Keywords Abstract
Koutamanis, Alexander. "3 x 2 Approaches to Design Management." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 220-225. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Following the arguably successful introduction of building, project and real estate management to traditional architectural areas, design management is emerging as the new hot issue. One of the main arguments for it is the alleged low performance of the architect in the face of the technical complexity and operational intricacy that characterizes current design problems. In this respect, management is seen as the missing link in the architectis methodical and operational framework. The paper suggests that this link derives more from the constraints of the domain and its subject matter rather than a management perspective. Design management refers to two main dimensions of architectural design, these of design method and of design subject. With respect to the first dimension we distinguish between three main categories: proscriptive, prescriptive and descriptive approaches. In the second dimension the distinction is between the coordination of the design process and that of the design product. The 3x2 matrix defined by these two dimensions stresses the significance of descriptive approaches for the informatization of the representation and communication of the design product. In this framework design information management emerges as an applied area of (computational) design theory that facilitates the amphidrome development of a design, i.e. not only from brief to postoccupancy but also from detail, case and precedent to design idea and solution, as well as the identification and management of critical moments, i.e. moments characterized by convergence of activities and hence extensive and intensive communication.
Oxman, Rivka, and Ann Heylighen. "A Case with a View - Towards an Integration of Visual and Case-Based Reasoning in Design." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 346-341. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Despite the long-term effort to establish the theoretical foundations for Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) in design, it appears that additional theoretical efforts are needed in order to achieve the promise of this affinity. In this paper we argue that visual reasoning, is a fundamental attribute of architectural design, and therefore combining it with CBR may provide significant results both for the field of design thinking as well as for the field of CAAD. This paper focuses on reformulating theoretical foundations for CBR in design by incorporating insights from studies in fields like visual imagery and creativity, where visual reasoning is recognized to play a key role. Within classical CBR research, however, visual reasoning has not received much attention until now. Instead, researchers have concentrated on traditional issues and topics in CBR such as indexing, retrieval and adaptation. The second part of the paper therefore switches attention to how these traditional issues may benefit from integrating Case-Based with visual reasoning.
Morozumi, Mitsuo, and Riken Homma. "A Design Studio Program that Applied Groupware to Stimulate Students Interactions - a Case Study of Junior Studio." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 317-322. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Since 1996, Kumamoto University has repeated several experiments to apply web-based collaborative design techniques to a junior design studio to stimulate studentsi interaction in the class and to enhance their design abilities. As it became evident after a two-year experiment that writing web pages and uploading them to a web server was a barrier of communication for students, the authors developed a web-based groupware called GWNotebook, and started using it in 1998. In the fall semester of 2000, the authors tested the groupware in a revised version, and a new program of studio instructions that assumed the use of the groupware. This paper, referring studentsi answers to two sets of questionnaire respectively carried out in 1997 and 2000, discusses the effectiveness of groupware and the instruction program.
Verbeke, Johan, and Martijn Stellingwerff. "A Future Focus on Collaborative Design." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 98-103. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. In this paper, we will report on the experiences and insights discussed during a workshop of the Special Interest Group on Collaborative Architectural Design. Participants from 12 universities and four firms (for architecture, engineering, consultancy and software) brainstormed and discussed on multidisciplinary simultaneous collaborative design and exchanged their ideas on the subject. The effort of the diverse participants covered theoretical, social and technical issues of collaborative architectural design. The topic of the workshop was explored by means of paper presentations, software tests, experiments, different types of brainstorm sessions and the formulation of future scenarios. The combination of junior and senior researchers of each university proved to be fruitful and inspiring for the discussions. As an outcome of these activities a framework for future research in the field will be presented. Special focus will be on the aspects of communication language, communication behaviour, communication environment, goals and roles in the context of collaborative design. The name {ACCOLADE} is an acronym of Architectural Collaborative Design. The name brings a number of different words together in a group. E.g. {England, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy,...}. The meaning of the word in English is “a mark of honour” and the French meaning of the word is a “solemn embrace”. It also refers to the multi-disciplinary design process. These connotations can be useful for a collaboration project in which many different people and parties plan to make a joint design effort.
Huang, Ching-Hui. "A Preliminary Study of Spatializing Cyberspace - a Cognitive Approach." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 511-516. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The purpose of this study is to reveal some aspects of the spatial nature of cyberspace by applying a cognitive approach, which is to decode cyberspatial cognition generated from the spatial experiences of an architectural designer. Two types of cities, the physical and the virtual, are compared in order to further realize the spatial knowledge of cyberspace. The results of this research indicate that understanding spatial characteristics of virtual environment can base upon investigating cognitive sketches. In addition, architectural designers might benefit from the findings of this study.
Chase, Scott C., and PakSan Liew. "A Systematic Method for Redesign - Using function, behaviour and structure to facilitate grammar transformation ." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 18-24. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. We present a formal framework for redesign. Stylistic change, defined by grammar rule modifications, serves as the basis for rule replacement with ones that produce designs satisfying revised requirements. Each grammar rule has an associated description that adds functional or behavioural information to the geometric representation of the design using Function-Behaviour-Structure representations. This method provides a formal mechanism for redesign and defines a means to generate and link structures with different behaviour and functions within the FBS model of design. We demonstrate this with an example of redesign of a wall responding to changing functional requirements, and also discuss its usage in other types of redesign problems.
Dokonal, Wolfgang, and Bob Martens. "A Working Session on 3-D City Modeling." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 417-422. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. On the occasion of a presentation on a city model for Graz at the eCAADe-conference in Weimar (2000), some attendees informed us about their previous work in this field and the idea of preparing a working session with collegues involved in 3-D city modelling was born. During the initial phase of research for this eCAADe conference activity it turned out that a large number of city models has been created in the course of time for different reasons resp. purposes. Therefore a rich variety in the production of city models can be noticed. This working session on 3-D city modelling brings together experts focusing on different aspects concerning the creation and use of city models, such as data input, data structure, data storage and data quality. Also the definition of a perspective on the future of 3-D city modelling can be regarded as an important topic. In this paper a rough overview on the different submissions will be presented. Furthermore three blitz statements are incorporated as time was too short to produce a full paper. Both with the individual contributions as with this overview paper it is intended to present a knowledge-base to this working field. Finally, the start for a growing bibliography was made in order to support future work in this area.
Brown, A., L. Gavin, P. Berridge, and Michael Knight. "An Active World - Architectural Information Interchange via 3D Internet Environments." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 365-370. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The eCAADe organisation has the long term role to promote and facilitate the discussion and interchange of ideas relating to a broad range of issues in the field of CAAD education and research. The new technologies that have come together to give us the environment that we know as the Internet has offered a range of stimuli for new initiatives. A research group has been established to investigate and explore a particular aspect of this new potential with the goal of creating an eCAADe Virtual world as a vehicle for testing the associated ideas. This papers reports on the recent developments on this project.
Shih, N - J., J-T Lai, Y - L. Tsai, and H - Y. Chang. "An Application of Panoramic Site Supervision System in Interior Remodeling." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 47-53. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This study shows a preliminary application of a panorama video device PanoDome in architecture-related supervision of interior renovation. This is a PC-based system that takes 360 degree of scenes for recording or analysis purposes. The setup enables an installation almost at any location. This study proposes the application of the supervision system in three categories: a construction monitoring system, an application pattern, and exemplification. The application can be used in supervision recording, coordination, review, process inspection, and process rebuild in construction.
Stouffs, Rudi, R.F. Venne, Sevil Sariyildiz, and Bige Tunçer. "Aspects and Technologies of E-learning in an Architectural Context." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 358-363. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The Web is assigned an increasingly important role as a medium for information and presentation, also in architectural education. Course websites may present course materials, handouts, and manuals online. Students create their own website as a showcase of their work, complementing their portfolio. With support from a database, course websites are commonly extended to allow for electronic submission and immediate presentation of the students work. Such websites may be further developed to support student collaboration and communication within the context of the course. The same tools can be provided to students in order to set up their own information environments to support groupwork. We envision this technology to become commonplace in educational environments, extending the current set of electronic information and communication tools available to students. Technological advances enable practitioners and students to make the design process more information-intensive, both in their own activities and in collaboration with others. For this purpose, it is important that students familiarize themselves with such technology and adopt it in ways that meet their needs and requirements. A flexible environment that provides them with the tools and means to adapt and apply this technology throughout the curriculum, supported by course specific e-learning offerings, is our ultimate goal. In this paper, we elaborate on the efforts at the faculty of architecture in integrating current digital initiatives into an e-learning environment and on extending this environment to support the entire architecture curriculum
Klercker, Af, Henri Achten, and Johan Verbeke. "AVOCAAD - a First Step Towards Distance Learning?" In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 269-274. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. In the industrial world knowledge is developed very fast. As most countries are depending on employees with a high level of knowledge and skills the term “Life Long Learning” has been formulated and the concept is more and more accepted. Institutions of higher education are more and more involved in creating supplementary education more independent of time and place. Distance learning was originally carried out by ordinary mail, which was slow but might then have been the only solution for people in remote places. With the Internet and e-mail the distance-learning concept has got a far better tool, for instance better interaction facilities. Architects and engineers in practise are deeply involved in solving the problems of the present projects. Education which is independent of time and place must be of great interest to both parties. The AVOCAAD project has created an education model for students to meet the possibilities of CAAD. The education model can be used in a curriculum at a school as well as for distance learning. Among the possible experiences from it, the one concerning distance learning might be the most important future application of the system in architectural education. This paper sketches the pedagogical background and gives examples from other areas of knowledge, where distance learning is already in use. We will put the question how the AVOCAAD concept meets the experiences from distance learning.
Gröhn, M., M. Mantere, L. Savioja, and T. Takala. "Background screens on three walls and floor. the stereoscopic 3D Visualization of Building Services in Virtual Environment." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 523-528. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. In currently on-going project we develop methods and techniques for visualizing building services in our virtual room. At first we have established a conversion and transmission path from contractorsi lighting modelling software to virtual environment software. Secondly we have visualized air flow data in a photo-realistic room in such a way that a nonspecialist can easily understand the behaviour of air flow. Thirdly we have developed navigation techniques which allow an arbitrary visitor to explore the model without guidance.
Proctor, George. "CADD Curriculum - the Issue of Visual Acuity." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 192-200. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Design educators attempt to train the eyes and minds of students to see and comprehend the world around them with the intention of preparing those students to become good designers, critical thinkers and ultimately responsible architects. Over the last eight years we have been developing the digital media curriculum of our architecture program with these fundamental values. We have built digital media use and instruction on the foundation of our program which has historically been based in physical model making. Digital modelling has gradually replaced the capacity of physical models as an analytical and thinking tool, and as a communication and presentation device. The first year of our program provides a foundation and introduction to 2d and 3d design and composition, the second year explores larger buildings and history, the third year explores building systems and structure through design studies of public buildings, fourth year explores urbanism, theory and technology through topic studios and, during the fifth year students complete a capstone project. Digital media and CADD have and are being synchronized with the existing NAAB accredited regimen while also allowing for alternative career options for students. Given our location in the Los Angeles region, many students with a strong background in digital media have gone on to jobs in video game design and the movie industry. Clearly there is much a student of architecture must learn to attain a level of professional competency. A capacity to think visually is one of those skills and is arguably a skill that distinguishes members of the visual arts (including Architecture) from other disciplines. From a web search of information posted by the American Academy of Opthamology, Visual Acuity is defined as an ability to discriminate fine details when looking at something and is often measured with the Snellen Eye Chart (the 20/20 eye test). In the context of this paper visual acuity refers to a subjectis capacity to discriminate useful abstractions in a visual field for the purposes of Visual Thinking- problem solving through seeing (Arnheim, 1969, Laseau 1980, Hoffman 1998). The growing use of digital media and the expanding ability to assemble design ideas and images through point-and-click methods makes the cultivation and development of visual skills all the more important to todayis crop of young architects. The advent of digital media also brings into question the traditional, static 2d methods used to build visual skills in a design education instead of promoting active 3d methods for teaching, learning and developing visual skills. Interactive digital movies provide an excellent platform for promoting visual acuity, and correlating the innate mechanisms of visual perception with the abstractions and notational systems used in professional discourse. In the context of this paper, pedagogy for building visual acuity is being considered with regard to perception of the real world, for example the visual survey of an environment, a site or a street scene and how that visual survey works in conjunction with practice.
Popova, M., P. Johansson, and H. Lindgren. "Case-based Reasoning in Collaborative Design: the role of product models and information structures." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 92-97. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper discusses methods for information management through the rational application of IT within collaborative design. We explore the possible integration of the platforms of case-based reasoning and information structures. We examine the potential combination of existing techniques (CAD-tools, word processors, general applications, WWW) and standards (IFC, national classification systems) into a system for information management. We focus on the designersi use of heterogeneous information and the further development of a prototype based on product-model and process-model technology. Today, XML helps us structure various kinds of information before the system performs case-based reasoning sessions. The aim is to promote efficient and flexible information management in a casebased design process. Through the use of standardized product models, this information will be sharable and suitable for reuse and feedback. The more often the information is reused, the more general and adaptable it becomes i.e. it evolves. This scenario requires, though, efficient information management in the design office: a quality system for evaluating the information for reuse, consequent use of standardized product models and IT.
Rügemer, Jörg. "Computer Generated Architectural Design: 160 custom-made Architectural data flow from schematic design into Computer Aided Manufacturing." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 288-292. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The paper constitutes the introduction of a new approach into architectural design methods at the Institute for Architectural Design and CAD. It describes the experience with regard to the learning process and explains the design studio experiment “160 custom-made”. The design method has been developed from different actual building procedures. “160 custom-made” provokes the contradiction between a modernistic architectural approach (industrialized parts and series manufacturing) and computer based design and manufacturing processes which promise the realization of almost every imaginable architectural shape at no extra cost. The students visited several Companies in Germany, Switzerland and Austria, who demonstrated state-of-the-art-technology-manufacturing methods on various materials. This Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) process then became the basis for discovering a new way to speculate about solutions to a design problem. The project was described into computer aided modelling starting early in the design. In the beginning participants were asked to design an object using terms, images and ideas, entirely detached from architectural thinking and without the knowledge of the actual architectural goal. “Maya”, a three-dimensional modelling software, was introduced at the same time, which allowed participants to translate the analog data of their models into a digital model description. In the last project phase this knowledge was used to visualize the models with the computer, a programmatic task was added to the design as the students proceeded with the further development stages of the project. The group searched for ways to translate the produced data structures and to drive the Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) process. The easy building of quick models with this technology proved to be more difficult than expected. “160 custom-made” participants were confronted with an entirely new method of designing due to the unusual procedures needed to handle digital data information in order to receive the desired output.
Colajanni, B, S Concialdi, and G. Pellitteri. "Construction or Deconstruction: Which is the Best Way to Learn Architecture?" In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 299-304. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The actual shift of the teaching methods from teacher-centred expository methods, to learner-centred exploratory ones. The educational goals are no more the construction of a solid theory knowledge from which the behaviour is driven. It is the acquisition of capabilities and skills directly related to the professional activity. The consequence is that the teacher has the task of endowing the student not only with a large amount of documentation but also with at least suggestions of the way to use it. One of these suggestions is the deconstruction (in a literal and not philosophical sense) as a way of investigating the structure of buildings. In a first phase in order to acquire, through generalisation a systematic knowledge of the way the parts of a building (their subsystems) contribute to the global architectural organism. In a second phase in order to explore buildings of special interest aiming at mastering their peculiar solutions. An example of this method is presented, limited to the spatial analysis only both for brevity sake and for particular difficulties presented.
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, and Mohd Fazidin. "Creating a City Administration System (CAS) using Virtual Reality in an Immersive Collaborative Environment (ICE)." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 449-453. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Current problems in administration of a city are found to be decentralized and noninteractive for an effective city management. This usually will result in inconsistencies of decision-making, inefficient services and slow response to a particular action. City administration often spends more money, time and human resource because of these problems. This research demonstrates our research and development of creating a City Administration System (CAS) to solve the problems stated above. The task of the system is to use information, multimedia and graphical technologies to form a database in which the city administrators can monitor, understand and manage an entire city from a central location. The key technology behind the success of the overall system uses virtual reality and immersive collaborative environment (ICE). This system employs emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to ensure effective decisionmaking process, improved communication, and collaboration, error reduction, (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2000) between multi disciplinary users and approaches. This multi perspective approach allows planners, engineers, urban designers, architects, local authorities, environmentalists and general public to search, understand, process and anticipate the impact of a particular situation in the new city. It is hoped that the CAS will benefit city administrators to give them a tool that gives them the ability to understand, plan, and manage the business of running the city.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, and Thomas Kvan. "Design communication in immersive virtual environments: an initial exploration." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 472-478. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Using Virtual Environment (VE) to visualize ideas from the initial steps of design, the architect is challenged to deal with perception of space, solid and void, without translations to and from a two dimensional media. In this moment, we may expect new forms of design expression. The goal of our study was to identify how designers use and communicate early design ideas by using immersive three-dimensional VEs. We explored initial intentions of 3Dimmersive design schemes, textual descriptions and collaborations within immersive VE. We set-up a series of experiments including navigation- and perception-tasks, designing in immersive VE, transcription of design, remote communication between design partners and controlled observations. The paper describes these experiments. Finally we summarize observations from this research, for instance the simplicity to interconnect design-ideas cross platforms, conclude with possible future directions of our investigation, initiating a broader research including other disciplines.
Lewis, Martin, and Jerzy Wojtowicz. "Design in the New Media - Digital Design Pedagogy at the SoA, University of British Columbia." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 256-261. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The idea of the Bauhaus education was born out of the conviction that designs for mass production and modern architecture needed a new fundamental design strategy. Today, seventy-five years later, the modern, basic design pedagogy needs to be revisited, as the impact of the Information Technology Revolution on design practice and education is now extensive. The illustrations and reflections on a modern curriculum for fundamental design and communication presented in this paper are derived from the authorsi introduction of the new media to design studios at UBC and from design practice. In the case of the nascent student of architecture, a different, rudimentary approach is required: one calling for the combining of the modern, basic design agenda with the introduction of the new media. The fundamental digital design pedagogy is young and not fully established. This is a considerable problem, since the practice and learning of architecture today is increasingly aided by and dependent upon digital media. Parallel to the traditional methods, the contemporary student of design is now obliged to engage new and dynamic conditions at the formative stage of his or her education. In the recent past, the computer was considered as just another device, requiring the development of mechanical techniques or skills. While those skills still have to be mastered, more recently in design education and practice, IT has become accepted as MEDIA - not just as a drafting or modelling tool. This process is perhaps due to the rapid dissemination of computing literacy and to the progressive accessibility and ease of use of IT. At UBC, Techniques and the Foundation Studio are introductory courses intended to make students engage the new media in parallel with, and complimentary to, established conventions in design.
Liu, Yu-Tung, S.-C. Shih, Y.-C. Yeh, and H.-L. Lee. "Design Production and Appreciation with Computer and Internet - Evolving Phenomena of Design Review in CAD Studio and Internet-based Competition." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 382-387. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet. The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Designing and Manufacturing Architecture in the Digital Age." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 117-123. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The paper describes and examines the implications of the recent developments in the architectural application of the latest digital design and fabrication technologies, which offer alternatives to the established understandings of architectural design and production processes and their material and economic constraints. It offers a possibility of a revised understanding of the historic relationship between architecture and its means of production.
Montagu, A., J.R. Kós, Diana Rodríguez Barros, A. Stipech, and Rodrigo García Alvarado. "Digital Design Curriculum: Developments in Latin America - a Field Report." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 202-206. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The introduction of early computer graphics procedures in the Architectural and Design fields in Latin America has been a complex and hard task due to different motives that can be summarized as educational prejudices, political instability and financial problems. The paper aims to summarize the origin of the “system approach” view in the region based in experiences of some leading institutions nowadays. A chronological development of the present curricular systems in some Faculties of Architecture and Design will also be included. It must be considered that the great majority of public universities in Latin America are free of charge for the students. 
Knight, Michael, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Berridge, and A. Brown. "Digital Hindcasting - Critical Analysis through Virtual Reconstruction." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 529-533. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Manah is an abandoned oasis settlement in Oman. During what is termed the “Golden period” in the regionis cultural development the settlement became on of the most important cultural centres of the interior. For a long period Manah stood as the seat of learning in sciences and arts. A current project is underway to establish, as far as possible, how the settlement evolved, how tribal, cultural, religious and social factors impinged on Manah as it grew over the years. The work described here is directed as applying computational methods to augment the analysis and critical review of that evolution. We are aiming to explain the evolutionary process using computer mediated techniques, working backwards from the current state, to the inception of the settlement, hence the term Digital Hindcasting.
Oxman, Rivka, and Bernd Streich. "Digital Media and Design Didactics in Visual Cognition." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 186-191. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The cognitive properties of design learning have rarely been the subject of design education. Irrespective of the specific design domain, traditional educational models in design education are based upon the evaluation of the product of designing rather than on what might be considered a learning increment. Lately we have developed the concept of cognitive learning tasks as learning increments in design education and propose that digital media constitute the basis of uniquely powerful learning technologies. The research described in this paper addresses the confluence of cognitive learning tasks as a pedagogical approach in design education, its potential relationship to digital media in order to develop a digital design didactics, and the relationship of these developments in design education to current practices of digital design generation. In this paper, we focus on the cognitive aspects of visual cognition in design learning. An example in the domain of architectural design is illustrated.
Martens, Bob, Z. Turk, T. Cerovsek, and Tomo Cerovsek. "Digital Proceedings: Experiences regarding Creating and Using." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 25-29. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper describes the developments of the CUMINCAD database since 1999 when it was first presented and some statistical information, how the service is being used. CUMINCAD started as a bibliographic database storing meta information about CAADrelated publications. Recently, full texts are being added. The process of creation of electronic copies of papers in pdf-format is described as well as decisions which were taken in this context. Over the last two years 20.000 users visited CUMINCAD. We present a brief analysis of their behaviour and interaction patterns. This and the forthcoming possibility of a full-text-search will open up a new perspective for CAAD-research.
Fortuzzi, A, A. Giangrande, P Mirabelli, and E Mortola. "Dynamic Urban Representation for Innovative Planning Methodologies ." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 500-504. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Some applications of hypermedia technology we developed trough the years to represent urban environment are reviewed. From the results the need for a change of paradigm rises. The strategy for a new system to develop is exposed, based on the assumption that: - the information does not pre-exist its representation, -- the process of cooperatively and competitively represent a situation causes its changing in the same time. -- no single actor will be able to represent the territory in its complexity, The question we need to answer is not what kind of technology we need to manage the information we have but the opposite: what kind of information we need for the technology we have. This information is not neutral nor automatically generalisable, thus, to implement a content based approach, a new system will be designed during a urban developing project.
Roberts, Andrew, and Andrew Marsh. "ECOTECT: Environmental Prediction in Architectural Education." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 342-347. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper evaluates the integration and use of ECOTECT, an environmental prediction software package into teaching within the authors school of architecture. ECOTECT is relatively unique amongst performance analysis tools in that it is aimed primarily at architects and is intended for use during the earliest, most conceptual stages of design. It integrates a relatively simple and intuitive 3D modelling interface with a range of analysis functions.
Petric, J., G. Ucelli, and G. Conti. "Educating the Virtual Architect." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 388-393. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper elaborates and illustrates an educational experiment in which students were asked to develop their design in the virtual environment and at the same time evaluate the process and the product. Starting from a general overview on the VRML 97 technology the workshop offered an opportunity to students to enhance their curricula with new tools through experimenting and interacting with their design spaces. Studentsi designs were tested and critically discussed in a fully immersive VR environment offering them new stimuli for both designing and enriching their learning experience. Students were finally asked to present their projects in a fully interactive VR environment. The outcomes of the experiment, and the challenging question it raises about the nature of reality and virtuality - technical, pedagogical and even ethical - offer a contribution to the debate on the concept of an “Ideal Digital Design Curriculum”.
Petric, Jelena, and Thomas W. Maver. "Education for the Virtual Age." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 176-179. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper suggests that the theoretic framework devised in the late 1960s to help structure the IT curriculum in Schools of Architecture has served the community of teachers and students well but must be re-visited to take proper account of the recent and rapid developments in Virtual Reality and Real Virtuality. The paper offers definitions which differentiate these terms and suggests that the emerging technologies will have a major impact on the issues of sustainability, user participation and creativity. It ends with an appeal for the discussion of the theoretical and philosophical ideas raised by virtuality, and the development of the skills to test them, to be put at the heart of the architectural agenda and curriculum. 
Szewczyk, Jaroslaw. "Engineering Portals - Networked Collaborative Architectural Information Management." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 150-155. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Engineering projects contain high volume of complex, structural data. The data is used in many contexts, and it is also related to communication processes. An analysis of data management tools is essential for dealing with large engineering project. The paper deals with classifications of data management services as well as communication ones offered by collaborative engineering portals. Existing taxonomies of communication tools, and data management tools, are presented. Authoris working typology is discussed.
Uddin, Mohammed Saleh. "Extents and Limitations of 3D Computer Models for Graphic Analysis of Form and Space in Architecture." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 552-557. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper investigates the strength and limitations of basic 3D diagrammatic models and their related motion capabilities in the context of graphic analysis. The focus of such analysis is to create a computer based environment to represent visual analysis of architectural form and space. The paper highlights the restrictions that were found in a specific 3D-computer model environment to satisfy a basic diagrammatic need for analysis. Motion related features that take into account of parametric changes are also investigated to help enhance representation of analytic models. Acknowledging the restrictions, it can be stated that computational media are the only ones at present that can create an interactive multimedia format using components constructed through various computational techniques
He, Jie, and Jin-Yeu Tsou. "GIS-based Visual Perception Analysis of Urban Natural Landscape for Urban Planning Supporting: a Case Study of Jinzishan Hill Region." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 505-510. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. In this paper we present a GIS-based system prototype in evaluating visual perception quality of natural landscape within urban environment. Through a case study, we demonstrate the entire procedure which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis as well as design aiding presentation of this system. This system prototype offers a calculatable and visulizable technique to evaluate the visual quality of urban natural landscape in either actual situation or planning future. Furthermore, we collaborate with local professional organization in a real urban site study to preparing regional planning instruction items by means of this system.
Tsou, Jin-Yeu, Z. Yimin, and S. Lam. "Improving Air Quality of Public Transport Interchanges - Design Strategies to integrate CFD simulation in early design process." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 54-59. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001.

Indoor public transport interchanges (PTI) are ubiquitous in Hong Kong. In the hyperdense urban context, land use has been optimized through the design of complex public facilities. Owing to the use of diesel engines by public transport vehicles, the main pollutants are sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxides. Although the Hong Kong Government took measurements to improve the air quality in PTI, unfortunately, the problem has not been solved up to now. To effectively integrate the architectural design with efficient ventilation system to remove pollutants, designers and engineers need to predict and visualize the pollutant concentration and the time history of pollutant transfer during early stage of design. With time dependent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and the scientific visualization technology, architects and engineers could visualize the pollutant distribution in real time, and “what-ifi scenarios could be investigated collaboratively. In this project, we have established a time-dependent CFD multiphase model to describe the pollutant concentration and the time history of pollutant transfer in PTI. On the basis of simulation results, several new design schemes are proposed and tested.

Asanowicz, Alexander. "Information at Early Design Stages." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 105-110. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper concentrates on information at the early stages of the design process. However those do not concern all the information regarding the task available to the designer or the already existing solutions, but the information generated by the designer during the process of problem solving. The creative nature of architectural design and the lack of complete information during the process determine the role and the place of the information system in the design. It is necessary that the information system correspond to the raw form of expression of the designer as it appears at the early design stages. In the traditional creative activity, an image of the architectural form is developed through graphic expression such as sketches, words and sentences. Changing the design environment from analog to digital does not solve the design problems at all. IT creates new possibilities for generating design information thanks to new tools as well as new software. The multiplicity of methods only makes the problem of the amount and accessibility of information more complicated.
zcan, Oguzhan Ö.. "Integration of Architectural Education in Teaching Interactive Media Design - a Course for Space Composition." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 245-248. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. In accordance with our design knowledge, the usersi expectations and the level of the technology reached, show us that interactive media design is not only an interactive environment which depends on two dimensional typographic composition any more. Spatial data has an important role in the formation of interactive media design (TUFTE 1995 p.38). From this point of view, the main factors of this issue are: (1) design of the storyboards, especially for gamedesign, that are made up of spatial perception, (2) the spatial organisations in which info-kiosks take place in public environment, (3) the relation between the screen and the organisation of space in interactive exhibition design. //  When we consider the matter above, we understand that throughout the process of the curriculum of interactive media design for undergraduate education, only the traditional communication design and programming education is not sufficient enough, but architectural education must also take a part of this education in some degree. In this paper, as the theme of the considerations above, it is examined what kind of basic problems is to be faced in the integration of architectural education to that of the interactive media design and also the solution propositions formed for these problems.
Conti, G., G. Ucelli, and Thomas W. Maver. "JCAD-VR: Java Collaborative Architectural Design Tool in Virtual Reality - a Java3D based scalable framework for real-time, multiplatform VR environments." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 454-459. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper proposes a framework that provides the architect with a tool that uses Virtual Reality (VR) as part of the design path. It offers the possibility to deploy a system capable of assisting the design profession during the early stages of the design process. This way VR becomes the means for a new experience where the architect can, free from constraints of the 2D world, create and manipulate the space she/he is designing. The idea upon which JCAD-VR is being built is that all the users present in the virtual world have to be able to share the same virtual environment in a “transparent fashion” where the user interface, instead of the traditional menu/windows based layout, it is part of the virtual world itself. The aim is to provide the designer with a tool for creating 3D-shapes in a shared VR environment, thus allowing the design to be shared as it evolves.
Carrara, G., A. Fioravanti, and G. Novembri. "Knowledge-based System to Support Architectural Design - Intelligent objects, project net-constraints, collaborative work." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 80-85. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001.

The architectural design business is marked by a progressive increase in operators all cooperating towards the realization of building structures and complex infrastructures (Jenckes, 1997). This type of design implies the simultaneous activity of specialists in different fields, often working a considerable distance apart, on increasingly distributed design studies. Collaborative Architectural Design comprises a vast field of studies that embraces also these sectors and problems. To mention but a few: communication among operators in the building and design sector, design process system logic architecture, conceptual structure of the building organism, building component representation, conflict identification and management, sharing of knowledge, and also, user interface, global evaluation of solutions adopted, IT definition of objects, inter-object communication (in the IT sense). The point of view of the research is that of the designers of the architectural artefact (Simon, 1996), its focus consists of the relations among the various design operators and among the latter and the information exchanged: the Building Objects. Its primary research goal is thus the conceptual structure of the building organism for the purpose of managing conflicts and developing possible methods of resolving them.

De Vecchi, A., S. Colajanni, R. Corrao, and L. Marano. "M.I.C.R.A. - a WBI System to Manage Information for the Recovery of Ancient Buildings." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 61-66. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. In the field of Architecture and Building Construction is increasing the tendency to search information in the old construction handbooks to find more easily the best solutions to the recovery of ancient buildings: to make them easily accessible we are developing an “electronic handbook” by using the technologies related to Internet. The paper reports on M.I.C.R.A. (Manuale Informatizzato per la Codifica della Regola diArte), a WBI System able to allow different kind of users (from experts in the fields of Architecture and Building Construction to university students) to easily find the information stored in the old construction handbooks -edited since the 18th century and normally stored in different libraries around Europe- and to immediately compare them each other. The system information management and the data structuring are explained by describing the design strategies and the specific “research criteria” we have adopted to the development of the system.
Pietsch, S., Anthony Radford, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Making and Using a City Model - Adelaide, Australia." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 442-447. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The building of a city model of Adelaide, Australia, has been as much determined by stakeholder enthusiasm and administrative context as technical questions. The present state of the model is comprehensive in area but exists with parts at very different levels of detail, determined by the various motivations behind their creation. The paper describes some examples of the use of sections of the model as a basis for student design projects, as a basis for City planning department-initiated explorations of development proposals, as a basis for the negotiation of acceptable development proposal strategies between City planners and the public, and as a means of presenting the implications of development proposals to City councillors who are members of the Planning Committee.
Klinger, Kevin. "Making Digital Architecture: Historical, Formal, and Structural Implications of Computer Controlled Fabrication and Expressive Form." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 239-244. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Digital output from computer modelling represents a significant new method for visualization and fabrication of architecture. The ability to move directly from three-dimensional modelling to real three-dimensional output challenges the need for traditional means of representation such as plan, section, etc. Moreover, the necessity for conversion of architectural intentions into a code (construction documents, shop drawings, etc.) to be translated by the contractor will also be tested with these new potentials in fabrication. This subjugation of traditional forms of representation and fabrication has serious implications for architectural design process and production. The intention of this paper is to scrutinize underlying issues inherent in a design process of developing architectural solutions using the computer both as a tool for threedimensional visualization as well as for guiding three-dimensional fabrication. Precedent of historic expressive architectural form (seen through the lens of fabrication) will be presented to lay the foundation for the examination of new fabrication techniques and structural concerns for computer generated expressive forms. A series of rapid prototype studies from a digital architecture seminar will also be analyzed to outline the need for developing visualization/fabrication process ideas and research into methods for making digital architecture.
Cinelis, G, G Kazakeviciute, and E Januskevicius. "Modeling and energy analysis of buildings based on integrated CAD - models in tuition of CAAD." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 138-143. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001.

The first implementation of the system MEA for building spatial and structural modelling and energy analysis using integrated graphical digital models in tuition of architecture students is being described. Working at different design stages and with various types of models the aim was to deliver the understanding of CAD tools as intelligent rather than pure technical ones.

Kós, J.R.. "Modeling the City History." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 436-441. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper explores the idea that 3D city models integrated with hypermedia systems can facilitate the sense of belonging to a place. 3D models are powerful tools for buildings and urban space analysis as artifacts, which synthesize menis reality and aspirations. As such, combined with hypermedia resources, they can strengthen the spectatoris actual experience in the analyzed space. The focus of the investigation is 3D models constructed to represent and analyze city evolution. The experience of developing the models of Latin American cities - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Havana, Cuba - developed at PROURB (Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) is explained with an overview of its methodology.
Ekholm, Anders. "Modelling of User Activities in Building Design." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 67-72. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Architects manage not only information about the building but also about the user organisation. Therefore, information systems for architectural design must be able to handle both building and organisational data. The paper describes architectural design as a creative problem solving process, and presents a recently developed prototype application for user activity modelling built as an add-on to ArchiCAD.
Radford, Anthony, Robert F. Woodbury, Theodor Wyeld, B Genimahaliotis, J Gill, S J. Lee, E Lundberg, Shannon O'Shea, T Patterson, and H Williams. "Modelling the Australian Lightweight House." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 540-545. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper outlines the process of making a series of highly detailed CAD models showing the form and construction of a group of contemporary award-winning houses by leading Australian architects. It discusses the issues of collecting information, clarifying details with the architects, the differences between “as built” and “as designed” descriptions and the organization of data.
Elger, Dietrich, and Peter Russell. "Net-based Architectural Design: the Difficult Path from the Presentation of Architectural Design in the World Wide Web to Teamwork in Virtual Planning Offices: a Field Report." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 371-375. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. In the last 18 months, students from the Institute for Industrial Building Production (ifib) have undertaken six design projects as so-called Netzentwurf (“Net- Design”) studios in collaboration with different universities in Europe. These studios have used a web-based collaboration platform established at an independent web site and use didactical methods for web based design collaboration established over the past four years at ifib.  A total of some 500 students have been involved in these projects and all have used the common platform to carry out their presentation and communication work.
Pratini, Edison. "New Approaches to 3D Gestural Modeling - the 3D SketchMaker Project." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 466-471. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The 3D SketchMaker project has developed two prototypes for a gestural 3D sketching system to be used in the earliest phases of the design process. The goal of this ongoing research is to provide architects, and other designers involved in object conception, with a 3D gestural instrument that takes advantage of new virtual reality resources and is more natural than using the mouse, less difficult than learning complex software and less abstract than manipulating 2D entities on orthogonal projections. The system was conceived to assist or replace the first 2D drawing steps in the design process, generating rough 3D sketches that can be refined later using any 3D package. It is, in essence, a 3D modelling system directed to do sketching with hand movements and gestures in a virtual reality environment.
Cabezas, M, C. Mariano, G. Oliva, and S. Oliva. "New Technologies Applied toTraining - Evaluation of a New Teaching Methodology for the Descriptive Geometry." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 275-281. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The purpose of this paper is to point out the most relevant aspects of an experience which gathers research processes and teaching practices at a University level, activities in which the authors hereof have been involved for many years. Even though this question has already been widely discussed - being its analysis extremely broad and varied - it is still quite interesting. This issue deals with the incorporation of new technologies in the teaching and learning processes and in the case of this specific experience, it refers to its trial implementation in the classroom.
Achten, Henri. "Normative Positions in Architectural Design - Deriving and Applying Design Methods." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 263-268. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper presents a recently finished course of eight weeks where CAAD skills, design methodology, and architectural theory are combined to discuss possible perspectives on the use of the computer in design, and its influence on architecture. In the course, three contemporary architects were studied, Peter Eisenman, Ben van Berkel, and Greg Lynn. Each was discussed on aspects of ontology (which are the elements of discourse), design method (design process and organization of the process), and the use of the computer (techniques and approaches). These were linked with design theory, architectural theory, and CAD-theory. The reflection on the work of the architects resulted in a number of design methods for each architect. The design methods were adapted to the available technologies in the university as well as to the scope of the exercise, since the period of eight weeks for an exercise cannot compete with design processes in practice that take many participants and much time. The students then applied the design methods to a design task: student housing and an exhibition pavilion on the campus area of the university. The task was so devised, that students could focus on either architectural or urban design level with one of the design methods. Also, the choice of architects and accompanying design methods was made in such a way that students with low, medium, and advanced computer skills could take part in the course and exercise. In a workshop held at the Czech Technical University (CVUT) in Prague, the same procedure was used in a one-week period for a different design task, but in an otherwise almost identical setting with respect to the CAAD software used. The methods and material were easily transferred to the other setting. The students were able to cope with the task and produced surprising results in the short time span available. The paper will provide an overview of the course, discuss the pedagogical implications of the work, and discuss how this particular work can be generalized to incorporate other architects and approaches.
Bourdakis, Vassilis. "On Developing Standards for the Creation of VR City Models." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 404-409. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The paper is an inclusive summary of research work on creating VR city models carried out over the last six years in the UK and Greece aiming to put into discussion the guidelines/ rules developed by the author. The paper is structured in three sections referring to the main stages in terms of either technical expertise and problem solving or conceptual structuring of information: creation of 3D city models, CAAD versus VR in digital city modelling and finally utilizing digital city models. The expected outcome of the work presented is the establishment of a body of knowledge that will facilitate the development of standards and guidelines for the creation of city models. There are obvious advantages in having a compatible set of city 3D models. On the other hand, there are different rules to be followed and issues to be solved, according to the scale of the model, level of detail that is needed “ all these rules relate to the projected use of the model.
Dokonal, Wolfgang, Bob Martens, and R. Ploesch. "On the Borderline - Building a 3-D City Model with Students." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 410-416. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper describes ongoing experiences with the “digcity” project at Graz University of Technology (Austria). It presents a different approach in creating a 3-D City Model compared to other urban modelling projects. The substantial input made by students defines the basic characteristic of this project. In this contribution the redefinition of the project management is described. An outline of the project itself has been presented already in previous papers and presentations (Dokonal et.al., 2000 and 2001). These papers are updated here and the latest developments in this project are presented.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "On the Management of Visual Design Documentation." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 124-130. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. One of the most significant consequences of computerization in design practice is a spectacular increase in the amount and complexity of information produced for the specification, analysis and communication of design decisions and products. Computerization is intended to have a positive effect on such subjects but offers no builtin guarantees. The complexity, redundancy and amount of information that is generated on a variety of media has accentuated the problems of archiving, indexing and retrieving design documentation, either in the same project or in related ones. The shortcomings of visual information processing derive from a number of inherent problems: lack of integration in information carriers and kinds, organizational uncertainty, especially with respect to archiving and retrieval, superficial replication of analogue practices, limited understanding of information utility, chronic underestimates of automation potential coupled to overestimates of costs. A progressive improvement of design documentation should focus on: (1) the integration of information kinds and carriers in a single representation (in the direction of virtual prototyping), (2) correlation of information registration and processing with information utility, (3) structural rather than opportunistic or deterministic integration of utility requirements in design representations, (4) recognition of informatization and information management as a new specialization that complements existing roles in the design and management of the built environment
Björk, Bo-Christer. "Open Source, Open Science, OpenCourseWare." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 13-17. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The Internet has in just a few years radically changed the technical foundation for how the supply chain of scientific publications and teaching materials functions. As researchers we can with just a few clicks find a significant part of all the information we need for free on the World Wide Web. As teachers we can find huge amounts of digital material which can be downloaded or linked from the web and included in presentation overheads, or hyperlinked as reading material. Yet the business and legal (copyright issues) infrastructure has hardly changed and presents a barrier to innovation and reengineering of the overall process. This paper describes some recent trends in how the Internet influences these two fields (publication of research resuls and production of teaching material) as well as related developments in the organisation of software develop-ment, and discusses them both from an economic and philosophical perspective.
Yang, Chien-Tse. "Perspective and Visualization of Dynamic Spaces using VR techniques." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 479-484. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. By the perspective method, it is easy to produce many geometrical spatial forms. But through current computer media, we are able to control dynamic spaces. Under these circumstances, what type of role will traditional architectural elements play in this new era? This research investigates the different perceptions in various spaces. Afterward architectural elements are introduced and we test the effects on the perceptions of different spaces. Therefore the effectiveness of these elements is verified in different types of space.
Petzold, Frank, T. Thurow, Katharina Richter, and Dirk Donath. "Planning-oriented building surveying - Modules in the computer aided architectural planning process of existing buildings." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 144-149. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Activities in the building industry in Germany concentrate increasingly on a combination of renovation and new-build. A prerequisite for computer-aided planning in the context of existing buildings is both the use of on-site computer aided surveying techniques and the integration of all professional disciplines in an integrated information and communication system. Current approaches to these issues are unsatisfactory. Methods and techniques in renovation work are being investigated as part of ongoing research at the Bauhaus- Universiti¤t Weimar (SFB524 - “Collaborative research center 524 “Materials and Structure in Revitalization of Buildings”). A sub-group (SFB524 - D2 “Planning-Relevant Digital Building Surveying and Information System”) is currently investigating the possibilities of computer-aided building surveying and of joint communcation platforms for engineering disciplines (www.uni-weimar.de/sfb: May 2001). The objective is the development of a general approach for the renovation of buildings. The paper discusses concepts and requirements for a computer-aided system supporting the entire surveying process from the initial site visit to its use in a CAD system.
Barrionuevo, Luis. "Positioning of Buildings in a Land." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 493-499. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Configurational studies are useful tools to architectural designing, since they help to understand the grouping of objects in the space (two-dimensional and/or threedimensional). The designer, after a classification of objects that satisfies the needs set to a group of objects, impose some restrictions to the objects that will govern the composition. These restrictions are those that will define the result through operations carried out by the designer. Among these operations the location of buildings in a determined area and the particular environmental qualities condition the final result. This work presents the results obtained by means of the implementation of a computing program of the type Evolution Program (EP) implemented in language C. The implementation of the program is explained in the first part of the paper. In the second part the successive steps are described. The numerical results obtained with the mentioned program are shown graphically. Examples of different complexity level illustrate the discussion of the theoretical matters.
Senagala, Mahesh. "Production of Digital Space: on the Nature of Digital Materiality." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 348-351. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper presents investigations into the nature of digital materiality by questioning the conventional notions of materiality. A critical framework of relationships between three digital materials (B-Rep Solids, Polynomial Surfaces and Isomorphic Polysurfaces) and three stages of design process (imagination, definition and construction) is proposed. The investigations are presented through exploratory student work.
Mirabelli, Paolo. "Public Cyberspace Planning and Design. Architect s role in the construction of the virtual city." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 42-46. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Architects need to consider ICT not as a tool for design but as a space to be designed. The relation between this space and the physical city must be driven from an impact to a positive and needed expansion of the urban space, an occasion to support and foster social integration and development. To achieve this, it is needed to put an effort in evolving both planning and design techniques as well as public policies for this mixed (physical/ digital) urban space. The references for doing it may be found more in the history of technology developments then in the technology itself, but a wide contribution from diverse disciplines is needed. How to do this, itis mostly to be found out through projects, in which architects can play the fundamental role of planners that coordinate the activities of actors involved, while taking care of the public interest. Many cities are progressively losing the space devoted to foster solid social structures, so a relevant focus for projects may be aimed at the design of public cyberspace to recover the building of local social networks. A starting point could be found in the Community Networking movement, which architects could build upon, using their design skills in order to evolve this kind of spaces beyond the spontaneous and random phase. A wide range of issues are to be addressed: from needed public policies to accessibility that must be provided to anybody in order to avoid sharpening social alienation due to cultural, economical or physical reasons. An experiment is going to be carried out within a local development project promoted in Rome.
Durmisevic, S., Özer Ciftcioglu, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Quantifying the Qualitative Design Aspects." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 111-116. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Architecture is a mixture of art and technique. This implies that the architect deals not only with engineering aspects that can be easily quantified and thereafter processed, but deals with aesthetics as well which is in first place qualitative and therefore rather difficult to estimate and numerically represent. As an example, in such cases, these “qualitative quantitiesi are expressed in linguistic form which should be somehow expressed in numerical form in order to treat such data by powerful and conclusive numerical analysis methods. Expressions such as: bright colour, light room, large space are some of these examples. These expressions are fuzzy concepts whose actual interpretation is hidden and all of them together attach a qualitative value to a certain space. To deal with such information the emerging technologies of the last decade can provide an important aid. One of them is the soft computing technology that can deal with such soft data. In this paper, based on the case studies, we explain the potential of using soft computing techniques.
Barelkowski, Robert. "Referential Information Systems as a Source of Architectural Design Solutions in P.R.S. Method." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 486-492. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The paper presents the work on planning procedures improved with basic information technology mechanisms. These procedures are extended according to P.R.S. method, containing three main elements: planning, references and seminars. The focus is on references to show four different appearances of referential data. Paper snapshots the theoretical background of reference, its methodological implementation with computer techniques support, practical formulation, collecting and composition of reference and finally the impact, references can have on architectural design solutions.
Hanser, D., Gilles Halin, and Jean-Claude Bignon. "Relation-Based Groupware for Heterogeneous Design Teams." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 86-91. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper describes a work about coordination of concurrent engineering in the building construction and design. More particularly it describes the coordination of project teams which are heterogeneous and short-lived. The French context of the building trade is at present characterized by an increase of the quality requirements and by a reduction of the conception and realization delays. This induces the building sector to look for new modes of cooperation as they already exist in industry and services. With a few exceptions, the concurrent engineering tools taken from these sectors are not used in building projects. We make the assumption that the lack of use of these tools is due to the non-fitting of the common existing tools to the specificities of our sector. The solution we propose give a relational vision of the cooperation and the interactions existing during the processes of conception-construction in architectural works. Our first interest point concerns the representation of the actors, the documents and the assignments as a relational network and not as a hierarchical tree, mostly used in the groupware tools. In a second point, we use this relational network to produce a graphic and dynamic representation of the projects. The goal of this method is to reinforce the co-operation and the group awareness by supplying to the actors a good vision of the project evolution in order to increase the conception quality.
Geraedts, Rob, and Spiro Pollalis. "Remote Teaching in Design Education - Educational and Organizational Issues and Experiences." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 305-310. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The Department of Real Estate and Project Management (BMVB) of the Faculty of Architecture at the Delft University of Technology has been working closely with Professor Spiro N. Pollalis of Harvard University, Graduate School of Design in Cambridge, USA since 1991. His case-based interactive seminars about the management of the design & construction process have been highly appreciated by many generations of students. In Spring 2000, Pollalis suggested to extend the scope of his involvement by introducing a remote teaching component, the subject of his research in the last few years. As Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Design and Construction Industry is part of his lectures, it was appropriate to provide the students with a first hand experience on the subject. In the following experiment, the teacher would remain in his office at Harvard while the interactive work and discussion sessions with 130 students in a full lecture room would take place in Delft as planned. The consequences this experiment has had for the course, for the techniques and facilities used, how teachers and students experienced these, and which conclusions and recommendations can be made, are the topics of this paper.
Tunçer, Bige, Rudi Stouffs, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Rich Information Structures." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 30-35. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Technological advances enable and encourage practitioners and students to make the design process more information intensive. This information intensity raises questions of complexity: how to organize and intra-relate large amounts of information in order to facilitate efficient retrieval of this information. This involves issues of both modelling and visualizing this complexity in design presentations and project documentation facilities. We propose a methodology for constructing a rich information structure which offers new possibilities for accessing, viewing, and interpreting this information. Hereto, we present two techniques: a decomposition of documents by content, and the separation of syntax and semantics. We then discuss the effects of both techniques on issues of flexibility, extensibility, and ease of use in constructing a rich information structure. We finally describe an exemplary application we are developing that combines the proposed methodology and techniques for the purpose of presenting architectural analyses.
Tisken, S., F. Voormann, B. Franz, V Koch, and Peter Russell. "Semi-Medial Post Professional Studies ”Building Conservation” for Architects and Structural Engineers." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 323-328. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The Post-Graduate studies for Building Restoration at the University of Karlsruhe is aimed at architects and construction engineers who wish to deepen their knowledge base as well as related professionals in the construction industry who wish to specialise. The goal of the project is to migrate the post graduate studies in restoration to a Master Degree program made up of physical and virtual presence requirements (dual mode university) and to transform the course materials into Learning Elements that can be used in other programs. The quality of the teaching should increase and reach a larger audience of interested parties at the same time. In particular, the program is aimed at current practitioners. A model is developed that incorporates classical presence based studies with modern internetbased learning methods to create a system, which does not completely replace presencebased learning: “semi-medial” studies.
Flanagan, Robert. "Sensory Deprivation: Issues of Control - Encoding Design Diagrams, Memory Engrams." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 214-219. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. A persistent visual obsession in contemporary, digitally processed architecture instigated this design investigation. Neil Leach in The Anaesthetics of Architecture, identifies “aesthetic intoxication”, accompanied by a narcotic numbing effect, as a consequence of the fetishization of visual imagery. The inverse principle - sensory deprivation - completes the effect. Sensory deprivation results from miscues in the digital design process and from the intentional denial of sensory stimuli. A theater of the five sense was the design medium used to investigate sensory accountability. The issues addressed were: 1. Contextual factors of aestheticization and deprivation, particularly digital factors. 2. The effectiveness of Design Diagrams, graphic symbolic schematics, to address sensory deprivation and the anaesthetic effect. 3. The effectiveness of multi-sensory Memory Diagrams (engrams) as inhabitable Design Diagrams to address these effects. While the original intention was to study sensory accountability in digital design, the potential of multi-sensory Memory Diagrams re-centered the emphasis of this investigation.
Kieferle, Joachim, and Uwe Wössner. "Showing the invisible - Seven rules for a new approach of using immersive virtual reality in architecture." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 376-381. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Virtual reality, especially in a CAVE environment can be used in different ways. In architecture up to now it is mainly used to visualize planned or ancient buildings. Based on the information approach, on the approach that VR can be used not only to show the visual appearance of things but also information, which might be invisible in real world, seven rules are set up. The rules have been applied in university courses as testbed and verified in commercial projects.
Eggink, D., Mark Gross, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "Smart Objects: Constraints and Behaviors in a 3D Design Environment." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 460-465. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. We describe a constraint-based three-dimensional design environment called Smart Objects. In Smart Objects, design collaborators (designers, clients and consultants) would engage an architectural design in an interactive three-dimensional environment where they may alter objects in the model and compose formal solutions. Design intentions embedded into objects as constraints are expressed as behaviours when the user moves objects in ways that either violate or meet specified constraints.
Ziuriene, Ryte. "Some Problems of Intellectual Data Management in CAAD." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 161-164. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. An example of the list of school spaces made according to the strictly recommended standards is given in the article. A concept of computer-aided evaluation of various design parameters (i.e. lighting of the spaces, their position and geographical orientation, etc.) based on different regulating statements is presented.
Liu, Yu-Tung, Y.-Y. Chang, and C.-H. Wong. "Someone Somewhere Some Time in the Middle of Nowhere: Some Observations of Spatial Sense Formation in the Internet." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 37-41. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001.

Following a previous study which investigated the verbal and visual elements of cyberspace, this study examines the relationship different academic training and the perceptions of the verbal and visual elements found in the previous study. The results of this study seems to indicate that the perception of the verbal elements is not relative to the subjectis academic training while the perception of the visual elements is.

Holmgren, S., B. Rüdiger, and B. Tournay. "The 3D-City Model - a New Space." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 430-435. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain this shift in paradigms we begin by describing some of the concrete models we have made, showing the relationship between model structure (methodology and content) and model use. We also describe the projects we are working on at present in order to illustrate new ideas concerning the potential development of 3D city models.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, Thomas Kvan, E. Kruijff, and Dirk Donath. "The First Virtual Environment Design Studio." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 394-400. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Since 1993 schools of architecture all over the world conduct in various forms of Virtual Design Studio (VDS). They have become an established part of teaching design within the digital realm. They vary in task and structure, are purely text-based or include various forms of interactive, synchronous or asynchronous collaboration. However, “virtual” always refers to the method of communication and exchange of design and ideas. Students have never designed within immersive virtuality. This paper describes the first successful attempt to conduct a Joint Design Studio, which uses Virtual Environment (VE) as tool of design and communication between the remote partners. This first VeDS focused on how architectural students make use of this particular different approach to design within immersive three-dimensional VEs. For example, the students created 3D-immersive design proposals, explored dependencies to textual description of initial intentions and communicated between local and remote team-partners in immersive VE as well as textbased communication-channels. The paper subsequently describes the VeDS, its set-up, realization and outcome. We discuss frameworks and factors influencing how architectural students communicate their proposals in immersive VeDS, and how this new approach of design studio enables new forms of design expressions.
Mark, E., Bob Martens, and R. Oxman. "The Ideal Computer Curriculum." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 168-175. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. We argue that a re-integration of computer technology into a design curriculum is possible without necessarily displacing traditional subjects or time-honored notions of building and place. An ideal computer curriculum might be one that merges computer technologies into existing courses more progressively than is typical today and at the same time looks to the studio teaching method as a catalyst for shifting perspectives on the relevant areas of design theory and methods. This position paper asserts a framework for a design educational program which integrates the use of computer technology. In posing such a curriculum, this position paper also attempts to work within some professional accreditation constraints that Schools may need to address.
Seebohm, Thomas. "The Ideal Digital Design Curriculumn: Its Bases and its Content." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 180-185. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. There is a potential for the computer to fundamentally change the design process towards a more holistically conceived architecture. One of these directions is the use of software to develop form and the other concerns the use of software that embodies specialist knowledge including design knowledge. Software embodying knowledge will be the capital of the future. As this software becomes more user-friendly it will give architects new power to bring together a multitude of issues in a holistic way without themselves being specialists. A prerequisite for this fundamental change in the design process is an architectural design curriculum that is broader than before and integrates computing across disciplines. In effect, the intention is to educate a new type of Renaissance architect
Ferrar, Steve. "The Nature of Non-Physical Space - Or how I learned to love cyberspace wherever it may be." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 208-213. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. More designers are concerned with the occupation of the virtual world, through immersive techniques, for example, than in using it as a means for conceptualising and theorising architectural space. The paper examines how architects think about space and how our consideration of nonphysical space might assist in spatial theory and in teaching. It also considers cyberspace fiction both in writing and film to see how it might help us think about space in a more liberating way. Architects and architectural teaching tends to focus on space as an element of construction rather than a theoretical proposition. By discussing imaginary spaces in greater depth we could encourage students to think about space and spatial concepts in a less rigid way. In particular the paper addresses the issues of interaction and transactions in these environments and how information is represented and accessed in an apparently threedimensional manner. In his book “Snow Crash”, Neil Stephenson deals with many ideas concerning not only architectural space but also universal space and its organisation in space and time. He uses metaphor in his depiction of the ultimate in information gathering and management. These are compelling ways in which to communicate ideas about threedimensional thinking, and information collection and management to students of architecture as well as helping architects with the theory and visualisation of non-physical space. 
Turk, Ziga. "The Reasons for the Reality Gap in CAAD." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 156-160. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The term “reality gap” is used to denote the difference between the promised potential of the scientific and technical development, and the actual performance or use in the practice. In the paper, the author offers an explanation of the gap. He claims that the philosophical assumptions about the role of information technology (IT) in design have been inappropriate. There are serious limitations to the representation, exchange and communication about designed artifacts as objects with properties. A paradigm shift towards social-sciencesi research methodology is needed.
Kosasih, Sahrika. "The Research on the Relevance of the Computer Applications - Experiences from Indonesia." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 282-287. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Although CAD subject still is a subsidiary subject, there has been higher interest of students in the subject. Of 300 students at Department of Architecture, 50 students take the subject every semester. The research on the relevance of the computer application can be carried out thanking to the establishment of a CAD laboratory as a supporting facility of the Department of Architecture which was established in 1999 through QUE Program (Quality Undergraduate Educative) granted by the World Bank in undergraduate program proposal selection in Indonesia. It can therefore be identified how well students can improve their talents and skills in design subject. The laboratory is used not only in educational activities, it is also used to develop the computer application in design especially 2D and 3D design and the perspective drawing presentation.
Chen, Sheng-Chih. "The Role of Design Creativity in Computer Media." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 226-231. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This study discusses the use of design media and design creativity in design education. By combining cognitive studies with educational psychology, it analyzes the cognitive processes involved in the use of the computer by experts and novices, and compares the effects of the computer on the design process of both subjects. In doing so, it discusses computer design media as well as creative thinking.
Silva, Neander. "The Structure of a CAAD Curriculum and the Nature of Design Process - an Experience Handling Contradictions." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 352-357. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Teaching CAAD in the context of a design task is an idea derived from the problem based learning, PBL, movement. However, a PBL curriculum has rarely been implemented in architectural education, let alone in CAAD education. The development and implementation of a feasible PBL CAAD curriculum is described in this paper.
Woodbury, Robert F., Theodor Wyeld, Susan Shanon, Ian Roberts, Anthony Radford, Mark Burry, Henry Skates, Jeremy J. Ham, and Sambit Datta. "The Summer Games." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 293-297. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001.

As part of a nationally funded project, we have developed and used “games” as student- centred teaching resources to enrich the capacity for design in beginning students in architecture, landscape architecture and urban design. Students are encouraged to learn inter-actively in a milieu characterised by self-directed play in a low-risk computer- modelling environment. Recently thirteen upper year design students, six from Adelaide University (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia), five from Deakin University (Geelong, Victoria, Australia), and two from Victoria University, (Wellington, New Zealand) were commissioned over a ten-week period of the 2000-2001 Australian summer to construct a new series of games. This paper discusses the process behind constructing these games. This paper discusses six topical areas:

  • what is a game;
  • specific goals of the summer games;
  • the structure of a game;
  • the game-making process;
  • key findings from the production unit; and
  • future directions.
Hendricx, Ann, and Herman Neuckermans. "The Use of Design Cases to Test Architectural Building Models." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 73-78. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The IDEA+ project aims at developing an Integrated Design Environment for Architect designers, in which design tools and computational tests make use of one and the same core building description. Such a description must be apt to describe architecture in a full-fledged way. Hereto, the authors have put the IDEA+ model to the test with actual design cases. These cases have been used to test isolated design concepts and to mimic the global design process.
Charitos, D., A. Pehlivanidou-Liakata, V. Bourdakis, and M. Kavouras. "Time Based Media as a Means to Enhance Spatial Representations - Teaching case studies in Greece." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 233-238. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper investigates the potential of time-based spatial representations as a means for enhancing our environmental perception - a tool for assessing and understanding space in the wider sense of the term. It attempts to document the way in which time-based representations of environments are addressed by architectural, planning and surveying education curricula in a number of related Departments in certain Greek Universities. More specifically, a report on the teaching practice and objectives of certain undergraduate and postgraduate courses, which deal with this issue in different ways, is made.
Pereira, Gilberto. "Urban Information Visualization - the Salvador project." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 517-521. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Before popularity of GIS a map is a tool with two basic functions - storage of spatial data and presentation of spatial information. Now, a digital database store spatial data and cartographic visualization is how spatial information usually is presented. Recent technological development applied to visualization area can increase analyse and interpretation capacity of professionals concern with urban planning, design and management. In other hand, many professionals and students involved with urban studies are not familiar with GIS software and this can limit casual users to access urban databases. One solution is to build software that allows direct visualization of spatial information based in users needs and knowledge. The project discussed in this paper introduces a computer application structured like a hypermedia atlas using concepts from cartographic modelling. The city of Salvador is represented by a model based in a combination of maps, and others images. User composes visualization.
Lin, Feng-Tyan, and Hunghsiang Wang. "Using APL to Explore the Non-monotonicity in Design Process." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 131-136. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The phenomenon of non-monotonicity is commonly found in design process. In addition to the traditional deductive logic, this article introduces an Abductive Propositional Logic (APL) to capture some characteristics of non-monotonicity. Statements of APL are called beliefs, including believed facts and believed rules, to reflect that they are only true in some situations. Accordingly, beliefs can be deductively true or abductively possible with respect to different reasoning methods. On the other hand, APL employs three retraction rules, namely, exclusive retraction, conclusive retraction, and premise retraction to maintain the consistency. A case study is illustrated.
Matsumoto, Y., Y Onishi, S. Yamaguchi, and Mitsuo Morozumi. "Using Mobile Phones for Accelerating Interaction." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 311-316. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The authors discuss asynchronous communication and its tool in design collaboration on the Web. This paper focuses on using Internet-connected mobile phone in design collaboration between distributed members especially in similar time zone, and a support system which improves interaction through asynchronous communication, is examined.
QaQish, Ra'Ed. "VDS/DDS Practice Hinges on Interventions and Simplicity - a Case Study of Hard Realism vs. Distorted Idealism." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 249-255. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. This paper reports on a contemporary and laborious ongoing experimental work initiated during the establishment of a new Virtual/Digital design studio “VDS” in Sept. 1999 by CAAD tutors at University of Petra “UOP”. The new VDS/DDS now works as an experimental laboratory to explore several solutions to problems of efficiency in design teaching as a new digital design studio paradigm, in tandem with CAD/Design staff, DS environment, materials and facilities. Two groups of graduating level students participated as volunteers in this experiment. The first group was comprised of three fifth-year architectural design students while the second group was comprised of two fourth-year interior design students. The media currently in use are ArchiCAD 6.5 as a design tool along with CorelDraw 9 as a presentational tool, running on Pentium III computers. The series of experiments evaluated the impression on architectural design studio tuition requirements arising from the changes brought about by the implementation of the new CAD pedagogical approach (VDS/DDS) at UOP. The findings echo several important key issues in tandem with CAAD, such as: the changes brought about by the new design strategies, adaptation in problem solving decision-making techniques, studio employment in terms of environment, means and methods. Other issues are VDS/DDS integration schemes carried out by both students and staff as one team in design studio practice on one hand and the curriculum on the other. Finally, the paper discusses the negative impact of conventional design studio hardliner teaching advocates and students alike whose outlook and impressions undermine and deplete effective CAAD integration and obstruct, in many instances, the improvement of such experiments in a VDS environment.
Ennis, Gary, and Thomas W. Maver. "Visit VR Glasgow - Welcoming multiple visitors to the Virtual City." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 423-429. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. The development of the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) for the Internet has resulted in the emergence of a multiplicity of 3D web sites. The metaphor used by these sites varies enormously from virtual galleries to virtual cities and style varies from abstract to reality. Additionally these worlds are populated by virtual objects, some having reactive or interactive properties, including movement, audio, video, databases, artificial intelligence etc. Perhaps the most stimulating embodiment of these new environments are those that offer the participant the opportunity to meet and communicate with other visitors exploring the same virtual space/world. The Glasgow Directory is an established 3D web space, with around 10,000 visitors per year. The model represents approximately 10,000 properties in the city and is populated by contextual information on its culture and socio-economic topography. This paper describes the background to this VR space, and suggests a set of design criteria for successfully deploying multi-user software within this and similar environments. These criteria take into account lessons learned by “observingi and analysing how participants interact with the existing system under different conditions and also what benefits they perceive on entering the environment via the multi-user interface. These recommendations will hopefully be applicable to a wide spectrum of internet virtual environment builders and users.
Russell, Peter. "Visualising Non-Visual Building Information." In Architectural Information Management: 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 546-551. eCAADe: Conferences. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 2001. Architecture can be understood as a process and as an object. In both forms, it consists of a complex of mass, monetary, energy and information flows that occur over time scales ranging from hours and days to centuries. The parts or elements making up buildings and the processes involved in producing, maintaining, using and disposing of them are highly intertwined and multi-dimensional. The field of Architecture can range from complete building stocks down to individual buildings, their elements, and the materials and processes making up these elements. What is more, it is also necessary to introduce time as a dimension in order to model the complete life cycle of buildings. Current CAD systems concentrate primarily on the replication of the traditional drawing process (sometimes in three dimensions) and the visualisation of the finished building. While these models describe the geometry and visual appearance of buildings, the bulk of the information about the building remains unseen. Recently developed systems such as the German LEGOE system have combined a materials database with specification and CAD systems, which allows for a more comprehensive description of the building. However, this additional information is displayed either rudimentarily or as lists of numbers. The information describing the position or visual quality of building elements is, in fact, minuscule in comparison to that describing the properties of the materials involved, their production methods, the energy needed to produce, transport and install the elements, and information concerning toxicology and environmental issues. What is more, these materials are not simply in situ, but can be considered to flow through the building. These flows also occur at widely varying rates according to the type of material and the type of building. The view is taken that buildings are actually temporary repositories of various “flowsi which occupy the building during its lifetime. Thus seen, the various aspects of a building at a certain stage of its life are taken to be the total sum of its inputs and outputs at any given time. Currently, its complexity and the lack of cognitive assistance in its presentation limit the understanding of this information. The author postulates that to better understand this information, visual displays of this “non-visuali building information are needed, at least for those who, like architects, are more visually inclined. The paper describes attempts made to go beyond conventional two-dimensional charts, which have tended to only complicate understanding. This is partly due to the need to display a high number of dimensions in one space. Examples are shown of experimental visual displays using three-dimensional graphs created in VRML as well as a “remodelling” of the building based on statistical rather than spatial information to form a building “artefact”. The remodelled artefacts are based on a null-value three-dimensional form and are then modified according to the specific database information without changing their topology. These artefacts are initially somewhat idiosyncratic, but become more useful when a large enough population has been created. With sufficient numbers, it is possible to compare and classify the artefacts according to their visually discernible attributes. The classification of the artefacts is useful in understanding building types independent of their formal “architecturali or spatial qualities, particularly with age-use-classes. The paper also describes initial attempts to create building information landscapes that unfold from the artefacts allowing detailed views of the summarised information displayed by the individual artefacts.