Keywords Abstract
Evans, Barrie. "A Communicating Profession." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 313-320. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper discusses aspects of the near future, a future that in parts is already with us, a future that we need to attend to now. The focus is computer aided design, but not graphics-based CAD. Rather today's CAD innovation is focused on the use of smart communications to provide designers with an information-rich support environment and the design team with an infrastructure for co-operative working. Based on this picture of a different, emerging CAD, the paper finishes with a brief comment on educational implications. One is that the emerging commercial project information management software could prove useful as infrastructure for co-operative educational projects. Another is that there could be significant gaps in information content for educational users as education becomes more IT-based. Should providing this content be a role for joint ECAADE research and development projects?
Juroszek, Steven. "Access, Instruction, Application: Towards a Universal Lab." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 141-150. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. In January 1998, the Montana State University School of Architecture embarked upon an initiative to successfully integrate computer technology into its design curriculum. At that time only a handful of student computers could be found in the design studio. By January 1999 over 95 students have and use computers in their courses. The increase in computer access and use is occurring through a five-phase initiative called the Universal Lab-a school-wide commitment to the full integration of computer technology into all design studios, support courses and architectural electives. The Universal Lab uses the areas of Access, Instruction and Application as the vehicles for appropriate placement and usage of digital concepts within the curriculum. The three-pronged approach allows each instructor to integrate technology using one, two or all three areas with varying degrees of intensity. This paper presents the current status of the Universal Lab-Phase I and Phase II-and describes the effect of this program on student work, course design and faculty instruction.
Mishima, Yoshitaka, and Peter Szalapaj. "ADMIRE: an Architectural Design Multimedia Interaction Resource for Education." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 201-209. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper describes the development of a multimedia system called ADMIRE (an Architectural Design Multimedia Interaction Resource for Education), which enables undergraduate students to understand how to analyse existing buildings dynamically, as well as to develop their own initial architectural design theories. The system contains architectural information in the form of fully rendered models, conceptual illustrations created with a range of CAD software, and multimedia presentations showing various design theoretic analyses. Buildings are described with CAD generated images, and architects with profiles and theories. In addition to rendered designs, there are also conceptual models of each building in the system. Conceptual models are simplified forms of original designs in order to support an analytical understanding of buildings according to various analyses, such as structure, light, circulation, unit to whole, geometry, etc. Each conceptual model constitutes a different analysis of each building. The ADMIRE system links each piece of information to another, so that students can explore architecture and learn about it in a dynamic way. This system demonstrates a new way of learning about architectural analysis through dynamic multimedia computer interaction.
Coates, Paul, and Claudia Schmid. "Agent Based Modelling." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 652-661. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper describes the work of students in Unit 6 of the Diploma school at the UEL during 1998-9. The unit in association with the MSc has been exploring ways of using the computer to explore the idea of emergent form as a way of generating designs, and a way of focussing the pedagogic process on a new and interesting set of determinants of form.
Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga. "AI and Regional Architecture." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 584-588. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. In 1976 Richard Foqué established periods in the development of methods of designing. The first stage (the 50's and early 60's) - automatization of the designing process - properly identified language of description that is understood by a machine is vital. Christopher Alexander publishes'Pattern Language'. The second stage (late 60's) - the use of the Arts - research techniques as interview, questionnaire, active observation, ergonomic aspects are also taken into consideration. The third stage (starts at the turn of the 60's and 70's) - co-participation of all of the parties involved in the designing process, and especially the user. The designing process becomes more complex but at the same time more intelligible to a non-professional - Alexander's'Pattern Language'returns. It's been over 20 years now since the publication of this work. In the mid 70's prototypes of integrate building description are created. We are dealing now with the next stage of the designing methods development. Unquestionable progress of computer optimalization of technical and economical solutions has taken place. It's being forecasted that the next stage would be using computer as a simulator of the designing process. This stage may be combined with the development of AI. (Already in 1950 Alan Turing had formulated the theoretical grounds of Artificial Intelligence.) Can the development of the AI have the influence on the creation of present time regional architecture? Hereby I risk a conclusion that the development of AI can contribute to the creation of modern regional architecture.
Shih, Naai-Jung, and Yen-Shih Huang. "An Analysis and Simulation of Curtain Wall Reflection Glare." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 744-750. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper presents a computer-aided visualization on the influence of reflected sunbeams from curtain wall buildings. A survey was made to local buildings and it was discovered that reflected glare is a significant urban problem. Based on survey findings, a simulation was conducted to compare with actual occurrences in order to increase the comprehension of the consequences of window orientation and angles in the design stage. The simulation enabled design evaluation with an inspection above normal eye level and in a broader area, than that which normally could be achieved in a site survey at a pedestrian's or a driver's level. The computer simulation verified the influence of reflection on the urban environment by using a time-based record. In order to provide design solutions, the simulation used a 10x10x10 cube in referencing the horizontal area that would receive reflections. Due to the symmetric shape of the cube, a butterfly shaped boundary of reflection area (BRA) was concluded. BRA is smaller on the summer solstice than on the spring or autumnal equinox. In order to reduce BRA, a passive design approach was applied by tilting or rotating walls to evaluate how the tilted angles or orientation of the façade could affect reflected glare.
Dikbas, Attila. "An Evaluating Model for the Usage of Web-based Information Technology in Computer Aided Architectural Design and Engineering Education." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 349-352. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. New technologies often reshape expectations, needs and Opportunities so as to develop strategic Plans for the implementation of Information Techniques in education and research. The widespread acceptance of the internet and more specifically the World Wide Web (WWW) has raised the awareness of educators to the potential for online education, virtual classrooms and even virtual universities. With the advent of computer mediated communication, especially the widespread adoption of the web as a publishing medium, educators see the advantages and potential of delivering educational material over the Internet. The Web offers an excellent medium for content delivery with full text, colour graphics support and hyperlinks. The Purpose of this paper is to present a model for the usage of web-based information technology in computer aided architectural design and engineering education. It involves the key features of a full educational system that is capable of offering the teacher and the student flexibility with which to approach their teaching and learning tasks in ways most appropriate to the architectural design and engineering education. Web-based educational system aims at creating quality in on-line educational materials taking collaboration, support, new skills, and, most of all, time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits of such an education system suggesting directions for further work needed to improve the quality of architectural design and engineering education.
Jakimowicz, Adam. "An Intuitive CAAD." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 80-85. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper presents the educational experiment, which emerged from the junction of different inspirations and needs. It joins the experiences from an individual research on intuitive 3d computer modelling, courses of traditional architectural composition and the idea of individualisation of the computer use in architectural design education. It shows how computers were used in part of architectural education in a non-computer-oriented course. The experiment was included to and further developed within the frame of AVOCAAD project.
Corrao, Rossella, and Giovanni Fulantelli. "Architects in the Information Society: the Role of New Technologies." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 665-671. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. New Technologies (NTs) offer us tools with which to deal with the new challenges that a changing society or workplace presents. In particular, new design strategies and approaches are required by the emerging Information Society, and NTs offer effective solutions to the designers in the different stages of their professional life, and in different working situations. In this paper some meaningful scenarios of the use of the NTs in Architecture and Urban Design are introduced, the scenarios have been selected in order to understand how the role of architects in the Information Society is changing, and what new opportunities NTs offer them. It will be underlined how the telematic networks play an essential role in the activation of virtual studios that are able to compete in an increasingly global market, examples will be given of the use of the Web to support activities related to Urban Planning and Management, it will be shown how the Internet may be used to access strategic resources for education and training, and sustain lifelong learning. The aforesaid considerations derive from a Web-Based Instruction system we have developed to support University students in the definition of projects that can concern either single buildings or whole parts of a city. The system can easily be adopted in the other scenarios introduced.
Gavin, Lesley. "Architecture of the Virtual Place." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 418-423. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London (UCL), set up the first MSc in Virtual Environments in the UK in 1995. The course aims to synthesise and build on research work undertaken in the arts, architecture, computing and biological sciences in exploring the realms of the creation of digital and virtual immersive spaces. The MSc is concerned primarily with equipping students from design backgrounds with the skills, techniques and theories necessary in the production of virtual environments. The course examines both virtual worlds as prototypes for real urban or built form and, over the last few years, has also developed an increasing interest in the the practice of architecture in purely virtual contexts. The MSc course is embedded in the UK government sponsored Virtual Reality Centre for the Built Environment which is hosted by the Bartlett School of Architecture. This centre involves the UCL departments of architecture, computer science and geography and includes industrial partners from a number of areas concerned with the built environment including architectural practice, surveying and estate management as well as some software companies and the telecoms industry. The first cohort of students graduated in 1997 and predominantly found work in companies working in the new market area of digital media. This paper aims to outline the nature of the course as it stands, examines the new and ever increasing market for designers within digital media and proposes possible future directions for the course.
Moorhouse, Jon, and Gary Brown. "Autonomous Spatial Redistribution for Cities." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 678-684. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The paper investigates an automated methodology for the appropriate redistribution of usable space in distressed areas of inner cities. This is achieved by categorising activity space and making these spaces morphologically mobile in relation to the topography within a representative artificial space. The educational module has been influenced by theories from the natural environment, which possess patterns that have inherent evolutionary programmes in which the constituents are recyclable, Information is strategically related to the environment to produce forms of growth and behaviour. Artificial landscape patterns fail to evolve, the inhabited landscape needs a means of starting from simplicity and building into the most complex of systems that are capable of re-permutation over time. The paper then describes the latest methodological development in terms of a shift from the use of the computer as a tool for data manipulation to embracing the computer as a design partner. The use of GDL in particular is investigated as a facilitator for such generation within a global, vectorial environment.
Verbeke, Johan, Tom Provoost, J. Verleye, K. Nys, R. van Zutphen, Henri Achten, A. Turksma, Gernot Pittioni, A. Asanowicz, Adam Jakimowicz et al. "AVOCAAD, the Experience." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 244-251. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The Leonardo da Vinci project AVOCAAD (Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design) aims at stimulating creative and experimental use of computers in the field of Architecture and Construction by the use of new technologies. For this purpose, a large set of exercises and exercise materials was developed and is now available through an interactive web-site. This allows regular students as well as architects in practice to continuously seek for a more interesting and inspiring use of computers and IC-technology, adding value in their own field of interest and work. The interactive web-site generates a virtual forum for exchange of ideas. The AVOCAAD partners as well as the newly joined partners are currently using and testing the available teaching materials (exercises, foreground and background information) with students. Moreover a small design exercise in the context of the project has been the theme of a workshop held at the AVOCAAD 1999 conference. Students and architects were asked to create a design in a predefined space based on experimental architectural music. This paper intends to report on the experiences we gained in using the interactive web-site, the exercises and also doing the workshop. We will address the pedagogical implications of issues like learning environment, continuous and distance learning, and focus on their impact towards CAAD curricula. Examples and results will illustrate the general framework.
Uddin, Mohammed Saleh. "Beyond Mere Representation: the Changing Perspective of Computer Use in American Architecture." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 511-518. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. By surveying a total of 55 cutting-edge architectural design offices (mostly in the United States), this paper looks at the use of computational media to get an overall understanding of its current use for architectural design presentation. The intent of this paper is to highlight the changing direction of computer presentation through graphic examples, specifically three-dimensional modelling that goes beyond conventional representation. The paper also illustrates various types of uses of computer media by designers into specific categories, and extracts a summary of hardware and software preferences.
Moloney, Jules. "Bike-R: Virtual Reality for the Financially Challenged." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 410-413. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper describes a'low tech'approach to producing interactive virtual environments for the evaluation of design proposals. The aim was to produce a low cost alternative to such expensive installations as CAVE virtual reality systems. The system utilises a library of pre-rendered animation, video and audio files and hence is not reliant on powerful hardware to produce real time simulation. The participant sits astride a bicycle exercise machine and animation is triggered by the pedal revolution. Navigation is achieved by steering along and around the streets of the animated design. This project builds on the work of Desmond Hii. ( Hii, 1997) The innovations are the bicycle interface and the application to urban scale simulation.
Sanchez, S, Alberto Zulueta, and J. Barrallo. "Bilbao: the Revitalisation of a City." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 694-699. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The city of Bilbao has suffered in the last decade a deep transformation. After a glorious industrial past, Bilbao was in 1990 a depressed city, and the strategies necessary to transform an industrial city into a service capital were no simple due to the high level of pollution and unemployment rate. The “Bilbao Metropoli-30” Association was created to coordinate the synergetic action of all the involved institutions: City Hall, Basque Country and Spanish Governments, financial institutions, transport companies, airport and port, etc. But it was also necessary the acceptance of the public opinion to recover the illusion and the lost pride of the city. The desolated social scene was not adequate for revolutionary designs like the winding Frank Gehry's Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, or the cavernous Norman Foster's underground. This work pretends to show the means and strategies, especially computational, that allowed the transformation of Bilbao with an enthusiastic citizen support.
Klercker, Af. "CAAD - Integrated with the First Steps into Architecture ." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 266-272. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. How and when should CAAD be introduced in the curriculum of the School of Architecture? This paper begins with some arguments for starting CAAD education at the very beginning. At the School of Architecture in Lund teachers in the first year courses have tried to integrate CAAD with the introduction to architectural concepts and techniques. Traditionally the first year is divided by several subjects running courses separatly without any contact for coordination. From the academic year 96/97 the teachers of Aplied aestetics, Building Science, Architectural design and CAAD have decided to colaborate as much as possible to make the role of our different fields as clear as possible to the students. Therefore integrating CAAD was a natural step in the academic year 98/99. The computer techniques were taught one step in advance so that the students can practise their understanding of the programs in their tasks in the other subjects. The results were surprisingly good! The students have quickly learned to mix the manual and computer techniques to make expressive and interesting visual presentations of their ideas. Some students with antipaty to computers have overcome this handicap. Some interesting observations are discussed.
Dinand, Munevver, and Fevzi Ozersay. "CAAD Education under the Lens of Critical Communication Theories and Critical Pedagogy: Towards a Critical Computer Aided Architectural Design Education (CCAADE)." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 86-93. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Understanding the dominant ethos of our age is imperative but not easy. However it is quite evident that new technologies have altered our times. Every discipline is now forced to be critical in developing new concepts according to the realities of our times. Implementing a critical worldview and consciousness is now more essential than ever. Latest changes in information technology are creating pressure on change both in societal and cultural terms. With its direct relation to these technologies, computer aided architectural design education, is obviously an outstanding / prominent case within contemporary debate. This paper aims to name some critical points related to computer aided architectural design education (CAADE) from the perspective of critical communication studies and critical education theories. It tries to relate these three areas, by introducing their common concepts to each other. In this way, it hopes to open a path for a language of critique. A critique that supports and promotes experimentation, negotiation, creativity, social consciousness and active participation in architectural education in general, and CAADE in specific. It suggests that CAADE might become critical and produce meta-discourses [1] in two ways. Firstly, by being critical about the context it exists in, that is to say, its relationships to the existing institutional and social structures and secondly by being critical about the content it handles, in other words by questioning its ideological dimensions. This study considers that analysing the role of CAADE in this scheme can provide architectural education with the opportunity to make healthy projections for the future.
Tweed, Christopher, and Brendan Carabine. "CAAD in the Future Perfect." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 18-24. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The history of CAAD research is largely one of generic computing techniques grafted on to existing design practices. The motivation behind such research, on different occasions, has been to automate some or all of the design process, to provide design assistance, to check designs for compliance against some predefined criteria, or more recently to enable people to experience designs as realistically as possible before they are built. But these goals remain unexamined, and their fulfilment is assumed to be a self-evident benefit. In the worst cases, they are examples of barely concealed technology-push. Few researchers have stated in detail what they want computers to do for architectural design, most choosing instead to focus on what computers can do, rather than what is needed. This paper considers what we want CAAD systems to do for us. However, this will be a modest effort, a beginning, a mere sketch of possible directions for CAAD. But it should open channels for criticism and serious debate about the role of CAAD in the changing professional, social and cultural contexts of its eventual use in education and practice. The paper, therefore, is not so concerned to arrive at a single'right'vision for future CAAD systems as concerned by the lack of any cogent vision for CAAD.
Monedero, Javier. "Can a Machine Design? a Disturbing Recreation of Turing's Test for the Use of Architects." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 589-594. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. In 1950, fifty years ago, Alan Turing published a much-quoted paper that has given rise to a long list of articles and books. It presented, perhaps for the first time, in a clever and somehow sarcastic way, what has become one of the main big questions raised by the use of computers in human societies. The title of that paper was “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (Mind, Vol. LIX, No. 236, October 1950) and the game proposed in it, called by Turing “the imitation gamei has come to be known as “Turing's Test”. The paper presented here is a rather simple adaptation of Turing's Test. It may, I hope, present in a, perhaps, not too serious a way, some central points related to the way that computers have integrated themselves in architect's, engineer's and building enterprises and, through them, in the way that architecture evolves in our times and adapts itself to modern societies.
Moloney, Jules. "Charcoal, Bits and Balsa: Cross Media Tactics in the Foundation Design Studio." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 110-115. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper investigates the space between the computer and traditional design media. The focus is the identification of strategies for extending creativity in the foundation year design studio via tactics of cross media working. The integration of computers into the design studio are described within a particular drawing culture at the University of Auckland. Creativity is related to a pedagogy of'pattern'developed by M. Linzey. The cross media tactics are based on practical adaptation of the advantages of computing to the context of the foundation design studio (12 weeks / 80 students / 24 computers)
Colajanni, Benedetto, Salvatore Concialdi, and Giuseppe Pellitteri. "CoCoMa: a Collaborative Constraint Management System for the Collaborative Design." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 364-369. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Collaborative Design is a topic of particular current interest. Existing software allows a multiplicity of designers to work on the same project. What the software really allows is accessing to a part of the information of the project and changing it. Sometimes there is a hierarchical distribution of the power of change: some participants can be permitted to operate only on some limited layers of the object representation. In this case the changes they propose are to be accepted by a general manager of the design process. What is lacking in this kind of software is the explicit management on the reciprocal constraints posed by different participants. In this paper, an elementary Collaborative Design System is presented whose main concern is just the management of constraints. Each participant designs the part of the project of his/her concern instantiating objects comprised of geometric description, alphanumeric variables and constraints on both. Constraints can be of two types: absolute or defined by a range of allowed values of the constrained variable. A participant intervening later can accept the constraint, choosing a value in the permitted range, or decide to violate it. In this case the proposed violation is signalled to whom posed it.
Tunçer, Bige, and Rudi Stouffs. "Computational Richness in the Representation of Architectural Languages." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 603-610. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. An extensive analysis of an architectural object or body leads to a model composed of abstractions, each reflecting on a different aspect. Though separately described through drawings, diagrams, and texts, these abstractions relate in many ways, most commonly through shared components. An integrated model that recognizes these relationships yields more than only the original abstractions. We present a methodology for achieving such a rich representation and touch upon the tools and techniques necessary to implement this methodology. As an application of this methodology, we describe an interactive educational system for the presentation of architectural analyses.
McFadzean, Jeanette. "Computational Sketch Analyser (CSA): Extending the Boundaries of Knowledge in CAAD." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 503-510. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper focuses on the cognitive problem-solving strategies of professional architectural designers and their use of external representations for the production of creative ideas. Using a new form of protocol analysis (Computational Sketch Analysis), the research has analysed five architects'verbal descriptions of their cognitive reasoning strategies during conceptual designing. It compares these descriptions to a computational analysis of the architects'sketches and sketching behaviour. The paper describes how the current research is establishing a comprehensive understanding of the mapping between conceptualisation, cognition, drawing, and complex problem solving. The paper proposes a new direction for Computer Aided Architectural Design tools (CAAD). It suggests that in order to extend the boundaries of knowledge in CAAD an understanding of the complex nature of architectural conceptual problem-solving needs to be incorporated into and supported by future conceptual design tools.
Szalapaj, Peter, and David Chang. "Computer Architectural Representation - Applying the VOIDs Framework to a Bridge Design Scheme." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 387-394. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. A virtual environment presents sensory information and visual feedback to the user in order to give convincing illusion of an artificial world. In the architectural profession, the spatio-temporal metaphor in itself constitutes significant information retrieval, because we understand architecture by seeing it. This paper attempts to understand, and then to analyse the characteristics of representation of architectural models in virtual environments. We will examine the use and creativity of current computer generated architectural presentation in virtual environments. Our observations will be applied to the modelling of a bridge in Castlefield, Manchester, and evaluated by a group of students within the School of Architecture at Sheffield University. The conclusion of this paper will be the presentation of a conceptual structure for representing architectural models in virtual environments. This paper also explores the tension between the correspondence and constructivist views of representation. The correspondence view of representation relies on the idea that a representation corresponds to what is out there in the world. The constructivist view of representation advocates that any actual interpretation would depend on the context of their social and cultural backgrounds. However, the authors believe there should be a combination of these two views for architectural representation in virtual environments, and a framework developed by the authors - VOIDs will be presented.
Bassanino, May, and Andre Brown. "Computer Generated Architectural Images: a Comparative Study ." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 552-556. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This work is part of a long term research programme (Brown and Horton, 1992, Brown and Nahab, 1996, Bassanino, 1999) in which tests and studies have been carried out on various groups of people to investigate their reaction to, and interpretation of different forms of architectural representation. In the work described here a range of architectural schemes were presented using particular representational techniques and media. An experiment was then undertaken on two different groups, architects and lay people. They were presented with a number of schemes displayed using the various techniques and media. The responses are summarised and some comments are made on the effect of computers on perceiving architecture and on communicating architectural ideas arising from an analysis of the responses.
Coppola, Carlo. "Computers and Creativity in Architecture ." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 595-602. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The main purpose of this teaching and research project is to define those principles capable of determining a possible approach to computer-aided design for architecture - not seen as as a mere tool but as a way of supporting decision-making.
Terzidis, Kostas. "Computers and the Creative Process." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 43-50. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. In this paper the role of the computer in the creative process is discussed. The main focus is the investigation of whether computers can be regarded as candidates for sharing or participating in a task that has been attached almost exclusively to humans: that of creativity.
Wang, L., T. Jozen, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Construction of a Support System for Environmental Design." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 545-551. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The technique described here can be used to support the design process. To do this we constructed a system as follows:  First, to obtain resources of design, a semi-structured database was constructed to be share among designers, Second, to collaborate in operations, an XML-based collaborative information system using a semi-structured database was defined, Thirdly, to re-compose the 3DCG model parts, a re-compose system which can compose scenes in a visual space, were constructed, and finally, to support architects at the conceptual stage, a sketch VRML system which can compose 3D sketches, was constructed.
Zupancic, Tadeja Strojan, and Z. Tadeja. "CyberUniversity." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 196-200. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The study of a cyber university derives from an analogy between real urban space and its virtual “substitution”. It represents an attempt to balance some views, which seems to be contrary, exclusive, but they are just parts of the same wholeness. Especially the notion of a cyber society is lately considered such an exaggeration, that it is possible to forget the meaning of a real life experience and interactions, which are already threatened. One should contribute to the awarness that is used in such a comparison, it is “just” an analogy, not a real similarity. At the same time it is possible to point out some limitations of a cyberspace and indicate a more realistic view of the meaning of cyber communities. Awarness of the development processes could help to find a balance between reality and virtuality, using cyberfacilities not to destroy us (our identity) but to improve the quality of our (real) life.
Chambers, Tom, and John Wood. "Decoding to 2000 CAD as Mediator." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 210-216. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper will present examples of current practice in the Design Studio course of the BDE, University of Strathclyde. The paper will demonstrate an integrated approach to teaching design, which includes CAD among other visual communication techniques as a means to exploring design concepts and the presentation of complex information as part of the design process. It will indicate how the theoretical dimension is used to direct the student in their areas of independent study. Projects illustrated will include design precedents that have involved students in the review and assessment of landmarks in the history of design. There will be evidence of how students integrate DTP in the presentation of site analysis, research of appropriate design precedents and presentation of their design solutions. CADET underlines the importance of considering design solutions within the context of both our European cultural context and of assessing the environmental impact of design options, for which CAD is eminently suited. As much as a critical method is essential to the development of the design process, a historical perspective and an appreciation of the sophistication of communicative media will inform the analysis of structural form and meaning in a modem urban context. Conscious of the dynamic of social and historical influences in design practice, the student is enabled “to take a critical stand against the dogmatism of the school “(Gadamer, 1988) that inevitably insinuates itself in learning institutions and professional practice.
Montagu, Arturo, Diana Rodríguez Barros, and Lilia Chernobilsky. "Design, Qualitative Analysis and Digital Media: an Experimental Pedagogic Approach to the Cultural Evaluation and Integration of Media ." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 127-135. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Globalization is a multidimensional process which impregnates all the facts and events of our present culture and, as a by-product of this situation, there is a set of complex relationships where “intuitive behaviour plus knowledge and information technology” are central issues of the new pedagogic procedures of our times. In this paper we assume by “knowledgei the data obtained from a set of relationships orientated towards the “heuristic approachi from the point of view of “qualitative analysisi concepts (Muhr 91). Our main “provisional hypothesis” is to use this methodology to control the analysis-synthesis process as a continuous procedure during the design stages. One particular aspect of this view is going through the “informatic culture phenomenai which is the base of the present “turning point” of design procedures in most of the architectural and design schools around the world. This paper discusses how “mediai is affecting the “design process” regarding three aspects: the conceptual, the instrumental and the representational one. These aspects are affecting also the cultural models and creating new paradigms in the way how new design methodologies combine “heuristics procedures” with the growing set of computer graphics parameters.
Wingham, Ivana. "Digital Space, Social Technology and Virtual Force as Determinants of Design in the 21st Century." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 122-126. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. It is appropriate to begin with salient quotes relating to the Interface Paradigm:'The grand abstraction of man as the measure of all things, as an originary condition, a whole presence, can no longer be sustained'P. Eisenmann, 1986'Although notions of adaptation are perhaps most familiar from biology, the most important ideas about adaptation in the history of AI are actually sociological'P.E.Agre, 1998'When several bureaucracies coexist (governmental, academic, ecclesiastic) in the absence of super hierarchy to co-ordinate the interactions, the whole set of institutions will tend to form a meshwork of hierarchies, articulated mostly through local and temporary links'M. De Landa 1998
Juhasz, Peter, Zsolt Kiss, and Mihaly Szoboszlai. "Drawing's Dimensions." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 498-502. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Traditional methods used for 3-dimensional visualisation are rediscovered is many fields. Architects and designers have sought appropriate and useful computer-based techniques that they can describe spatial relation with. This paper considers the significant opportunity that is now available in education to help understanding of 3-dimensional space with stereo-equipment powered by computers.
Martens, Bob. "Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 761-769. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The aim and object of this account is to elaborate on the role of eCAADe within the present worldwide “CAAD-activities”. Each of the associations dedicated to the field of CAAD has taken its very own course of development, many cases of overlap and interaction have resulted, some of them, however, merely based on personal contacts. The purpose of eCAADe is to promote the sharing of ideas and collaboration in matters relating to Computer Aided Architectural Design. This, jointly drafted paper outlines these global aims within a worldwide context. The eCAADe umbrella covers both Europe and its periphery. Including the Middle East and North Africa. Though this does not apply as a kind of “territorial claim“, the primary affiliation of regions to at least one of the current international associations is sought. Historically, the early eighties are to be regarded as the period of first encounters with computers of larger proportions of people involved in architecture, simultaneously with the rise of personal computers. Thus various university sites acted as the forerunners in this field. Implementation of CAAD in teaching and research soon called for channeling the exchanges of experience via a suitable platform. The founding of ACADIA (the North American Organisation) in 1981, however, seems to have set the stage, as shortly thereafter the foundations for a European movement were laid.
zcan, Oguzhan Ö.. "Education of Interactive Panorama-design in Architecture." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 223-229. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper mainly discusses the importance of interactive panorama in design, and its education in the MDes program, which will run at Yildiz Technical University in the year 2000. The first part of the paper summarizes the potentials of current interactive panorama technique, which was “A popular form of the public entertainment” in 19th-century. Then, it compares the real-world experiences with observations in an interactive panorama. This comparison is carried out together with technical aspects i.e. limitations, audio-visual effects, composite techniques, live video input, and conceptual aspects i.e. camera actions, natural phenomenon. The technical discussion in the paper is concentrated on the examples from newly developed tools such as Nodemedia, Electrifier, Wasabi Software, and Skypaint as well as Apple QuickTime VR Authoring Tool.  The second part underlines the role of interactive panorama technique in design. In this part, the paper also summarizes how to use the technique at the beginning and, during creation of the design and in its presentation, taking the installation advantages of sound, vision, text and transition effects.  The third part concentrates on the interactive panorama design as an individual project, offered in the MDes program. Then it explains how the preliminary courses were planned for this individual project and summarizes the content of the course formulated through the linear and non-linear structures of the media.  Finally, considering with the future development of interactive panorama technique, the last part of the paper discusses the possible results of this education method.
Lee, E., Y. Ida, S Woo, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Environmental Design Using Fractals in Computer Graphics." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 533-538. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Computer graphics have developed efficient techniques for visualisation of the real world. Many of the algorithms have a physical basis, such as computational models for the light and the shadow, models of real objects (buildings, mountains, roads and so on) and the simulation of natural phenomenon. Now computer graphics techniques provide the virtual world with a perception of three dimensions. The concept of the virtual world and its technology have been expanding and intensifying in recent years. Almost everything in the real world has been simulated in virtual world. When it comes to a terrain model, what we need is labour and time. But now it is possible to simulate terrain like the real world using fractals in computer graphics with a very small program and small data set. This study aims to show how to build a real world impression in the virtual world. In this paper the authors suggest a landscape design method and show the results of its application.
QaQish, Ra'Ed. "Evaluation as a Key Tool to Bridge CAAD and Architecture Education." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 279-285. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper reports on the findings of a study carried out at Glasgow University which proposes a framework for the evaluation of architecture curriculum once integrated with CAAD. This study investigated the evaluation of CAAD teaching methods (CTM) and the effectiveness of CAAD integration (CI) and explored CAAD employment suitability in the design studio, and what influences does it have on the design process tuition using the Kirkpatrick model as a vehicle. The related CAAD evaluation variables investigated were: CAAD Tutor, Course Materials & Contents, Class Environment, Use of Media, Delivery Methodologies, Administrative Briefs, and Overall Effectiveness of CAAD event. Several other variables investigated were the levels of students'performance, attitudes, knowledge, new-stand, creativity and skills. The paper covered briefly some of the findings of the case studies acquired over two years at MSA, both observations and questionnaire surveys were used as methods of data collection. Evaluation deficiency postulates the weaknesses of CAAD in architecture schools. Evaluation of CAAD tuition should be a fundamental approach to address CAAD integration efficiency and problems, to achieve effectiveness and productivity amongst architecture schools.
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "Evolution of Computer Aided Design: Three Generations of CAD." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 94-100. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper describes the three generations of CAD systems. The first generation of (primarily analytical) computer programmes really aided designing. These programmes were the tools for finding a functional solution in different areas of designing, from flat plans to the space organisation of a hospital. One of the shortcomings of these programmes was the lack of graphic interface. With time, however, this kind of interface was developed. As a result of this second generation of CAD systems the computer was transformed into a drafting machine and CAD meant Computer Aided Drafting. The main thesis of this consideration is that only now we have the chance to return to the idea of Computer Aided Design. One of the examples of these trends is the AVOCAAD programme in which Added Value of CAAD is analysed. The development of the third generation of CAD systems will be possible in the near future. Aiding the process of designing will demand the elaboration of new methods of using the computer at the early stages of this process. The computer should be used not for generating variants of functional solutions only but for also for the creation of 3D forms by 3D sketching. For this, the computer should be transformed from a tool into a medium, only then will designing become true Designing in Cyber Space.
Mullins, Michael. "Forming, Planning, Imaging and Connecting." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 178-185. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper sets out to define aspects of the architectural design process, using historical precedent and architectural theory, and tests the relationship of those aspects to the application of computers in architectural design, particularly in an educational context. The design process sub-sets are defined as: Forming, Planning, Imaging and Connecting. Historical precedents are uncovered in Classical, Modern, Postmodern and Contemporary architecture. The defined categories of the design process are related to current usages of computers in architectural education towards elucidating the strengths and weaknesses of digital media in those areas. Indications of their concurrent usage in digital design will be demonstrated in analysis of design studio programs presented at recent ACADIA conferences. An example of a current design studio programme set at the School of Architecture University of Natal, South Africa in which the above described categories give an underlying structure to the introduction of 3D digital modelling to undergraduates through design process. The definition of this set of design activities may offer a useful method for other educators in assessing existing and future design programs where digital tools are used.
Loy, Hollis. "Foundation for a Thorough CAAD Education." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 301-308. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The birth and development of computing is considered by most as one of the greatest technological achievements of the twentieth century. Since the integration of computers in the built environment, over two decades ago, computing methods developed into efficient designing and calculating tools. In contrast, accelerating advancements in computing technology have created generation gaps amongst architects. There are inexperienced, novice, intermediate and advanced computer-capable architects. If each group was asked to define CAAD, some would still describe it as a computer program for technical draughting. Others may define CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) as a vast array of digital media in CAD, multimedia and DTP, assisting architects in compiling visual presentations. Currently, most architectural schools are capable of instructing most, if not all, facets of CAAD (2D & 3D CAD, model rendering, photo montage, brochure layouts, etc.). However, this knowledge is accumulated at random throughout the course of study. “Computer Graphics for Architects” is the latest educational development in Europe bridging generation gaps with senior architects and serving as an introductory CAAD seminar to beginning architecture students. This book and lecture presents a gallery of recent architectural CAD, multimedia, and DTP presentations practiced in Europeis second largest architectural firm. The terminology is user-friendly and its content concentrates on responding to the most often posed questions by CAAD beginners relating to: (1) Terminology (2) Appearance (3) Time Consumption (4) Cost Techniques introduced are independent of any platform. The goal is to summarize quickly and effectively the countless possibilities of presentations applicable in architecture practice. “Computer Graphics for Architects” provides a direction for future presentations and motivates students to excel in CAAD.
Petrovic, Igor, and Igor Svetel. "From Number Cruncher to Digital Being: the Changing Role of Computer in CAAD." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 33-39. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The paper reflects on a thirteen-year period of CAAD research and development by a small group of researchers and practitioners. Starting with simple algorithmic drafting programmes, the work transcended to expert systems and distributed artificial intelligence, using computers as tools. The research cycle is about to begin afresh, computers in the next century shall not be detached entities but the extensions of man. The computer shall be the medium that will enable a designer to be what he/she really is. This future has already begun.
Kosco, Igor. "How the World Became Smaller." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 230-237. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The world of computers became fruitful and independent before the new millennium started. New technologies and methods are giving us new tools and possibilities every day as well as the challenge how to use them. The advantage of architecture and namely of architects teaching at the universities or schools is remarkable: new techniques reflect the education, research and practice - and what is important - by one person. The links between practice and university from the point of view: how the computer technologies and CAAD influences methods of designing, managing and collaboration are very important in both directions. It grows with the number of students who left university with good computer skills on one side and number of architectural and engineering offices using computers on the other. Networks and Internet enables to exchange data but also experiences. Internet itself is not only a tool for surfing and enjoying or the source of information, but preferably like a powerful tool for collaboration, workgroups, virtual studios or long distance education. This paper describes experiences from research and educational projects between Slovak Technical University, IUG Grenoble, University of Newcastle and others and their influence on architectural education and practice.
Gabryszewski, Artur. "Idea of an Intelligent Building - Development Prospects." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 739-743. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. An ever-increasing number of offices as also residential buildings are being realised by designers and investors in accordance with the concept of an intelligent building. Houses of the new generation are being constructed. This is possible thanks to dynamic progress in the development of computer and microprocessor engineering techniques. Putting into reality the idea of the'intelligent building'will become one of the most interesting assignments of Polish building industry in the rapidly approaching XXI century. The term'intelligent building'first appeared in the eighties. The idea behind this conception is aspiring to create a friendly, work supporting, effective environment. The revolution in telecommunications and information technology along with change in the standards of office work, have caused computer networks and modem systems of automation and protection, to invade buildings. From the technical point of view, an intelligent building is an object in which all the subsystems co-operate with each other, forming a friendly environment for man. For users of an intelligent building, the most important issue is realisation of the following aims: object management which includes both control of human resources and automation systems in the building and also efficient management of the building space in such a way that the costs of its utilisation are minimised. The possibility of optional installation of modern systems and equipment should be facilitated by the architecture itself. Therefore, the specifics of all the building elements should be taken into account right at the designing stage. The following features characterise an intelligent building: integration of telecommunication systems in the building, central management and supervision system and utilisation of structural cabling as the carrier of signals controlling most of the systems in the building. Presently, there is no building in Poland that could be characterised by the three features mentioned.
Lentz, Uffe. "Integrated Design with Form and Topology Optimizing." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 116-121. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The topic of this paper is to describe the ability of 3D CAD systems to integrate designers and engineers into a simultaneous process developing a functional and aesthetic concept in a close and equal interdisciplinary process. We already have the Finite Element Method, FEM systems for analyzing the mechanical behaviour of constructions. This technique is suitable for justifying design aspects in the final part of the design process. A new group of CAE systems under the generic term Topology optimizing has the potentials to handle aspects of conceptual design and aesthetic criteria. Such interactive design tools do not eliminate the designer, but the relationship between the designer and other professions and the professional consciousness of the designer will change. It is necessary to develop common ideas able to connect the scientific and the artistic fields. The common aesthetic values must be clarified and the corresponding formal ideas be developed. These tools could be called “Construction tools for the intelligent useri (Olhoff, 1998) because the use of optimizing is based on a profound knowledge of the techniques.
Bille, Pia. "Integrating GIS and Electronic Networks in Urban Design and Planning ." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 722-728. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. In 1998 I undertook an inquiry into the use of information technology in Urban Design and Planning in Danish municipalities and among planning consultants. The aim was to find out who was working with the IT and for what purposes it was used. In education there seems to be barriers to a full integration of the new media, and I wanted to find out if that was also the case in the practise of architects and planners. Surprisingly I discovered that there was a computer on almost every desk, - but there were big differences in the use of the technology. The investigation described here is based on interviews with planners in selected municipalities and with urban planning consultants, and the results have been summarised in a publication.
Mortola, E, A. Giangrande, P Mirabelli, and A Fortuzzi. "Interactive Didactic Modules for On-Line Learning via Internet." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 273-278. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. On-line learning can become a very efficient method of teaching in the University of the future. The Students can plan their curricula by selecting the offers of some universities coordinated that meet their specific aims. The communication interchange between student and teacher can be enriched through new forms of interaction via network technology. Laboratories of interactive design, which involve the participation of citizens, can become a good occasion to learn designing linked to the human needs. The architect who is interested in the sustainable development has to consider local needs and interact with users to build a new environment full of local values.
Russell, Peter, N Kohler, U. Forgber, V Koch, and J. Rügemer. "Interactive Representation of Architectural Design: the Virtual Design Studio as an Architectural Graphics Laboratory." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 459-465. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper introduces the Virtual Design Studio (VDS), an internet based design studio environment established by ifib. VDS transfers lessons learned through research projects in the field of Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) being carried out at ifib into design education. By training for interdisciplinary co-operation within the design process, the students will become better prepared for the flexibility and co-operability required in planning situations. Increasing the communication and co-operation in the planning process can be achieved through the implementation of IT based virtual workspaces. In the design studio setting, this is done through the use of available internet software and technologies. The methodology of the VDS is briefly described including specific assignments intended to focus student investigations into specific areas including the representation of their work using the world wide web. The pedagogical expectations are discussed and anecdotal evidence precedes an general evaluation of the teaching method. The authors postulate that one of the unintended by-products of the studio is the evolution of an effective use of interactivity in the presentation of design concepts, ideas and solutions. A handful of student work is presented to describe the different approaches taken in using the world wide web (WWW) to display project work. A description of the local evolution (VDS specific) of graphical methods and technologies is followed by a comparison with those used in traditional settings. Representation is discussed with focus on the ability of the WWW to replace, augment or corrupt other methods of presentation. The interactive nature of web based presentations induces alterations to the narration of architectural work and can enhance the spatial perception of design space. Space Perception can be enabled through geometrically true VRML representations, the inclusion of auditory sensations, the abstraction of representation through the use of advertising techniques as well as the introduction of non-linear narrative concepts. Examples used by students are shown. A critical assessment of these new representational methods and the place of current new media within the context of architectural representation is discussed.
Holmgren, Steen, and Bjarne Rüdiger. "IT in Urban Regeneration Projects." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 708-713. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper is about the development of new tools for the residents to use for participation in the planning process and by the professional generating proposals for projects. It deals with two actual research projects, which might be described as transition projects. The projects are Digital 3D City Model of Copenhagen and Urban Architecture in Urban Renewal, - in dialogue between professionals and residents. These projects take their point of departure in the architects traditional working methods and working tools, but they focus on new methods for the dialogue between professionals and inhabitants and on a new visual language based on the digital technology. In this transition situation we see the educated architect as well as the politician and the inhabitant as students in a common learning process. In the end of the paper we introduce a planned project about IT in Urban Renewal. The project is based on an ongoing governmental experiment with involving inhabitants actively in the renewal of their urban area. This project is intended to combine dialogue methods with the use of interactive 3D-digital City models on the Internet.
Howes, Jaki. "IT or not IT? an Examination of IT Use in an Experimental Multi-disciplinary Teamwork Situation." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 370-373. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Leeds Metropolitan University is well placed to carry out research into multi-disciplinary team-working, as all the design and construction disciplines are housed in one faculty. Staff have set up an experimental project, TIME IT (Team-working in Multi-disciplinary Environments using IT) which examines ways of working in the design/construction process and how IT is used when there is no commercial pressure. Four groups of four students, one graduate diploma architect, and one final year student from each of Civil Engineering, Construction Management and Quantity Surveying have been working on feasibility studies for projects that are based on completed schemes or have been devised by collaborators in the Construction Industry. Students have been asked to produce a PowerPoint presentation, in up to five working days, of a design scheme, with costs, structural analysis and construction programme. The students are not assessed on the quality of the product, but on their own ability to monitor the process and use of IT. Despite this, aggressive competition evolved between the teams to produce the'best'design. Five projects were run in the 1998/99 session. A dedicated IT suite has been provided, each group of students had exclusive use of a machine. They were not told how to approach the projects nor when to use the available technology, but were asked to keep the use of paper to a minimum and to keep all their work on the server, so that it could be monitored externally. Not so. They plotted the AO drawings of an existing building that had been provided on the server. They like paper - they can scribble on it, fold it, tear it and throw it at one another.
De Grassi, M, A Giretti, and P Pinese. "Knowledge Structures of Episodic Memory in Architectural Design: an Example of Protocol Analysis." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 576-583. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The Protocol Analysis of the design process is a very recent and very promising research field. It is believed that good application-oriented developments are possible mainly in the tutorial field (ITS). The research conducted up to now has primarily dealt with the study of the design process. On the contrary, we propose an investigation experiment on the knowledge structures relative to the use of the episodic memory in the architectural design. The proposed experiment concerns the monitoring of the cognitive processes utilised by tutors and students in a brief, but yet complete design session. The results have lead to a synthetic model (computational model) of the adopted knowledge structures, and to a complete index system oriented and organised according to semantic fields. The application of the synthetic model to the design process analysis of students and tutors enabled the definition of the different utilisation strategies of episodic memory to be defined. The results obtained will make up the structure of a tutorial program for the architectural design.
Burry, Mark, Tony Dawson, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Learning about Architecture with the Computer, and Learning about the Computer in Architecture." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 374-382. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Most students commencing their university studies in architecture must confront and master two new modes of thought. The first, widely known as reflection-in-action, is a continuous cycle of self-criticism and creation that produces both learning and improved work. The second, which we call here design making, is a process which considers building construction as an integral part of architectural designing. Beginning students in Australia tend to do neither very well, their largely analytic secondary education leaves the majority ill-prepared for these new forms of learning and working. Computers have both complicated and offered opportunities to improve this situation. An increasing number of entering students have significant computing skill, yet university architecture programs do little in developing such skill into sound and extensible knowledge. Computing offers new ways to engage both reflection-in-action and design making. The collaboration between two Schools in Australia described in detail here pools computer-based learning resources to provide a wider scope for the education in each institution, which we capture in the phrase: Learn to use computers in architecture (not use computers to learn architecture). The two shared learning resources are Form Making Games (Adelaide University), aimed at reflection-in-action and The Construction Primer (Deakin University and Victoria University of Wellington), aimed at design making. Through contributing to and customising the resources themselves, students learn how designing and computing relate. This paper outlines the collaborative project in detail and locates the initiative at a time when the computer seems to have become less self-consciously assimilated within the wider architectural program.
Heylighen, Ann, and Herman Neuckermans. "Learning from Experience: Promises, Problems and Side-effects of CBD in Architecture." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 567-575. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Learning from design experience is the essence of Case-Based Design (CBD). Because architects are said to learn design by experience, CBD seems to hold great promises for architectural design, which have inspired various CBD tools. Learning from the experience of developing and using these tools is the objective of this paper. On the one hand, the original expectations seem far from being accomplished today. Reasons for this limited success can be found at three different levels. Level one is the cognitive model underlying CBD, which raises some specific difficulties within the field of architecture. At the level of implementation, few tools manage to draw the full consequences of this view, thus leading to an oversimplification of CBD and/or architectural design. Level three has to do with introducing CBD tools in design education and assessing the effects of this introduction. On the other hand, CBD seems to have caused some interesting side effects, such as an increased interest in creativity and copyright, and the recent re-discovery of the key-role cases play inside and outside the field of CAAD. Thus, although its promises may not be fulfilled, CBD definitely can contribute to design education, be it sometimes without the support of computer technology.
Kokosalakis, Jen. "Learning to Learn Through Computing: Sensitising Surveys and Empowering Urban Stakeholder's Input to Policy." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 714-721. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Reflection on three decades using computing at JMU, to teach survey techniques to planners, with application to community research projects, reveals that each computing “learningi threshold/milestone enabled each protagonist (research lecturer, planning student, professional and community-stakeholder),ito learni more broadly. This facilitated more sensitive data-gathering-so empowering respondent/residents with more control to define data to influence urban policy. The seventies'mechanical processing and limited computing experience restricted data quality/depth. Hand-processing'edge punch cards'recorded enriched variety and depth. Learning computing from Maths lecturers enabled students to learn to control SPSS program and data files. Maths lecturers'withdrawal necessitated the authors'learning, which brought control of the whole process, so facilitating informal inductive interviews-more open to respondents'control over topics to be discussed. Planners learning 3DCAAD-modelling, learned to conceptualise spatially. Community members used CAAD with greater ease, possibly through greater Internet and games experience. Free, EU-funded, private, government, and so on training schemes for Merseysiders, may enfranchise them to define and submit their own demands regarding urban regeneration, directly, through new technological channels (opened by Local Authorities). And new partnering, with private, public and developer agencies may drive these initiatives home.
Murison, Alison. "Less is More - Enhancing CAD Instruction by Enabling Student Centred Learning, a Case Study for Learning 2000." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 262-265. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper describes a structured programme of instruction in the use and application of CAD to architectural design, where programmed lectures and seminars were abandoned to be replaced by student centred learning and appropriate support. The Third Year CAD course at Edinburgh College of Art was reshaped completely. Only one lecture was given to outline the course, thereafter all attendance was optional, and a variety of learning methods were offered. Student reaction was recorded and the learning outcome assessed. Final student marks showed a definite improvement.
Jerzy, Wojtowicz, and Kazimierz Butelski. "Lessons from Distributed Design Practice." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 482-487. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Parallel to the expansion of the internet, the acceptance of computerization in architectural practice is clearly evident. This paper signals the emergence of long-distance design collaborations over networks as a pragmatic condition of contemporary design practice, and reports on several successful design projects conceived under these new circumstances. Experiences from these projects were important in formulating both the limits and opportunities derived from the distributed design condition.
Ferrar, Steve. "New Worlds, New Landscapes." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 424-430. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Evolution, said Julian Huxley, is in three different sectors. The first is organic - the cosmic process of matter. The second is biological - the evolution of plants and animals. The third is psychological and is the development of man's cultures. It is this third stage that is now critical, and if we are to survive as a species it can only be by replacing nature's controls by our own, not only birth control but our use of the whole environment. (Nan Fairbrother, New Lives, New Landscapes)
Nakamura, H., Riken Homma, and Mitsuo Morozumi. "On the development of Excavation Support System." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 341-348. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper is about the development of a system that supports excavation surveys by use of a PC. The system consists of two sub-systems: One is the Onsite Support System (OSS). Other is the Excavation Data Shearing System (EDSS). OSS combines a database with a general purpose CAD system. When OSS is used, it is description by excavation site and information can be managed. EDSS combines a WEB server, a database, and a VRML server. When EDSS is used, information of relic can be shared on the Internet and discussed by researchers away from the site. It provides the users with a virtual reality experience of the excavation site. The experimental system has been used as a tool by practical excavation survey of Islam city ruins from the Middle Ages in the Arab Republic of Egypt. In this paper, the framework of the system is introduced. The authors verified the effectiveness of the system by participating in an excavation survey.
Shounai, Y., Mitsuo Morozumi, Riken Homma, and Y. Murakami. "On the Development of Group Work CAD for Network PC: GW-CAD III ." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 473-481. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The number of Virtual Design Studio experiments that use a Digital Pin-up Board (WWW) and video conferencing tools is rapidly increasing. As we see that several schools have introduced group-ware to support asynchronous communication of their projects, it is possible to regard that techniques for asynchronous communication have already been developed to some extent. However, participants of those projects still have difficulty with synchronous communication. For example, though designers often desire to exchange models among members to get critical feedback and achieve fast problem solving while working at their desks, there are few CADs that can support concurrent synchronous design communication among members. The first half of this paper discusses a model of synchronous design communication that uses CAD models, and then proposes a prototype of tools that use Microsoft NetMeeting and AutoCAD R14: GW-CAD III. In the middle, a user interface system that enables designers to conveniently model and exchange separate sets of models necessary to elaborate different aspects of design is proposed: “Network Clipboardi “Modelling Spacei, “Plan Facei, and “Section Facei. Finally, this paper discusses the results of several experiments that used the prototype.
Geroimenko, Vladimir. "Online Photorealistic VR with Interactive Architectural Objects ." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 414-417. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper describes how Virtual Reality (VR) technologies can be used for modelling photorealistic environments with interactive and changeable architectural content. This application of VR allows us to create photograph-based panoramic models of real places that include a variety of interactive architectural objects and details. The user is able not only to navigate through a virtual environment (look around, up and down, zoom, jump to another viewpoint or location) but also to change buildings or their architectural details by clicking, moving or rotating. The following types of interactive objects are completely integrated with a virtual environment: 2D image-based objects, 3D image-based objects, 3D VRML-based objects and onscreen world controls. The application can be used effectively for teaching, including distance Internet-based education, project presentations and rapid prototyping. A sample VR environment is presented and some of the key creative and technological issues are discussed.
Naticchia, Berardo. "Physical Knowledge in Patterns: Bayesian Network Models for Preliminary Design." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 611-619. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Computer applications in design have pursued two main development directions: analytical modelling and information technology. The former line has produced a large number of tools for reality simulation (i.e. finite element models), the latter is producing an equally large amount of advances in conceptual design support (i.e. artificial intelligence tools). Nevertheless we can trace rare interactions between computation models related to those different approaches. This lack of integration is the main reason of the difficulty of CAAD application to the preliminary stage of design, where logical and quantitative reasoning are closely related in a process that we often call'qualitative evaluation'. This paper briefly surveys the current development of qualitative physical models applied in design and propose a general approach for modelling physical behaviour by means of Bayesian network we are employing to develop a tutoring and coaching system for natural ventilation preliminary design of halls, called VENTPad. This tool explores the possibility of modelling the causal mechanism that operate in real systems in order to allow a number of integrated logical and quantitative inference about the fluid-dynamic behaviour of an hall. This application could be an interesting connection tool between logical and analytical procedures in preliminary design aiding, able to help students or unskilled architects, both to guide them through the analysis process of numerical data (i.e. obtained with sophisticate Computational Fluid Dynamics software) or experimental data (i.e. obtained with laboratory test models) and to suggest improvements to the design.
Bridges, Alan. "Progress? What Progress?" In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 321-326. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999.

This paper briefly reviews some of the history of computer graphics standardisation and then presents two specific case studies: one comparing HTML with SGML and Troff and the other comparing VRML with the Tektronix - Interactive Graphics Language implementation of the ACM Core Standard. In each case, it will be shown how the essential intellectual work carried out twenty years ago still lies at the foundations of the newer applications.

Hall, Rick. "Realtime 3D visual Analysis of Very Large Models at Low Cost." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 437-441. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Computer based visualisation of 3D models in architecture has been possible for 20 years or more, and the software technology has steadily improved during this time so that now incredibly realistic images can be generated from any viewpoint in a model, and impressive fly through sequences can bring a model to life in ways previously not possible. Virtual reality is with us and multi-media enables us to present a finished design in increasingly seductive ways. However, these forms of output from a 3D model offer much more limited benefits during the design process and particularly on large complex models because they are so computing intensive and it often require many hours to produce just one image. Anything other than a small and relatively simple model cannot be viewed dynamically in real-time on a desktop PC of the type commonly used by architects in a design office. Until now the solution to this problem has meant investing in expensive design review hardware and software with its inherent need for trained, skilled labour. As a result, design review products are often viewed as a luxury or costly necessity.
Selles, Pascual. "RGB Winds are Blowing in the Design Studio." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 286-291. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper presents the results of two design studio elective courses offered to students in their second and third semester of studies at the Design Studio Department, “Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, UPV.” Classes are based on a methodology that directly relates the language of architectural form and space, to the language of the specific software being used. Our focus is not only to discover what may be represented, but most important what may not, and why. We aim to point out the differences between architecture as perceived and experienced by a human being, and its digital representation as a computer data structure. At the Digital Design Studio, students are faced with a sequence of two projects so as to learn the basics of architecture, while developing their skill to build a digital representation of it. The first exercise within this CAD sequence is reading and analyzing a built project: a study of precedent. With this exercise we aim at two goals: to decipher the keys or parameters of architectural design, from drawings and pictures, trying to recognize an “architectural language”, and to learn a particular syntax of digital modelling. The second exercise is a project of a single family house within a narrow rectangular site and with only one street elevation. With this project we focus on the strong impact of stairs on the organization of functions and circulation, the illumination and ventilation of spaces with double heights and patios, and study the power of the section to express clearly the organization of spaces.
Yakeley, Megan. "Simultaneous Translation in Design: the Role of Computer Programming in Architectural Education." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 58-68. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. In this paper it is proposed that architectural design involves simultaneous translation between several different languages and their corresponding systems of notation. The process of educating architects involves teaching fluency in these systems both separately and together. To improve pedagogical efficiency the physical manifestation of the languages - the graphical product - should be separated from the continuous expression of ideas in these languages - the conversational process. Digital media offer the opportunity to learn the process of translation between these systems, and thus form a strong foundation for the ability to design. Here a course taught at MIT by the author is described whose central theme is the development of design process through the use of the intermediary system of notation of a procedural programming language.
Reffat, Rabee, and John S. Gero. "Situatedness: a New Dimension for Learning Systems in Design." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 252-261. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. In this paper we adopt the approach that designing is a series of situated acts, ie designing cannot be pre-planned to completion. This is based on ideas from situated cognition theory that claims that what people perceive, how they conceive and what they do develop together and are adapted to the environment. For a system to be useful for human designers it must have the ability to associate what is learned to its environment. In order for a system to do that such a system must be able to acquire knowledge of the environment that a design constructs. Therefore, acknowledging the notion of situatedness is of importance to provide a system with such capability and add on a new dimension to existing learning systems in design. We will call such a learning system within the design domain a Situated Learning Design System (SLDS). A SLDS should be able to create its own situational categories from its perceptual experiences and modify them if encountered again to link the learned knowledge to its corresponding situation. We have chosen architectural shapes as the vehicle to demonstrate our ideas and used multiple representations to build a platform for a SLDS to learn from. In this paper the notion of situatedness and its role in both designing and learning is discussed. The overall architecture of a SLDS is introduced and how the potential outcome of such a system will support human designers while designing is discussed.
Jozen, T., L. Wang, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Sketch VRML - 3D Modeling of Conception." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 557-563. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. When an idea hits upon architect's mind suddenly, that idea may be memorized on a piece of paper like as napkin of a restaurant, reverse face of pamphlet etc. For conceptual design, free-form drawing with pencil and paper can efficiently delineate architect's thinking. In environmental design such as urban developing, architects usually describe their initial conception on 2D sketch. Our aim is to construct the Sketch-VRML system mixing non-photo realistic free-form 2D sketch and usual 3D computer graphics for conceptual design applying it to environmental design. It is our principle that we can use CG lightly and naturally like'croquis'with no special hardware needed but just pencil and paper. From free-form 2D sketch on paper, the Sketch-VRML system builds it up to 3D model'as is'resembling free hand drawing and it can be revolved and extruded. 3DCG component already produced will be useful material for design making as well as sketches. Therefore, we would like to use these materials as conception making resource with database.
Stellingwerff, Martijn. "SketchBoX." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 491-497. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Most Computer Aided Architectural Design software suits the engineered aspects of design quite well but is lacking as a design medium. As far as sketching is concerned, many architects still rely on traditional media such as pen and paper and scale models. This paper presents a theory concerning design media and the application of typical media aspects in a spatial sketch program. SketchBoX is conceived as an experimental 3D version of a sketchbook. It can be used for the notation of primary forms and structures in'architectural'space. The program consists of several transparent drawing surfaces that can be placed in relation to each other and in relation to models of design or different design contexts. Thus architects and students in architecture might be able to explore more adequately the spatial configuration of the built environment and they can comment within the models of their designs. Architectural group discussions and collaborative work can be enhanced by SketchBoX because visual annotations can be made directly in relation to a 3D model. This paper describes the consequent design considerations and expected use of the SketchBoX program.
Willey, David. "Sketchpad to 2000: from Computer Systems to Digital Environments ." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 526-532. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. It can be argued that over the last thirty five years computer aided architectural design (CAAD) has made little impact in terms of aiding design. The paper provides a broadbrush review of the last 35 years of CAAD research and suggests that the SKETCHPAD notion that has dominated CAAD since 1963 is now a flawed concept. Then the discipline was replete with Modernist concepts of optimal solutions, objective design criteria and universal design standards. Now CAD needs to proceed on the basis of the Post Modern ways of thinking and designing opened up by digital techniques - the Internet, multimedia, virtual reality, electronic games, distance learning. Computers facilitate information flow and storage. In the late seventies and eighties the CAAD research community's response to the difficulties it had identified with the construction of integrated digital building models was to attempt to improve the intelligence of the computer systems to better match the understanding of designers. Now it is clear that the future could easily lie with CAAD systems that have almost no intelligence and make no attempt to aid the designer. Communication is much more central to designing than computing.
Blaise, Jean-Yves, and Iwona Dudek. "SOL: Spatial and Historical Web-Based Interface for on Line Architectural Documentation of Krakow's Rynek Gowny." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 700-707. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Our paper presents recent developments of a co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France), specialised in computer science and the HAiKZ Institute of Krakow's Faculty of Architecture, specialised in architectural heritage and conservation. Before undertaking any action to a listed building or interventions in its neighbourhood, it is vital to gain a clear understanding of the building in question. Numerous heterogeneous data detained by diverse institutions has to be handled. This process can be greatly eased by enhanced classification of the information. The development we present is a multidisciplinary platform independent information tool dedicated to education and research. SOL uses an http protocol centred computer architecture connecting a relational database, a VRML 2.0 representation module and a web search interface. It allows searches and updating of the database through a standard text based interface, a VRML 2.0 graphical module and a thematic interface. SOL is experienced on the urban fabric of the Main Square (Rynek Gówny) in Kraków. The choice of a web-centred development, both in the search and updating interface and in the representation module provides platform independence and distant access to the database, and enables successive contributions of students or researchers.
Emdanat, S., Emmanuel-George Vakalo, and W. Birmingham. "Solving Form-Making Problems Using Shape Algebras and Constraint Satisfaction." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 620-625. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Shape grammars are well known approaches in design space exploration. This paper reviews the current work on shape grammars in design and suggests that considerable gains can be attained by integrating parametric shape grammar based design approaches with distributed constraint-based problem solving. Parametric grammars are represent design topologies while distributed constrain satisfaction can be used to maintain consistency and produce the space of feasible design solutions. Designers'decision making can be coordinated such that constraints cannot be violated and designs that exhibit the highest utility (value) are selected.
Clayton, Mark, and Guillermo p Vasquez de Velasco. "Stumbling, Backtracking, and Leapfrogging: Two Decades of Introductory Architectural Computing." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 151-158. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Our collective concept of computing and its relevance to architecture has undergone dramatic shifts in emphasis. A review of popular texts from the past reveals the biases and emphases that were current. In the seventies, architectural computing was generally seen as an elective for data processing specialists. In the early eighties, personal computers and commercial CAD systems were widely adopted. Architectural computing diverged from the “batchi world into the “interactive” world. As personal computing matured, introductory architectural computing courses turned away from a foundation in programming toward instruction in CAD software. By the late eighties, Graphic User Interfaces and windowing operating systems had appeared, leading to a profusion of architecturally relevant applications that needed to be addressed in introductory computing. The introduction of desktop 3D modelling in the early nineties led to increased emphasis upon rendering and animation. The past few years have added new emphases, particularly in the area of network communications, the World Wide Web and Virtual Design Studios. On the horizon are topics of electronic commerce and knowledge markets. This paper reviews these past and current trends and presents an outline for an introductory computing course that is relevant to the year 2000.
Cha, Myung, and John S. Gero. "Style Learning: Inductive Generalisation of Architectural Shape Patterns." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 629-644. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Art historians and critics have defined the style as common features appeared in a class of objects. Abstract common features from a set of objects have been used as a bench mark for date and location of original works. Common features in shapes are identified by relationships as well as physical properties from shape descriptions. This paper will focus on how the computer recognises common shape properties from a class of shape objects to learn style. Shape representation using schema theory has been explored and possible inductive generalisation from shape descriptions has been investigated.
De Mesa, A., J. Quilez, and J. Regot. "Sunlight Energy Graphic and Analytic Control in 3D Modelling." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 733-738. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Linking solar positions with architecture is a traditional idea, but the use of graphical tools to control sunlight in urban surroundings or buildings is relatively recent. A three-dimensional working environment like the computer offers a new dimension to verify the relationships between the sun and the architecture. This paper shows a new way to calculate the incidence of solar energy in architectural environments using computer 3D modelling. The addition of virtual space visualisation to the analytic computation brings a new tool that simplifies the technical study of sunlight. We have developed several programs based upon the three-dimensional construction of the solar vault and the obstructing objects for a defined position. The first one draws the solar vault for a defined range of dates according to latitude, that is the basis of the energetic calculation. The second program computes the obstruction, i.e. the solar regions that are obstructed by any object. Finally, the third one, allow us to define an orientation to compute the energy that arrives to the analysed positioning. The last program returns the result of calculation in several ways: it shows the amount of energy through colours and makes a list of solar hours according to its energy.
Tsou, Jin-Yeu, and Benny Chow. "Team Orientated Knowledge Construction for Architectural Education." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 292-300. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Information Technology is always more accessible when we trying to imagine what the IT could be actually used. This situation is even more noticeable in the architecture field, and there are various technologies that have failed on delivering urgent needed education quality. Meanwhile, the tradition architecture education is evolving rapidly under the concepts of problem-based approach, knowledge reconstruction, and self-guided learning. “Education without institutional boundary” happens everyday in the classroom, and multi-direction learning modes have replaced the traditional single-direction teaching approach. The role of IT in the curriculum of architectural design education has become a subject of debate, scrutiny and experimentation in architectural schools. This paper will first outline the theory of applying team-oriented knowledge construction approach into studio teaching, the setup of our integrated digital design media environment is introduced, organization issue regarding the team formation and studio coordination is discussed, case studies are illustrated for demonstrating the methodology applied, and the student feedback is summarized to analysis the effectiveness of the approach.
Roberts, Andrew, and John Counsell. "The BEATL Project: Embedding Appropriate CAL in the Teaching of Architecture." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 334-340. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper is based upon the premise that Computer Aided Learning (CAL) has been poorly integrated into schools of Architecture and it identifies some of the barriers that have prevented this. The Built Environment Appropriate Technology for Learning (BEATL) project aims to promote a climate of change within which these barriers can be crossed. The focus of BEATL is on providing a framework within which technology assisted teaching can be adopted for particular elements of taught courses through a process of module pairing, and collaboration between Built Environment faculties at three UK Universities. The paper discusses the early stages of the Project and outlines the methodologies developed for embedding and transferring innovations between institutions, the support of'Educational Technology Officers'and the evaluation strategies being utilised. Early results indicate the benefits of a focus on a individual element rather than a whole module and that generic innovations tend to be more successfully transferred than'off the shelf'Computer Aided Learning products.
Lee, Hwa-Ryong. "The Changing Face of Architectural Computing Research." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 17-Nov. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper examines the existing commercial and on-going research computer applications for architectural design. It investigates their uses, predictions and limitations, and reviews the teleology, technologies and theories exploited for computerising design. Finally, I will discuss two trends in the developments of CAAD, and present the new directions in CAAD research. This study will be based on understanding the computer's roles in designing, and further on establishing a new theoretical paradigm for mediating a computer system.
Papanikolaou, Maria, and Bige Tunçer. "The Fake.Space Experience - Exploring New Spaces." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 395-402. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Fake.space is an elective CAAD course in which teachers and students form an online community. It is a Web-based communication environment for the exchange of ideas on the concept of space. Fake.space is also a narrative structure consisting of threads of nodes created by students. These nodes present different aspects of space. Fake.space represents our current generation of teaching environments. In this paper we describe and analyse its latest incarnation and discuss our aims and thoughts for further development. We believe that fake.space reflects on a future where online environments entice the students in a playful way to work with computers and CAD and consider the role of networked environments in architectural space.
Maver, Thomas W., and J. Petric. "The Future Will Be Just like the Past: Only More So: a Tribute to the Late John Lansdown." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 5-Mar. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The contribution made by the late John Lansdown (1929 - 1999) to the application of computers to a range of creative disciplines, including architecture is outstanding. This paper attempts to capture the essence of his contribution, to celebrate its impact and to conjecture on the trajectory of his vision.
Voigt, A., H.P. Walchhofer, and Helena Linzer. "The Historico-cultural Past as Spatial-related Cognition Archives: Computer-assisted Methods in the History of Urban Development, Archeology and History of Art." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 672-677. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Implementation of computer-assisted visualizing methods in studying historico-cultural facts provides archeological and historico-cultural research with a tool adding to consolidation of knowledge resulting from assumptions. The visualizing methods presently available by utilizing of computers have advanced to an extent justifying their implementation in the field of archeological and historico-cultural research. The present contribution covers the above matters by means of a variety of applied examples performed at the Institute for Local Planning at the Vienna University of Technology dealing with history of urban development, archeology and history of art.
Francis, Sabu. "The Importance of Being Abstract: an Indian Approach to Models." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 101-109. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Traditional Indian way of life is surrounded by ambiguity. This is in direct contrast to an Aristotelian approach, where polarised stands are always taken. A black and white approach tends to yield results speedily, but exhaustive solutions which can explain complexity are usually brute force procedures. Even so, their conclusions in the end are still suspect. The author believes that rich solutions may exist when we use an'alternate'or abstract synthesized reality to do our modelling instead of relying on analogies and other direct links to the real world. Models that allow synthesis tend to accept ambiguity. The author presents in this paper an'unconventional'system to represent architecture which has had some amount of success probably because it started of, on pure abstract grounds that allowed ambiguity instead of basing it on an Aristotelian, analytical model.
Tournay, Bruno. "The Software Beats the Hardware." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 74-79. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The paper is based on ongoing reflections concerning the importance of information technology in architecture. Such reflections are necessary to develop research concerning the use of information technology in architectural design, so as to shift the focus from purely technological development to an actual field of research. The result of these reflections to date suggests that research into the significance of information technology in architecture must go via sociological research on the subject, since information technology has become a social factor. The central element in such research will be to identify and specify how the virtual world which is developing can be articulated in relation to the physical world. One of the ways of doing this is to use metaphors.
Benedetti, Cristina, and Giulio Salvioni. "The Use of Renewable Resource in Architecture: New Teaching Methodologies." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 751-756. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The program is organized into four parts. Each is very much connected, both logically and methodologically, so that the unit as a whole consists of a content and method of access that are not divided up. This method is not in a chronological order that simply goes in one direction, rather it allows the user to “refer back”, in real time and in different directions. For the simple purpose of explanation, the sections of the program are listed as follows: (-) “Basic information” concerns the basics of bioclimatic and timber architecture. Without this knowledge, the other two sections would be difficult to understand, (-) “Actual buildings throughout the world”, give examples of architectural quality, they concretize the basics of bioclimatic and timber architecture, (-) “Students'Masters Theses”, that follow on from the basic information and the learning experience “in the field”, and guided by the lecturer, have a critical approach to actual buildings throughout the world. (-) A multimedia data-sheet organized to ensure a clear and straightforward presentation of information about the construction products. It relies on a tab-based navigation interface that gives users access to eight different stacked windows.
Ozersay, Fevzi, and Peter Szalapaj. "Theorising a Sustainable Computer Aided Architectural Education Model." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 186-195. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The dogmatic structure of architectural education has meant that the production and application of new educational theories, leading to educational models that use computer technology as their central medium of education, is still a relatively under-explored area. Partial models cannot deliver the expected bigger steps, but only bits and pieces. Curricula developments, at many schools of architecture, have been carried out within the closed circuit manner of architectural education, through expanding the traditional curricula and integrating computers into them. There is still no agreed curriculum in schools of architecture, which defines, at least conceptually, the use of computers within it. Do we really know what we are doing? In the words of Aart Bijl,'If I want to know what I am doing, I need a separate description of my doing it, a theory'[Bijl, 1989]. The word'sustainability'is defined as understanding the past and responding to the present with concern for the future. Applying this definition to architectural education, this paper aims to outline the necessity and the principles for the construction of a theory of a sustainable computer aided architectural education model, which could lead to an architectural education that is lasting.
Dokonal, Wolfgang. "Three Dimensional Computer Models in Development Planning." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 685-693. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The paper shows a way to use computer generated spatial models in planning to increase the quality of development planning inside a community and to enable a better vision of future developments in showing the spatial impact of possible solutions inside a bandwidth of surface utilisation and density. It describes the application of this technique to give the specialists and the members of a community a comparatively easy to use tool to show the impact of planning decisions and therefore increase the discussion about a desirable future.
Penttila, Hannu, and Hannu Penttillä. "Top 5 Themes to Promote Architectural Information Technology and Top 5 Obstacles to Decelerate it." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 10-Jun. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The objective of this paper is to scan a few interesting themes, features and ideas of current information and communication technology (ICT) to promote their wise use within the fields of architectural practice and architectural education. The core idea is to prepare for the future by understanding the future relevance of the dominating themes. The meaning and significance of the selected and presented common ideas is evaluated to strengthen a realistic future basis for the design discipline. The author finds organizing, structuring and sharing architectural design data with digital tools the most future-relevant ICT-theme, that should be supported with R&D-activities and taught in architectural ICT-education. The obstacles of digitalization to produce negative impacts to architectural profession seem to be of mental nature rather than technical. The human mind, juridical agreements and long-lived design traditions are possibly the most threatening and restrictive obstacles in the future. The selected top 5 methods in evaluating existing trends and features has been used for instance in futures studies as one systematical approach to chart history and current times as informants of the future (Bell, 1996). A pragmatic and personal approach has been used in selecting the themes.
Wiszniewski, Dorian, Richard Coyne, and Christopher Pierce. "Turing's Machines." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 25-32. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. We outline four types of machine that informed Turing's investigations: the subversion machine, the improving machine, the perfect machine and the dysfunctional machine. We show how each deals with the issue of dysfunction, and argue that in design the ways that machines do not work can be just as illuminating as how they do. In this investigation we call on the reflections of the surrealists who sought the incongruity of object and context as the means to understanding the anarchical play of design.
Porada, Mikhael. "Virtual Analogy and Architecture." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 69-73. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Our fashion of thought is dialogic in its way to use simultaneously logic- mathematics and analogical approaches (Morin, 1986). The analogy works as well at the level of the unconscious by the construction of an analogon that permits us to recognise a face between thousand of others, despite changes intervened in time, as consciously where by an effort of constructive analogy, we establish bridges between different events or domains giving to the design a new lighting that puts it on the way to a solution. For this reason visual approach acquires a great importance in the establishment of similitude in conception. Many testimonies of scientists, philosophers, artists confirm this observation about their creative work, while underlining the danger of no founded analogies. In current life, analogy brings a support of likeness to the daily conversations, and the possibility to advance in the dialogue by a chaining of analogies having for objective to strengthen the speech.  
Donath, Dirk, E. Kruijff, H. Regenbrecht, Urs Hirschberg, B. Johnson, Branko Kolarevic, and J. Wojtowicz. "Virtual Design Studio 1998 - a Place2Wait." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 453-458. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This article reports on the recent, geographically and temporally distributed, intercollegiate Virtual Design Studio based on the 1998 implementation Phase(x) environment. Students participating in this workshop had to create a place to wait in the form of a folly. This design task was cut in five logical parts, called phases. Every phase had to be finished within a specific timeframe (one day), after which the results would be stored in a common data repository, an online MSQL database environment which holds besides the presentations, consisting of text, 3D models and rendered images, basic project information like the descriptions of the phases and design process visualization tools. This approach to collaborative work is better known as memetic engineering and has successfully been used in several educational programs and past Virtual Design Studios. During the workshop, students made use of a variety of tools, including modelling tools (specifically Sculptor), video-conferencing software and rendering programs. The project distinguishes itself from previous Virtual Design Studios in leaving the design task more open, thereby focusing on the design process itself. From this perspective, this paper represents both a continuation of existing reports about previous Virtual Design Studios and a specific extension by the offered focus. Specific attention will be given at how the different collaborating parties dealt with the data flow and modification, the crux within a successful effort to cooperate on a common design task.
Bourdakis, Vassilis, and Dimitrios Charitos. "Virtual Environment Design - Defining a New Direction for Architectural Education." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 403-409. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper considers the design and development of virtual environments (VEs) and the way that it relates to traditional architectural education and practice. The need for practitioners who will contribute to the design of 3D content for multimedia and virtual reality applications is identified. The design of space in a VE is seen as being partly an architectural problem. Therefore, architectural design should play an important role in educating VE designers. Other disciplines, intrinsically related to the issue of VE design, are also identified. Finally, this paper aims at pointing out the need for a new direction within architectural education, which will lead towards a generation of VE architects.
Achten, Henri, W. Roelen, J.-Th. Boekholt, A. Turksma, and J. Jessurun. "Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: the Eindhoven Perspective." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 169-177. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo p, and David Hutchison. "Virtual Reality Meets Telematics: Design and Development of the Infinity Room." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 466-472. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The paper presents the findings of three years of experimentation in the use of compressed videoconferencing in international virtual design studios. Based on these findings, the authors elaborate on the development of a new videoconferencing interface: “The Infinity Roomi. The Infinity Room is a design studio space containing a floor-to-ceiling rear projection screen wall that conceals a dark room equipped with 5 video cameras and 4 video projectors that reproduce, on one-to-one scale, the images captured in a similar installation at a remote location. Operationally, the video cameras feed a computer that eliminate image redundancies, codes all the sources into a single entity and sends it as a compressed video signal to a remote computer that decodes and decompresses the images for synchronized delivery through the video projectors. The tiling effect of 4 synchronized and fully interactive video images creates the illusion of an adjacent room. The paper describes the design parameters used in the development of the Infinity Room and elaborates on the technology that makes it feasible. Requirements and constraints on physical space, hardware, software, and networking are discussed. The paper ends with conclusions that highlight the technical feasibility of building a small-scale prototype.
Roberts, Andrew. "Virtual Site Planning." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 442-447. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper looks at the potential for the Virtual Reality to be used as a medium for the development of teaching tools in Architectural and Urban Design Education. It identifies examples and lessons learned from the development of teaching tools in other disciplines. The paper outlines a prototype system developed at Cardiff University to help Town Planning students understand the three dimensional nature of site planning and design. This was developed following difficulties encountered by students in using CAD which was seen as insufficiently intuitive to allow effective use within the short timespan available. The prototype system allows students to access their site through the familiar environment of a Web Browser. A number of'Standard'house types are available which can be selected and inserted into the design space. Once in the space the houses can be viewed in three dimensions, moved and rotated in order to form any configuration that the students may wish. The system is easily customisable, it need not be limited to uses in urban design, but could be used in many situations where component parts are arranged in space.
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham. "Visualisation of Design Using Animation for Virtual Prototyping." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 519-525. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Although recent technology in time-based representation has vastly improved, animation in virtual prototype design field remains the same. Some designers invest a huge amount of money in the latest visualisation and multimedia technology and yet may create even worse animation. They often cramp sequences resulting in many viewers failing to interpret the design positively as they miss a lot of vital information that explains the design. This paper basically reports the importance of film-making understanding for producing good virtual prototype animation. It will be based on a part of a research project on the use of time-based media in architectural practices. It also includes an empirical analysis of several architectural-based documentary films (including an interview with the film director) and past and present computer animation. This paper then concludes with recommendations of good techniques for making animated visualisation relative to the stage at which the animation is produced for better design decision.
Ucelli, G., G. Conti, and Af Klercker. "Visualisation: the Customer's Perception." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 539-544. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. Probably the most frustrating circumstance which might occur to an architect is to find out that his client is going to live for years in a house that is not like he expected it to be. Everybody has experienced to look at a picture of a place and after some time to go there and find out that the place is not according to his idea. This is due to the effectiveness of the media in representing the real space. During our experience we have tried to find out the way this effectiveness interferes in the relation between client and architect and how computer images can be effective in communicating the idea of architectural space. The problem of communication between designer and client rises when you notice that traditional graphic techniques (plans, sections, facades) are not enough understandable to make laypeople feel the real architectural space. And the unique answer to this problem has always been faced simply by leaving the architect understand the wishes of his client. During these last years though, computer techniques and multimedia tools have changed the way architects communicate their ideas.
Koutamanis, Alexander, P.B. Barendse, and J.W. Kempenaar. "Web-based CAAD Instruction: the Delft Experience." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 159-168. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. In the early 1990s, the introduction of an extensive CAAD component in the compulsory curriculum of the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, stimulated experimentation with computer-based instruction systems. The emergence of the World Wide Web presented new possibilities. Nevertheless, the reasons for investing in Web-based CAAD instruction were mostly pragmatic, i.e. a reaction to necessity, rather than an intention to explore, experiment and revolutionize. One of the problems addressed in our Web-based CAAD instruction is CAAD literacy. Help files and manuals that accompany software have proven to be unsuitable for introductory courses in design computing. This led to the development of a series of dynamic Web-based tutorials, in the form of interactive slide shows. The implementation of the tutorials is based on a cooperative framework that allows teachers and students to contribute at different levels of technical and methodical complexity. The use of the Web in CAAD education also stimulated a more active attitude among students. Despite the limited support and incentives offered by the Faculty, the Web-based CAAD courses became an invitation to intelligent and meaningful use of Web technologies by students for design presentation and communication. This is not only a useful addition to the opportunities offered by CAAD systems but also a prerequisite to new design communities.
Martens, Bob, and Ziga Turk. "Working Experiences with a Cumulative Index on CAD: "CUMINCAD"." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 327-333. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. To researchers in every discipline, Internet is quickly becoming the dominating environment to do literature studies. Commercial bibliographic databases tend to be too general, are not up-to-date and require special skills and effort to be searched. On the other hand researchers also publish on the Web and collaboratively that can create indexes of relevant publications. CUMINCAD is a bibliographic index that compiles papers related to computer aided architectural design. Implemented with a database, it allows searching and browsing in the ways usual on the Web. It provides a “historical evolution” to learn from previous efforts and draws attention to older original works that could have been ignored because they could not be found on the Web otherwise. The authors believe that CUMINCAD will help focus future CAAD research and improve the education. CUMINCAD work started in 1998 and is available at www.fagg.uni-lj.si/cumincad/. This paper focusses on the design and development of the database and presents some ideas concerning its advanced use in the analysis of research efforts.
Knight, Michael, and Andre Brown. "Working in Virtual Environments through appropriate Physical Interfaces." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 431-436. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. The work described here is aimed at contributing towards the debate and development relating to the construction of interfaces to explore buildings and their environs through virtual worlds. We describe a particular hardware and software configuration which is derived by the use of low cost games software to create the Virtual Environment. The Physical Interface responds to the work of other researchers, in this area, in particular Shaw (1994) and Vasquez de Velasco & Trigo (1997). Virtual Evironments might have the potential to be “a magical window into other worlds, from molecules to mindsi (Rheingold, 1992), but what is the nature of that window? Currently it is often a translucent opening which gives a hazy and distorted (disembodied) view. And many versions of such openings are relatively expensive. We consider ways towards clearing the haze without too much expense, adapting techniques proposed by developers of low cost virtual reality systems (Hollands, 1995) for use in an architectural setting.
Luque, Manuel. "Working with a CAAD's Spreadsheet." In Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000: 17th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 217-222. eCAADe: Conferences. University of Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, 1999. This paper shows the content of a subject imparted at the ETSAB (UPC). It describes the use of CAD systems in tasks that could not even be thought before new technology arrival and traditional methods had to be used. CAD systems potential to simultaneously work with constitutive objects and relations between them is taken into advantage. The definite design is not only the juxtaposition of some but the tight relation linking them. This work proposes CAD systems to be used in architectural design projects as spreadsheets to perform arithmetic calculations. The process to obtain an architectural model has ended in a logic sequence of formal operations, which uses completely defined objects as data. Any element of the project, data or operation, can be changed and model updating is automatically performed obtaining the new result. Finally a concrete exercise developed along the course is shown like a practical example.