that centres on the intersection of design, computer science and linguistics. This multidimensional face of the new paradigm of design computing necessitates a mutual understanding of computing and designs as a whole, which are usually, conceived as separated stages of computed-mediated design. Based on cognitive and computational approach, with the integration of scaffolding strategies and multiple representations, an interactive and real-time design computing learning system is constructed. By interactively manipulating the various attributes, codes, parameters and digital media contents in a distributed system, learners are gradually exposed to the mutual relationship of representational digital multimedia and the underlining programming syntax in a collaborative environment. The author attempted the use of game programming technology in the development of the above system to support design learning and research in understanding design activities. The aim is to identify the design process that if taught well would address the core goals of design education.
Sheng-Fen, Chien. "Design Gaming, Designing Games - Learning Design through Game Playing and Game Making." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 28-33. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This is an ongoing effort to make design learning fun and constructive. The process of designing, in many respects, is very similar to playing games: exploring possibilities under certain constraints. Since 1999, the “designing as game playingi concept has been used in architectural design studios and related courses in my institution. In the early years, preexisting games or games created by instructors were used. These games were played in a junior-year course that emphasized design decision-making and design collaborations. In recent two years, design game making has been used as a vehicle for senior-year student to strengthen their analytical skills. So far, students have developed games of Mario Botta, Le Corbusier (Villa Savoy), Aldolf Loos, Mies van der Rohe, and Richard Meier. Two more games are underdevelopment: the games of Isosaki and Tadao Ando. Some of these games have been used in freshman-year courses to introduce certain principles of form composition. Playing design games enables students to gain design knowledge as well as to be able to view design constraints constructively as special characteristics on the game board that may turn to their advantages rather than as useless stumbling blocks. Designing games requires students to analyze existing designs in great details as well as to be able to organize certain relationships of these details into operable rules that could produce new designs. The experience of teaching “games and designi to-date has been a very fruitful one. Future work will focus on design gaming for freshman students and game designing for senior students, as well as the interaction between the freshmen (game players) and the seniors (game designers).
Boeykens, Stefan, St. B Geebelen, and Herman Neuckermans. "Design phase transitions in object-oriented modeling of architecture." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 310-313. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The project IDEA+ aims to develop an “Integrated Design Environment for Architecture”. Its goal is providing a tool for the designer-architect that can be of assistance in the early-design phases. It should provide the possibility to perform tests (like heat or cost calculations) and simple simulations in the different (early) design phases, without the need for a fully detailed design or remodelling in a different application. The test for daylighting is already in development (Geebelen, to be published). The conceptual foundation for this design environment has been laid out in a scheme in which different design phases and scales are defined, together with appropriate tests at the different levels (Neuckermans, 1992). It is a translation of the “designerly” way of thinking of the architect (Cross, 1982). This conceptual model has been translated into a “Core Object Model” (Hendricx, 2000), which defines a structured object model to describe the necessary building model. These developments form the theoretical basis for the implementation of IDEA+ (both the data structure & prototype software), which is currently in progress. The research project addresses some issues, which are at the forefront of the architectis interest while designing with CAAD. These are treated from the point of view of a practicing architect.
Wojtowicz, Jerzy. "Digital Media Revisited." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 219-221. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The engagement of the digital media in any given design universe can trigger the discussion on the nature of creativity. What are digital media limits and opportunities in design? How best to tap its creative powers? I will illustrate some of those issues with my own work, as well as design of my students and colleagues at the end of this address.
Sowa, Agnieszka. "Do Avatars Need Architects? the Present and the Future of On-line Architecture." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 518-521. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The reflections contained in this paper concern not virtual reality created for one user, but rather on-line virtual architecture designed for members of Internet communities and players. Psychological and sociological aspects of inhabiting virtual architecture as well as several examples of technical solutions serve as an introduction to some predictions and guesses about the future of this type of architecture.
Flanagan, Robert. "Edge of the Rational CAD Universe Chronological Time and Achronological Incompatibilities in CAD." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 390-394. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. CAD's limitations in architecture correspond with the capabilities of its machine intelligence. Five decades of research in Computer Aided Design (CAD) have resulted in its “mastery” of architectural practice. However, the more rational the system becomes, the more inflexible is its behaviour. Another problem is invariance, a tendency for science to focus on one problem at the expense of all others. The question of how CAD can transcend its role in automated building design and engage human perception is discussed in terms of chronological and achronological time. Sequencing the design process according to common temporal requirements is proposed.
Sharji, E.A., H. Hussain, and R.E. Ahmad. "Electronic Gallery: Case Study of a New Design Approach in Malaysia." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 370-373. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. A building comprises of more than the skin and the structural works. It is the soul that comes in the form of SPACE that is intriguing and provokes the mind. To be able to experience a building relies heavily on the spatial concept and internal lay out. How one is captured right from entering the entrance and through the layering of space, of horizontal and vertical planes and finally the euphoria, or depressed feeling that concludes the tour depending on the feeling intended (Miller, 1995). The common norm at present celebrates the outer skin and grandeur of facades. Not many include the hidden grids and fragmentation that can lead to a surprisingly good form AND space. Thus a number of them fail, in the sense of a sensuous building. “The circulation path can be conceived as the perceptual thread that links the spaces of a building or any series of interior or exterior spaces, together. Since we move in TIME, through SEQUENCE of SPACES, we experience a space in relation to where weive been, and where we anticipate goingi (Ching, 1979). This research intends to study and analyze the unconventional electronic gallery or “e-gallery” as a versatile hybrid container. The focus of the research will be on documenting spaces in the e-gallery, bringing to light the unlimited possibilities that can take place in such a space.
Krawczyk, Robert. "Experiments in Architectural Form Generation Using Cellular Automata." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 552-555. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. These experiments are based on previous work in developing cellular automata in three dimensions and to suggest architectural forms. Current research is extended by including explicit architectural considerations, such as, individual space units, supporting structure, floor plates, and the development of an envelope. A basic spatial shape is demonstrated in both linear and curved configurations. Also included is a discussion to not only explicitly use mathematically based concepts for form generation but more importantly their interpretation into architectural forms, as well as, the concept of considering architectural elements from the very start of the generative process.
Mark, Earl, and Robert Aish. "Exploring New Pathways Between Physical and Virtual Models - the Vaults at Fountains Abbey." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 464-470. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The first generations of computer aided design systems were largely characterized by geometrical modelling software that could, in some applications, generate physical output in the form of computer aided manufacturing. More recently the technology has expanded to include a variety of ways to reverse direction, such that physical objects are captured and translated into computer graphics geometrical models. Laser surveying methods that produce point clouds are among the newer technologies that make this possible. The interpretation of the point clouds and translation of them into a computer graphics three-dimensional model can be subject to various mediation processes. This paper reports on a translation environment that interprets the point clouds so as to not just replicate the physical world, but rather encapsulates it towards the refinement and realization of geometry design objectives. A case study of Fountains Abbey, a Cistercian Abbey in the United Kingdom, serves as the basis for experimentation and control of surface geometry.
Chang, Yu-Li. "Exploring syntax and semantics of spatial structure - a study on Traditional Taiwanese City form in Chi i ng Dynasty." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 412-416. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Abstract. In this paper, we want to figure out the relations of complex semantics and syntax on five traditional Taiwanese cities in Chiiiing Dynasty by using a language approach. The issues of traditional Taiwanese central city in Chiiing Dynasty had been interpreting by historical, social, and cultural research but had lacked the explicit construction of spatial structure on semantics-syntax. Therefore, we use a data modelling on knowledge level to describe the relationship between syntax and semantics. Through the research of Chiiing Dynastyis history, we find out the spatial relations of Taiwanese traditional city to establish the functional categories of spatial structures. Then the language of semantics components and the meaning’s attributes are coded as logical statements to map the elements of syntax on architectural form, political vocabularies, spatial layout, and spatial myth. We argue that using this approach several social and spatial structures of cities can be clearly defined and understood.
Cumming, Michael. "Flexible and distributed coordination models for collaborative design." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 268-275. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Designers working in collaborative design situations, attempt to plan or anticipate their activities, such that their work progresses in an orderly manner, according to technical demands of their domain. Designers, and the organizations that employ them, often attempt to formally represent such plans using process representations, such critical path diagrams, or Petri nets. Such process articulation and formalization can have benefits for designers and organizations, such as standardization and improvement of work practices, and improved collaboration and coordination between design parties. In addition to plan making, designers also try to coordinate their actions with the actions of others on the design team. This coordination, which often takes place in real time, is a process that is necessarily social, interactive, and iterative. Here the formulation of suitable process representations is more difficult, due to the dynamic and complex nature of social interactions. How to represent and design such coordination processes, is a continuing research question in the process modelling community. It is possible there exists general coordination mechanisms that could be useful in a variety of domains. Possibilities for distributed methods of design process coordination are examined. A coordination method is proposed that involves the exchange of design process models, represented as Petri nets. Rather than concentrating on the specific content of these models - which is assumed to vary considerably between design domains - general coordinating mechanisms are proposed. One such mechanism involves the communication of social commitments to process models, in addition to communication of the content and authorship of these models.
Kuenstle, Michael. "Flow Structure Environment Simulation - a Comparative Analysis of Wind Flow Phenomena and Building Structure Interaction." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 564-568. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper documents the progress of research to investigate the integration of computational modelling techniques into wind mitigation analysis and design for building structures located in high wind prone areas. Some of the basic mechanics and theoretical concepts of fluid flow and wind pressure as well as their translation into design criteria for structural analysis and design are reviewed, followed by a discussion of a detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application case study for a simulated “3-second gust” wind flow over a low rectangular building located in a coastal region. The case study project models the wind flow behaviour and pressure distribution over the building structure when situated in three varying conditions within a single terrain exposure category. The simulations include three-dimensional modelling of the building type constructed (1) on-grade in a flat coastal area, (2) above grade with the building elevated on structural columns, and (3) on-grade downwind of an escarpment. The techniques and parameters for development of the simulations are discussed and some preliminary interpretations of the results are evaluated by comparing their predictions to existing experimental and analytical data.
nder, O Ö., P. Burak, and A. Erdem. "Fluxxoid v.4.1 “the liquified being of space”." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 556-559. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Fluxxoid is an experimental virtual media project created for Computational Design Studio Project (ITU Institute of Science and Technology Graduate Program of Design Computing), which is an interactive model contains physical space representations and cyberspace structures. The main function of the project is a virtual art and performance museum. (still photo, streaming media and designed 3d environments) The dimension of fluxxoid creates an alternative discourse for parallel universe and gives the opportunity of being virtual in a custom designed dimension. The approach addresses the cyberphysical concepts of the virtual object / space design and configuring the mixture of alternative media technologies as well as the material (code) and function relationship in cyberspace dimension.
Bille, Pia. "From CAD to Communication." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 156-159. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Establishment of the physical infrastructure for a digital school of architecture has been perceived as the main difficulty for taking advantage of IT in the curriculum. Having reached that point shows other obstacles to overcome. A scenario describes how the digital studio works and how the concept of IT in the curriculum changes. The paper ends with a discussion of 5 IT interrelated disciplines: tool, application, method, communication and collaboration.
Zhou, Qi, Robert Krawczyk, and George Schipporeit. "From CAD to iAD - a Web-based Steel Consulting of Steel Construction in Architecture." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 346-349. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Information technology has become so powerful that what is conventionally called CAD might evolve to iAD (Internet Aided Design) (Zhou 2000). For Internet applications in the AEC industry, most of the efforts and success have been concentrated on project management and collaboration, while in the design and engineering consulting area, limited progress has been made. At the same time, contemporary development has not changed the nature of the fragmentation of the AEC industry. Based on previous research of surveys of development of Internet applications in the AEC industry (Zhou 2001), and the proposal of conceptual model of Internet-based engineering consulting in architecture (Zhou2002), we try to apply these theories and concepts into a specified area, steel construction consulting for architects. In previous research, first of all, we defined the contents and scope of steel construction consulting and their potential application. Second, we proposed a solid working model covering structure organization, audience, services provided and technology. In this research, a web-based application will be out by prototyped by conducting a conceptual design consulting in steel structure in order to show the whole process of how this Internet-based consulting model works.
Rügemer, Jörg. "From Digital to Real Theoretical-digital architectural concepts and the realization of complex spatial forms." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 194-200. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. To summarize former experiences of design seminars of the past years, the paper describes how new thinking and development structures within a design process, in conjunction with digital design media, requires new approaches to the design process itself. Also required are new solutions in adequate, three-dimensional, haptic presentation methods (model making), in order to secure the physical control of the computer-generated data structures. Points of origin have been several student projects whose conception was based on the idea of the contradiction of a modern architectural approach with its inclination to industrialized parts and series. The promise of the computer based design and manufacturing process seemed to allow the realization of almost every imaginable architectural shape for the same costs as those in regular planning and manufacturing processes. The different projects explored both static modelling methods and dynamic computer- driven development and presentation techniques. The latest project touches the field of an algorithm-based design process. Finally a possible process chain from early design stage into a three-dimensional, physical model is described. Considering the resources and financial budgets at universities, the development of an efficient manufacturing process with effective interfaces will summarize the method and finalize the study process.
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "Hybrid Design Environment." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 572-576. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper discusses some preliminary ideas concerning new design environment or environment of designing. Main thesis of this paper is that process of creation and perception of architecture proceed between Real and Virtual. Architecture is created by analog and/or digital media. A the result we have the multitude and diversity of spaces and tools. Defining these terms is important for understanding a new process of design and a new space of designing. It gives us possibilities to create the new design environment, in which creation of architectural form may be considered as an integrated process connecting the analog, the digital, the real and the virtual. Architectural space, as we know it from physical environments, is supplemented by a virtual space. Physical, architectural and virtual spaces share very similar features in simulation. In virtual models, the boundary between the representation of physical sites and imaginary, virtual sites is vanishing rapidly, resulting in a new reality.
Maher, A.M., and Mark Burry. "Hybridized Measurement: Interpreting historical images of Sagrada Família Church in Barcelona using CAD-based digital photogrammetry." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 448-455. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper gives an account of the extrapolated use of digital photogrammetry undertaken by the Spatial Information Architecture Laboratory (SIAL) in the pursuit for new interpretations of historical images at the Sagrada Familia Church. The work is an extension of the research activities undertaken as part of the Australian Research Council (ARC) Strategic Partnerships with Industry - Research and Training (SPIRT) project New onto Old: 3D flexible computer modelling to aid heritage building restoration, recycling and extension, where digital photogrammetry was first explored as a measurement tool for non-specialist implementation. The research makes use of the link between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and digital photogrammetry in a reverse manner, using built spatial data to produce orthographic rectified images of what was intended from the historical drawings and models of the architect Antoni Gaud(1852-1926).
Cuberos, Ricardo, and Jose Indriago. "Hypermedia approaching to digital cities - 3D Maracaibo Project." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 417-421. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper relates preliminary experiences creating a comprehensive digital model of a 2 million inhabitantis city in Venezuela. Applying multiple computer strategies, professors and graduate students are working together in order to get a 22 thousand hectares 3D model of Maracaibo city, the second largest in the country.
Brown, A., M. Zhu, Michael Knight, and Ph. Berridge. "i-architecture: the Virtual Campus eCAADe 2002 - Warsaw." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 532-537. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. There are a great number of current web accessible city models, that take a variety of approaches to representing the 2D, 3D and associated graphical information that they embody. The work described here represents a stage in the development of an urban modelling approach that we intend will lead to cost effective and computationally efficient systems for such systems. Our aim is to contribute to the range of approaches being adopted by different research and development groups, across the world, and particularly within Europe.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, and Thomas Kvan. "Immersive 3D architectural worlds: How to get in and out again." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 592-596. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. In this paper, we examine the perception and understanding of spatial volumes within immersive, non-immersive virtual environments and physical models and their translation to a tangible representation in a series of design-representation experiments. Students experienced, assessed, and analysed spatial relationships of volumes and spaces and subsequently constructed models of these spaces. The goal of our study is to identify how designers perceive space in Virtual Environments (VE). We explore issues of quality, accuracy and understanding of rebuilding architectural experienced. By comparison of the same task within a screen-based or real 2D realm, we are able to draw some conclusions about aspects particular to immersive VE activity.
Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga. "In search of new computer tools: what does Bovill really measure in architecture?" In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 342-345. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Research is carried out concerning the use of computer programming techniques for architectural urban design. This research concerns a wide spectrum of tools involving all stages of the design process. Bovill claims that the progression of the perception of detail can be expressed by the use of Box-Counting Dimension. The lack of the needed progression of detail would be expressed by the decrease in the value of the dimension measured. However, doubts appear already at the stage of choosing the objects to be measured, as they are likely to be selected in an arbitrary way. Thus chances are increased for the easy confirmation of the correctness of the results obtained. It remains doubtful, however, whether in the case of a different selection of components measured the results would have been confirmed. The measurements are carried out on the drawings of the facades, or on details. Bovill left unanswered the issue of the “importancei of lines on drawings, i.e. which might, or even should be, left out. He also claims that the siding should not be taken into account during the measurements. This, however, brings the question of which elements of the drawing constitute siding, and which details. Therefore, would the drawings made by two people look identical and yield the same results of the Box-Counting Dimension measurements? By demonstrating diverse examples this paper discusses the possibilities of using Box-Counting Dimension (one of the fractal dimension of Mandelbrot) in design.
Schmitt, Gerhard. "Information Architecture - the next Challenge for Architectural Design." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 428. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Information is increasingly developing into a raw material for the emerging Information Society. As the special qualities and properties of information offer new possibilities for design, it becomes necessary to conduct academic research into scientific and design issues of information.
Tsou, Jin-Yeu, and Benny Chow. "Integrating Scientific Simulation with Rapid-Prototyping Modeling for Design Curriculum Development." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 548-551. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Although Computer-Aided Architectural Design tools have been introduced to studios for design visualization and communication, tangible models constructed by cardboard or other modelling materials still play an important role in assisting students on developing their conceptual framework related to spatial organization. A Rapid Prototyping (RP) system could provide a paradigm shift from the existing workflow of hand-made architectural model into an automated computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) environment. The introduction of computer controlled manufacturing technology will not limit the use of current conventional model making, and it will provide new capabilities for precise scaled model making and the possibility to generate free-form surface models for design representation. Because the technical capabilities of RP system could dramatically change the design workflow, the computer-aided manufacturing approach for architectural design has been adopted by overseas and local academic institutions. In this paper, we report the findings of a pilot study that applied rapid prototyping technology in architectural design education for helping students exploring an automated computer-aided manufacturing environment during early stage of design development.
Colajanni, B, G. Pellitteri, and S Concialdi. "Intelligent Structures for Collaborating with the Architect." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 360-364. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The number of different designers with different competencies collaborating in a building project is today conspicuous. An undesired consequence is the possible rise of conflicts between decisions taken independently by more than one specialist on the same building object. The early detection of such conflicts is then one of the most important features in collaborative design. Moreover, of great interest would be the possibility not only of automatic detection but also of solution proposal of at least the most manageable of those conflicts. In this perspective smart models of building components could be very useful. This is possible giving the building elements, represented as objects, the specific intelligence. A simple example of this possibility is given in this paper. In a precedent work we proposed a way of managing elementary spatial conflicts between building components tending to occupy the same spaces. The automatic detection derived from the previous declaration of two levels of constraints (soft constraint and hard constraints) in such way that a violation of them could be immediately signaled to the actor wanting to take the decision triggering the conflict. In this paper the topic is the consequences of the rise of a spatial conflict (occupation of the same space) between a column of a spatial frame of columns and beams, and another building object of any sort subject to a soft or hard constraint. The procedure identifies the minimum displacement of the two objects, propagates the column displacement to the other structural elements connected to it and checks the feasibility of the new configuration of the structural schema both with regard to the possible rise of new conflicts and with the compliance to previous structural criteria.
Pereira, Gilberto. "Interactive Urban Representation." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 276-281. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The project discussed here wants to investigate the use of multimedia as a tool to present and to analyze geographical information by making a interactive software for visualization and understanding of urban space of Salvador using thematic cartography, animations, remote sense images, photography and texts, allowing software user to build his personal cartographic visualization.
Senagala, Mahesh, and Kenneth Masden. "Interrupted Interface - on the Cybernetics of Digital Design Process." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 168-172. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. From the viewpoint of Batesonian cybernetics, “conscious purposei and “artistic process” are distinct ends of a spectrum of the functioning of “self” The conceptual stage of the design process is essentially an artistic activity unencumbered with accuracy, dimensionality, scale, program or even tectonics, albeit all of these maybe tacitly present at the “back of a designeris mindi. Artistic activities involve broad mental processes that are beneath the stratum of consciousness. By definition, consciousness is selective awareness, it is linear in execution and limited in its capability to synthesize complex parameters. One of the central questions of this paper is “if artistic process requires one to abandon, or relinquish conscious purpose at the time of the generation of the work of art, and if the early stages of artistic process is a result of a vast number of “unconscious” forces and impulses, then how can the computer, which demands (and thus propagates) geometric precision, focused operation and rational execution, be part of that process?i This paper will explore how, cybernetically, the computer can be “coupled” with “self” (via a visual interface) and the artistic process. Three specially devised conceptual design exercisesinamely BurrDesign, BlinDesign, and BlitzDesigniand three corresponding “interruptive” computer interface modifications were deployed in an introduction to digital media course. The results of this study are now under consideration for their effectiveness in promoting conceptual design using the computer, and how the “self” might form a cybernetic whole with the machine. The findings could have implications in design pedagogy, informatics and interface design.
Chang, David, and Peter Szalapaj. "Making Sense of Presenting Design Ideas through Animated Form." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 560-563. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper describes both conventional and computational ways of expressing and exploring design concepts with the use of models. We explain the role and function of the model in the design process, and investigate the ways in which models become reflections and representations of architects design thinking. We compare and contrast the physical properties of conventional models with those of three-dimensional computer models, and the corresponding processes of model creation, model development, and model modification. The paper includes a brief overview of commonly used forms of computer representations often encountered in Computer Aided Design applications. Whatever the visual richness of computer models in virtual environments can be, we believe that, just as in the use of conventional two-dimensional architectural drawings, computational presentations of architectural design concepts have their own conventions of use. This paper addresses the need to more accurately understand these conventions of using computer models for the representation of architectural design concepts. Therefore, we will illustrate the more dynamic qualities of computer models, which have the potential to allow designers to escape from the restrictions and constraints of physical form. In particular, we demonstrate these qualities in the context of architectural presentations in the medium of computer animation. These new forms of expression of design thoughts and ideas go beyond mere model making, and move more towards scene making and storytelling. The latter represents new methods of expression within computational environments for architects and designers.
Lai, Ih-Cheng. "Merging Design Thinking with Digital Media to Overlap Real and Virtual Design Worlds." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 114-117. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper presents a pedagogical model to investigate the concept of overlapping real and virtual design spaces by merging design thinking with digital media. The model is based on a set of exercises that emphasize the use of digital media not only to enhance the spatial sensibility, but also to explore the possibility of space and form, including its organization, interpretation, transformation and representation. Simultaneously, the diverse metaphor behind digital media integrated with design-thinking enable them for communication with ideas, knowledge and experience between two design spaces ? real and virtual.
Czerner, Jürgen, and Harald Gatermann. "Modeling and rendering virtual architecture by using fisheye-panorama-based images and lightings in HDR-quality." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 569-571. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. We use digitally made spherical panoramas as background for vr-visualisation in architectural sceneries instead of stitched photographs (fisheye-based or serical-mirrorbased). For this reason we had the idea to develop the first fisheye-based digital-scanning panorama-camera together with the manufacturer Spheron. The ultimate step in reaching optimal quality not only as a background but also as a source of lighting the background-image is taken as a HDR-image. The high-dynamic- range-technology was developed by the Californian scientist Paul Devebec. High dynamic photographs contain a broader range of information between the very bright zones down to the very dark zones - a lot more than “normal” photographs (digital and analogue), which are named LDR (low dynamic range in comparison to HDR). Some software-products in the field of cad-visualisation in virtual and augmented reality already enable the use of HDR-images and open a new field of controlling daylight and artificial light simulations with photographed backgrounds instaed of synthetic ones. The combination of digitally produced (scanned) sperical images together with the use of HDR open a wide range of new implementation in the field of architecture, especially in combining synthetic elements in existing buildings, e.g. new interior elements in an existing historical museum).
Jirapong, Kamon. "Natural Forms as Virtual Architectures." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 382-385. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The structures in nature are great lessons for human study. Having been in development for several billion years, only the most successful structural forms have survived. The resourcefulness of material use, the underlying structural systems and the profound capacity to respond to a variety of climatic and environmental forces make natural form tremendous exemplars to human architectures. The wholeness of natural form indicates that the form and forces are always in some sense of equilibrium. In most of natural forms, the quality of equilibrium may be difficult to recognize. However, seashells are one of the natural forms whose functions are simple enough to be approximated by a simple mathematical relationship. The focus of this study was to understand the seashell form as applicable to human architectures. The digital method is a language to create and simulate seashell forms. This paper suggesting a variety of possible architectural forms derived from a seashell.
Oxman, Rivka. "On E-Learning in Cyberspace - a Collaborative Construction of Knowledge of Places in Cyberspace." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 122-125. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The paper describes an experimental program whose objective was to identify generic design concepts of “virtual place”. The design of virtual space constitutes a special and new class of design in which the visual constituents of place and their symbolic construction should be pre-defined and specified in order to enable design. A goal of this work has been to make a conceptual mapping of Cyberspace. The experiment was carried on in an e-learning environment in which a design class collaboratively constructed a generic knowledge base for the design of “virtual place”. We present the basis for the conceptual mapping employing the ICF formalism as an e-learning environment in making the survey, analysis and the categorization of relevant sites.
Martens, Bob, B.-C. Björk, and Z. Turk. "Open, Self Organising Repository for Scientific Information Exchange - the SciX Project." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 222-229. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. In the paper-based world, CAAD-associations, such as eCAADe, and scientific publishers aim at getting the right people together and for making sure their work gets distributed to their peers. Electronic networks, such as the Internet, are providing scientists with the means to pursue those activities on their own. In this paper we present the goals of an EU project called SciX. The goal of SciX is to analyze the business processes of scientific publishing, to invent new publication models and through a series of pilots to demonstrate how this should work. In the envisioned scenarios, professional associations such as eCAADe play an important role. Their members are the potential users of SciXis platforms, authors and readers of the papers. Associations could also become the publishers and archivists of the knowledge created within their respective community. The objectives of this contribution focus on involving the eCAADecommunity in the developments in SciX, on fine-shaping the goals as well as on defining the requirements and monitoring the usability of the pilots.
Porada, Sabine. "Pedagogical Laboratory of Potential Architecture." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 578-583. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The increasing instrumentation of the design process can transform it into a site of virtual: architectural, structural, psychological, sociological, experimentation. Thanks to that, architecture that was never thought as a scientific discipline seems at last to enjoy a virtual laboratory of pure research. This visionary space of experimentation of potential architecture must assure the return of performances obtained in the constructed environment. But, to make such a future certain, one has to start with pedagogy, where the laboratory of potential architecture must constitute a real construction site of the imaginary.
Uddin, Mohammed Saleh, and So-Yeon Yoon. "Peter Eisenman s House X, Scheme G: 3D Game Engine for Portable Virtual Representation of Architecture." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 526-531. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Recently introduced 3D games, game editors, along with gaming software offer great potential for delivering three-dimensional, collaborative virtual environments for online audiences. These capabilities have significant potential in architectural visualization. The University of Missouri-Columbiais Emerging Technology Group developed the Virtual Campus Project introducing the university campus to prospective students through the Internet. Fascinating quality, seamless real time rendering, and smooth navigation are enough to impress visitors. However, the developers had to use eye measures and guesses based on photos rather than architectural drawings for initial 3D computer models. The absence of a precise scaling system as well as not being able to recognize a standard 3D architectural drawing format in a virtual environment were the prime generators of this paper. One important goal for this paper is to suggest architects the potentials of using universal or exchangeable formats of 3D models with accurate structure data to build virtual models. A second goal is to provide better understanding of potentials in 3D game engines for virtual representation of architecture.
Knight, Weissman, and David Carter. "Photogrammetry as an aid to lighting design for industrial interiors." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 494-501. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Photogrammetry methods have been shown to be useful as a tool for investigation of illuminance distribution and light losses in interiors containing obstruction configurations that approximate to simple rectilinear objects. This work examines the use of photogrammetry to model obstructions having a greater degree of complexity and a case study demonstrates the applicability of the technique to lighting design for a factory. The results confirm that this technology would accelerate the process of incorporating the effect of obstructions in routine lighting analysis and design.
He, J., Jin-Yeu Tsou, and S. Lam. "Potential of Using a GIS-based Natural Visual Landscape Evaluation Tool in Large-scale Urban Planning - a Comparative Study in Dongshan New Town." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 478-487. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Natural visual landscape is under deterioration due to improper construction and planning in modern development of China. One of the main reasons is the feebleness in planning supporting methodology and technology in respect for natural visual landscape. In such supporting information, landscape evaluation always acts as a significant component. Especially in comprehensive planning, it is the only approach to access visual value distribution in large-scale region. In this paper, we present a GISbased natural visual landscape evaluation tool through a case study. By an integrated rating statistics function of this tool, visual quality of natural landscape is quantified through analysis in visibility, landuse, and visual resource quality. Then we make comprehensive planning strategies based on this scientific supporting tool. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this tool by comparing these strategies with schemes of the same project conducted through traditional planning module. This comparative study reveals the efficiency and effectiveness of the tool as well as its implementation in large-scale comprehensive urban planning.
Petric, J., G. Ucelli, and G. Ucelli. "Real Teaching and Learning through Virtual Reality." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 72-79. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper addresses an articulated vision of Virtual Reality which lends itself to design collaboration in teaching, learning and communication of architectural design ideas among students, design professionals and client body during the early stages of the design process. Virtual Reality (VR) has already acquired a new degree of complexity through development of network-based virtual communities and the use of avatars. The intrinsic quality of VR technology is to support collaborative design experience. The design tools developed for this experiment are capable of creating 3D objects in a shared VR environment, thus allowing the design and its evolution to be shared. The choice of programming language (JavaTM) reflects the desire to achieve scalability and hardware independence, which in turn allows for creation of a VR environment that can co-exist between high-end supercomputers and standard PCs. The prototype design environment was tested using PC workstations and an SGI system running a Reality Centre. The research and teaching/learning experience in the collaborative design environment reported in this paper describe the development and application of software that aims to increase the opportunity for architects to collaborate within virtual worlds which enable effective and transparent information exchange.
Breen, J., R. Nottrot, and M. Stellingwerff. "Relating to the 'real' Perceptions of Computer Aided and Physical Modelling." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 134-138. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Designing - giving form to new objects or environments - is largely a question of anticipating the workings of spatial and material environments, which can become “reality” only by being built. Until “realizedi a design is essentially a figment of the designeris imagination, although his or her ideas may be laid down and conveyed to others via specialized design media. In this way impressions of the design may be shared with clients, colleagues or other “actorsi in the design process. Such products of the designeris imaging process can be relatively abstract or begin to approach - future - reality. Form & Media research can be “revealing”, stimulating insights concerning preferences, working processes and the effects of products of the designeris imagination. In the past ten years we have gained considerable practical experience with both virtual and tangible (scale) models. We have compared different techniques in conference workshops, within educational settings and in our Form & Media research laboratory. The research projects ranged from the development of practical techniques and working methods to protocol analyses of designing architects. This contribution draws comparisons between different computer aided modelling techniques, with an indication of their perspectives, making use of the experience gained from various experiments in an educational context, and will highlight the potentials for different combinations of digital and physical modelling techniques.
Dierckx, T., M. Stellingwerff, and Johan Verbeke. "Relating to the 'real' Theories for and Experiences with Educational Database Systems." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 80-87. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. One of the most ubiquitous computer applications is the database. Common databases are capable of handling massive amounts of data, which allow users to instantly find the factual data they seek. In most cases the assistance of a database is straightforward and objective. However, when people work with databases with a rich and diverse content, this can lead to unexpected findings, surprises and possibly a revolution in their understanding of a design problem. Furthermore multimedia databases and the systems with a more enhanced set of interactive features provide more appealing results. Databases become most interesting when the creators and the users can rise the data to a level that touches knowledge, wisdom and creativity. This paper goes into questions about the application of databases in architectural education. What can be the role of databases in the education of next generation architects? What should educators offer the students through database content, or what should be left open for creative initiatives? We present a broad overview of possible database content, various modes of interaction with the databases and several ways of representation of the database content. The overview shows areas where educational database technology is still underdeveloped and areas where a lot of concurrent databases exist. The theoretical overview enabled us to set out a further strategy for database applications in our school of Architecture. Besides the theory, we present our recent experiences with a database for architectural realizations. The database of buildings can be used in different educational exercises.
Lahti, Jani, Ilkka Alavalkama, and Juho Häikiö. "Representing and distributing 3D-content in webbased architectural design education - Evaluating 3D-presentation methods for e-learning." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 96-104. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002.

As information telecommunication technology develops, teaching at universities changes. E-learning and working on-line create new challenges for the development of architectural education. Education of architecture contains special challenges. With new presentation technologies ideas and objects can be presented graphically in 3-dimensions on the e-learning environment. In a research project the Architectural Media Laboratory (AML) at the Tampere University of Technology (TUT) has studied the use of different techniques utilizing computer modelling and photography-based methods in presenting and teaching architecture.

Kvan, Thomas. "Revelation in representation." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 429. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Design proceeds through representations. We work with poetic analogy, evocation or functional analysis. As a taste of food may transport us through time to another space, so may a designer seek to evoke particular responses from an occupant of a space. Tabulations and spreadsheets set out a version of a future reality that will be a physical form that transports the occupant to higher perceptions of reality. Space therefor3e is understood through many representations and such multiple representations are needed in the design process as well as in the consumption or use of space.
Kepczynska-Walczak, Anetta. "Revisiting a Classification of Multimedia Application in Architectural Education and Practice." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 152-155. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper seeks to illustrate the meaning of multimedia, and more significantly, the importance of implementation of the technology in architectural education and practice as it is today. In order to achieve this, the paper presents an analysis examining the evolution of the definition of multimedia, and then, attempts a classification of multimedia applications in architecture. For the first time, such a classification was created in 1995. It is timely, then, seven years later and in the context of a dramatic advancement in the field, to take stock of how multimedia technology is impacting the sphere of architectural education and practice and to suggest an updated classification.
Dokonal, Wolfgang, and Bob Martens. "Round Table Session on “3D-City-Modeling”." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 610-613. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. According to eCAADe's mission, the exchange and collaboration within the area of computer aided architectural design education and research, while respecting the pedagogical and administrative approaches in the different schools and countries, can be regarded as a core activity. On the occasion of eCAADe 2001 in Helsinki a working session on the topic “3D-City-Modelling” was held, in which a variety bundle of papers was presented. The eCAADe 2002 round table session on “3D-City-Modelling” is opening up for an intensive discussion on a number of goals which were elaborated by a working group in Helsinki.
Mark, E., Bob Martens, and R. Oxman. "Round Table Session on “Theoretical and Experimental Issues in the Preliminary Stages of Learning/Teaching CAAD”." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 205-212. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. According to eCAADeis mission, the exchange and collaboration within the area of computer aided architectural design education and research, while respecting the pedagogical and administrative approaches in the different schools and countries, can be regarded as a core activity. The current education session follows up on a round table discussion held at eCAADe 2000 in Weimar, Germany, which was continued in the form of a plenary session at eCAADe 2001, focusing on sharing ideas on a more progressive curriculum under the topic “The Ideal Computer Curriculumi. The primary objective for the 2002 education session is to engage participants in an active discussion, not the longer format presentation of prepared positions. The round-table itself is limited to short opening statements so as to ensure time is allowed for viewpoints to be exchanged and for the conference attendees to weigh in on the issues discussed. The panel will critique current patterns teaching of computer aided design in schools of architecture, a review of past practices with the potential for guiding future direction.
McGill, Miranda. "Shaper2D - Visual Software for Learning Shape Grammars." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 148-151. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Shaper 2D is a Java applet and application for assisting in the learning of shape grammars. This software is examined as a facilitator for designing with shape grammars through analysis of computation in a workshop setting.
Voigt, A., E Schmidinger, H - P. Walchhofer, and Helena Linzer. "Space-related Content-Management." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 400-403. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Establishing virtual city models (“digital cities”) has become an important planning tool for configuring the future of our cities and vital spaces. The present contribution discusses the concept of “Space-related Content-Management” and its interlaceable possibilities of implementation in the planning and configuration process. The activities of those acting in space and their impacts on space, e.g. leading to new, additional and renovation of buildings, to the demolition of buildings, to alterations regarding vegetation stock, traffic infrastructure, etc., do not result from a static conception of physical space, but exclusively suggest a dynamic one. Real space is subject to continuous changes. The constant changing of physical space thus represents a considerable factor concerning the conception of the virtual image (virtual city model). The dynamics of space suggests the development of “data-pipelines” as core elements of virtual city models. Only this pipeline-concept can account for the dynamics of space. It is suggested to embed “datapipelines” in “Content-Management-Systems (CMS)” thus promoting the concept of “Space-related Content-Management” including all kinds of space-related information enriched with metainformation that might be useful during the planning- and configuration process. “Space-related Content-Management-Systems (SCMS)” are considered as navigation systems through complex space-related data sets supporting a broad range of questions during the planning- and configuration process. The application fields of “Space-related Content Management-Systems” are supposed to integrate the complete planning process starting with the space-related analysis and model generation via characterization of space and winds up at the development of space-related concepts to be passed on to those involved in the space under consideration.
Moloney, Jules. "String CVE Collaborative Virtual Environment software developed from a game engine." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 522-525. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The University of Auckland has been experimenting with the adaptation of computer game engines for architectural education during a series of projects undertaken in specialized summer design studios 99 - 02. This paper reports on the early stages of software development of a collaborative virtual environment utilizing the “Torquei game engine. The current software version (Beta 1.27) will be demonstrated and the studio outcomes discussed. The rationale for further application development is outlined with a focus on communication tools to enable experimentation with international virtual design studios.
Maver, Thomas W.. "Sustainability: Real or Virtual?" In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 13-Dec. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Sustainability in the built environment is difficult to define but easy to recognise. We can observe it in those buildings which have been with us for many decades, centuries, even millennia which have survived because they have proved to be fit-for-purpose(s), cost beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significant. The pastis relatively slow rate of change in building technology and social need allowed the evolutionary survival of buildings which are now our sustainability icons, but what of the future? How can we design for the future in a period of accelerating social, economic and technological change to secure a sustainable built environment which will be recognised and acknowledged by following generations.
Seichter, Hartmut, Dirk Donath, and Frank Petzold. "TAP - the Architectural Playground - C++ framework for scalable distributed collaborative architectural virtual environments." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 422-426. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Architecture is built information (Schmitt, 1999). Architects have the task of restructuring and translating information into buildable designs. The beginning of the design process where the briefing is transformed into an idea is a crucial phase in the design process. It is where the architect makes decisions which influence the rest of the design development process (Vries et al., 1998). It is at this stage where most information is unstructured but has to be integrated into a broad context. This is where TAP is positioned - to support the architect in finding solutions through the creation of spatially structured information sets without impairing thereby the creative development. We want to enrich the inspiration of an architect with a new kind of information design. A further aspect is workflow in a distributed process where the architectis work becomes one aspect of a decentralised working patterns. The software supports collaborative work with models, sketches and text messages within an uniform surface. The representations of the various media are connected and combined with each other and the user is free to combine them according to his or her needs.
Bourdakis, Vassilis, and Dimitris Charitos. "Teaching Virtual Environment Design." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 42-49. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. In a previous paper, the authors considered the design and development of virtual environments (VEs) pointing out the need for a new direction within architectural education, leading towards a generation of VE architects. It was suggested that there is an urgent need for educating practitioners who will contribute to the design of 3D content for multimedia and virtual reality applications. This paper focuses on the application of these principles and ideas into the structure and methodology of three VE design courses, taught by the authors. These courses are by no means suggested as exhaustive examples of teaching this subject. They are seen as preliminary approaches, adapting to the educational context they are integrated within. Bearing in mind the problems relating to teaching large numbers of students with a design studio approach, difficult concepts, resources availability, fighting misconceptions, techno-phobia the following areas are discussed in the hope that they will contribute to VE design curricula in the near future.
Shih, Naai-Jung, and Pin-Hung Wang. "The Application of Reverse Engineering for Building Construction Management." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 338-341. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This research utilizes a 3D laser scanner to retrieve 3D digital information of a building construction site for the management purpose. The concept of reverse engineering is applied as a method in revealing potential problems in building construction process through the analysis of 3D data. This study presents construction images, scanned point-cloud sets, and output rapid prototyping (RP) models as exemplification.
Svirskaya, Tatyana. "The Automated Prototyping Method in Modern Architectural Designing." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 366-369. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The paper deals with a problem efficiency of rapid prototyping using for the scale modelling of the architectural objects. The authors show a possibility of SLA process application for architectural rapid prototyping on example of scale modelling of Corbuseis Chapel in Rhonshane. Both a technique and the results of research of an area of rational application RP in the architectural scale modelling are given.
Wan, P.-H., Yu-Tung Liu, and Y.-Z. Lee. "The Co-existence between Physical Space and Cyberspace - a Case Study." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 597-602. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper reports on the relationship between physical space and cyberspace, with a case study. Three approaches are discussed of this co-existent relationship, the image, the user ID with avatars and the map with real-time information from the real world. Besides, we pose a 3D new-type form of cyberspace without concrete spatial boundaries and elements. In this kind of cyberspace, the user interface becomes relevant crucial. This research propose two methods to be the principles of the user interface, the stick with the spatial place and the 2D visual elements transplanted from 2D typical website. Furthermore, multi-user interaction and single user interaction are separately discussed in different hierarchical layers with diverse issues. This research deals with a case in progress and all phenomenon is preliminarily discussed.
Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo p. "The Computer is to Blame - the Disruptive Potential of a CAD Curriculum in an Architecture / Curriculum." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 50-54. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. In 2001 “DesignIntelligencei and the “Almanac of Architecture and Design” conducted a survey in which they interviewed over 800 leading U.S. architecture firms. The fundamental question was: “In your firmis hiring experience within the past five years, which schools do you feel have best prepared students for the architecture profession?” This survey produces one of the most respected rankings of schools of architecture in the U.S., but in addition to that critical question, the survey gathers data on a number of additional parameters that are of fundamental importance on why some schools are doing better than others. If we compare current figures with figures of previous years we see that our students are improving in their computer skills at the same time that they are loosing ground in other skills and fields of knowledge. For a non-inquisitive mind the reason is simple: “Our students are too busy working on the computer and are failing to put attention to other important stuffi. This paper makes an attempt to understand the problem from a fair perspective and highlight ways in which our growth in the field of CAD, and the pervasive presence of computer technology in our classrooms, can be used to enhance our teaching / learning capabilities in fields that are currently failing to achieve excellence.
Ham, Jeremy J., Simon Anson, Sambit Datta, and Henry Skates. "The Construction Primer in Case-Based E-ducation: the Deakin Woolstores Case Study." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 130-133. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002.

This paper outlines the use of an online multimedia case study of the Deakin University Woolstores campus in design and construction learning. The case study, in its pilot form, serves three purposes: as a case-based primer for the study of design and construction technology, as a structured case-study container for the addition of student digital construction projects and to benchmark student digital construction projects. The case study utilizes 3D CAD models and web-based multimedia in concert with physical connection with the actual building to build wholistic understandings of the transition of an idea to a constructed reality.

Ham, Jeremy J., S. Anson, Sambit Datta, and H. Skates. "The Construction Primer in Case-Based E-ducation: the Deakin Woolstores Case Study." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 130-133. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper outlines the use of an online multimedia case study of the Deakin University Woolstores campus in design and construction learning. The case study, in its pilot form, serves three purposes: as a case-based primer for the study of design and construction technology, as a structured case-study container for the addition of student digital construction projects and to benchmark student digital construction projects. The case study utilizes 3D CAD models and web-based multimedia in concert with physical connection with the actual building to build wholistic understandings of the transition of an idea to a constructed reality.
Kós, J.R.. "The Digital Historical Researcher." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 502-510. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Abstract. 3D modelling is many times applied as a tool to represent historical buildings or urban settings. Most of the time, however, its importance in the research process is minimized. Few researchers credit it as an instrument to discover and understand a historical process. The objective of this paper is to present 3D modelling as an important part of an architectural or urban historical research process. This argument is presented through 3D modelling previous experiences related to historical research, the concept of “ur-history”, conceived by Walter Benjamin during his major research project about the history of XIX Century Paris and also our research group examination of the growth of a South American city and the design development of a Modern Architecture icon in that city. In both cases historical research was based primarily in the modelling process, which synthesizes all data collected from plans, archive images and documents, books and analyses of existing artifacts.
Lamorski, Rafal. "The function of virtual models in education and research as well as in the popularization of architectural heritage as exemplified by historic buildings in Lodz." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 588-591. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper sets out to demonstrate sample virtual models of historic buildings in Lodz which were generated in the Institute of Architecture and Urban Planning at the Technical University of ?ód?, to present some foreign examples as well as to discuss their possible applications. The presentation of historic buildings as computer models can be put to good use in popular-science multimedia presentations accessible to a wide audience. Current accessibility of digital studies, the presentation of architectural structures as 3D models offers a perfect means to complement our cultural knowledge/ awareness.
Duarte, J.P., M. Heitor, and William Mitchell. "The Glass Chair - Competence Building for Innovation." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 180-185. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper tells the strange tale of a glass chair. Creating a glass chair might seem a perverse - maybe impossible - enterprise. After all, chairs are normally held together by moment connections, such as those joining the legs to the seat. Glass is a notoriously bad material for forming moment connections, it is brittle, and quickly snaps if you subject it to bending. But there are advantages to such startling formulations of design problems. They force you to challenge conventional wisdom, to ignore standard prototypes, and to ask interesting new questions. How might you design a chair without moment connections? How might you do so without making the result impossibly heavy? How would you built it? And what interesting qualities might such a chair have? These were questions investigated in the design project pursued jointly by students at an American and a Portuguese school, in collaboration with glass and molding fabricators. The students explored many possibilities, and in doing so learned a great deal about chairs and about the properties and potentials of glass. The final project is a particularly elegant outcome of their investigations. It is created from just two curved pieces of glass, which held together by metal tie-rods. In the end, the finished glass chair looked just like the initial computer visualizations.
Sdegno, Alberto. "The IDD System: Interactive Didactic Diagrams for Electronic Education - a Method for Teaching Digital Modeling for the Representation of Architecture." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 160-163. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The Interactive Didactic Diagrams allows for the structuring of useful information in the didactics of Digital Representation of Architecture courses. It is based on the possiblity of analyzing a graphic process- the construction of an architectural element with 3D CAD software, as well as the execution of a particular geometric projection- while making use of interpolated frames. The interactive diagram permits a sequential control of necessary operations until a structure of a spacial-temporal sense is obtained. This is done in such a way as to permit the user to gradually make his/her way through the sequence of steps with the possibility of reviewing them until the process is fully understood.
Barría, H., R. Lagos, and Chr. Muñoz. "The Inter-Media Space." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 584-587. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper explores the juxtaposition between architectonic space and virtual environments. It establishes the hypothesis that the intersection of virtual environments with our common life causes a break-up of time and space. Virtual environments are the last and most integral part of the technological revolution, becoming a parallel world, an unlimited extension of our limited world. The spatial and temporal juxtaposition of these two realities creates a new reality of being “inbetweeni,  it reveals the “inter-media”. This “inter-media” reality is an issue for architecture of our time, and it still lacks of responses.
Jakimowicz, Adam. "The Physical and the Digital in Designing Architecture - do They Really Meet?" In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 144-147. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. This paper tries to point a problem of separation of design thinking from the tools and media, which represent it. This separation concerns digital tools of architectural design.
Issa, Rajaa, and Jules Moloney. "The Potential of Computer Modeling Software to Support a Consideration of Building Materials in Architectural Design Education." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 440-447. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Most CAAD software in use for architectural education relies heavily on abstract geometry manipulation to create architectural form. Building materials are usually applied as finishing textures to complement the visual effect of the geometry. This paper attempts to investigate the limitations of commonly used CAAD software in terms of encouraging an intuitive thinking about the physical characteristics of building materials in the design studio environment. A case study involving 90 students is presented. The possibility of developing software that uses geometrical abstractions of different materials as the basis for modelling architectural form in the design studio is introduced.
Fioravanti, Antonio. "The relations among the actors and the architectural project in the design process: a rugby match." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 318-321. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. In the vast panorama of Computer Assisted Design in Architecture, we are currently researching new IT support tools. The present article shows how the design process has been conceived, and how it is carried out over time by the different design teams, as well as the computerized representation of the architectural project. After briefly outlining the contextualization of the problems and a necessary description of our scientific position, we go on to illustrate the complexity of the data involved in the problem by means of an allegory.
Kim, M., H. Bae, S. Kang, H. Kim, S. Shin, M. Yang, K. Lee, and Ch. Yoon. "The Representation of Design Constraints for the Building Product Model of Korean Traditional Buildings Differences in Applying Physical constraints vs. spatial constraints." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 350-355. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. A Korean traditional building has both canonical methods of building up structural framework and typical rules of spatial arrangement. The uniqueness of its building style results from these canonical methods of physical elements as well as those typical rules of spatial elements. Both canonical methods and typical rules can be represented as the constraints among physical and spatial elements. This study aims to investigate the design process of Korean traditional building with respect to physical and spatial constraints.
Hanzl, Małgorzata. "The Role of Virtual City Models in Urban Tissue Evaluation." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 396-399. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The shape of town is the main issue which planners deal with. The function of some buildings and urban facilities is flexible, it changes in time. The appearance of city public areas and, what follows, the life conditions of its inhabitants, depends on elements of the town structure - the surrounding buildings, their density, state and form. All lasting elements of the city form its shape which reflects urban processes which have been taking place over ages. The aim of this paper is to define how latest computer technology can be used as an aid in the evaluation of the town landscape.
Elger, Dietrich, and Peter Russell. "The Virtual Campus: a new place for (lifelong) learning?" In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 472-477. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modelling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named “Liquid Campus”. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus, in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de, a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the “traditional” structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the studentis work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the studentis work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the studentis conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
Kieferle, Joachim, and Erwin Herzberger. "The “Digital year for Architects” Experiences with an integrated teaching concept." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 88-95. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The “digital year for architects” is an integrated course for graduate architecture students, that has been held since 1997 at Stuttgart University. Its concept is to link together traditional design teaching and working with computers. Three seminars and one design project are the framework of the course, in which the students are taught in design of e.g. image and space composition, typography, video, using virtual reality, theoretical basics for the final design project like information management or working environments, approximately a dozen software packages and finally a visionary design project. It has shown that the advantage of an integrated course compared to separate courses is the more intensive dealing with the project as well as achieving better skills when learning the new media. Not only because the project topics are different from usual architecture and more abstract, the main effect is to widen the students way of thinking and designing.
Senagala, Mahesh. "Time-like Architectures - the Emergence of Post-spatial Parametric Worlds." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 254-261. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. A new trend is emerging in architecture today: dynamic and time-like architectures (term derived from the language of Theory of Relativity) that are capable of moving, flexing and reconfiguring themselves through globally networked control mechanisms are emerging. Such buildings maybe “plugged into” the information networks and can be manipulated through remote interaction. Architecture can be published, literally. At this time there is no one theoretical framework available to address such architectural efforts and the paper is aimed at providing a framework under the rubric of “Time-like Architectures”. The paper addresses the unprecedented transformation of the spatial and temporal foundations of architecture by a coming together of two technological developments: global real-time information networks and kinetic, pneumatic tectonics. Envisioned, and, in some cases built, by a group of avant-garde architects, time-like architectures are poised to become a norm in a not too distant future. The paper will identify, define and outline few time-like works. The paper will also outline the historical, theoretical and ethical relationships between post-spatial, post-modern and modern architectures using Charles Jencks structuralist classification, Evolutionary Tree.
Hanser, D., Gilles Halin, and Jean-Claude Bignon. "Toward a user adaptive vision of architectural projects." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 238-245. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The architectural conception is a particular cooperation situation. One characteristic of this cooperation is a “mutual prescription” between actors through a specific relational organization. Then each actor keeps up specific relations with others people (designers, project managers,) but also with documents and activities. The representation of such network, which characterizes each project, is the one of the objectives of the “Relational modeli. The existing groupware tools can not be directly used in the framework of the architectural conception. They require a high level of definition of procedures and exchanges, which is incompatible with the flexibility of current practices. The second objective of this model is to give to each actor an adapted vision of the project evolution. This representation has to be adapted to the role and the participation of the actor at each moment of the project life cycle. We propose in this article an open hyperdocument structure based on a relational model of cooperation. Some experimental views and navigations are exposed and commented. The integration of this new dimension allows to propose to the user an adapted vision of the project by taking into account the role he plays inside the project.
Koch, V, Michael Zwölfer, and K Fischer. "Turban - Time sensitive modelling of cities and urban fragments in CAD environments." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 296-300. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Town planning requires conscious handling of the existing urban structure and knowledge about its history. Only so planned modifications and supplements can be integrated in a sustainable manner into existing urban structures and have lasting effects. Modern CAD environments offer basically the possibility of supporting necessary planning process through additional integrated tools. In the project “Turban” CAD extensions were developed additionally, providing planners and students with fundamental tools for data-capture and analysis around the temporal process from town developments.
Chitchian, D., and H. Bekkering. "Urban-CAD, a Tool for Urbanistic Design." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 404-407. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. The existing CAD, CAAD programs and design applications hardly support the urbanistic design activities. The conceptual difference between architecture and urbanism necessitates developing new CAD software based on the urbanistic design process. Our developed Urban-CAD system assists designers with urbanistic design activities.
Russell, Peter. "Using Higher Level Programming in Interdisciplinary teams as a means of training for Concurrent Engineering." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 14-19. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002.

The paper explains a didactical method for training students that has been run three times to date. The premise of the course is to combine students from different faculties into interdisciplinary teams. These teams then have a complex problem to resolve within an extremely short time span. In light of recent works from Joy and Kurzweil, the theme Robotics was chosen as an exercise that is timely, interesting and related, but not central to the studies of the various faculties. In groups of 3 to 5, students from faculties of architecture, computer science and mechanical engineering are entrusted to design, build and program a robot which must successfully execute a prescribed set of actions in a competitive atmosphere. The entire course lasts ten days and culminates with the competitive evaluation. The robots must navigate a labyrinth, communicate with on another and be able to cover longer distances with some speed. In order to simplify the resources available to the students, the Lego Mindstorms Robotic syshed backgrounds instaed of synthetic ones. The combination of digitally produced (scanned) sperical images together with the use of HDR open a wide range of new implementation in the field of architecture, especially in combining synthetic elements in existing buildings, e.g. new interior elements in an existing historical museum).ural presentations in the medium of computer animation. These new forms of expression of design thoughts and ideas go beyond mere model making, and move more towards scenemaking and storytelling. The latter represents new methods of expression within computational environments for architects and designers.its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosg and programming a winning robot. These differences became apparent early in the sessions and each group had to find ways to communicate their ideas and to collectively develop them by building on the strengths of each team member.

Koszewski, K., S. Kowal, R. Rzadkiewicz, J. Slyk, and S. Wrona. "Virtual Modeling and Multimedia Presentation as the Basic Principles of CAAD Education in Warsaw School of Architecture." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 126-129. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Virtuality versus reality in the teaching concepts is one of the most important issues in our traditionally and professionally oriented school. Computer modelling techniques and interactive presentations as a communication media used to express students sophisticated aesthetics intentions in conceptual design are the subject of our peculiar interest. The goal of our study is to find out how students may use virtual tools to communicate the design ideas.
Kalisperis, L.N., G. Otto, Katsuhiko Muramoto, J.S. Gundrum, R. Masters, and B. Orland. "Virtual Reality/Space Visualization in Design Education: the VR-Desktop Initiative." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 64-71. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Although virtual reality (VR) is a fast-growing field, utilization of its potential within an affordable environment in the early years of architectural education has been limited. Currently, we are in the process of exploring the educational potential of virtual reality in the creation and understanding of space as a set of dynamic volumes that can be experienced. The VR-Desktop initiative is an effort to bring the salient features of projection-based VR to second-year architecture students in a way that is more generally accessible than the many canonical, first-generation, projection-based VR systems. The VR-Desktop has been implemented in the teaching of the architectural design studio in the second year of a fiveyear curriculum, as part of the physical architectural studio. Through the VR-Desktop system in the studio, students immediately start working in an immersive environment. They create space by manipulating solids and voids while evaluating the anthropometric relations of the proposed solution. The students are able to study and test conceptual details in a virtual environment from the very beginning of their architectural design project. In order to assess student perception of the usefulness of various system attributes for diverse tasks, we have begun a usability study. Thirty-five surveys were collected from the students who had used the lab during the two semesters for which the two-screen system was available. Preliminary observations indicate that within the architectural context, virtual reality techniques involving depth perception can convey relevant information to students more efficiently and with less misrepresentation than traditional techniques. This paper suggests that full field of view, motion, stereoscopic vision, and interactivity are possible components of the 3D visualization techniques that are necessary to enhance architectural education
Martens, Bob, and Peter Herbert. "Virtual Reconstruction of Synagogues Systematic Maintenance of Modeling Data." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 512-517. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Computer-assisted reconstruction of no-longer existent (architectural) objects and their surroundings practically amounts to a “virtual comeback”. Irreversible destruction having removed identity-establishing buildings from the urban surface for all times is the principal cause for the attempt of renewed imaginating. Following the destruction of the so-called “Reichskristall-Night” of November 1938 the synagogues of the Jewish community in Vienna surely are to be considered for a virtual reconstruction. 60 years later, in the commemorative year of 1998 the first synagogue reconstruction was initiated. The medium-range goal, however, aims at the reconstruction of at least ten further synagogues within a project to be carried out in stages to be pursued over a period of several years. Fluctuations concerning the people involved in handling also call for a structure to be tracked down later on. This contribution deals with handling of modelling in a systematic manner aiming at a traceable data structure being of utmost importance for subsequent use and following-up work.
Slyk, Jan, and Karolina Tulkowska. "Virtual representation of the historic space riches - the deepest source of understanding the contemporary nature of the city is genuine consciousness of its history." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 408-411. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Paper discusses use of modern techniques to gather, convert and present the historic facts concerning the shape of the city - for an example of Warsaw. Aim of the project is to analyze chances of cooperative use of historic data base and contemporary software in intention to create virtual model of the old urban structure.
Lehtinen, Saku. "Visualization and teaching with state-of-the-art 3D game technologies." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 538-541. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002.

This paper describes the use of the latest 3D game technologies and game editing tools in architectural modelling and visualization. The differences to more conventional rendering techniques, the benefits and the disadvantages of using these tools in architectural teaching are discussed.

Stouffs, Rudi, and Michael Cumming. "Visualizing Representational Structures for Improving Data Conceptualization." In Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation: 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 328-332. eCAADe: Conferences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw University of Technology, 2002. Design problems require a multiplicity of viewpoints each distinguished by particular interests and emphases. Alternative viewpoints necessitate different representations of the same entity, albeit a building or building part, a shape or other complex attribute. Even within the same task and by the same person, various representations may serve alternative purposes defined by the problem context and the selected approach. Understanding a representational structure serves to comprehend its use within the context of oneis own intent. This requires the visualization of the representation and data, and the ability to manipulate and alter the data structure in order to explore its composition and scope and compare it to what may be desired or required. We report on an active research effort to provide a 3D graphical interface for the manipulation of representational and data structures in terms of composition and scope. The interface and system make use of a particular framework for representational flexibility. This additionally supports the integration of data functions into data structures for the purpose of querying derived data.