Keywords Abstract
Pullen, W.R., C.L.G. Wassenaar, I. van Heti'ema, J.T. Dekkers, I. Janszen, C.G.E. Boender, A. Tas, and H. Stegeman. "A decision support system for housing of (public) organizations." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

In this paper we present a hierarchical decision support system for the allocation of organisations to available buildings, and for the allocation of employees of an organisation to the work units of a building. For both allocation problems a mathematical model and optimisation algorithm is developed, taking into account the relevant criteria, such as the extent to which the allocated floorspace is in accordance with the standards, and the extent to which departments are housed in connecting zones of a building. The decision support system is illustrated by two practical applications.

Friedman, A.. "A decision-making process for choice of a flexible internal partition option in multi-unit housing using decision theory techniques." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

Recent demographic changes have increased the heterogeneity of user groups in the North American housing market. Smaller households (e.g. elderly, single parent) have non-traditional spatial requirements that cannot be accommodated within the conventional house layout. This has created renewed interest in Demountable/Flexible internal partition systems. However, the process by which designers decide which project or user groups are most suited for the use of these systems is quite often complex, non-linear, uncertain and dynamic, since the decisions involve natural processes and human values that are apparently random. The anonymity of users when mass housing projects are conceptualized, and the uncertainty as to the alternative to be selected by the user, given his/her constantly changing needs, are some contributing factors to this effect. Decision Theory techniques, not commonly used by architects, can facilitate the decision-making process through a systematic evaluation of alternatives by means of quantitative methods in order to reduce uncertainty in probabilistic events or in cases when data is insufficient. The author used Decision Theory in the selection of flexible partition systems. The study involved a multi-unit, privately initiated housing project in Montreal, Canada, where real site conditions and costs were used. In this paper, the author outlines the fundamentals of Decision Theory and demonstrates the use of Expected Monetary Value and Weighted Objective Analysis methods and their outcomes in the design of a Montreal housing project. The study showed that Decision Theory can be used as an effective tool in housing design once the designer knows how to collect basic data.

Prins, M., M.F.Th. Bax, J.C. Carp, and Tempelmans Plat. "A design decision support system for building flexibility and costs." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

Because of possible changes in demand, buildings must have some flexibility. In this paper a building model, a financial-economic model and a process model will be presented, which together constitute a design decision support system. This system may be used to decide on flexibility and costs of building variants in all phases of the design process.

Lucardie, G.L.. "A functional approach to realizing decision support systems in technical regulation management for design and construction." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

Technical building standards defining the quality of buildings, building products, building materials and building processes aim to provide acceptable levels of safety, health, usefulness and energy consumption. However, the logical consistency between these goals and the set of regulations produced to achieve them is often hard to identify. Not only the large quantities of highly complex and frequently changing building regulations to be met, but also the variety of user demands and the steadily increasing technical information on (new) materials, products and buildings have produced a very complex set of knowledge and data that should be taken into account when handling technical building regulations. Integrating knowledge technology and database technology is an important step towards managing the complexity of technical regulations. Generally, two strategies can be followed to integrate knowledge and database technology. The main emphasis of the first strategy is on transferring data structures and processing techniques from one field of research to another. The second approach is concerned exclusively with the semantic structure of what is contained in the data-based or knowledge-based system. The aim of this paper is to show that the second or knowledge-level approach, in particular the theory of functional classifications, is more fundamental and more fruitful. It permits a goal-directed rationalized strategy towards analysis, use and application of regulations. Therefore, it enables the reconstruction of (deep) models of regulations, objects and of users accounting for the flexibility and dynamics that are responsible for the complexity of technical regulations. Finally, at the systems level, the theory supports an effective development of a new class of rational Decision Support Systems (DSS), which should reduce the complexity of technical regulations and restore the logical consistency between the goals of technical regulations and the technical regulations themselves.

Bourdakis, V., and R.F. Fellows. "A model appraising the performance of structural systems used in sports hall and swimming pool buildings in Greece." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

The selection of the best performing structural system (among steel, timber laminated, concrete, fabric tents) for medium span (30-50m) sports halls and swimming pools in Greece formed the impetus for this research. Decision-making concerning selection of the structural system is difficult in this sector of construction, as was explained in the “Long Span Structures” conference (November 1990, Athens. Greece). From the literature it has been found that most building appraisals end up at the level of data analysis and draw conclusions on the individual aspects they investigate. These approaches usually focus on a fraction of the problem, examining it very deeply and theoretically. Their drawback is loss of comprehensiveness and ability to draw conclusions on an overall level and consequently being applicable to the existing conditions. Research on an inclusive level is sparse. In this particular research project, an inclusive appraisal approach was adopted, leading to the identification of three main variables: resources, human-user-satisfaction, and technical. Consequently, this led to a combination of purely quantitative and qualitative data. Case studies were conducted on existing buildings in order to assess the actual performance of the various alternative structural systems. This paper presents the procedure followed for the identification of the research variables and the focus on the development of the model of quantification. The latter is of vital importance if the problem of incompatibility of data is to be solved, overall relation of findings is to be achieved and holistic conclusions are to be drawn.

Mortola, E, and A. Giangrande. "A trichotomic segmentation procedure to evaluate projects in architecture." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

This paper illustrates a model used to construct the evaluation module for An Interface for Designing (AID), a system to aid architectural design. The model can be used at the end of every cycle of analysis-synthesis-evaluation in the intermediate phases of design development. With the aid of the model it is possible to evaluate the quality of a project in overall terms to establish whether the project is acceptable, whether it should be elaborated ex-novo, or whether it is necessary to begin a new cycle to improve it. In this last case, it is also possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the possible actions and strategies for improvement. The model is based on a procedure of trichotomic segmentation, developed with MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Aid), which uses the outranking relation to compare the project with some evaluation profiles taken as projects of reference. An application of the model in the teaching field will also be described.

Kim, Y.S., and M. Brawne. "An approach to evaluating exhibition spaces in art galleries." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

There are certain building types in which movement of people is the most significant evaluation factor. Among these are art galleries and museums. Unlike other building types, which are often explicated by investigating the relationship between people and people, and between people and the built environment, art galleries and museums are a building type in which the social relationship between people hardly exists and peoples movement through space, that is, the functional relationship between people and space, is one of the most significant factors for their description. The typical museum experience is through direct, sequential, and visual contact with static objects on display as the visitor moves. Therefore, the movement pattern of the visitors must exert a significant influence on achieving the specific goal of a museum. There is a critical need for predicting the consequences of particular spatial configurations with respect to visitors movement. In this sense, it is the intention of this paper to find out the relationship between the spatial configuration of exhibition space and the visitors' movement pattern.

Koutamanis, A., and V. Mitossi. "Architectural computer vision: Automated recognition of architectural drawings." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

Computer vision offers the ability to transform digitized drawings into documents that can be used with computer systems. Recognition of digitized drawings can occur at the levels of (a) geometric elements, (b) building elements, and (c) spatial articulation. The last two levels apply not only to digitized images but also to computer-produced ones. The enormous burden placed on the user for inputting and manipulating CAD drawings suggests that automated recognition can add to the capabilities of CAD by making the computer more flexible with respect to inputting design information and more responsive to the actual concerns of the designer.

Hensen, J.L.M.. "Design support via simulation of building and plant thermal interaction." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

Design decision support related to building energy consumption and/or indoor climate should be based on an integral approach to the environment, the building, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and the occupants. The tools to achieve this are now available in the form of computer simulation systems which treat the building and plant as an integrated dynamic system. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, the paper describes building and plant energy simulation within the context of CABD, design decision support and design evaluation. Currently, computer simulation is only used indirectly as a design decision support mechanism, that is, its power is not delivered very efficiently to the design profession. This paper suggests some future research directions. These are aimed at providing a mechanism to overcome this problem by developing an intelligent front end'which bridges the gap between sophisticated computer simulation tools and the design profession.

Shabha, G.S.. "Development of objective methods for measuring flexibility of school buildings." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

This research investigates many problems related to the design for change and flexibility of school buildings. The problem of change proves to be highly complex due to the unpredictability and the difficulty of measuring change. Many deficiencies have been identified in the previous methods concerning lack of indicators for measuring flexibility, reliability and insufficiency of data for indicating change in buildings over use. In the light of the above problems, two main objectives have been established: (i) to propose operational measures of the extent of incorporation of design variables in school designs, and (ii) to propose operational measures of the extent of flexibility of school buildings in use. However, due to the limitations this paper is bound to, the investigation will focus on the second objective. It is anticipated that such operational measures might provide a framework for both architects and researchers, during the early design stage, to ensure that their conjectures about the potential of flexibility might be enhanced during use, hence, improving their prediction of buildings performance over use. This might assist in developing a more coherent objective body of knowledge, which could be fruitfully manipulated during the early design stage to enhance the effectiveness of flexibility in use.

Gilleard, J., and O. Olatidoye. "Graphical interfacing to a conceptual model for estimating the cost of residential construction." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

This paper presents a method for determining elemental square foot costs and cost significance for residential construction. Using AutoCAD's icon menu and dialogue box facilities, a non-expert may graphically select (i) residential configuration, (ii) construction quality level, (iii) geographical location, (iv) square foot area, and finally, (v) add-ons, e.g. porches and decks, basement, heating and cooling equipment, garages and carports etc. in order to determine on-site builder's costs. Subsequent AutoLisp routines facilitate data transfer to a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet where an elemental cost breakdown for the project may be determined. Finally, using Lotus 1-2-3 macros, computed data is transferred back to AutoCAD, where all cost significant items are graphically highlighted.

Smeets, Jos J. A. M.. "Housing tenancy, data management and quality control." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

This paper deals with housing tenancy, data management and quality control. The proposed method is focused on quality characteristics of housing estates in view of rentability risks. It entails a cycle of registration, analysis and implementation of measures. The starting point is the behaviour of the housing consumer in a market-oriented context. The model is framed within theories of strategic management and marketing. Systematic registration and evaluation of consumer behaviour, by means of a set of relevant process and product indicators, can yield relevant information in the four phases of the rental process: orientation, intake, dwelling and exit. This information concerns the way in which the dwelling (characterized by product indicators) fits the needs of the consumer. The systematic analysis of the process and product indicators during the phases of the rental process makes a 'strength-weakness analysis' of housing estates possible. The indicators can be presented in aggregated form by way of a'rentability index. The 'strength-weakness analysis' steers the intervention in the quality characteristics of housing estates. The possibilities for readjustment, however, are different. The quality control system is not only an early warning system, but also has several other functions: evaluation, planning and communication. The method described here lays a solid foundation for a decision-support system in the area of housing tenancy.

De Gelder, J.T., and G.L. Lucardie. "Knowledge and data modelling in cad/cam applications." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

Modelling knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications is complex because different goals and contexts have to be taken into account. This complexity makes particular demands upon representation formalisms. Today many modelling tools are based on record structures. By analyzing the requirements for a product model of a portal structure in steel, this paper shows that in many situations record structures are not well suited as a representation formalism for storing knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications. This is illustrated by performing a knowledge-level analysis of the knowledge and data generated in the design and manufacturing process of a portal structure in steel.

Gauchel, J., L. Hovestadt, S. Van Wyk, and R.R. Bhat. "Modular building models." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

The development and implementation of a modular building model appropriate for computer aided design is described. The limitations of a unified building model with regard to concurrence and complexity in design is discussed. Current research suggests that to model real-world complexity, one must trade centralized control for autonomy. In this paper we develop a modular approach to building modelling that is based on object-oriented autonomy and makes it possible to define these models in a distributed concurrent manner. Such a modular and autonomous implementation brings inherent uncertainty and conflict which cannot be determined a priori.

Van Bakel, A.P.M.. "Personality assessment in regard to design strategies." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

This paper discusses some preliminary results of several knowledge-acquisition and documentation-structuring techniques that were used to assess the working styles of architects. The focus of this assessment was on their strategic design behaviour. Hettema's Interactive Personality Model (Hettema 1979, 1989) was used to explain and interpret these results. The methods used to acquire the necessary data are protocol analysis, card sorting and interviews. The results suggest that at least three parameters can be used to explain and differentiate the strategic design behaviour of architects. These parameters are S (site-oriented), B (brief-oriented) and C (concept-oriented). A priority hierarchy of these parameters reveals six major distinguishable working styles. These results are captured in a new design model that can be used in data bank implementations.

Poortman, E.R.. "Ratios for cost control." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

The design of buildings takes place in phases representing a development from rough to precision planning. Estimates are made in order to test whether the result is still within the budget set by the client or developer. In this way, the decisions taken during the design phase can be quantified and expressed in monetary terms. To prevent blaming the wrong person when an overrun is discovered, the cost control process has to be improved. For that purpose, two new procedures have been developed: (i) a new translation activity, and (ii) ratios by which quantities can be characterized. Translation is the opposite of estimation. A monetary budget is converted -'translated'- into quantities, reflecting the desired quality of the building materials. The financial constraints of the client are thus converted into quantities - the building components used by the designers. Characteristic quantity figures play an important role in this activity. In working out an estimate, the form factor (i.e. the ratio between two characteristic values of a building component) has to be determined. The unit cost is then tested against that ratio. The introduction of the 'translation' activity and the use of characteristic quantity figures and form factors enhance existing estimation methods. By implementing these procedures, cost control becomes considerably more reliable.

Winteraeken-Bruls, P.W.M.. "ROP: an interactive spatial optimization and grouping computer application." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

As a part of a research project at Eindhoven University of Technology, the computer application ROP for space-planning problems was tested in practice. The use of the application in a real-world project was evaluated. The decision-making process for the development of alternatives for a courthouse was observed to see how the computer application could support decision-making. The aim of this paper is to describe the performance of ROP in a real-world setting. ROP appears to be a useful instrument in decision-making for space-planning problems. Especially in the early stages of the design process, it enhances insight among all participants in a project team. It can also be used in situations where little information is available. To conclude, ROP appears to enhance communi-cation between members of a design team.

De Scheemaker, A.. "Towards an integrated facility management system for management and use of government buildings." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

The Government Building Agency in the Netherlands is developing an integrated facility management system for two of its departments. Applications are already developed to support a number of day-to-day facility management activities on an operational level. Research is now being carried out to develop a management control system to better plan and control housing and material resources.

Drach, A., M. Langenegger, and S. Heitz. "Working with prototypes: from cad to flexible tools for integrated building design." In Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture. DDSS. Mierlo, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

The formulation of design knowledge as concepts, goals and rules cannot be captured in fixed and valid statements. The dynamic modelling of concepts and goals is, on the contrary, part of the design process itself. Tools that effectively support architects in their design should therefore never use predefined mechanisms, but must be definable interactively according to design specifications. We propose the concept of prototypes as a cognitive model to represent and structure design knowledge. Prototypes incorporate an individual view of design in a synthetic and organizational model for a defined area of interest. They actively control and guide design processes in supporting the organizational concepts for solutions. The a+Tool implements these concepts on the basis of a modelling language. It provides a dynamic toolkit and user interface to support design as well as knowledge modelling.