Keywords Abstract
Gavin, Lesley. "3D Online Learning in Multi-User Environments." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 187-191. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Over the last 2 years the MSc Virtual Environments course in the Bartlett School of Graduate Studies has used a 3-dimensional on-line multi-user environment to explore the possibilities for the architectural design of virtual environments. The “Bartletti virtual world is established as the environment where students undertake group design projects. After an initial computer based face-toface workshop, students work from terminals at home and around the university. Using avatar representations of themselves, tutors and students meet in the on-line environment. The environment is used for student group discussions and demonstrations, tutorials and as the virtual “sitei• for their design projects. The “Bartletti world is currently open to every internet user and so often has “visitorsi. These visitors often engage in discussions with the students resulting in interesting dynamics in the teaching pattern. This project has been very successful and is particularly popular with the students. Observations made over the 2 years the project has been running have resulted in interesting reflections on both the role of architectural design in virtual environments and the use of such environments to extend the pedagogical structure used in traditional studio teaching. This paper will review the educational experience gained by the project and propose the ideal software environment for further development. We are now examining similar types of environments currently on the market with a view to adapting them for use as a distance learning medium. 
Carrara, G., A. Fioravanti, and G. Novembri. "A framework for an Architectural Collaborative Design." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 57-60. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The building industry involves a larger number of disciplines, operators and professionals than other industrial processes. Its peculiarity is that the products (building objects) have a number of parts (building elements) that does not differ much from the number of classes into which building objects can be conceptually subdivided. Another important characteristic is that the building industry produces unique products (de Vries and van Zutphen, 1992). This is not an isolated situation but indeed one that is spreading also in other industrial fields. For example, production niches have proved successful in the automotive and computer industries (Carrara, Fioravanti, & Novembri, 1989). Building design is a complex multi-disciplinary process, which demands a high degree of co-ordination and co-operation among separate teams, each having its own specific knowledge and its own set of specific design tools. Establishing an environment for design tool integration is a prerequisite for network-based distributed work. It was attempted to solve the problem of efficient, user-friendly, and fast information exchange among operators by treating it simply as an exchange of data. But the failure of IGES, CGM, PHIGS confirms that data have different meanings and importance in different contexts. The STandard for Exchange of Product data, ISO 10303 Part 106 BCCM, relating to AEC field (Wix, 1997), seems to be too complex to be applied to professional studios. Moreover its structure is too deep and the conceptual classifications based on it do not allow multi-inheritance (Ekholm, 1996). From now on we shall adopt the BCCM semantic that defines the actor as “a functional participant in building construction”, and we shall define designer as “every member of the class formed by designers” (architects, engineers, town-planners, construction managers, etc.). 
Mark, Earl. "A Prospectus on Computers Throughout the Design Curriculum." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 77-83. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Computer aided architectural design has spread throughout architecture schools in the United States as if sown upon the wind. Yet, the proliferation alone may not be a good measure of the computeris impact on the curriculum or signify the true emergence of a digital design culture. The aura of a relatively new technology may blind us from understanding its actual place in the continuum of design education. The promise of the technology is to completely revolutionize design, however, the reality of change is perhaps rooted in an underlying connection to core design methods. This paper considers a transitional phase within a School reviewing its entire curriculum. Lessons may be found in the Bauhaus educational program at the beginning of the 20 th century and its response to the changing shape of society and industry. 
Noriega, Farid. "Activities Oriented Environments. a Conceptual Model for Building Advanced CAAD Systems." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 131-134. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The Activities Oriented Design Environments, is a collection of proposals that will introduce important changes in the interaction procedures and integration mechanisms, in the design of CAAD software and the operating environments that support them. We will discuss how this environment uses the architectural activities as a reference for his organizational scheme, and the structural rules that control it's operations. 
Park, Hyong-June, and Emmanuel-George Vakalo. "An Enchanted Toy Based on Froebel s Gifts: a computational tool used to teach architectural knowledge to students." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 35-39. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Assuming that students can require architectural knowledge through direct manipulation of formal objects, this paper introduces a computational toy as a means for teaching knowledge about composition and geometry to students of architecture. The bottom-up approach is employed in the manipulation of the toy. The toy aims at recovering and nourishing the studentsi creative spirit and enriching their vocabulary of forms and spaces. 
Tsou, Jin-Yeu, B. Chow, and S. Lam. "Applying Daylighting Simulation in Architectural Studio Education." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 255-258. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Computer generated simulation results are not necessarily valid design solutions. In some cases, unscientific “simulation” applications have misled designers to believe the “illusion” rendered by the system. This paper presents two case studies to highlight the pedagogy of architectural daylighting simulation. Both are located in Hong Kongis highdensity urban context. Hong Kong is a small city, covering 1,097 square km with a population of 6.8 million. Mountains and hills dominate the topography, and more than 70% of the land is reserved for country parks. Property constraints encourage dense, high-rise construction and building on steep slopes. This creates a complex environment for daylighting design. Although the Buildings Ordinance specifies minimum standards for natural light and ventilation, residents have complained about the deterioration of their lighting condition in recent years. Challenged by the constraints imposed by Hong Kongis physical environment, there is a need for students and professionals to explore computer simulation to integrate daylighting strategy into architectural and urban design.
Kós, J.R.. "Architectural Hypermedia Based on 3D Models." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 221-224. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The World Wide Web gave a new dimension to the terms hypermedia and hypertext. Their distinctions are not very clear and in this paper we will use both with the same meaning. They are usually defined in a very generic way as a revolutionary form of writing. The generalization and glorification of hypertext, however, obscures a clearer view of its real possibilities. Architects will benefit by investigating carefully its resources - and how it can be a powerful tool for the profession, particularly when associated with 3D models. 
Ozel, Filiz. "Architectural Knowledge and Database Management Systems." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 135-138. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Although the theory and practice of using database management systems in managing information has been a well recognized area of research in other disciplines such as business, urban planning, and engineering, architectural researchers have only occasionally explored the implications of these tools in structuring architectural knowledge. Among these are studies that look at facilities management aspects of databases as well as project management aspects mostly focusing on document management issues 6. While visual databases have been the focus of other work, the term “database” has been used in architectural research sometimes to indicate any set of underlying data and at other times to indicate an actual relational database management system. Inconsistent use of terminology has led to difficulties in developing established theory regarding the use and development of database management systems for architectural problems. While such systems can be very powerful in structuring design knowledge, in architectural education the only place where their potential has been recognized is in the digitizing of slide libraries with the intention to make them accessible through electronic retrieval and viewing systems, which has mostly been seen within the purview of slide librarians with little interest from the faculty. 
Alvarado, Rodrigo García, J.C. Parra, R.L. Vergara, and H.B. Chateau. "Architectural References to Virtual Environments Design." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 151-155. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Based on a comparison between the perception of digital and real construction, the development of virtual systems and the review of additional sources, this paper states some differences between the design of virtual environments and architectural spaces. Virtual-reality technologies provide advanced capabilities to simulate real situations, and also to create digital worlds not referred to physical places, such as imaginary landscapes or environments devoted to electronic activities, like entertainment, learning or commerce. Some on-line services already use 3D-stages, resembling building halls and domestic objects, and several authors have mentioned virtual modelling as a job opportunity to architects. But it will argue in this paper that the design of those environments should consider their own digital characteristics. Besides, the use of virtual installations on networks impells a convergence with global media, like Internet or TV. Virtual environments can be a 3Devolution of communicational technologies, which have an increasing participation in culture, reaching a closer relationship to contemporary architecture. 
Verbeke, Johan, Henri Achten, Tom Provoost, J. Verleye, K. Nys, Gernot Pittioni, A. Asanowicz, Adam Jakimowicz, Af Klercker, R. Zutphen et al. "AVOCAAD - a Framework and Website for Teaching CAAD." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 101-104. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This paper presents an overview of a framework for online teaching of the creative use of CAAD in the early stages of design that has been developed in the AVOCAAD project. 
Wood, J., and Tom Chambers. "CAD - Enabled by the Organisation of Science and the Poetics of a Visual Language." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 327-329. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. CADET, CAD education and training, a research unit with the Department of Architecture and Building Science (Faculty of Engineering, University of Strathclyde) promotes an integrated approach to the built environment, seeking to bring together the rational and expressive modes of thought by teaching design through IT and CAD. In recent years this has been introduced as a pilot project within the primary and secondary school sector as well as Year 1 and Year 2 of the Building Design Engineering (BDE). The presentations discussed in this paper demonstrate recent projects in a social context - modelling possible spaces via virtual reality on behalf of clients in education and social work environments. The motivation for such a creative and participatory dialogue in a community context acknowledges that, in the wake of post industrialisation, the reconstruction of our urban environments demands that we develop the tools required for a meaningful participation in the design process. The nature of a participatory process demands a demystification of the design process, which is a reality made possible by CAD. 
Tuzmen, Ayca. "Collaborative Building Design." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 93-99. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Studies on team performance have observed that some teams at the same stage in their development perform better than other teams, even of the same composition. Why is this? One of the main reasons is found to be a good team process. Researchers argue that collaborative process is an ideal case through which parties who see different aspects of a problem can constructively explore their differences and search for solutions that go beyond their own limited vision of what is possible. Much attention is now being paid to improvement of the design team process by establishing a collaborative environment in building design practice. Many scholars have prescribed various techniques and technology as ways of achieving collaboration in building design practice. A combination of these prescriptions does support design teams by facilitating one or more of the following: (a) team internal communication, (b) team external communication, (c) information sharing, and (d) decision making. Only recently have there been studies that have provided the strategies for integrating these techniques and technology for the establishment of a collaborative work environment. Researchers from various areas of research have this intention. This includes studies in Business Process Management (BPM), Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR), Total Quality Management (TQM), Project Management (PM), Workflow Management (WfM). All of these studies share one common feature. They all contribute to the study of the management of the team process. Despite the power of the concept and the history of successful application of process management techniques in building practice, the process management strategies are not a panacea. Rather it is a tool which, when properly used under appropriate circumstances, can aid design teams in the achievement of a collaborative design environment. The successful implementation or enactment of process management strategies in building design practice requires a mediator, a facilitator, or a project manager with a variety of managerial skills. However, it is not only enough to support major facilitators in the implementation or in the enactment of a design process that is planned for that teamwork. The performance of a design process should not only be depended on the skills or capabilities of tools that managers use to enact design processes. In order to achieve a collaborative design environment, members of the design team should also be given the support for monitoring and implementing of a collaborative design process. Team members should also have the ability to define, implement and track their personal subprocesses. Team members should also be able to monitor the process and be able to resolve the conflicts between their actions and other members'actions. A distributed process management environment is required in order to facilitate the management and control of the enactment of a collaborative design process. Such an environment should enable the control and monitoring of the enactment of a process and the resources required for its enactment. This paper presents the conceptual model of a process management environment that is developed in order to establish such a process management environment. It also discusses the findings of a study that is conducted for the validation and verification of this conceptual model. 
Aish, Robert. "Collaborative Design using Long Transactions and "Change Merge"." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 107-111. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. If our goal is implement collaborative engineering across temporal, spatial and discipline dimensions, then it is suggested that we first have to address the necessary pre-requisites, which include both the deployment of “enterprise computing” and an understanding of the computing concepts on which such enterprise systems are based. This paper will consider the following computing concepts and the related concepts in the world of design computing, and discuss how these concepts have been realised in Bentley Systems ProjectBank collaborative engineering data repository: Computing Concept Related Design Concept Normalisation Model v. Report (or Drawing) Transaction Consistency of Design Long Transaction Parallelisation of Design Change Merge Coordination (synchronisation) Revisions Coordination (synchronisation) While we are most probably familiar with the applications of existing datadase concepts (such as Normalisation and Transaction Management) to the design process, the intent of this paper to focus 
Coppola, Carlo, and Alessandro Ceso. "Computer Aided Design and Artificial Intelligence in Urban and Architectural Design." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 301-307. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. In general, computer-aided design is still limited to a rather elementary use of the medium, as it is mainly used for the representation/simulation of a design idea w an electronic drawing-table. hich is not computer-generated. The procedures used to date have been basically been those of an electronic drawing-table. At the first stage of development the objective was to find a different and better means of communication, to give form to an idea so as to show its quality. The procedures used were 2D design and 3D simulation models, usually used when the design was already defined. The second stage is when solid 3D modelling is used to define the formal design at the conception stage, using virtual models instead of study models in wood, plastic, etc. At the same time in other connected fields the objective is to evaluate the feasibility of the formal idea by means of structural and technological analysis. The third stage, in my opinion, should aim to develop procedures capable of contributing to both the generation of the formal idea and the simultaneous study of technical feasibility by means of a decision-making support system aided by an Artificial Intelligence procedure which will lead to what I would describe as the definition of the design in its totality. The approach to architectural and urban design has been strongly influenced by the first two stages, though these have developed independently and with very specific objectives. It is my belief that architectural design is now increasingly the result of a structured and complex process, not a simple act of pure artistic invention. Consequently, I feel that the way forward is a procedure able to virtually represent all the features of the object designed, not only in its definitive configuration but also and more importantly in the interactions which determine the design process as it develops. Thus A.I. becomes the means of synthesis for models which are hierarchically subordinated which together determine the design object in its developmental process, supporting decision-making by applying processing criteria which generative modelling has already identified. This trend is currently being experimented, giving rise to interesting results from process design in the field of industrial production. 
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "Computer as an Metaphorisation Machine." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 283-286. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Digital media is transforming the practice and teaching of design. Information technologies offer not only better production and rendering tools but also the ability to model, manipulate, and understand design in new ways. A new era in CAAD has started. One of the aspects of this situation is the increase in the number of computers in design offices and architectural schools (many of our students have their own computers, which a re often better than the computers we have at our school). We can submit a proposition that the critical point in the creative use of computers is over, and we should think how computers and new media may extend the designeris perception and imagination. 
Counsell, J.A., and D.J. Marshall. "Computer Based Quizzes to Test Understanding of Videos on Building Construction and the BEATL Project." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 117-120. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. BEATL (Built Environment Appropriate Technology for Learning) is a research project based on a process of module pairing and collaboration between Built Environment Faculties. It is more about how one can embed technology in pedagogically sound ways than about the technology itself. This paper describes a case study of innovative self-paced diagnostic on-line illustrated Quizzes introduced at the University of the West of England (UWE) last year and now partnered by the University of Westminster (WU). It focuses on the development of the innovation, embedding it in teaching at UWE, its transfer to WU, and the support of “Educational Technology Officersi (ETO) in each. The methodologies used for evaluating the costs and benefits of this innovation are discussed. 
Mahalingam, Ganapathy. "Computing Architectural Designs Using an Architectural Programming Language." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 125-129. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Computing architectural designs, architectural programming language, architectural grammars
Liou, ShuennRen, and TaRen Chyn. "Constructing Geometric Regularity underlying Building Facades." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 313-315. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Geometric regularity constitutes a basis for designers to initiate the formulation of building shapes and urban forms. For example, Le Corbusier considers the regulating line “an inevitable element of architecture” and uses it as a “means” for understanding and creating good designs. Thomas Beeby argues that the acquisition of knowledge on geometric construction plays a crucial role in the education of architecture design. This paper illustrates a computational approach to constructing the regularity of architectural geometry. The formal structure underlying a single façade and continuous façades are examined. 
Zupancic, Tadeja Strojan, and Michael Mullins. "Criteria for Architectural Learning where Virtual Design Studios are Employed." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 51-54. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. A review of VDS in recent eCAADE and ACADIA papers indicates that they tend to place most emphasis on the communication technology employed. Research is often most concerned with setting up the environment which facilitates the studio. The difficulties in simulating real-time design learning situations in VDS can be compared to earlier years of CAAD research in design education, where most emphasis was placed on the medium itself. However, in the field of CAAD research work, the focus is shifting toward the integration of digital tools with design process, and a rethinking of the role of analogue tools in that process. The limitations to current VDS are almost certain to change rapidly as more affordable and faster means of communication become available. Nevertheless, underlying pedagogical problems deserve attention in order to direct efforts towards viable models of architectural education where VDS are employed. This paper assumes a critical stance to the conventionally presented use of VDS, and asserts that the close integration of design-process with new technology will become an increasingly pressing issue. So that VDS progresses beyond the development of distributed images and a means to communicate design, it is acknowledged that they create a particular learning environment requiring attention from facilitators. The implementation of the suggested criteria will assist the integration of pedagogical engaged-learning objectives with VDS digital technologies. 
Charitos, Dimitrios, and Vassilis Bourdakis. "Designing for the Spatial Context of 3D Online Communities." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 165-169. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This paper considers the issue of designing the spatial context within which 3D online communities can function and evolve. Firstly, the current state of 3D on-line communities is taken into account, particularly focusing on the way space is conceptualised, organised and depicted in them. A series of such communities is studied and analysed and an attempt to identify possible spatial design criteria is made. On the basis of this analysis and relevant work on designing space in Virtual Environments (V_s), a series of suggestions on the way that the spatial context of 3D online communities can be designed and developed are made. 
Beesley, Philip, and Thomas Seebohm. "Digital Tectonic Design." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 287-290. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Digital tectonic design is a fresh approach to architectural design methodology. Tectonics means a focus on assemblies of construction elements. Digital tectonics is an evolving methodology that integrates use of design software with traditional construction methods. We see digital tectonic design as a systematic use of geometric and spatial ordinances, used in combination with details and components directly related to contemporary construction. The current approach will, we hope, lead to an architectural curriculum based on generative form making where the computer can be used to produce systems of forms algorithmically. Digital design has tended to remain abstract, emphasizing visual and spatial arrangements often at the expense of materials and construction. Our pursuit is translation of these methods into more fully realized physical qualities. This method offers a rigorous approach based on close study of geometry and building construction elements. Giving a context for this approach, historical examples employing systematic tectonic design are explored in this paper. The underlying geometric ordinance systems and the highly tuned relationships between the details in these examples offer design vocabularies for use within the studio curriculum. The paper concludes with a detailed example from a recent studio project demonstrating particular qualities developed within the method. The method involves a wide range of scales, relating large-scale gestural and schematic studies to detailed assembly systems. Designing in this way means developing geometric strategies and, in parallel, producing detailed symbols or objects to be inserted. These details are assembled into a variety of arrays and groups. The approach is analogous to computer-aided design's tradition of shape grammars in which systems of spatial relationships are used to control the insertion of shapes within a space. Using this approach, a three-dimensional representation of a building is iteratively refined until the final result is an integrated, systematically organized complex of symbols representing physical building components. The resulting complex offers substantial material qualities. Strategies of symbol insertions and hierarchical grouping of elements are familiar in digital design practice. However these strategies are usually used for automated production of preconceived designs. In contrast to thsse normal approaches this presentation focuses on emergent qualities produced directly by means of the complex arrays of symbol insertions. The rhyth 
Hogben, Gavin. "Digital Video and Architectural Design." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 201-204. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This paper examines the potential use of Digital Video as an integral part of the design and execution of construction projects, illustrating a number of digital and narrative techniques through two live DV case-study projects. 
Hirschberg, Urs, F. Gramazio, K. Höger, Liaropoulos Legendre, M. Milano, and B. Stöger. "EventSpaces. a Multi-Author Game and Design Environment." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 65-70. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. EventSpaces is a web-based collaborative teaching environment we developed for our elective CAAD course. Its goal is to let the students collectively design a prototypical application - the EventSpaces.Game. The work students do to produce this game and the process of how they interact is actually a game in its own right. It is a process that is enabled by the EventSpaces.System, which combines work, learning, competition and play in a shared virtual environment. The EventSpaces.System allows students to criticize, evaluate, and rate each otheri•s contributions, thereby distributing the authorship credits of the game. The content of the game is therefore created in a collaborative as well as competitive manner. In the EventSpaces.System, the students form a community that shares a common interest in the development of the EventSpaces.Game. At the same time they are competing to secure as much credit as possible for themselves. This playful incentive in turn helps to improve the overall quality of the EventSpaces.Game, which is in the interest of all authors. This whole, rather intricate functionality, which also includes a messaging system for all EventSpaces activities, is achieved by means of a database driven online working environment that manages and displays all works produced. It preserves and showcases each authori•s contributions in relation to the whole and allows for the emergence of coherence from the multiplicity of solutions. This Paper first presents the motivation for the project and gives a short technical summary of how the project was implemented. Then it describes the nature of the exercises and discusses possible implications that this approach to collaboration and teaching might have. 
Elezkurtaj, Tomor, and Georg Franck. "Geometry and Topology. a User-Interface to Artificial Evolution in Architectural Design." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 309-312. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The paper presents a system that supports architectural floor plan design interactively. The method of problem solving implemented is a combination of an evolutionary strategy (ES) and a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem to be solved consists of fitting a number of rooms (n) into an outline by observing functional requirements. The rooms themselves are specified concerning size, function and preferred proportion. The functional requirements entering the fitness functions are expressed in terms of the proportions of the rooms and the neighbourhood relations between them. The system is designed to deal with one of the core problems of computer supported creativity in architecture. For architecture, form not only, but also function is relevant. Without specifying the function that a piece of architecture is supposed to fulfil, it is hard to support its design by computerised methods of problem solving and optimisation. In architecture, however, function relates to comfort, easiness of use, and aesthetics as well. Since it is extraordinary hard, if not impossible, to operationalise aesthetics, computer aided support of creative architectural design is still in its infancy. 
Ceccato, Cristiano, and Patrick Janssen. "GORBI: Autonomous Intelligent Agents Using Distributed Object-Oriented Graphics." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 297-300. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Autonomous agents represent a new form of thinking that is of primary importance in the age of the Internet and distributed networks, and provide a platform on which Turing’s model of sequential instruction-executing machines and von Neumann’s connectionist vision of interconnected, concurrent fine-grain processors may be reconciled. In this paper we map this emergent paradigm to design and design intelligence by to illustrating examples of decentralised interacting agents projects. 
Dokonal, Wolfgang, Bob Martens, and R. Ploesch. "Graz: the Creation of a 3-D City Model for Architectural Education." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 171-175. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This paper describes experiences with the creation of a 3-D City Model at Graz University of Technology. It presents an innovative approach in establishing a city model with the support of the students in the study fields of Architecture and Surveying. The main goal of this work is directed at the implementation within the framework of architectural education. This contribution presents the concept in detail resp., also discusses matters concerning the level of detail for different uses of such a 3-D model. 
Geebelen, Benjamin, and Herman Neuckermans. "IDEA-l. Bringing Natural Lighting to the Early Design Stages." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 193-196. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This paper discusses the use of computers as design tools for natural lighting in the early stages of the architectural design process. It focuses on IDEA-l, a new natural-lighting design tool, currently under development, that is meant to offer the architect/designer a digital equivalent for scale models, artificial sky simulators and heliodons. 
Szewczyk, Jaroslaw. "Intelligent User Interface for Computer Aided Architectural Design." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 251-254. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The first versions of AutoCAD enabled an architect to operate all of the most frequently used commands through the use of mouse and side menu. The AutoCAD 2.6 side menu offered 16 main items and 157 commands of the submenu. Total mastery of approx. 200 commands (including a dozen or so of instructions excluded from the menu and some of system variables) was equal to a very good proficiency in the program. 
Saggio, Antonino. "Interactivity." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 239-243. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Scope of this paper is to discuss the issue of Interactivity. The specific problems that I want to address are: firstly, “why” interactivity is one of the crucial frontiers for a architecture that is able to respond to the challenge of Information Society and secondly, “how”. 
Klercker, Af. "Modelling for Virtual Reality in Architecture." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 209-213. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. CAAD systems are using object modelling methods for building databases to make information available. Object data must then be made useful for many different purposes in the design process. Even if the capacity of the computer will allow an almost unlimited amount of information to be transformed, the eye does not make the transformations in the same “simple” mathematical way. Trained architects have to involve in an inventive process of finding ways to “harmonize” this new medium with the human eye and the architectis professional experience. This paper will be an interimistic report from a surveying course. During the spring semester 2000 the CAAD division of TU-Lund is giving a course “Modelling for VR in Architecture”. The students are practising architects with experience from using object modelling CAAD. The aims are to survey different ways to use available hard- and software to create VR-models of pieces of architecture and evaluate them in desktop and CAVE environments. The architect is to do as much preparation work as possible with his CAAD program and only the final adjustments with the special VR tool. 
Mase, Jitsuro. "Moderato: 3D Sketch CAD with Quick Positioned Working Plane and Texture Modelling." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 269-272. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The lack of computer systems that can be easily used during the early stages of the architectural design process has been discussed for many years. The usual argument starts with the recognition that hand drawn sketches are an important tool in the early stage of both professional and student design because they can be used to visualise the designeris ideas quickly and have the flexibility to handle any shape the designer imagines. Research has then mostly focused on using computer based sketch recognition to directly produce three dimensional models from hand drawn sketches. However sketch recognition still has certain problems that require the drawing action of users to be constrained in some way in order to be solved. If sketch recognition is still imperfect, the possibility of directly sketching within digital 3D space should be considered. Some systems allowing user to sketch in digital 3D space have been developed which do not depend on sketch recognition. Although Piranesi does not aim to support sketch design, it does allow the user to paint in the Z-buffer space - an unique idea termed “interactive rendering.i SketchVRML tries to generate 3D geometrical data automatically from 2D hand drawn sketches by adding the depth value to the drawn lines according to the strength of line strokes. SketchBoX provides translucent surfaces in digital 3D space which can be glued onto existing objects or arranged anywhere in space. These surfaces have texture map data which can be modified by painting onto the texture. Transparent textures can be painted onto the surfaces to create see-through portions. Moderato also uses this technique to model a polygoni•s shape. 
Brady, Darlene. "Percept vs. Precept: Digital Media and the Creative Process." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 261-264. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The design of architecture, as well as all of the arts, is a creative act concerned with the expression of ideas through culturally significant and relevant form. In order for the creative act to transcend the authority or dictates of precedents or trends, it must be informed and guided by a process and not a product, one which reveals, but does not dictate, expressive, functional form. The initial impact of digital media on architectural design has been the ability to render the look of a final project or to create shapes that reflect the facility of the tool. Digital media also enables the composition and structure of space and form to be discovered simultaneously and relationally with the phenomena of color and kinetics, to generate and visualize an idea as form, and to represent form as experience. This requires interweaving computing with a creative process in which percept, rather than precept, is the driving force of the investigation. This paper explores the role of ideation, tectonic color and kinetics as an intentional design strategy and formgiver for architecture. The role of the computer is to enable the designer to generate meaningful architecture beyond precepts of image and style. Design as a making in the mind uses our rational and imaginative faculties. Complete freedom is not a necessity for inventiveness. Research on creativity indicates that “constraining options and focusing thought in a specific, rigorous and discerning direction” play an important role. The key is a balance of structured and discursive inquiry that encourages a speculative, free association of ideas. Tim Berners-Lee, one of the creators of the World Wide Web, likened creativity to a weblike process that is nonlinear but also not random, which when placed in an environment rich with information will float ideas so the mind “can jiggle them into an insight.” Geoffrey Vickers in his essay, “Rationality and Intuitioni described this symbiotic relationship as “...two functions which in practice are never wholly separated but which are, nonetheless, logically distinct as two reciprocating phases in a recurrent process of mental activity.” The rational is formative and intuition is generative, both are essential to creativity. 
Ehrhardt, Mark, and Mark Gross. "Place Based Web Resources for Historic Buildings." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 177-179. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Web sites with animations, panoramic images, sound, and virtual reality can provide a strong sense of place, richer than text and photographs and more interactive than cinema. Constructing these sites demands a great deal of visual and textual information, which must be organized, integrated, and coded for delivery. Existing authoring packages are general-purpose, not specifically for architectural applications, and require technical sophistication. In our process for building Place Based Web Resources (PBWRs), after assembling photographic, drawing, text, and audio resources, the author follows a straightforward series of steps. The Hagia Sophia Web Resource resulted from this process, it includes panoramic pictures, photographs and interpretive text about the building and a VRML model. 
Breen, Jack, and Robert Nottrot. "Project a2W. a Dialogue on New Media Perspectives." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 291-296. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This paper documents an initiative taking the form of a “dialogue”. The format which has been developed is somewhat similar to that of the “conversation” which Mondrian conceived in 1919, taking place between two fictitious characters - A and B - discussing the new direction in art, which he called “Nieuwe Beelding” and which contributed to the “De Stijl” movement (the dialogue was followed later that year by a “trialogue” between X, Y and Z on a virtual walk taking them from the countryside to the city) 1. This time the issue is not so much the evolvement of a new artistic or architectural style, but the role of “new mediai in architecture... The present dialogue takes place between two fictitious media proponents (“Alphai and “Omegai). They take turns questioning several issues and exchanging proposals... What are the values - and the promises - of computer supported instruments in creative design and research - concerning the art and science shaping the built environment? How do the present applications measure up, how do they compare to the expectations and ambitions expressed a number of years ago? The form of a dialogue means that issues and ideas, which are not often aired within the confines of academic discourse, can be played back and forth and a measure of exaggeration was intended from the beginning... This contribution does not in any way pretend to be all-inclusive. Rather, the paper is meant to put forward ideas and experiences - from the perspective of the Delft Media group, in practice, in teaching and in research - which may stimulate (or even irritate?) but will hopefully activate. The aim is to open up discussions, to allow other (hidden) agendas for the future to become more visible and to look for platforms for sharing concepts and fascinations, however improbable they might be... 
Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga. "Promise and Reality - for Three Times." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 331-334. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Promise and Reality - such a clear and straightforward problem mentioned in the conference title makes one look back and reflect on the subject. I have distinguished three groups: teaching of CAAD, databases, AI tools in designing. All the conclusions drawn in the case of each problem, in fact, are to broaden and perfect the forms of education of the youth and students, of job circles and the local ones. 
Rügemer, Jörg, and Peter Russell. "Promise and Reality: the impact of the Virtual Design Studio on the Design and Learning Process in the Architectural Education." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 41-44. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. In step with the popular trend of including virtual working methods and tools in the process of teaching, the Virtual Design Studio (VDS) has been developed by the Institute for Industrial Building Production (ifib), at the University of Karlsruhe over the past three years. Alongside the technical aspects of such a studio, the challenge persisted to incorporate computer based tools into the architectural design and planning process with the goal of enhancing the relationship between all participants. The VDS is being further developed and refined, experiencing regular changes in its organization and teaching methods. With the establishment of the Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture (VuuA) and the introduction of the Virtual Design Studio into the curriculum of the Institute for Architectural Presentation and CAD (adai), BTU Cottbus, the VDS extended beyond the borders of a single architectural school, aiming towards a wide acceptance and use within architectural education institutions. 
Kokosalakis, Jen. "Researching Local Architect Preferences of Mode of CPD Learning." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 73-76. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Curriculum development of a new learning/training package to encourage greater use of computers to architects in NorthWest England will be founded on research to identify what is needed and the most effective way to deliver and disseminate the learning material. Employing the research technique of “Focus Groups” local architects (the consumers) will identify the way they prefer to learn. This approach, emergent background to local CAAD usage and attitudes and early indications of learning mode preference is presented here. 
Colajanni, B, G. Pellitteri, and S Concialdi. "Retrieval Tools in Building Case Bases." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 113-116. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Most of the existing aids to building design rely on data base of cases representing solutions to problems that are thought to happen again at least in a similar way. Crucial for the success of the aid is the retrieval engine. In tour its efficiency depends on the way the cases are encoded. Whichever is this way cases will be represented at different levels of abstraction. The highest level will probably consist in an accessibility and adjacency graph. Another level could be a wire plan of the building. An easily workable representation of a graph is a square matrix. For any given building typology it is possible to write a list of encoded space types. This allows forming matrices that can be compared and their diversity measured. Here we present an algorithm that makes this job. Such an algorithm can be one of the case retrieval tools in the data base. It is likely that the designer has already some idea of the shape he wants for the building he is designing. A comparison between some geometric characteristics of the wire representation of the retrieved case and the corresponding ones of the imagined solution of the design problem can constitute a second test. The matching can be done 
Donath, Dirk. "Roadblocks Ahead in Computer Aided Project Planning." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 121-124. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The paper treats with three scenarios that describe an ordinary, a possible and an expected - yet feasible - situation computer aided project planning in the architectural practice. 
Pietsch, Susan. "Simple Computer Visualisation: Three Examples in Planning Practice." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 139-142. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This paper will present three case studies illustrating the use of simple computer visualisation models in planning practice within the City of Adelaide, Australia. These case studies demonstrate that computer visualisation is possible at the planneri•s desktop using simple models to examine planning issues. 
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen. "Sketch that Scene for Me: Creating Virtual Worlds by Freehand Drawing." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 265-268. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. With the Web people can now view virtual threedimensional worlds and explore virtual space. Increasingly, novice users are interested in creating 3D Web sites. Virtual Reality Modelling Language gained ISO status in 1997, although it is being supplanted by the compatible Java3D API and alternative 3D Web technologies compete. Viewing VRML scenes is relatively straightforward on most hardware platforms and browsers, but currently there are only two ways to create 3D virtual scenes: One is to code the scene directly using VRML. The other is to use existing CAD and modelling software, and save the world in VRML format or convert to VRML from some other format. Both methods are time consuming, cumbersome, and have steep learning curves. Pen-based user interfaces, on the other hand, are for many an easy and intuitive method for graphics input. Not only are people familiar with the look and feel of paper and pencil, novice users also find it less intimidating to draw what they want, where they want it instead of using a complicated tool palette and pull-down menus. Architects and designers use sketches as a primary tool to generate design ideas and to explore alternatives, and numerous computer-based interfaces have played on the concept of “sketchi. However, we restrict the notion of sketch to freehand drawing, which we believe helps people to think, to envision, and to recognize properties of the objects with which they are working. SKETCH employs a pen interface to create three-dimensional models, but it uses a simple language of gestures to control a three-dimensional modeler, it does not attempt to interpret freehand drawings. In contrast, our support of 3D world creation using freehand drawing depend on usersi traditional understanding of a floor plan representation. Igarashi et al. used a pen interface to drive browsing in a 3D world, by projecting the useris marks on the ground plane in the virtual world. Our Sketch-3D project extends this approach, investigating an interface that allows direct interpretation of the drawing marks (what you draw is what you get) and serves as a rapid prototyping tool for creating 3D virtual scenes. 
De Vries, B.. "Sketching in 3D." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 277-280. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Sketching in 3D is a design activity that requires a new approach to user interaction and geometric modelling in an architectural context. DDDoolz is an example of such a system used for mass study and spatial design. This paper describes the basic principles and the studentsi experiences in a CAAD course. 
Johnson, Brian. "Sustaining Studio Culture: How Well do Internet Tools Meet the Needs of Virtual Design Studios?" In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 15-22. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The Internet beckons seductively to students. The prospect of nearly instantaneous communication with acquaintances spread across the face of the earth is alluring. The ease with which rich graphical content can be made available to the world is stunning. The possibility of a design being seen by friends, family, and famous architects is tantalizing. Faculty are drawn by the potent synergy and learning that can be found in the opposition and cooperation of different cultural roots. It is probable that entire design studio sequences will be offered through distance-learning programs in the near future. Is that a good idea? Much has been written about “virtual design studiosi in architecture schools and “virtual officesi in practice. Most offices have largely or totally abandoned drafting boards in favor of digital tools of production. Yet, regarding design, Ken Sanders, author of The Digital Architect, and Manager of Information Services at Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership (ZGF), of Portland, Oregon, has written “we still make an effort to locate project teams together and always willi. Production CAD work requires different kinds of interaction than design and design instruction. The experiments have been invaluable in developing strategies for use of the Internet as a component of a design studio series, but rarely depend entirely on use of the Internet for all course communications. In fact, most describe fairly isolated efforts to augment some aspect of traditional design environments using Internet tools (ftp, email, web). A few have implemented new pedagogic or collaboration paradigms (e.g., ETHis phase(x)). This paper considers the traditional design studio in terms of formal and informal activities, characterizes the major Internet technologies with regard to the resulting interaction issues. In particular, it describes an area of informal work group communications that appears to be ill-supported with existing tools. The paper goes on to describe a web-based collaboration tool which was developed to address the need for less formal communication. The context for this development is the concept of a fully distributed collaboration environment with particular attention to questions of informal communication. Finally, it describes how the tool was deployed in an experimental “web studioi setting and student responses to use of the tool. 
Hartog, J., and Alexander Koutamanis. "Teaching design simulation." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 197-200. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The democratization of information and communication technologies (ICT) has promoted integration of computing in the design studio and of design activities in the CAAD courses. In addition it has also shifted the focus of CAAD courses from technical skills and general theoretical issues to current, specific design issues, such as the relationship between geometric modelling and construction, design communication and design analysis. CAAD courses (especially advanced ones) increasingly attempt to introduce these issues and corresponding advanced ICT in a design context that outlines the possibilities of these technologies and the underlying computational design methodology and bring research closer to teaching. One such issue is design analysis, especially in the early design stages when many fundamental decisions are taken on the basis of incomplete and insecure information. Simulation provides the computational means for projecting building behaviour and performance. The paper describes the application of a specific simulation technique, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), for the analysis of airflow in and around buildings in the context of an advanced CAAD course. In this course students are required to design a multifunctional exposition building. Even though students are unfamiliar with the particular CFD system, as well as with part of the simulation subject matter, they are able to produce descriptions of their designs with effectiveness and efficiency. 
Lieberman, Oren. "The Application of Object-oriented Software Concepts in Architectural Pedagogy." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 27-33. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Architecture, a complex discipline that involves many people and things and the relationships amongst them, requires a pedagogical approach by which the student, even in her first year, must be able to think “complexly” across many subjects. The object-oriented analysis and design software programming paradigm, which models complex “realities”, or “models the way people understand and process reality”, holds promising concepts for architectural education. It is not my intention to extract slavishly all possible concepts from object-orientation (OO) and accept them as a “recipe” for educating the architect. Indeed, one of the reasons I find OO so elegant is that it provides a strategy, a non-prescriptive framework, with which both teachers and students can explore their own architectural investigations. It also provides the possibility of a common language, offering a structure in which, for example, certain standards can be measured within departments, or with which we can negotiate compatibility across different national credit systems to facilitate and encourage cross-cultural (border) exchange. 
Russell, Peter, and Uwe Forgber. "The E-Talier: Inter-university Networked Design Studios." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 45-50. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The widespread infiltration of internet based variations of traditional areas of society (e-commerce, e-business, e-mail etc.) will not spare the halls of academia in its propagation. The term courseware is well nigh 20 years old and considerable research and development has been done in bringing network based distributed courses to university consortiums including those in architecture and civil engineering. Indeed, the European Commission has recently approved funding for a 3-year web-based virtual university of architecture and construction technology: the WINDS project led by the University of Ancona. Such attempts to create e-courses are largely an extension of typical courseware where the syllabus is quantified and divided into lessons for use by the students alone or in conjunction with their tutors and professors. This is quite adequate in conveying the base knowledge of the profession. However, the tenants of being an architect or engineer involve the deft use of that unwieldy named and deliciously imprecise tool called “designi. Teaching design sooner or later involves the design studio: a pedagogically construed environment of simulation intended to train, not teach the skills of designing. This is fundamentally different from normal courseware. A network based design studio (Etalier) must be able to reflect the nature of learning design. Design studios typically involve specifically chosen design problems, researched supporting information to assist design decisions, focussed discussions, individual consultation and criticism, group criticism, public forums for presentation discussion and criticism as well as a myriad of informal undocumented communication among the students themselves. So too must an Etalier function. Essentially, it must allow collaboration through communication. Traditional barriers to collaboration include language, culture (both national and professional) and distance. Through the internet's capricious growth and the widespread use of English as a second language, the largest hurdle to attaining fruitful collaboration is probably cultural. In the case of an Etalier in a university setting, the cultural difficulties arise from administrative rules, the pedagogical culture of specific universities and issues such as scheduling and accreditation. Previous experiments with virtual design studios have demonstrated the criticality of such issues. The proposed system allows participating members to specify the degree and breadth with which they wish to partake. As opposed to specifying the conditions of membership, we propose to specify the conditions of partnership. Through the basic principal of reciprocity, issues such as accreditation and work load sharing can be mitigated. Further, the establishment of a studio market will allow students, tutors and professors from participating institutions to partake in studio projects of their choosing in accordance with their own constraints, be they related to schedule, expertise, legal or other matters. The paper describes these mechanisms and some possible scenarios for collaboration in the Etalier market. 
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, and P. Karboulonis. "The Importance of Virtual Environments in the Design of Electronic Games and their Relevance to Architecture." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 181-185. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Ever increasing complexity in architectural design and the need to deliver a cost effective solution requires the employment and adoption of innovative design methods. Although technological changes have entered the field of architecture at a slower pace, the recent adoption of 3D modelling, Virtual Environment and multimedia represent significant changes in architectural design, visualisation and presentation. These now include tools for conceptualisation, design synthesis, design presentation, desktop publishing, animation, Internet and hypermedia authoring. Uddin argues that the major activities involved in the creative and dynamic process of architectural design deal with conceptualisation, visualisation and expression of alternative ideas through two-dimensional and three-dimensional model. This paper highlights the need for the employment of emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to enhance the design process through better decision-making, higher quality communication and collaboration, error reduction, spatial awareness, interactive design and real-time visualisation. 
Montagu, A., Diana Rodríguez Barros, and L. Chernobilsky. "The New Reality through Virtuality." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 225-229. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. In this paper we want to develop some conceptual reflections of the processes of virtualization procedures with the aim to indicate a series of misfits and mutations as byproducts of the “digital-graphic culture” (DGC) when we are dealing with the perception of the “digital space”. Considering the present situation, a bit chaotic from a pedagogical point of view, we also want to propose a set of “virtual space parametersi in order to organize in a systemic way the teaching procedures of architectural design when using digital technology. Nowadays there is a great variety of computer graphics applications comprising practically all the fields of “science & technology”, “architecture, design & urbanism”, “video & film”, “sound” and the massive amount of information technology protocols. This fact obliges us to have an overall view about the meaning of “the new reality through virtualityi. The paper is divided in two sections and one appendix. In the first section we recognise the relationships among the sensory apparatus, the cognitive structures of perception and the cultural models involved in the process of understanding the reality. In the second section, as architects, we use to have “a global set of social and technical responsabilities” to organize the physical space, but now we must also be able to organize the “virtual space” obtained from a multidimensional set of computer simulations. There are certain features that can be used as “sensory parametersi when we are dealing with architectural design in the “virtual worldi,  taking into consideration the differences between “immersive virtual reality” and “non inmersive virtual reality”. In the appendix we present a summary of some conclusions based on a set of pedagogical applications analysing the positive and the negative consequences of working exclusively in a “virtual world”. 
Sarid, A., and R. Oxman. "The Web as a Knowledge Representational Media for Architectural Precedents." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 245-249. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This paper reviews current web sites that are dealing with architectural content. The purpose of the review is to explore the potential of current webbased presentation technologies as a mean for the construction of precedent libraries on the web. The first part presents the importance of the Internet as a knowledge representation medium. The review of Internet-based representation methods of architectural precedents and architectural knowledge includes 30 existing web-sites. The criteria for evaluating these sites were based on literature reviews. The first one is a theoretical literature dealing with architectural knowledge representation and the second one is a theoretical literature related to the Internet age. The evaluation criteria drawn form these two content resources included subjects such as: knowledge representation methods, precedents display methods, organization systems, indexing, search, etc. By reviewing the web sites threw these evaluation criteria, we examine and discuss the issues and problems relating to the development of architectural libraries on the web. 
Petric, Jelena. "Time for a Reality Check." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 317-320. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. In this current era it is the information technologies that has set the stage for the drama of human life to be acted out. The information revolution has created global links on a scale unparalleled in human history. With exciting explorations into virtuality (the current buzz word) our life experiences, dreams and ambitions will be mapped into cyber-space and our “reali reality will become indistinguishable from our virtual reality. We are on the verge of experiencing a complete sensory immersion in this man-made cyber-dream. We will be able to enter virtual space that has as much richness and tangible quality as the world from which it sprang. 
Shakarchi, Ali. "Tools for Distributed Design Practice." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 89-92. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. During collaboration designers jointly solve problems as well as interact for critical feedback. Todayis heterogeneous, distributed and global market demands of designers collaboration in both synchronous and asynchronous mode. The management and control of such projects is frequently geographical and temporally distributed. Increasingly, efficient communication is becoming a vital component in the design process, whether in managing the project data or controlling the compatibility of different inputs by design team members or minimizing the revision cycles. Paper presents and discuss iSPACE, the mature prototype software application developed to serve different scenarios of communication between the distributed design team members. The iSPACE is web based application that can deliver an interactive environment over low-bandwidth connections. Application of iSPACE in the educational environment is monitored and discussed. Giving the potential of this technology to enhance and to streamline complex tasks associated with the design process, the quality of the design product is changing. The new style of design practice can be now practically further modeled, supported and enhanced. 
Reffat, Rabee, and John S. Gero. "Towards Active Support Systems for Architectural Designing." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 143-147. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This paper proposes the application of a situated learning approach in designing integrated with a conventional CAD system. The approach is implemented in SLiDe (Situated Learning in Designing) and integrated as SLiDe-CAAD, to provide interactive support in designing exemplified within the composition of architectural shapes. SLiDe-CAAD is proposed to assist in maintaining the integrity of shape semantics or desired design concepts of interest in the design composition. SLiDe-CAAD is introduced to provide a collaboration between the designer and the computer during the process of designing. 
Svetel, Igor. "Using Machine Learning Techniques to Enhance Expressiveness of Computer-based Design Systems." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 321-325. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. More and more designers use computers and netAbstract In face of the huge expansion of computer-mediated interaction among people, current representation-centered CAAD systems do not offer full information spectrum necessary to express all design intentions. Representational structures that those systems use suppress expression of affective information that plays a major role in design process. The paper describes few experiments conducted at the IMS Institute to enhance expressiveness of the CAAD systems. 
Elger, Dietrich, and Peter Russell. "Using the World Wide Web as a Communication and Presentation Forum for Students of Architecture." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 61-64. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. Since 1997, the Institute for Industrial Building Production (ifib) has been carrying out upper level design studios under the framework of the Netzentwurf or Net-Studio. The Netzentwurf is categorized as a virtual design studio in that the environment for presentation, criticism and communication is web based. This allows lessons learned from research into Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) to be adapted to the special conditions indigenous to the architectural design studio. Indeed, an aim of the Netzentwurf is the creation and evolution of a design studio planing platform. In the Winter semester 1999-2000, ifib again carried out two Netzentwurf studios. involving approximately 30 students from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Karlsruhe. The projects differed from previous net studios in that both studios encompassed an inter-university character in addition to the established framework of the Netzentwurf. The first project, the re-use of Fort Kleber in Wolfisheim by Strasbourg, was carried out as part of the Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture (VuuA) involving over 140 students from various disciplines in six institutions from five universities in France, Switzerland and Germany. The second project, entitled “Future, Inc.i, involved the design of an office building for a scenario 20 years hence. This project was carried out in parallel with the Technical University Cottbus using the same methodology and program for two separate building sites. 
Brown, A., L. Gavin, Ph. Berridge, Henri Achten, and Michael Knight. "Virtual eCAADe Galleries and Meeting Places." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 157-163. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This paper describes the first steps taken to establish a virtual gallery as a device to enable the display and sharing of information, both within the eCAADe organisation and for other interested or related parties. Initially an important role of the gallery would be to display student work from all of the member states of eCAADe. With this feature established we might then want to move on to providing additional elements within the world which could allow exchange of views, discussion, points of contact, and the provision of educational and research information relating to CAAD. The paper will describe the potential of the different kinds of gallery that might be appropriate. The worlds reviewed will deal with sites which offer a collaborative environment represented in a three dimensional form. We will comment on some specific relevant examples, and review their appropriateness against a set of relevant criteria. The proposals that we make will be open to review and comment by eCAADe members before a fully working site is constructed. 
Kieferle, Joachim. "Virtual Space - New Tasks for Architects." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 205-208. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The meaning of architecture is extended due to the new media. As never before, computers help architects to handle huge amounts of information or give them a freedom to handle complex shaped models. However, it is not the shapes, but the space and its qualities they are created in, that imposes a new kind of architecture. This article focuses in an abridged version on some attributes of virtual space, its expanding features for real space and what the chances for architecture might be. But - what is space? Is it something objective? How is it perceived by man? This questions have to be answered first to understand the following hypothesis. 
Regenbrecht, H., E. Kruijff, Dirk Donath, Hartmut Seichter, and J. Beetz. "VRAM - a Virtual Reality Aided Modeller." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 235-237. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. This article describes VRAM, short for Virtual Reality Aided Modeler. VRAM is a conceptual design tool supported by Virtual Reality technology and an ongoing testbed for theory and methodology in the field of three dimensional user interfaces (3DUIs). The outcomes from the project should consist of an intuitive and comprehensive immersive surface modeler, next to a set of taxonomies and guidelines for the development of 3DUIs. Based on a modular structure, VRAMs program architecture allows the easy extension of functionality. The application consists of the seamless integration of four main functionality modules, namely system control, viewing & browsing, editing and modelling. Based on the premise of portability, the software environment runs on both SGI Irix and MS Windows NT platforms. To be relatively independent in developing 3DUI techniques, the VRAM environment supports a multiplicity of input and output devices. Due to the focus on immersive modelling, tracking devices, head mounted displays and stereoprojection devices are the main I/O channels. In this article, we will primary focus on the functionality of the virtual modeller. 
Koch, Volker, and Peter Russell. "VuuA.Org: the Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 23-25. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. In 1998, architecture schools in the three nation region of the upper Rhine came together to undertake a joint design studio. With the support of the Center for Entrepeneurship in Colmar, France, the schools worked on the reuse of the Kuenzer Mill situated near Herbolzheim, Germany. The students met jointly three times during the semester and then worked on the project at their home universities usng conventional methods. This project was essential to generating closer ties between the participating students, tutors and institutions and as such, the results were quite positive. So much so, that the organisers decided to repeat the exercise one year later. However, it became clear that although the students had met three times in large groups, the real success of a co-operative design studio would require mechanisms which allow far more intimate interaction among the participants, be they students, teachers or outside experts. The experiences from the Netzentwurf at the Institut für Industrielle Bauproduktion (ifib) showed the potential in a web based studio and the addition of ifib to the three nation group led to the development of the VuuA platform. The first project served to illuminate the the differences in teaching concepts among the partner institutions and their teaching staff as well as problems related to the integration of students from three countries with two languages and four different faculties: landscape architecture, interior design, architecture and urban planning. The project for the Fall of 1999 was the reuse of Fort Kléber in Wolfisheim by Strasbourg, France. The students again met on site to kick off the Semester but were also instructed to continue their cooperation and criticism using the VuuA platform. 
Ng, Edward, and Wei Wu. "Working with the Bits and Digits of Lighting Studies in Architectural Education." In Promise and Reality - State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process: 18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 231-234. eCAADe: Conferences. Weimar, Germany: Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 2000. The study investigates learning and pedagogical differences between using physical models and computational simulations for architectural lighting design studies. The vehicle of the study is a real life architectural project for a church building. The research reveals that users of physical models were more aware of the need for technical knowledge whilst the users of simulation software are more contended with the virtual results without evaluating them critically. Preliminary results not only confirm the long established view that the computational simulation lacks the tactile quality for architectural understanding, worst still, it gives inexperienced users illusions of knowledge and claims of understanding. To further validate the results, works involving a larger sample set and a more comprehensive design program should be conducted.